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Timor and Wetar deciduous forests (AA0204)

 

Timor and Wetar deciduous forests
Wetar Island, Indonesia
Photograph by Anasia-Cruise


 

Where
Southeastern Asia: Islands of Timor and Wetar in Indonesia
Biome
Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests

  Size
12,900 square miles (33,500 square kilometers) -- about twice the size of Hawaii
Critical/Endangered
 
 

· Location and General Description
· Biodiversity Features
· Current Status
· Threats
· Ecoregion Justification
· References
More Photos

The Timor and Wetar Deciduous Forests [AA0204] are found on both inner and outer island arcs at the collision point of the Eurasian and Australian tectonic plates. The seasonally dry forests found in this dynamic geologic setting are part of the region known as Wallacea, which contains a very distinctive fauna representing a mix of Asian and Australasian species. Nearly two-thirds of the original extent of forest has been cleared, and the ecoregion contains only fragments of natural habitat, which are themselves threatened.

Location and General Description

This ecoregion represents the semi-evergreen dry forests of Timor, Wetar, and some smaller islands in the provinces of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku in the eastern Indonesian Archipelago. This ecoregion has a dry climate, with the most xeric being the mountains of Timor. Moa, in the Leti Islands, receives an average of 1,329 mm rainfall spread over just sixty-six days of the year. Based on the Köppen climate zone system, this ecoregion falls in the tropical dry climate zone (National Geographic Society 1999). The geology of the islands is a combination of inner and outer volcanic island arcs. Wetar, Romang, Damar, and the Banda Islands are part of the inner arc, and Timor, the Leti Islands, Sermata, and Babar are part of the outer arc. The inner arc islands are a result of the subduction and partial melting of the Australian tectonic plate below the Eurasian plate. With the exception of Wetar, the inner arc islands represent young volcanoes that have coalesced with lava and sediment. The basement rock of the outer islands, on the other hand, is composed of actual continental margin from the Australian plate that has not been subducted. These outer islands are less than 4 million years old. The resulting surface geology consists of complex sedimentary and metamorphic rocks: uplifted coral reefs over complex basement rocks (Monk et al. 1997).

The forest types in the ecoregion are dry deciduous, dry evergreen, and thorn forests. Below 1,000 m the common tree species include Sterculia foetida and Calophyllum teysmannii (both of which produce oil-bearing seeds) and Aleurites moluccana. The lowland monsoon forests are dominated by Pterocarpus indicus, especially in the lowland monsoon forest remnants of West Timor and in the well-drained, dry soils north of Oebelo on the Bena coastal plain in south Timor (Monk et al. 1997). Semi-evergreen rain forest is found on southern hill slopes at Buraen, which are kept moist by southeast trade winds, and on the Damar Islands (Monk et al. 1997). East Timor's few remaining forest patches contain the last natural stands of Eucalyptus urophylla (now widely used in plantations) and Santalum album, the sandalwood tree (Whitten and Whitten 1992). The shrub layer in these forests includes Verbenaceae, Rubiaceae, and Euphorbiaceae, and the herbs include Acanthaceae, Tacca palmata, the root parasite Balanophora fungosa, and ground orchids such as Corymborkis (Monk et al. 1997). Four types of savanna are found here, each characterized by palm, Eucalyptus, Acacia spp., and Casuarina spp. On Timor's larger coastal plains, the vegetation ranges from grassland to open stands of deciduous trees, with increasing forest cover toward the moister southern mountains.

Biodiversity Features

This ecoregion has the greatest number of bird species of any tropical dry forest ecoregion in the Indo-Pacific region. Because of the long isolation with the mainland communities, there are several endemic species from several taxonomic groups.

The ecoregion has thirty-eight mammal species, five of which are endemic or near endemic (table 1). Both Asian species and an Australasian cuscus (Phalanger orientalis timorensis) are found on the islands. Crocidura tenuis (Soricidae), possibly introduced by man, and the Flores giant rat (Papagomys armandvillei) are considered vulnerable (IUCN 2000).

Table 1. Endemic and Near-Endemic Mammal Species.

Family

Species

Sorcidae

Crocidura tenuis*

Pteropodidae

Pteropus chrysoproctus

Rhinolophidae

Rhinolophus canuti

Muridae

Papagomys armandvillei*

Muridae

Rattus timorensis*

An asterisk signifies that the species' range is limited to this ecoregion.

The bird fauna consists of about 229 species. The bird fauna also represents a mix of mostly Asian species with some Australasian birds. Endemism is extremely high for these islands, with thirty-five species that are endemic or near endemic (table 2). The ecoregion encompasses with the Timor and Wetar EBA (Stattersfield et al. 1998). Thirty-five restricted-range bird species are found in the Timor and Wetar EBA, twenty-three of which are found nowhere else on Earth. Five of these species are considered vulnerable: black cuckoo-dove (Turacoena modesta), Wetar ground-dove (Gallicolumba hoedtii), Timor green-pigeon (Treron psittacea), Timor imperial-pigeon (Ducula cineracea), and iris lorikeet (Psitteuteles iris).

Table 2. Endemic and Near-Endemic Bird Species.

Family

Common Name

Species

Columbidae

Dusky cuckoo-dove

Macropygia magna

Columbidae

Black cuckoo-dove

Turacoena modesta*

Columbidae

Wetar ground-dove

Gallicolumba hoedtii*

Columbidae

Timor green-pigeon

Treron psittacea*

Columbidae

Pink-headed imperial-pigeon

Ducula rosacea

Columbidae

Timor imperial-pigeon

Ducula cineracea*

Psittacidae

Olive-shouldered parrot

Aprosmictus jonquillaceus*

Loriidae

Olive-headed lorikeet

Trichoglossus euteles

Loriidae

Iris lorikeet

Psitteuteles iris*

Alcedinidae

Cinnamon-backed kingfisher

Todirhamphus australasia

Acanthizidae

Plain gerygone

Gerygone inornata*

Meliphagidae

White-tufted honeyeater

Lichmera squamata

Meliphagidae

Yellow-eared honeyeater

Lichmera flavicans*

Meliphagidae

Black-chested honeyeater

Lichmera notabilis*

Meliphagidae

Crimson-hooded myzomela

Myzomela kuehni*

Meliphagidae

Black-breasted myzomela

Myzomela vulnerata*

Meliphagidae

Streak-breasted honeyeater

Meliphaga reticulata*

Meliphagidae

Timor friarbird

Philemon inornatus*

Pachycephalida

Fawn-breasted whistler

Pachycephala orpheus*

Oriolidae

Timor oriole

Oriolus melanotis*

Oriolidae

Timor figbird

Sphecotheres viridis*

Oriolidae

Wetar figbird

Sphecotheres hypoleucus*

Turdidae

Chestnut-backed thrush

Zoothera dohertyi

Turdidae

Orange-banded thrush

Zoothera peronii

Muscicapidae

Black-banded flycatcher

Ficedula timorensis*

Muscicapidae

Timor blue-flycatcher

Cyornis hyacinthinus*

Muscicapidae

Timor bushchat

Saxicola gutturalis*

Zosteropidae

Timor white-eye

Heleia muelleri*

Sylviidae

Timor stubtail

Urosphena subulata

Sylviidae

Timor leaf-warbler

Phylloscopus presbytes

Sylviidae

Buff-banded bushbird

Buettikoferella bivittata*

Estrildidae

Tricolored parrotfinch

Erythrura tricolor

Estrildidae

Timor sparrow

Padda fuscata*

Dicaeidae

Red-chested flowerpecker

Dicaeum maugei

Nectariniidae

Flame-breasted sunbird

Nectarinia solaris

An asterisk signifies that the species' range is limited to this ecoregion.

Timor also harbors the endemic and rare Timor python (Python timoriensis) (Whitten and Whitten 1992).

Current Status

Other than one remaining large block of forest near the center of Timor Island, this ecoregion contains only fragments of natural habitat. Nearly two-thirds of the original extent of forest has been cleared, mostly for agriculture. Most of the original monsoon forest on these islands has been replaced by savanna and grassland. On East Timor, the south escarpment of the Fuiloro limestone plateau originally was covered by primary rain forest, but in the 1950s this area was degraded to secondary forest. Wetar is threatened by poorly managed gold mines that have been passed from company to company, causing major environmental damage. There are twenty-four protected areas that include roughly 10 percent (3,661 km2) of the ecoregion area, but all are small, with the average size being only 152 km2 (Monk et al. 1997) (table 3).

Table 3. WCMC (1997) Protected Areas That Overlap with the Ecoregion.

Protected Area

Area (km2)

IUCN Category

Gunung Api

1

I

Pulau Damar

200

PRO

Pulau Babar

620

PRO

Gunung Arnau

420

PRO

Pulau Kambing

20

PRO

Danau Ira Lalora-Pulau Yaco

120

PRO

Lore

110

?

Gunung Futumasin

30

PRO

Gunung Diatuto

40

PRO

Gunung Talamailu

200

?

Sungai Clere GR

300

?

Tilomar

160

PRO

Gunung Mutis

330

PRO

Gunung Timau

340

PRO

Maubesi

80

I

Keluk Kupang

730

I

Baun Forest

80

PRO

Dataran Bena

100

VI

Manipo

50

V

Teluk Pelikan

30

PRO

Watu Panggota/Bondokapu

30

PRO

Bakau Perhatu

20

PRO

Tanjung Pukuwatu

60

PRO

Pulau Dana

10

PRO

Total

4,081

 
Ecoregion numbers of protected areas that overlap with additional ecoregions are listed in brackets.

Types and Severity of Threats

Deforestation is occurring very rapidly as people burn the forests for hunting, shifting cultivation, and fodder production (Whitten and Whitten 1992; Monk et al. 1997; WWF-Indonesia n.d.). Logging has also grown in importance; for instance, Damar Island was densely forested until the late 1980s, when logging began on a large scale to supply timber to the outer arc islands, where the forests had already been more heavily exploited. As a result, fire-resistant Casuarina junghuhniana grows in pure stands in cleared areas, and Mt. Mutis, on West Timor, is covered almost exclusively by Eucalyptus urophylla (Monk et al. 1997). This problem is worsening as the human populations expand. Savanna areas are especially prone to erosion. This ecoregion is highly threatened. In previous centuries, many forest resources such as sandalwood were depleted through uncontrolled exploitation (Monk et al. 1997).

Justification of Ecoregion Delineation

The drier forests in Nusa Tenggara were placed in three ecoregions that corresponded to the biogeographic units identified in Monk et al (1997). These are Lesser Sundas Deciduous Forests [AA0201], which includes the chain of islands extending from Lombok, Sumbawa, Komodo, Flores, and the smaller satellite islands corresponding to the Flores biogeographic unit; Timor and Wetar Deciduous Forests [AA0204], corresponding to the Timor biogeographic unit; and the Sumba Deciduous Forests [AA0203], corresponding to the Sumba biogeographic unit. All three ecoregions belong to the tropical dry forests biome.

References

References for this ecoregion are currently consolidated in one document for the entire Indo-Pacific realm.
Indo-Pacific Reference List

Prepared by: John Morrison
Reviewed by:

This text was originally published in the book Terrestrial ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a conservation assessment from Island Press. This assessment offers an in-depth analysis of the biodiversity and conservation status of the Indo-Pacific's ecoregions.

For more general information on this ecoregion, go to the WildWorld version of this description.

All text by World Wildlife Fund © 2001