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MEDICINE
2008

THE 2008 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

The Prize Committee for Medicine has unanimously decided that the 2008 Wolf Prize be jointly awarded to

Howard Cedar and Aharon Razin
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Jerusalem, Israel

for their fundamental contributions to our understanding of the role of DNA methylation in the control of gene expression.

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Howard Cedar
USA, 1943
Aharon Razin
Israel, 1935
2005

THE 2005 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Anthony R. Hunter
The Salk Institute
La Jolla, California, USA

for the discovery of protein kinases that phosphorylate tyrosine residues in proteins, critical for the regulation of a wide variety of cellular events, including malignant transformation;

Anthony J. Pawson
The Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital
Toronto, Canada

for his discovery of protein domains essential for mediating protein-protein interactions in cellular signaling pathways, and the insights this research has provided into cancer;

Alexander Levitzki
The Silberman Institute of Life Sciences
The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel

for pioneering signal transduction therapy and for developing tyrosine kinase inhibitors as effective agents against cancer and a range of other diseases.

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Anthony R. Hunter
1943, UK
Anthony J. Pawson
1952, UK
Alexander Levitzki
1940, Israel
2004

THE 2004 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Robert A. Weinberg
Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, and
MIT � Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

for his discovery that cancer cells including human tumor cells, carry somatically mutated genes-oncogenes that operate to drive their malignant proliferation

Roger Y. Tsien
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
University of California San Diego
La Jolla, California, USA

for his seminal contribution to the design and biological application of novel fluorescent and photolabile molecules to analyze and perturb cell signal transduction.

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Robert A. Weinberg
1942, USA
Roger Y. Tsien
1952, USA
2002/3

THE 2002/3 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Ralph L. Brinster
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

for the development of procedures to manipulate mouse ova and embryos, which has enabled transgenesis and its applications in mice,

Mario R. Capecchi
University of Utah
Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

Oliver Smithies
University of North Carolina
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

for their contribution to the development of gene-targeting, enabling elucidation of gene function in mice.

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Ralph L. Brinster
1932, USA
Mario R. Capecchi
1937, Italy
Oliver Smithies
1925, UK
2001

THE 2001 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Avram Hershko
Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Haifa, Israel

Alexander Varshavsky
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California, USA

for the discovery of the ubiquitin system of intracellular protein degradation and the crucial functions of this system in cellular regulation.

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Avram Hershko
1937, Hungary
Alexander Varshavsky
1946, USSR
1999

THE 1999 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Eric R. Kandel
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

for the elucidation of the organismic, cellular and molecular mechanisms whereby short-term memory is converted to a long-term form.

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Eric R. Kandel
1929, Austria
1998

THE 1998 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Michael Sela
Weizmann Institute of Science
Rehovot, Israel

Ruth Arnon
Weizmann Institute of Science
Rehovot, Israel

for their major discoveries in the field of immunology.

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Michael Sela
1924, Poland
Ruth Arnon
1933, Israel
1996/7

THW 1996/7 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Mary Frances Lyon
Medical Research Council
Harwell, Didcot, United Kingdom

for her hypothesis concerning the random inactivation of X-chromosomes in mammals.

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Mary Frances Lyon
1925, UK
1995/6

THE 1995/6 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Stanley B. Prusiner
University of California, School of Medicine
San Francisco, California, USA

for discovering prions, a new class of pathogens that cause important neurodegenerative disease by inducing changes in protein structure.

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Stanley B. Prusiner
1942, USA
1994/5

THE 1994/5 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Michael J. Berridge
University of Cambridge
Cambridge, United Kingdom

Yasutomi Nishizuka
Kobe University School of Medicine
Kobe, Japan

for their discoveries concerning cellular transmembrane signalling involving phospholipids and calcium.

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Michael J. Berridge
1938, Rhodesia
Yasutomi Nishizuka
1932 -2004, Japan
1992

THE 1992 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

M. Judah Folkman
Harvard Medical School
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

for his discoveries which originated the concept and developed the field of angiogenesis research.

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M. Judah Folkman
1933 - 2008, USA
1991

THE 1991 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MDICINE

Seymour Benzer
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California, USA

for having generated a new field of molecular neurogenetics by his pioneering research on the dissection of the nervous system and behavior by gene mutations.



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Seymour Benzer
1921, USA
1990

THE 1990 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Maclyn McCarty
The Rockefeller University
New York, N.Y., USA

for his part in the demostration that the transforming factor in bacteria is due to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and the concomitant discovery that the genetic material is composed of DNA.

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Maclyn McCarty
1911 -2005, USA
1989

THE 1989 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

John B. Gurdon
University of Cambridge
Cambridge, United Kingdom

for his introduction of the xenopus oocyte into molecular biology and his demonstration that the nucleus of a differentiated cell and of the egg differ in expression but not in the content of genetic material.

Edward B. Lewis
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California, U.S.A.

for his demonstration and exploration of the genetic control of the development of body segments by homeotic genes.





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John B. Gurdon
1933, UK
Edward B. Lewis
1918 -2004, USA
1988

THE 1988 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Henri-Gery Hers
Universite Catholique de Louvain
Brussels, Belgium

Elizabeth F. Neufeld
UCLA School of Medicine
Los Angeles, California, USA

for the biochemical elucidation of lysosomal storage diseases and the resulting contributions to biology, pathology, prenatal diagnosis and therapeutics.


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Henri-Gery Hers
1923, Belgium
Elizabeth F. Nuefeld
1928, France
1987

THE 1987 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Pedro Cuatrecasas
Glaxo Inc.
Research Triangle Park, N.Carolina, USA

Meir Wilchek
Weizmann Institute of Science
Rehovot, Israel

for the invention and development of affinity chromatography and its applications to biomedical sciences.

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Pedro Cuatrecasas
1936, Spain
Meir Wilchek
1935, Poland
1986

THE 1986 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Osamu Hayaishi
Osaka Medical College
Osaka, Japan

for his discovery of the oxygenase enzymes and elucidation of their structure and biological importance.

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Osamu Hayaishi
1920, Japan
1984/5

THE 1984/5 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Donald F. Steiner
University of Chicago Medical Center
Chicago, Illinois, USA

for his discoveries concerning the bio-synthesis and processing of insulin which have had profound implications for basic biology and clinical medicine.

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Donald F. Steiner
1930, USA
1982

THE 1982 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Jean-Pierre Changeux
Institut Pasteur
Paris, France

for the isolation, purification and characterization of the acetylcholine receptor.

Solomon H. Snyder
Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, Maryland, USA

for the development of the ways to label neurotransmitter receptors which provide tools to describe their properties.

Sir James W. Black
Wellcome Research Laboratories
Beckenham, Kent, United Kingdom

for developing agents which block beta adrenergic and histamine receptors.

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Jean-Pierre Changeux
1936, France
Solomon H. Snyder
1938, USA
Sir James W. Black
1924, Scotland
1981

THE 1981 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Barbara McClintock
Carnegie Institute of Washington
Cold Spring Harbor Lab., New York,USA

for her imaginative and important contributions to our understanding of chromosome structure behaviour and function, and for her identification and description of transposable genetic (mobile) elements.

Stanley N. Cohen
Stanford University School of Medicine
Stanford, California, USA

for his concepts underlying genetic engineering; for constructing a biologically functional hybrid plasmid, and for achieving actual expression of a foreign gene implanted in E. coli by the recombinant DNA method.

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Barbara McClintock
1902 -1992, USA
Stanley N. Cohen
1935, USA
1980

THE 1980 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Cesar Milstein
Medical Research Council
Cambridge, United Kingdom

Leo Sachs
Weizmann Institute of Science
Rehovot, Israel

Sir James L. Gowans
Medical Research Council
London, United Kingdom

for their contributions to knowledge of the function and disfunction of the body cells through their studies on the immunological role of the lymphocytes, the development of specific antibodies and the elucidation of mechanisms governing the control and differentiation of normal and cancer cells.

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Cesar Milstein
1927, Argentina -2002, UK
Leo Sachs
1924, Germany
Sir James L. Gowans
1924, UK
1979

THE 1979 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Roger W. Sperry
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California, USA

for his studies on the functional differentiation of the right and left hemispheres of the brain.

Arvid Carlsson
University of Goteborg
Goteborg, Sweden

for his work which established the role of dopamine as a neurotransmitter.

Oleh Hornykiewicz
University of Vienna
Vienna, Austria

for opening a new approach in the control of Parkinson�s disease by L-Dopa.

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Roger W. Sperry
1913 -1994, USA
Arvid Carlsson
1923, Sweden
Oleh Hornykiewicz
1926, Poland
1978

THE 1978 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE

George D. Snell
Jackson Laboratory
Bar Harbor, Maine, USA

for discovery of H-2 antigens, which codes for major transplantation antigens and the onset of the immune response.

Jean Dausset
Saint-Louis Hospital
Paris, France

for discovering the HL-A system, the major histocompatibility complex in man and its primordial role in organ transplantation.

Jon J. van Rood
University of Leiden
Leiden, The Netherlands

for his contribution to the understanding of the complexity of the HL-A system in man and its implications in transplantation and in disease.

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George D. Snell
1903 -1996, USA
Jean Dausset
1916, France
John J. van Rood
1926, Netherlands