On December 20, 1995, American Airlines, Flight 965, a regularly scheduled passenger flight from Miami, Florida, to Cali, Colombia, crashed 38 miles north of Cali into mountainous terrain during a descent under instrument flight rules. There were 156 passengers and 8 crewmembers aboard. Four passengers survived the accident.

The accident was investigated by the Aeronautica Civil, Republica de Colombia. Assistance was provided by the NTSB under the provisions of Annex 13, Investigation of Accident and Incidents, to the Convention on International Civil Aviation.

In September 1996, the Aeronautica Civil issued a final report in which they determined that the Probable Causes of the Accident were:

1. The flightcrew's failure to adequately plan and execute the approach to runway 19 at SKCL and their inadequate use of automation.
2. Failure of the flightcrew to discontinue the approach into Cali, despite numerous cues alerting them of the inadvisability of continuing the approach.
3. The lack of situational awareness of the flightcrew regarding vertical navigation, proximity to terrain, and the relative location of critical radio aids.
4. Failure of the flightcrew to revert to basic radio navigation at the time when the FMS-assisted navigation became confusing and demanded an
excessive workload in a critical phase of the flight.

Any questions concerning the investigation must be referred to the Aeronautica Civil at Avenida El Dorado No. 106-95, Santafe' de Bogota', D.C., Colombia.

A copy of the final report issued by the Aeronautica Civil, Republica de Colombia report can be obtained by contacting:

NTSB Records Management Division

490 L'Enfant Plaza, SW
Washington, DC 20594
(800) 877-6799 or (202) 314-6551
or on the web at www.ntsb.gov

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