The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2005)
M


MCCANN, Owen (1907-1994)

Birth. June 26 (1), 1907, Woodstock, apostolic vicariate of Cape of Good Hope, South Africa.

Education. Saint Joseph College, Rodenbosch, Cape Town; University of Cape Town, Cape Town; Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1935, Cape Town. Further studies, 1936-1940. Editor of The Southern Cross, 1940-1948. Pastoral work in Cape Town, 1948-1950.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Stettorio and appointed Apostolic vicar of Cape Town, March 12, 1950. Consecrated May 18, 1950, St. Mary's cathedral, Cape Town, by Archbishop Martinus Lucas, S.V.D., titular archbishop of Aduli, apostolic delegate in South Africa, assisted by John Colburn Garner, titular bishop of Tracula, apostolic vicar of Pretoria, and by Bernard Cornelius O'Riley, titular bishop of Foba. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cape Town, January 11, 1951. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, October 4, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Prassede, February 25, 1965. President of the Southern Africa Episcopal Conference. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the II Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, October 20, 1984. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, June 29, 1987. He was the first cardinal from South Africa.

Death. March 26, 1994, Cape Town. Buried in Our Lady of the Flight into Egypt chapel in the metropolitan cathedral of Cape Town.

(1) Annuario Pontificio (Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana) listed his date of birth as June 26, 1907 until 1968; then, beginning with the issue of 1969 until his death, the date given was June 29, 1907. His great-nephew, Mr. Charlton Owen Sumption, from London, England, born on the same day as the cardinal (in a different year), confirmed the June 26 date.

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MCCARRICK, Theodore Edgar (1930-

Birth. July 7, 1930, New York, United States of America. Son of Theodore Egan McCarrick, a ship captain who died of tuberculosis when he was three years old, and Margaret McLaughlin.

Education. Seminary "Saint Joseph", Dunwoodie, New York; Catholic University of America, Washington (master in history and doctorate in sociology). Besides his native English, he also speaks French, German, Italian and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 31, 1958, New York, by Cardinal Francis Joseph Spellman, archbishop of New York. Further studies, Washington, 1958-1963; during his vacations, directed the Institute for Spanish Studies, Catholic University of Puerto Rico, Ponce, established to propagate the knowledge of Spanish language and Puerto Rican culture among the priests and religious of the New York area. From 1961-1963, dean of students, Catholic University of America and faculty member of the Graduate School and the College of Arts and Sciences; assistant to the president and first Director of Development. President of the Catholic University of Puerto Rico, October 1965 to 1969; had an active participation in several educational institutions of Puerto Rico. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 10, 1965 (title changed to Prelate of Honor, 1968). Secretary adjunct for Education in the archdiocese of New York and pastoral work at the Most Blessed Sacrament parish, 1969-1971; founded the Cardinal's Committee for Education and the Inner City Scholarship Fund, to promote the education of the poor particularly among minorities. Secretary to Cardinal Terence James Cooke, archbishop of New York, 1971-1977.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Rusubisir and appointed auxiliary of New York, May 24, 1977. Consecrated, June 29, 1977, New York, by Cardinal Terence James Cooke, archbishop of New York, assisted by John Joseph Maguire, titular archbishop of Tabalta, coadjutor of the archbishop of New York, and by Patrick Vincent Ahern, titular bishop of Naiera, auxiliary of New York. In the same ceremony were consecrated Austin Bernard Vaughan, titular bishop of Cluain Iraird, auxiliary of New York; and Francisco Garmendia, titular bishop of Limisa, auxiliary of New York. Named Episcopal vicar for Education and vicar of East Manhattan and the Harlems. Transferred to newly established see of Metuchen, New Jersey, November 19, 1981. Promoted to metropolitan see of Newark, May 30, 1986. Attended Special Assembly for America of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16-December 12, 1997; president of the Commission for the message; elected member of the post-synodal council. Superior of the sui iuris mission of Turks and Caicos. Member of the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, 1999-2001. Transferred to metropolitan see of Washington, November 21, 2000.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received red biretta and title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, February 21, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation to the pastoral government of the archdiocese was accepted on May 16, 2006, in conformity to canon 401§ 1 of the Code of Canon Law. Apostolic administrator of the metropolitan see of Washington, May 16 to June 22, 2006.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in English; and his arms.

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MCGUIGAN, James Charles (1894-1974)

Birth. November 26, 1894, Hunter River, diocese of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada. Son of George Hugh McGuigan and Anne Monaghan. He was baptized at St. Augustine's church, South Rustico by Rev. Ronald MacDonald. Received first communion from Msgr. Jean Chaisson and confirmed at St. Augustine's Church by James Charles MacDonald, bishop of Charlottetown.

Education. Prince of Wales College, Charlottetown; Saint Dunstan's University, Charlottetown; University of Laval, Québec (bachelor in arts, 1914); Grand Seminary of Québec, Québec (doctorates in philosophy and theology, 1918); The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1918, in his native parish of St Augustine's, by Louis James O'Leary, bishop of Charlottetown. Faculty member of Saint Dunstan's University and secretary to the bishop of Charlottetown, 1918-1920; secretary to the archbishop of Edmonton, 1920-1922. Chancellor of the archdiocese of Edmonton, 1922-1923; vicar general, 1923-1930. Protonotary apostolic, September 13, 1927. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of Edmonton, 1925-1927. Rector of Saint Joseph's Seminary, Edmonton, 1927-1930.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Regina, January 30, 1930. Consecrated, May 15, 1930, cathedral of Saint Joseph, Edmonton, by Henry Joseph O'Leary, archbishop of Edmonton, assisted by Arthur Béliveau, archbishop of Saint Boniface, and by John Thomas Kidd, bishop of Calgary. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Toronto, December 22, 1934. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, August 20, 1934.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, February 22, 1946. First English speaking cardinal from Canada. Papal legate to the National Marian Congress, Ottawa, March 25, 1947. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 30, 1971.

Death. April 6, 1974, Toronto. Buried, April 15, 1974, in the priest's plot, south of St. Augustine's Seminary.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 441; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 650-652.

Link. Photograph and biography, in English.

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MACHARSKI, Franciszek (1927-

Birth. May 20, 1927, Kraków, Poland. The youngest of the three children of Leopold Macharski, a lawyer, and Zofia Peccial. He received the sacrament of confirmation in 1944 from Stanisław Rospond, titular bishop of Dardano, auxiliary of Kraków.

Education. Major Metropolitan Seminary of Kraków, Kraków; Jegellonican Catholic University, Kraków; University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 2, 1950, basilica of Święty Franciszek, Kraków, by Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha, archbishop of Kraków. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of Kraków, 1950-1956. Further studies, 1956-1960. Faculty member, Major Metropolitan Seminary of Kraków, 1960-1970; rector, 1970-1978. Attended the II Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; auditor priest. Canon of the metropolitan chapter of Kraków, 1977-1978.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Kraków, December 29, 1978. Consecrated, January 6, 1979, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Julian Groblicki, titular bishop of Filadelfia di Arabia, auxiliary of Kraków and by Stanisław Smoleński, titular bishop of Alava, auxiliary of Kraków.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, June 30, 1979. Attended the I Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City. Attended the V Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; VI Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1983. Papal legate to the 17th International Marian Congress and 10th Mariological Congress, Kevelaer, Germany, September 17 to 20, 1987. Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; president delegate. Special papal envoy to the Slovakian National Eucharistic Congress, Bratislava, Slovakia, September 23 to 24, 2000. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 50th anniversary of the consecration of the Basilica of Lisieux, France, July 11, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation to the pastoral government of the archdiocese, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, was accepted by the pope on June 3, 2005. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old on May 20, 2007.

Bibliography. Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 325-333.

Links. Arms and brief biographical data, in Polish, second on page; and his arms.

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MCINTYRE, James Francis (1886-1979)

Birth. June 25, 1886, New York, N.Y., United States of America. Son of James Francis McIntyre and Mary Pelley.

Education. Cathedral College, New York; Saint Joseph's Seminary, Dunwoodie, Yonkers, N.Y.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 21, 1921, New York, by Patrick Joseph Hayes, archbishop of New York. Pastoral work in archdiocese of New York, 1921-1923. Vice-chancellor of archdiocese of New York, 1923-1934; chancellor, 1934-1944. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, December 27, 1934. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 12, 1936.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Cirene and appointed auxiliary of New York, November 16, 1940. Consecrated, January 8, 1941, St. Patrick's cathedral, New York, by Francis Joseph Spellman, archbishop of New York, assisted by Stephen Joseph Donahue, titular bishop of Medea and auxiliary of New York, and by John Francis O'Hara, C.S.C., titular bishop of Milasa and delegate of the military vicar of the United States Armed Forces. Vicar general of archdiocese of New York, January 27, 1945. Promoted to titular archbishop of Palto and appointed coadjutor of New York, July 20, 1946. Transferred to metropolitan see of Los Angeles, February 7, 1948.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Anastasia, January 15, 1953. Papal legate to the National Marian Congress, Lagos, Nigeria, December 8, 1954. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Papal legate to the Patrician Year, Armagh, Ireland, March 17, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, January 21, 1970. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971.

Death. July 16, 1979, Los Angeles. Buried, bishops' mausoleum, Calvary Cemetery, East Los Angeles. His remains were transferred to a mausoleum in the crypt of the new metropolitan cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, Los Angeles, in 2003.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 99; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 194; Weber, Francis. His Eminence of Los Angeles: James Francis Cardinal McIntyre. 2 vols. Mission Hills, Calif. : St. Francis Historical Society, 1997.

Link. His arms.

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MCKEEFRY, Thomas Peter (1899-1973)

Birth. July 3, 1899, Greymouth, diocese of Christchurch, New Zealand. He was the fifth of seven children of Michael McKeefry, a police constable, and Mary McAlary; they both were born in County Londonderry, Ireland. His baptismal name was Peter Thomas Bertram. After living in Christchurch for a short time, the family moved to Dunedin.

Education. Christian Brothers' Boys' School, Dunedin; Holy Cross Seminary, Mosgiel, 1916-1922; Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, 1922-1926.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 3, 1926, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Returned to New Zealand in November 1926. Pastoral work in diocese of Auckland; secretary to the bishop of Auckland; administrator, and director of the diocesan newspaper, 1926-1947. Special news reporter in Spain during the Civil War, 1936-1939.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Derco and appointed coadjutor of Wellington, with right of succession, June 12, 1947. Consecrated, October 19, 1947, St. Patrick's cathedral, Auckland, by Cardinal Norman Thomas Gilroy, archbishop of Sydney, Australia, assisted by Thomas O`Shea, S.M., archbishop of Wellington, and by James Michael Liston, bishop of Auckland. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Wellington, May 9, 1954; he was the first native of New Zealand to occupy the see; and the first who was not a member of a religious order. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. President of the Episcopal Conference of New Zealand.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received red biretta and title of Immacolata al Tiburtino, April 30, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the II Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. He was the first cardinal from New Zealand.

Death. Sunday November 18, 1973, Wellington. Buried in the priests' plot at Karori Cemetery, outside Wellington. In the same plot is buried Cardinal Reginald John Delargey, archbishop of Wellington, second cardinal from New Zealand.

Bibliography. Kennedy, John Patrick. Peter Cardinal McKeefry, 1899-1973. Dunedin : New Zealand Tablet, 1974. Note: Includes Bishop Snedden's panegyric at the Requiem Mass for the Cardinal; van der Krogt, Christopher. "McKeefry, Peter Thomas Bertram 1899-1973". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, updated 7 April 2006. URL: http://www.dnzb.govt.nz. The original version of this biography was published in the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, Volume Five (1941-1960), 2000, 319-321.

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MAC RORY, Joseph (1861-1945)

Birth. March 19, 1861, Ballygowley, archdiocese of Armagh, Ireland . Son of Francis MacRory, a small farmer, and Rose Montague. He had nine brothers and sisters.

Education. Saint Patrick's College, Armagh; St. Patrick's College, Maynooth.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 13, 1885, Maynooth. First president of St. Patricks Boys Academy, Dungannon, 1886-1887. Professor of Sacred Scripture and Modern Theology at the Birmingham Diocesan Seminary at Olton College, 1887-1889. Sacred Scripture and Oriental Languages at St. Patricks College, Maynooth, 1889-1915; vice-president, 1912-1915. One of the founders of The Irish Theological Quarterly in 1906.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Down and Connors, August 9, 1915. Consecrated, November 14, 1915, by Cardinal Michael Logue, archbishop of Armagh. Member of the Irish Convention, 1917-1918. Promoted to he metropolitan and primatial see of Armagh, June 22, 1928.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1929; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, December 19, 1929. Papal legate at the laying of the foundation stone of Liverpool's cathedral, May 25, 1933; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Melbourne, Australia, October 18, 1934. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. October 13, 1945, Armagh. Buried in the primates plot of St Patricks Cemetery, Armagh.

Bibliography. Murphy, John J. The people's primate: a memoir of Joseph Cardinal Mac Rory. Dublin: Priory Press, 1945.

Link. Photograph and biography, in English.

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MAFFI, Pietro (1858-1931)

Birth. October 12, 1858, Corteolona, diocese of Pavia, Italy. Son of Luigi Maffi and his wife Clementina, who died in 1864; his aunt Carolina cared for Pietro.

Education. Initial studies in Corteolona and Pavia; later, entered the Seminary of Pavia, Pavia (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, 1881. Professor of philosophy and sciences and rector of Seminary of Pavia. Founder of the meteorological observatory and the museum of natural history of Pavia. Member of the Italian Meteorological Association, May 3, 1892. Editor of Rivista di scienze fisiche e matematiche, 1900; and its director until 1912. Pro-vicar general of Pavia and prosynodal examiner. Doctor honoris causa of theological college of Parma and member supernumerary of its scientific academy. Vicar general of Ravenna and prefect of studies of its seminary, 1901. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, 1881-1902. Apostolic administrator of Ravenna, April 26, 1902.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Cesarea di Mauritania and appointed auxiliary of Ravenna, June 9, 1902. Consecrated, June 11, 1902, basilica of S. Paolo fuori le mura, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, vicar general of Rome and vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, assisted by Felix-Marie de Neckere, titular archbishop of Melitene, and by Diomede Panici, titular archbishop of Laodicea, secretary of the S.C. of Rites. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Pisa, June 22, 1903. Director and administrator of the Vatican observatory, November 30, 1904.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 15, 1907; received the red hat and the title of S. Crisogono, April 18, 1908. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress, Milan, September 10, 1922; to the Eucharistic Congress, Fano, April 4, 1925. Celebrated the marriage ceremony of Crown Prince Umberto of Italy to Princess Marie-Joseph of Belgium, 1930. Authored numerous works of high scientific level in astronomy although the best known of them, Nei cieli, was of more popular level.

Death. March 17, 1931, Pisa. Buried in the presbytery of the metropolitan cathedral, Pisa.

Bibliography. Andreazza, Mario. Alle origini del movimento cattolico pisano : il card. Pietro Maffi e il prof. Giuseppe Toniolo. Pisa : Giardini, 1991; Andreazza, Mario. Pagine di storia pisana. (Il cardinal Maffi e Galileo Galilei). Pisa : Benedinelli, 1969; Il Cardinale Pietro Maffi, arcivescovo di Pisa : primi contributi di ricerca: (tavola rotonda, 18-3-1982). Mario Andreazza ... et al. Pisa: Pacini, 1984, ©1983. (Biblioteca del "Bolletino storico pisano". Collana storica; 26.); Righi, Lorenzo. Una porpora prestigiosa. Fiesole : Tip. A. Sbolci, 1978; Stefanini, Pasquale. Il Cardinale Maffi. Pisa: Giardini Editore, 1958: Togni, Giuseppe. Pietro Maffi. Pisa : Opera della Primaziale di Pisa, 1959; Vaussard, Maurice. L'intelligence catholique dans l'Italie du XXe siecle. Preface par Georges Goyau. Paris : V. Lecoffre, 1921. (Toniolo, Giuseppe, 1845-1918. Meda, Filippo, 1869-1959. Sturzo, Luigi, 1871-1959. Gemelli, Agostino, 1878-1959. Ferrini, Contardo, 1859-1902. Maffi, Pietro, 1858-1931. Borsi, Giosue, 1888-1915. Papini, Giovanni, 1881-1956).

Link. His bust, archiepiscopal palace, Pisa.

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MAGLIONE, Luigi (1877-1944)

Birth. March 2, 1877, Casoria, archdiocese of Naples, Italy.

Education. Collegio Capranica, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorates in philosophy and theology); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (1905-1907).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 25, 1901, Rome. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of Naples, 1901-1903. Further studies, 1903-1904. Pastoral work in the diocese of Rome, 1903-1908. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1908-1918. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, June 17, 1910; reappointed, September 7, 1914. Faculty member of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, 1915-1918. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, February 22, 1918. Provisional papal representative to the League of Nations, 1918. Special papal envoy to Switzerland, February 25, 1918.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina and appointed nuncio in Switzerland, September 1, 1920. Consecrated, September 26, 1920, church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Bonaventura Ceretti, titular archbishop of Corinto, secretary of the S C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Lorenzo Schioppa, titular archbishop of Mocisso, nuncio in Hungary. In the same ceremony was consecrated Francesco Marmaggi, titular archbishop of Adrianopoli di Emimonto and nuncio in Rumania, future cardinal. Named nuncio in France, June 23, 1926.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the title of S. Pudenziana, June 18, 1936. Prefect of the S.C. of the Council, July 22, 1938 to March 10, 1939. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Secretary of State, March 10, 1939 until his death. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Institute of Christian Archeology, May 5, 1939.

Death. August 22, 1944, Casoria. Buried, parish-collegiate church of S. Mauro Abate, Casoria.

Bibliography. Re, Niccolò del. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 145.

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MAHONY, Roger Michael (1936-

Birth. February 27, 1936, Hollywood, archdiocese of Los Angeles, United States of America. Son of Victor James Mahony, a poultry farmer, and Loretta Baron. He has a twin brother, Louis James, and an older brother, Neil Anthony.

Education. Our Lady of Los Angeles Preseminary, Los Angeles; Our Lady of Angels Seminary, Mission Hill. Incardinated in the diocese of Monterey-Fresno. Catholic University of America, Washington (doctorate in social work).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 1, 1962, St. John's cathedral, Fresno, by Aloysius J. Willinger, C.Ss.R., bishop of Monterey-Fresno. Successively, 1962-1963, pastoral work in the diocese of Monterey-Fresno (1); pastoral work in the diocese of Fresno, 1967-1973; further studies, Washington; diocesan director of Catholic Charities and Social Services, 1964-1970; diocesan chancellor, 1970-1980; diocesan consultor; pastor of St. John's cathedral, 1973-1975.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tamascani and appointed auxiliary of Fresno, January 2, 1975. Consecrated, March 19, 1975, Fresno Convention Center, by Hugh A. Donohoe, bishop of Fresno, assisted by William Robert Johnson, titular bishop of Blera, auxiliary of Los Angeles, and by John Stephen Cummins, titular bishop of Lambesi, auxiliary of Sacramento. Transferred to the see of Stockton, February 15, 1980. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Los Angeles, July 12, 1985. Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received red biretta and title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, June 28, 1991. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, July 15, 1991. Attended Special Assembly for America of World Synod of Bishops, November 16-December 12, 1997, Vatican City; president delegate. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1790-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 169-170; Schippe, C. "Mahony, Roger Michael." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 350-351.

Link. His arms.

(1) The diocese was divided on October 6, 1967 into two separate sees: Monterrey in California and Fresno.

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MAIDA, Adam Joseph (1930-

Birth. March 18, 1930, East Vandergrift, diocese of Pittsburgh (now diocese of Greensburg), United States of America. Of a Polish American family, he was the first of three sons of Adam Maida, who came from a rural area near Warsaw, and Sophie Cieslak, born in the United States. One of his brothers, Thaddeus, is a priest incardinated in the diocese of Pittsburgh.

Education. St. Vincent's College, Latrobe; St. Mary's University, Baltimore; Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (licentiates in theology and canon law); Duquesne University, Pittsburgh (doctorate in civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1956, St. Paul Cathedral, Pittsburgh, by John Dearden, bishop of Pittsburgh. Further studies, Rome, 1956-1960. From 1960 to 1983, in the diocese of Pittsburgh, pastoral work; further studies; assistant chancellor; vice-chancellor; diocesan general consultor in the diocesan tribunal; faculty member, La Roche College; chaplain of the St. Thomas More's Society; faculty member, Duquesne University, 1971-1983.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Green Bay, November 7, 1983. Consecrated, January 25, 1984, St. Francis Xavier cathedral, Green Bay, by Pio Laghi, titular archbishop of Mauriana, apostolic delegate to the United States of America, assisted by Aloysius John Wycislo, bishop emeritus of Green Bay, and by Vincent Martin Leonard, bishop emeritus of Pittsburgh. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Detroit, April 28, 1990.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio, November 26, 1994. Papal legate to the 19th International Marian Congress, Czestochowa, Poland, August 24-26, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; II Special Assembly for Europe of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Superior of the Mission sui iuris of the Cayman Islands, July 14, 2000. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On January 5, 2009, the pope accepted his resignation to the pastoral government of the archdiocese in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. He was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor on January 28, 2009.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1790-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 191; Bugarini, G. Michael. "Maida, Adam." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 351-352.

Links. Photograph, arms, and biography, in English; and his arms.

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MALULA, Joseph (1917-1989)

Birth. December 12, 1917, Léopoldville, Congo (later Zaïre; now Democratic Republic of the Congo). Son of Remacle Ngalula and Jeanne Bolumbu. His baptismal name was Joseph-Albert.

Education. Primary school "Sainte-Anne", Lépoldoville, directed by Fr. Raphaël de la Kétuhulle (Tata Raphaël); Minor Seminary, Mbata Kiela, 1931-1934; there he met Joseph Kasavubu, future first president of the Democratic Republic of Congo; Minor Seminary of Bolongo, Lisala, 1934-1937; Major Seminary of Christ-Roi, Kabwe, apostolic vicariate of Luluabourg, 1937-1944 (philosophy, 1937-1940; and theology, 1940-1944); professor at the Minor Seminary of Bokoro, 1944-1946.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 9, 1946, stadium Reine Astrid, Léopoldville, by Georges Six, C.I.C.M., titular bishop of Baliana, vicar apostolic of Léopoldville. Successively, 1946-1959, faculty member, Minor Seminary, Bokoro; vicar, parish of Saint-Pierre, Léopoldville; vicar, and later pastor, parish of Christ-Roi, Léopoldville; pastor, parish of Saint-Pierre, Léopoldville. In 1953, he visited Algiers, Tunisia, Malta, Rome, and Belgium.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Attanaso and appointed auxiliary of Léopoldville, July 18, 1959. Consecrated, September 20, 1959, stadium Tata Raphaël, Léopoldville, by Felix Scalais, C.C.I.M., archbishop of Léopoldville, assisted by Pierre Kimbondo, bishop of Kisantu, and by Joseph Nkongolo, titular bishop of Lebedo, vicar apostolic of Luebo. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Léopoldville, July 7, 1964; name of the see changed to Kinshasa, May 30, 1966. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Protomartiri a via Aurelia Antica, April 30, 1969. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 - 26, 1978. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the II Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; one of its three presidents delegate. Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. He was the first cardinal from Zaïre.

Death. June 14, 1989, Saint-Luc Hospital, Louvain, Belgium. Buried in Notre Dame du Congo metropolitan cathedral, Kinshasa.

Bibliography. Luyeye Luboloko, François. Le Cardinal J. A. Malula. Un pasteur prophétique. Kinshasa : Editions Jean XXIII, 1999.

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MANNING, Timothy (1909-1989)

Birth. November 15, 1909, Ballingeary, diocese of Cork, Ireland. Son of Cornelius Manning and Margaret Cronin.

Education. Mungret College, Limerick; Saint Patrick's Seminary, Menlo Park, Cal., United States of America; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 16, 1934, Los Angeles. Further studies, 1934-1936. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of Los Angeles, 1936-1938; 1946-1967. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, April 15, 1943. Secretary to John Joseph Cantwell, archbishop of Los Angeles, 1938-1946. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 17, 1945. Chancellor of the archdiocese of Los Angeles, March 19, 1946.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lesvi and appointed auxiliary of Los Angeles, August 3, 1946. Consecrated, October 15, 1946, Los Angeles, by Joseph Thomas McGucken, titular bishop of Sanavo, auxiliary of Los Angeles, assisted by James Edward Walsh, M.M., titular bishop of Sata, and by Thomas Arthur Connolly, titular bishop of Sila and auxiliary of Los Angeles. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Los Angeles, November 29, 1955. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Transferred to the diocese of Fresno, October 16, 1967. Promoted to titular archbishop of Carpi and appointed coadjutor of Los Angeles, with right of succession, May 26, 1969. Succeeded to the see of Los Angeles, January 21, 1970.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Lucia a Piazza d'Armi, March 5, 1973. Attended the IV Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25-26, 1978. Participated in the conclave of October 14-16, 1978. Attended the I Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5-9, 1979. Special papal envoy to the celebration of 3rd centennial of St. Oliver Plunkett's martyrdom, Drogheda, Ireland, July 5, 1981. Attended the VI Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; president delegate. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese, July 12, 1985.

Death. June 23, 1989, Los Angeles. Buried, Calvary Cemetery, East Los Angeles.

Bibliography. Weber Francis. Magnificat : the life and times of Timothy Cardinal Manning. Mission Hills, Calif. : St. Francis Historical Society, 1999.

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MARCHETTI SELVAGGIANI, Francesco (1871-1951)

Birth. October 1, 1871, Rome, Italy. Son of Vincenzo Marchetti-Selvaggiani and Valeria Caretti.

Education. Almo Collegio Capranica, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 4, 1896, Rome, by Francesco di Paola Cassetta, titular Latin patriarch of Antioch, vice gerent of Rome. Minutante in the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, 1896-1900. Auditor of the apostolic delegation in the United States of America, 1900-1906. Attached to the secretariat of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, 1906-1907. Auditor of the nunciature in Bavaria, 1907. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, December 25, 1914. Confidential representative of the Holy See in Berne, Switzerland, 1915-1918. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 7, 1915. Protonotary apostolic, September 26, 1917.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Seleucia di Isauria and appointed internuncio in Venezuela, February 16, 1918. Consecrated, April 14, 1918, chapel of Pontificio Collegio Pio Latino Americano, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Carlo Pietropaoli, titular archbishop of Calcide, and by Bonaventura Cerretti, titular archbishop of Corinto, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. Named nuncio in Venezuela, May 21, 1920. Nuncio in Austria, December 4, 1920. Secretary of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, December 15, 1922. President of the Pontifical Work for the Propagation of the Faith, February 5, 1923. Extraordinary papal envoy to the Negus of Ethiopia, 1929.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1930; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria Nuova, July 3, 1930. President of the Pontifical Commission of the Work for the Propagation of the Faith, 1930-1931. Vicar general of Rome and its district, May 9, 1931. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, May 26, 1931. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, June 15, 1936. Papal legate for the opening of the Holy Door at the patriarchal Lateran basilica, April 1, 1933. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, April 30, 1939 until his death. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, retaining the suburbicarian see of Frascati; and prefect of the S.C. Ceremonial, February 16, 1948.

Death. January 13, 1951, Rome. Buried, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 436; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 251-253.

Link. Biography, in Italian.

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MARCHISANO, Francesco (1929-

Birth. June 25, 1929, Racconigi, archdiocese of Turin, Italy.

Education. Seminaries of Turin: ginnasio, Giaveno (1940-1945); philosophy, Chieri (1945-1948); theology, Turin (1948-1949) and Rivoli Torinese (1949-1952); Pontifical Lombard Seminary, Rome (1952-1956); Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome (licentiate in Sacred Scripture, 1954); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in theology; thesis: L'interpretazione di "kekaritomene" Lc. 1,28 fino alla met` del secolo XII, 1957).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1952, Turin, by Cardinal Maurilio Fossati, archbishop of Turin. Sent to Rome temporarily to pursue studies in order to become a professor at the Seminary of Rivoli, 1956. The Roman temporarility became permanent when Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo called him to the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities of Studies appointing him aiutante di studio for the sections of "Seminaries" in 1956. He was charged first with the European countries and later with the Latin American ones; later with the nations of German and English language, the ones behind the Iron Curtain and the ecclesiastical colleges of Rome. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, May 4, 1961. Named head of the Office of Seminaries, May 7, 1968 . Undersecretary of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities, June 3, 1969 until October 6, 1988. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, February 29, 1971. In 1971 he visited numerous nations fomenting the formation of the candidates to the priesthood and Catholic instruction. Taught catechism to deaf and mute children in Rome for thirty years.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Populonia and appointed secretary of the Pontifical Commission for the Preservation of the Artistic and Cultural Patrimony of the Church, October 6, 1988. Consecrated, January 6, 1989, Vatican City, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Edward Idris Cassidy, titular archbishop of Amanzia, substitute of the secretariat of State for General Affairs, and by José Tomás Sánchez, archbishop emeritus of Nueva Segovia, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. President of the Foundation John XXIII, October 20, 1988. President of the Pontifical Commission of Sacred Archeology, September 4, 1991. Appointed president of the Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Patrimony of the Church, May 3, 1993; the commission had been established on March 25, 1993. Promoted to archbishop, July 9, 1994. President of the Artistic-Cultural Commission of the Grand Jubilee of the Year 2000, March 17, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; by papal appointment. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; by papal appointment. Attended the X Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001; by papal appointment. Named archpriest of the Patriarchal Vatican Basilica, vicar general for the State of Vatican City, and president of the Fabric of St. Peter's basilica, April 24, 2002. President of the Permanent Commission for the Care of the Historical and Artistic Monuments of the Holy See, March 8, 2003. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Patrimony of the Church, October 13, 2003.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Lucia del Gonfalone, October 21, 2003. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission of Sacred Archeology, August 28, 2004. President of the Office of Labor of the Apostolic See, February 5, 2005. Relieved from the posts of vicar general of the State of Vatican City and of president of the Fabric of St. Peter's, February 5, 2005. In a funeral mass for Pope John Paul II celebrated the day after his exequies, the cardinal revealed that he had been cured of a grave illness of the throat after the late pope had prayed and touched him. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed as president of the Office of Labor of the Apostolic See, April 21, 2005. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Resigned the post of archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, October 31, 2006.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian; and his arms.

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MARELLA, Paolo (1895-1984)

Birth. January 25, 1895, Rome, Italy. Son of Luigi Marella and Vincenza Baldoni.

Education. Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; Royal University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 23, 1918, Rome, by Cardinal Basilio Pompilj, vicar general of Rome. Further studies and pastoral work in the diocese of Rome, 1918-1922. Staff member of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, 1922-1924. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, January 9, 1923. Auditor of the apostolic delegation in the United States of America, 1924-1933. Charge d'affaires of the apostolic delegation in the United States of America, February to September, 1933. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 5, 1933.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Doclea, September 15, 1933. Consecrated, October 29, 1933, chapel of Collegio de Propaganda Fide, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Fumasoni Biondi, prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, assisted by Carlo Salotti, titular archbishop of Filippopoli di Tracia, secretary of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, and by Domenico Spolverini, titular archbishop of Larissa. Appointed apostolic delegate to Japan, October 30, 1933. Apostolic delegate to Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania, October 27, 1948. Nuncio in France, April 15, 1953.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red hat and the title of S. Andrea delle Fratte, March 31, 1960. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and prefect of the S.C. of the Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica, August 14, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Papal legate to the inauguration of the Vatican pavilion at the World Fair, New York, February 20, 1964. President of the Secretariat for Non-Christians, May 19, 1964. Papal legate to the 8th centennial celebrations of Notre-Dame's cathedral, Paris, May 27, 1964; to the centennial celebrations for the arrival of the first Catholic missionaries in Japan, Tokyo, January 12, 1965; to the National Congress of the Confederation of the Christian Doctrine, Pittsburgh, United States of America, August 28, 1966. President "pro tempore" of the Administrative Commission of Saint Peter's basilica, January 1, 1968. Special papal representative to the World Fair, Osaka, Japan, June 8, 1970. Cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, March 15, 1972. Resigned the presidency, February 26, 1973. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, January 25, 1975. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 12, 1977. Archpriest emeritus of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and president emeritus of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's, February 8, 1983.

Death. October 15, 1984, Rome. Buried, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 436-437.

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MARGÉOT, Jean (1916-

Birth. February 3, 1916, Quatre-Bornes, diocese of Port-Louis, Mauritius.

Education. Collège du St. Esprit and Collège Royal, Port-Louis, Port-Louis; Seminary of Port-Louis, Port-Louis; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1938, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Successively, in the diocese of Port-Louis, 1939-1968, vicar at La Visitation, in Vacoas; he quickly organized the Catholic Youth Association; spiritual director of the Légion de Marie , which he promoted with great success throughout the country. Later, he was vicar at St.Pierre-ès-Liens, Moka; at Ste. Thérèse, Curepipe; at Notre Dame du Rosaire, Quare Bornes; at St. Sauveur; at Bambous; at the cathedral of St. Louis; and at Notre Dame de Lourdes, Rose Hill. He was administrator of the diocese during the illness of Bishop Liston. He was also president of the Roman Catholic Educational Authority; founder of "Foyers de Notre Dame"; promotor of Action Familaire; and founder of "Foyer Monsignor Murphy", for the formation of native clergy. He became the first Mauritian vicar general of the diocese of Port Louis on April 1, 1956; occupied the post until June 1, 1968; vicar capitular, June 1, 1968 until February 6, 1969. Domestic prelate of honor of His Holiness, September 19, 1956.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Port-Louis, February 6, 1969. Consecrated, May 4, 1969, cathedral of Marie Reine de la Paix, Port Louis, by Paolo Mosconi, titular archbishop of Leges, pro-nuncio in Madagascar, assisted by Angelo Innocent Fernandes, archbishop of Delhi, and by Georges-Henri Guibert, C.S.Sp., bishop of Saint-Denis-de-La Réunion. He is the first Mauritian to occupy the see. Attended the V Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the II Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. President of the Episcopal Conference of Indian Ocean, 1986-1989.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Gabriele Arcangelo all'Acque Traversa, June 28, 1988. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese, February 15, 1993. He went to reside at the Convent of Bonne Terre, where he continued giving retreats and conferences; in October 2005, he was affected by a grave illness; after a period of convalescence, he resumed all his normal activities. Attended the Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebration of 150th anniversary of the evangelization of New Caledonia, Numea, May 22, 1994. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, February 3, 1996. Grand Officer of the Order of the Star and Key, March 12, 1997. He is the first cardinal from Mauritius.

Link. Photographs, audios and biography, in French (site created to celebrate his 90th birthday on February 3, 2006).

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MARIANI, Domenico (1863-1939)

Birth. April 3, 1863, Posta, diocese of Rieti, Italy.

Education. Lyceum "Angelo Mai", Rome; Pontifical Vatican Seminary, Vatican; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1886. Pastoral work in diocese of Rome, 1886-1900. Canon of the Vatican Basilica, secretary of apostolic almonery, 1900-1917. Privy chamberlain, September 30, 1914. Secretary of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Administration of the Properties of the Holy See, January 22, 1917. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, January 26, 1917. Vice-president of the Economat of the Ecclesiastical Dicasteries.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, December 19, 1935. President of the Administration of the Wealth of the Holy See, December 21, 1935. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. April 23, 1939, Vatican City. Buried, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

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MARINI, Nicolò (1843-1923)

Birth. August 20, 1843, Rome, Italy. Relative of Cardinal Pietro Marini (1846).

Education. Collegio Capranica, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorates in philosophy, theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law); Royal University, Rome (doctorate in civil and canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 26, 1866, Rome. Pastoral work in the diocese of Rome; founder of the Catholic daily Il buon senso; work with the Catholic Action founding the feminine circle "Gaetana Agnesi". Vicar general of Cardinal Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano in the abbey of Ss. Vicenzo ed Anastasio alle Tre Fontane. Official of he S.C. Consistorial, 1878. Privy chamberlain de numero participante, July 20, 1881. Ablegato to deliver the red biretta to the new Cardinal Joaquín Lluch Garriga, archbishop of Seville, March 27, 1882. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Attaché in the nunciature in Spain, 1882-1889. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, July 11, 1889. Substitute of the Secretariat of Briefs, March 18, 1892. Domestic prelate of His Holiness and Apostolic protonotary ad instar participantium March 20, 1892. Very active in favor of the Christian Orient and the union with the Orthodox churches. Founder of the journals Il Bessarione, 1896 and Il Crisostomo, 1900. In pursuit of his effort toward the union with the Orthodox churches, travelled to the Holy Land, Egypt, Greece and North Africa. Consultor of the S.C. of Studies, October 10, 1902. Secretary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, October 20, 1908. Consultor of the Biblical Commission, 1911. Consultor of the Commission for the Codification of Canon Law, March 9, 1912. Consultor of the liturgical section of the S.C. of Rites, March 26, 1914. Uditore Santissimo, June 28, 1915. Commander of the Order of Queen Isabel of Spain. Commander of the Order of the Crown of Prussia. Officer of Légion d'Honor, France; Commander of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, with plaque.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, December 7, 1916. The journal II Bessarione published a special issue in homage to its founder and director for his promotion to the cardinalate. Member of the Commission of Historical Studies, January 4, 1917. Secretary of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, November 29, 1917; resigned the secretariat because of advanced age and poor health, 1922. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Protector and visitor of all the Oriental Institutes of Rome, July 28, 1922.

Death. July 27, 1923, Rome. Buried, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1921, p. 75; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 684; De Camillis, Mario. "Marini, Niccolò", Enciclopedia Cattolica. 12 vols. Vatican City: Ente per l'Enciclopedia Cattolica e per il Libro Cattolico, 1948-1952. Vol. VIII, col. 159-160; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1919, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1919, p. 98; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 17 and 26.

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MARMAGGI, Francesco (1870-1949)

Birth. August 31, 1870, Rome, Italy.

Education. Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome (doctorates in philosophy and theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 14, 1900, Rome. Pastoral work in the diocese of Rome, faculty member of the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", and official in the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, 1900-1904. Staff member in the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, 1904-1917. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, November 15, 1907; reappointed, September 7, 1914. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 2, 1915. Undersecretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, January 27, 1917.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Adrianopoli di Emimonto and appointed nuncio in Rumania, September 1, 1920. Consecrated, September 26, 1920, church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Bonaventura Ceretti, titular archbishop of Corinto, secretary of the S C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Lorenzo Schioppa, titular archbishop of Mocisso, nuncio in Hungary. In the same ceremony was consecrated Lugi Maglione, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina and nuncio in Switzerland, future cardinal. Named extraordinary envoy to Constantinople after the Greco-Turkish War. Papal legate extraordinary to the coronation of King Ferdinand I of Rumania. Nuncio in Czechoslovakia, May 30, 1923; returned to Rome because of the difficulties between that country and the Holy See, 1925. Nuncio in Poland, February 13, 1928. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress, Poznań, Poland, June 15, 1930.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, June 18, 1936. Papal legate to the Plenary Council of Polish Hierarchy, Czestochowa, August 1, 1936. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Prefect of the S.C. of Council, March 14, 1939 to November 3, 1949.

Death. November 3, 1949, Rome. Buried in the basilica of S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome.

Bibliography. Re, Niccolò del. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 146.

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MARTIN, Jacques (1908-1992)

Birth. August 26, 1908, Amiens, France. His baptismal name was Jacques-Paul.

Education. University of Strassbourg, Strassbourg (licenciate in letters); French Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1929-1936 (doctorate in theology; thesis: "Le Louis XIV de Charteaux, Dom Innocent Le Masson"); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, 1936-1938; Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (doctorate in canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, October 14, 1934. Further studies, Rome, 1934-1938. Joined the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1938. Member of the papal delegation to the 34th International Eucharistic Congress, Budapest, Hungary, May 12, 1938. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, June 2, 1941. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 20, 1951. Special envoy to the celebration of the Silver Jubilee of coronation of Haile Selassie I, emperor of Ethiopia, 1954. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and protonotary apostolic supernumerary, December 10, 1958. Accompanied Pope Paul VI in his pilgrimage to the Holy Land, January 1964.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Neapoli di Palestina, January 5, 1964. Consecrated, February 11, 1964, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Paolo Marella, archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and prefect of the S.C. for St. Peter's basilica, assisted by Angelo Dell'Acqua, titular archbishop of Calcedonia, substitute of the Secretariat of State and secretary of the Cipher, and by Paul-Pierre Philippe, O.P., titular archbishop of Eraclea, secretary of the S.C. of Religious. Appointed prefect of the Papal Household, April 9, 1969. Promoted to archbishop and and appointed prefect emeritus, December 18, 1986.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Sacro Cuore di Cristo Re, June 28, 1988. Lost the right to participate in conclave when turned 80 years of age, August 26, 1988.

Death. September 27, 1992, Vatican City. Buried in the chapel of the canons of St. Peter's basilica, Campo Verano Cemetery, Rome. His body was transferred to "Reconciliazione" chapel, basilica of Sacro Cuore di Cristo Re, Rome, on December 2, 1997.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 405-406; Martin, Jacques. Oltre il portone di bronzo. (Appunti di un cardinale vissuto a fianco di 6 Papi). Milan: Edizioni Paoline, 1996.

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MARTIN, Joseph-Marie (1891-1976)

Birth. August 9, 1891, Orlèans, France. His baptismal name was Joseph-Marie-Eugène.

Education. Seminary of Bordeaux, Bordeaux. In the French Army during the First World War, 1914-1918; he was seriously wounded.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1920, Bordeaux. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of Bordeaux, 1921-1940; vicar general, 1937-1940.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Le-Puy-en-Velay, February 9, 1940. Consecrated, April 2, 1940, metropolitan cathedral of Bordeaux, by Maurice Feltin, archbishop of Bordeaux, assisted by Clément Mathieu, bishop of Aires, and by Louis Liagre, bishop of La Rochelle. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Rouen, October 11, 1948. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Teresa al Corso d'Italia, February 25, 1965. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, May 29, 1968. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, August 9, 1971.

Death. January 21, 1976, Rouen. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Rouen.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 405-406.

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MARTÍNEZ SOMALO, Eduardo (1927-

Birth. March 31, 1927, Baños de Río Tobía, diocese of Calahorra y La Calzada, Spain. He had five brothers and four sisters.

Education. Seminary of Logroño, Logroño; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licenciature in theology and canon law); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome; Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (doctorate in canon law; thesis entitled Il Concordato spagnolo del 1953 alla luce dei suoi due primi articoli).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 19, 1950, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Pastoral ministry; diocesan curia of Calahorra; faculty member, Institute Marco Fabio Quintiliano; further studies, in Rome. Joined Vatican Secretariat of State, August 1, 1956. Secretary of the nunciature and faculty member of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, 1957-1970. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, April 14, 1960; June 21, 1963; responsible of the Spanish section of the Secretariat of State; accompanied Pope Paul VI to the XXXI International Eucharistic Congress, Bogotá, Colombia, August 22 to 25, 1968. Counselor at the apostolic delegation in Great Britain, 1970. Assessor of the Secretariat of State, 1970-1975; pastoral ministry in Roman hospitals. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, May 14, 1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tagora and appointed nuncio in Colombia, November 12, 1975. Consecrated, December 13, 1975, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Jean Villot, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, assisted by Giovanni Benelli, titular archbishop of Tusuro, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Francisco Álvarez Martínez, obispo de Tarazona and apostolic administrator, sede plena, of Calahorra y La Calzada-Logroño. Attended the III General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; by papal appointment. Substitute of the Secretariat of State, May 5, 1979.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the deaconry of SS. Nome di Gesù, June 28, 1988. Prefect of the Congregation for the Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, July 1, 1988. Special papal envoy to the 5th National Eucharistic Congress, Guayaquil, Ecuador, November 13 to 20, 1988. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Papal legate to the closing ceremony of Ignatian Year, Gesù church, Rome, July 31, 1991. Special papal envoy to the First National Eucharistic Congress, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, November 24, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; one of its three presidents delegate. Prefect of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life, January 21, 1992. Special papal envoy to the 9th International Mariological Congress and the 18th International Marian Congress, Huelva, Spain, September 18 to 27, 1992. Attended the 4th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, April 5, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the IX Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; one of its three presidents delegate; member of its general secretariat, 1994-1998. Cardinal protodeacon, January 29, 1996 to January 9, 1999. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Special Assembly for Asia of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; the Special Assembly for Oceania of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 9, 1999. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; the X Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Resigned the prefecture upon reaching the age limit, February 11, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age on March 31, 2007. The pope accepted his resignation to the post of camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on April 4, 2007.

Link. His arms.

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MARTINI, S.J., Carlo Maria (1927-

Birth. February 15, 1927, Turin, Italy. Second child of Leonardo Martini and Olga Maggia. He was baptized on February 22, 1927 at Immacolata Concezione parish, Turin.

Education. Jesuit "Istituto Sociale", Turin; joined the Society of Jesus, September 25, 1944; Jesuit Novitiate, Cuneo; Faculty of Philosophy Aloisianum, Gallarate, Milan; Theological Faculty, Chieri, Turin; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in fundamental theology, 1959; thesis: "Il problema storico della Risurrezione negli studi recenti"); Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome (doctorate in Sacred Scriptures, 1966; research on a group of codici of the Gospel of St. Luke; thesis "Il problema della recensionalità del Codice B alla luce del Papiro Bodmer XIV").

Priesthood. Ordained, July 13, 1952, Chieri, Turin, by Cardinal Maurilio Fossati, archbishop of Turin. Further studies, Rome, 1954-1958. Faculty member, Theological Faculty, Chieri; took final vows, February 2, 1962. Further studies, Rome, 1962-1964. Pastoral work in Rome: ministry among incarcerated youngsters at Casal del Marmo, Nisidia, and Poggioreale; collaboration with the Community of Sant'Egidio. Faculty member, dean, and on September 29, 1969, rector of the Pontifical Biblical Institute. Rector of the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, July 18, 1978. Only Catholic member of the Ecumenical Committee for the preparation of the Greek edition of the New Testament. Director of the 1978 Lent spiritual exercises in the Vatican by invitation of Pope Paul VI.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Milan, December 29, 1979. Consecrated, January 6, 1980, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Ferdinando Maggioni, titular bishop of Subaugusta, auxiliary of Milan. In the same ceremony was consecrated Christian Wiyghan Tumi, bishop of Yagoua, Cameroun, future cardinal. Member of the general secretariat of the World Synod of Bishops, by papal appointment, 1980-1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Cecilia, February 2, 1983. Attended the VI Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; relator; member of its general secretariat, 1983-1986; membership extended until 1987 in the II Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. President of the Council of the European Catholic Episcopal Conferences, 1987-1993. Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; member of its general secretariat, 1987-1990. Received a doctorate honoris causa from the Pontifical Salesian University, Rome, January 17, 1989. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the first centennial of the evangelization of Zambia, August 29 to September 2, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; the IX Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; member of its general secretariat, 1994-1998. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Awarded the prize "Príncipe de Asturias" in the Social Sciences, Oviedo, Spain, October 27, 2000. Named by the pope honorary member of the Pontifical Academy of Science, November 23, 2000. Attended the X Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the IX centennial of the death of St. Bruno, founder of the Carthusians, October 6, 2001, Serra San Bruno, Italy. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 11, 2002. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on February 15, 2007.

Bibliography. Garzonio, Marco. Cardinale a Milano in un mondo che cambia : nella testimonianza di Carlo Maria Martini. Milano : Rizzoli, 1985; Garzonio, Marco. Il Cardinale : Il valore per la chiesa e per il mondo dell'episcopato di Carlo Maria Martini. Milan : Mondadori, 2002. (Uomini e religioni.; Saggi;); Garzonio, Marco. Carlo Maria Martini. Torino : Edizioni San Paolo, 1993. (Primo piano); Modena, Damiano. Carlo Maria Martini. Custode del mistero nel cuore della storia. Rome : Paoline, 2005. (Saggistica).

Links. Photograph, arms, documents and bibliography, in Italian; and his arms.

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MARTINO, Renato Raffaele (1932-

Birth. November 23, 1932, Salerno, Italy.

Education. Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (philosophy and theology); Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (civil and canon law); Pontifical Institute at the Lateran University, Rome (doctorate in canon law); Studio of the Sacred Roman Rota (postgraduate studies); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy). Besides his native Italian, he speaks English, French, Spanish and Portuguese.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 27, 1957, Salerno, by Demetrio Moscato, archbishop of Salerno. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See, July 1, 1962. Attaché in the nunciature in Nicaragua. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, title later changed to chaplain of His Holiness, July 8, 1963. Secretary in the nunciature in the Philippines Secretary, and later auditor, in the nunciature in Lebanon. In the secretariat of State, auditor of nunciature, second class, 1970-1975. Counselor in the nunciature in Brazil from 1975 until 1980.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Segerme and appointed pro-nuncio in Thailand and apostolic delegate in Laos, Malaysia and Singapore, September 14, 1980. Consecrated, December 14, 1980, basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, by Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, secretary of State, assisted by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, and by Gaetano Pollio, archbishop of Salerno and bishop of Campagna. Permanent observer of the Holy See before the United Nations Organization in New York. President of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax, October 1, 2002.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Francesco di Paola ai Monti, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed as president of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax, April 21, 2005. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Named president of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants, post united to his other presidency, March 11, 2006. Special papal envoy to the celebrations that took place in Ariano Irpino, Italy, on May 20, 2006, for the 17th centennial of the martyrdom of S. Liberatore. Special papal envoy to the celebrations that took place in Singapore from June 21 to 23, 2006 for the 25th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Holy See. Received the prize "Pilgrim of Peace" of the International Center of Assisi for Peace among Peoples, in the church of the Immaculate Conception, Salerno, November 23, 2006. Received the special prize "Life" of the Aging society - Osservatorio della terza età, on January 12, 2007, in the Italian Chamber of Deputies, Rome. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebrations of the 5th centennial of the death of St. Francis of Paola that took place in Paola, Italy, from May 1 to 4, 2007. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Attended the XII Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church".

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian; and his arms.

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MARTY, François (1904-1994)

Birth. May 16, 1904, Vaureilles, Pachins, diocese of Rodez, France. Of a family of farmers. His first baptismal name was Gabriel but he changed to the second one, François, to avoid confusion with a classmate also named Gabriel Marty.

Education. Seminary of Rodez, Rodez; Catholic Institute, Toulouse.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 28, 1930, Rodez. Pastoral work in the diocese of Rodez, 1930-1951; vicar general, 1951-1952.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Saint-Flour, February 1, 1952. Consecrated, May 1, 1952, cathedral of Rodez, by Marcel-Marie Dubois, bishop of Rodez, assisted by Aimédée-Alexis-Marie Maisonobe, bishop of Belley, and by Alfred Coudere, bishop of Viviers. Promoted titular archbishop of Emesa and appointed coadjutor of Reims, with right of succession, December 14, 1959. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Reims, May 9, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Prelate nullius of the Mission de France, February 22, 1965 to July 15, 1968; and May 6 to November 25, 1975. Vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of France, May 31, 1966 to May 26, 1969; president, May 26, 1969 to October 24, 1975. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Paris, March 26, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Luigi dei Francesi, April 30, 1969. President of the French Episcopal Conference, 1969-1975. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, January 31, 1981. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, May 16, 1984. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; special guest.

Death. February 16, 1994, Villefranche-de-Rouergue, Aveyron, in a car and train accident. Buried, Pachins, Aveyron.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 407-408; Escoulen, Daniel. Il cardinal Marty : l'arcivescovo piú amato dai francesi. Prefazione del Cardinal Roger Etchegaray. Milan : Paoline, 1996. (Testimoni di ieri e di oggi ; 19). Translation of Fioretti du cardinal Marty; Escoulen, Daniel. François Marty, evêque en France. Rodez: Editions du Rouergue, 1991; Escoulen, Daniel. Petite vie du cardinal Marty. Paris : Desclée de Brouwer, 1996; Escoulen, Daniel.; Bousquet, Christian. Présence : Cardinal François Marty, témoin de l'espérance. Saint-Affrique : Fleurines, 1998; Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 2136.

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MASSIMI, Massimo (1877-1954)

Birth. April 10, 1877, Rome, Italy. Son of Prospero Massimi, a lawyer, and Luisa Guerra. He was baptized in the church of S. Maria in Portico (Campitelli).

Education. Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome (doctorates in theology and canon law); one of his classmates was Eugenio Pacelli, future Pope Pius XII; University of Rome, Rome (doctorate in civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 14, 1900, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Giuseppe Ceppetelli, titular archbishop of Mira, vice-gerent of Rome. Pastoral work in the diocese of Rome, 1900-1908. Named professor of "Institutions of Civil Law" at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare" on November 18, 1904. Promoter of justice at the reconstituted Tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota, October 20, 1908. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, May 18, 1911. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, November 29. 1915; its pro-dean, February 19, 1924; and its dean, May 1, 1926.Consultor of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of Canon Law, March 27, 1909. President of the commission for the redaction of a project of law on the judicial and procedural regulations of the tribunal of the State of Vatican City, September 21, 1932.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico, December 19, 1935. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of Oriental Canon Law, February 17, 1936. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, March 14, 1939. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, February 18, 1946. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, May 29, 1946.

Death. Saturday March 6, 1954, at 5:20 a.m., after receiving the holy viaticum at 3 a.m., Rome. Buried, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. His remains were transferred to the church of S. Maria in Portico in October 1976.

Bibliography. Fabris, Rinaldo. "Card. Massimo Massimi." La Pontificia Università Lateranense. Profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri e dei suoi discepoli. Rome : Libreria Editrice della Pontificia Università Lateranense, 1963, p. 234-235.

Link. His arms.

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MAURER, C.SS.R., José Clemente (1900-1990)

Birth. March 13, 1900, Püttlingen, diocese of Trier, Germany.

Education. Joined the Congregation of Most Holy Redeemer; took vows, September 10, 1921. Novitiate of Trois-Epis, Switzerland; Theological Faculty of Echternach, Luxemburg.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 19, 1925. Missionary work with the Bolivian Indians and superior of the Redemptorist residence in La Paz, 1926-1947. Vice-provincial of his congregation for South America, 1947-1950.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Cea and appointed auxiliary of La Paz, March 1, 1950. Consecrated, April 16, 1950, church of SS. Redentore e S. Alfonso in Via Merulana, Rome, by Cardinal Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D., bishop of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Francesco Beretti, titular archbishop of Leontopolis di Pamfilia, and by Augusto Sieffert, C.Ss.R., titular bishop of Poliboto, former bishop of La Paz. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sucre, October 27, 1951. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received red biretta and title of Ss. Redentore e S. Alfonso in via Merulana, June 29, 1967. President of the Episcopal Conference of Bolivia. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the II Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the III General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, March 13, 1980. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, November 30, 1983. He was the first cardinal from Bolivia.

Death. June 27, 1990, Sucre. Buried, metropolitan cathedral, Sucre.

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MAURIN, Louis-Joseph (1859-1936)

Birth. February 15, 1859, La Ciotat, diocese of Marseille, France.

Education. Pontifical French Seminary, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 8, 1882, Rome. Pastoral work in the diocese of Marseille, 1882-1911: professor in the Institute Belzunce; pastor of de la Destrousse, 1885; vicar in the church of Saint-Vincent de Paul, 1887; almoner of the lyceum of Marseille, 1890; pastor of Saint'Anna, 1895; pastor of Sainte-Margot, 1899; pastor of Saint-Michel, 1905; pastor of Saint-Charles and vicar general, 1906; rector of the shrine of Notre-Dame de la Garde, 1909.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Grenoble, September 1, 1911. Consecrated, October 24, 1911, cathedral of Marseille, by Cardinal Pierre-Paulin Andrieu, archbishop of Bordeaux, assisted by Joseph Fabre, bishop of Marseille, and by Dominique Castellan, bishop of Digne. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lyon, December 1, 1916.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the title of Ss.ma Trinità al Monte Pincio, December 7, 1916. Apostolic administrator of Langres, November 26, 1918 to April 27, 1919. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the consecration of Saint-Martin's basilica, Tours, July 4, 1925.

Death. November 16, 1936, Lyon. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Lyon.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 411-412.

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MAYER, O.S.B., Paul Augustin (1911-

Birth. May 23, 1911, Altötting, diocese of Passau, Germany. His Christian name is Paul.

Education. Joined Order of Saint Benedict, abbey of Saint Michael, Metten; took the name of Augustin; monastic profession, 1931. Studied at the University of Salzburg, Salzburg; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum of San Anselmo, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 25, 1935. Further studies, 1935-1937, Salzburg and Rome. Faculty member, abbey of Saint Michael, Metten, 1937-1939. Faculty member, Pontifical Roman Athenaeum of Sant'Anselmo, Rome, 1939-1966; rector, 1949-1966. Pastoral work in Rome, 1939-1966. Apostolic visitor to Swiss seminaries, 1957-1959. Secretary of the Preparatory Commission of the II Vatican Council, 1960-1962; secretary of the conciliar and postconciliar commissions for Catholic schools and priestly formation. Ecclesiastical delegate of the Foscolari Movement, 1965. Elected abbot of St. Michael's Abbey, Metten, Bavaria, Germany, November 3, 1966. Received the abbatial blessing from Rudolf Graber, bishop of Regensburg, Metten, December 10, 1966. Secretary of the S.C. for Religious and Secular Institutes, September 8, 1971.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Satriano, January 6, 1972. Consecrated, February 13, 1972, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Cardinal Bernardus Johannes Alfrink, archbishop of Utrecht, and by Cardinal William Conway, archbishop of Armagh. In the same ceremony was consecrated Giuseppe Casoria, titular archbishop of Vescovio, secretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, future cardinal. Named pro-prefect of the Congregation for the Sacraments and Congregation for Divine Worship, April 8, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Anselmo all'Aventino, May 25, 1985. Prefect of the Congregation for the Sacraments and of the Congregation for Divine Worship, May 27, 1985. Attended the II Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the VII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. The congregations were united in one, named Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of Sacraments, June 28, 1988. Resigned the prefecture, July 1, 1988. President of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, July 2, 1988. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, May 23, 1991. Resigned the presidency, July 1, 1991. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 29, 1996.

Links. Biographical entry, in English; and his arms.

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MEDEIROS, Humberto Sousa (1915-1983)

Birth. October 6, 1915, Arrifes, island of São Miguel, diocese of Angra, Azores Islands, Portugal. Son of Antonio Medeiros and Maria de Jesus Sousa Massa Flor. He was baptized in the parish of Nossa Senhora da Saúde, Arrifes on November 1, 1915.

Education. Primary education under Professor Maria Aura de Sousa Calouro, Escola do Jardim or Escola de D. Leonor Afonso; The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 15, 1946, Fall River, by James Edwin Cassidy, bishop of Fall River. Pastoral work in the diocese of Fall River, and further studies, 1946-1952. Chancellor of the diocese of Fall River and vicar for religious, 1952-1966.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Brownsville, April 14, 1966. Consecrated, June 9, 1966, cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption, Fall River, by James Louis Connolly, bishop of Fall River, assisted by James Joseph Gerrard, titular bishop of Forma, auxiliary of Fall River, and by Gerald Vincent McDevitt, titular bishop of Tigias, auxiliary of Philadelphia. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Boston, September 8, 1970.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received red biretta and title of S. Susanna, March 5, 1973. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 60th anniversary of apparition of Our Lady, Fátima, Portugal, May 13, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II.

Death. September 17, 1983, Boston. Buried in his family's plot in the cemetery of Fall River.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 149; Code, Bernard. American Bishops 1964-1970. St. Louis : Wexford Press, 1970, p. 11.

Link. Biography, in Portuguese.

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MEDINA ESTÉVEZ, Jorge Arturo (1926-

Birth. December 23, 1926, Santiago, Chile. His baptismal name is Jorge Arturo Agustín.

Education. Major Seminary of Santiago, Santiago; Pontifical Catholic University, Santiago (licentiate in letters and in biology; doctorates in theology and canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 12, 1954, Santiago, by Pio Alberto Fariña Fariña, titular bishop of Citarizo, auxiliary and vicar general of Santiago. Faculty member of the Major Seminary of Santiago and of the Theological Faculty of Santiago. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; as an expert. Judge of the metropolitan tribunal of the archdiocese of Santiago; pro-grand chancellor of the Catholic University of Santiago; and canon penitentiary of the metropolitan cathedral. Consultant to several Vatican dicasteries.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tibili and appointed auxiliary of Rancagua, December 18, 1984. Consecrated, January 6, 1985, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. Transferred to the see of Rancagua, November 25, 1987. Transferred to the see of Valparaíso, April 16, 1993. Pro-prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, June 21, 1996. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese, June 21, 1996. Promoted to archbishop, September 19, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Saba, February 21, 1998. Prefect, February 23, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; the Special Assembly for Oceania of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998; the II Special Assembly for Europe of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress of México, México City, May 5-7, 2000. Special papal envoy to the 20th International Mariological-Marian Congress, Rome, September 15 to 24, 2000; to the opening celebrations of the Plenary Council of Venezuela, Caracas, November 26, 2000. Attended the X Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Resigned the prefecture, October 1, 2002. Cardinal protodeacon, February 24, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. As cardinal protodeacon, announced to the world the election of the new Pope Benedict XVI on April 19, 2005; and bestowed on him the Petrine pallium in the ceremony of the beginning of his pontificate, April 24, 2005. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Special papal envoy to the closing of the Plenary Council of Venezuela that took place with the celebration of a mass officiated by the cardinal at "Parque Naciones Unidas", El Paraíso, Caracas, on October 7, 2006. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, December 23, 2006. Ceased as cardinal protodeacon, February 23, 2007. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, March 1, 2008.

Link. His arms.

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MEISNER, Joachim (1933-

Birth. December 25, 1933, archdiocese of Breslau (1), Germany.

Education. Seminary of Magdeburg, Magdeburg (then in the Democratic Republic of Germany); Seminary of Erfurt, Erfurt; Theological Faculty of Neuzelle, Neuzelle; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1962, Erfürt, by Josef Freusberg, titular bishop of Adrianopoli di Epiro, auxiliary of Fulda. Pastoral work in Heiligenstadt, Erfurt; rector in Caritasverband; spiritual counselor of Cáritas, 1963-1975.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Vina, March 17, 1975 and appointed auxiliary bishop to the apostolic administrator of the territory of Erfurt und Meiningen. Consecrated, May 17, 1975, by Hugo Aufderbeck, titular bishop of Arca di Fenicia, apostolic administrator of the territory of Erfurt und Meiningen, assisted by Hans-Georg Braun, titular bishop of Puzia di Bizacena, apostolic administrator of Magdeburg, and by Georg Weinhold, titular bishop of Idicra, auxiliary of Dresden-Meissen. Attended the IV Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Transferred to see of Berlin, April 22, 1980.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Pudenziana, February 2, 1983. Attended the II Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cologne, December 20, 1988. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of Holy See, November 6, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the VI centennial of St. John Nepomuceno's birth, Nepomok and Prague, Czech Republic, May 13 to 17, 1993. Attended IX Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; member of the general secretariat, 1994-1998. Special papal envoy to the ceremony of consecration of the new parish church of Astana, Kazakhstan, June 27, 1999. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; president delegate. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebrations for the 850th anniversary of the arrival in Finland of Saint Henry, bishop, and the 50th anniversary of the erection of the diocese of Helsinki. The celebrations took place in Helsinki on February 27, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 4th centennial of the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Šiluva, Lithuania, which took place on September 13 to 14, 2008. Attended the XII Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; by papal appointment.

Bibliography. Helbach, Ulrich. "Mesiner, Joachim." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1945 2001 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Unter Mitwirkung von Franz Xaver Bischof ... [et al.] ; herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2002, p. 295-297.

Links. Photograph, arms and biographical data, in German and his arms.

(1) The city was assigned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference, 1945, and it now has the Polish name Wroclaw.

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MEJÍA, Jorge María (1923-

Birth. January 31, 1923, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Education. Seminary of Villa Devoto, Buenos Aires; Pontifical University of S. Tommaso, Rome, (doctorate in theology); Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome (licentiate in biblical science); Biblical School of Jerusalem (advanced courses).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 22, 1945. Pastoral work, parish of Santa Rosa de Lima, Buenos Aires. Further studies, Rome. Professor of Sacred Scripture, and also of Biblical Greek, Hebrew and archeology, Theological Faculty, Catholic University of Argentina; professor of Sacred Scripture, "Instituto de Cultura Religiosa Superior" and in the Instituto de Ciencias Sagradas", Marist Brothers. Director of the Catholic journal Criterio, 1956-1977. Further studies, Jerusalem; guest professor in Ecumenical Institute of Higher Theological Studies, Tantur, Israel. Attended II Vatican Council (1962-1965) as an expert. Director of the Commission on Ecumenism of the archdiocese of Buenos Aires, 1966. Secretary of the Department of Ecumenism of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM), 1967. President of the executive committee of the World Catholic Federation for Biblical Apostolate, 1969-1972. Secretary of the Pontifical Commission for the relations with Judaism in the Secretariat for Christian Unity, 1977. Chaplain of His Holiness, September 20, 1978.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Apollonia and appointed vice-president of Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax, March 8, 1986. Consecrated, April 12, 1986, church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, by Cardinal Roger Etchegaray, president of the Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax and of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Antonio María Javierre Ortas, S.D.B., titular archbishop of Meta, secretary of the S.C. for Catholic Education. Attended the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Promoted to archbishop and appointed secretary of the Congregation for Bishops, March 5, 1994. Secretary of the College of Cardinals, March 10, 1994. Archivist and Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, March 7, 1998.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Girolamo della Carità, February 21, 2001. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, January 31, 2003. Resigned the post of Archivist and Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, November 24, 2003.

Link. His arms.

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MEOUCHI, Paul Pierre (1894-1975)

Birth. April 1, 1894, Djezzine, Maronite diocese of Saïda, Lebanon. Son of Assad Meouchi and Madeleine Maddoul. His first name is also listed as Boulos.

Education. College de la Sagesse, Beirut; Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1917, Rome, by Nematallah Abi Karam, titular bishop of Mindo. Secretary to Augustine Botani, bishop of Saïda of the Maronites, 1917-1920. Secretary to Chekrallah Koury, titular bishop of Tiro of the Maronites, during the latter's visitation to the Maronites in United States of America, 1920-1921. Pastoral work among the Maronites in United States of America, specifically in Indiana, Connecticut and California, 1922-1934.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tyr of Maronites, Lebonon, April 29, 1934. Consecrated, December 8, 1934, Bkerké, Lebanon, by Antoine-Pierre Arida, Maronite patriarch of Antioch, assisted by Augustine Bostani, bishop of Saïda of the Maronites, and by Peter Feghali, titular archbishop of Apamea di Bitinia. Elected patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites, May 25, 1955. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 25, 1955. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965

Cardinalate. Created cardinal patriarch, February 22, 1965; received the red biretta, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, l967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the II Ordinary Assembly of World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, April 1, 1974. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974.

Death. January 11, 1975, Beirut. Buried, patriarchal see of Bkerké, near Beirut.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 200-201.

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MERCATI, Giovanni (1866-1957)

Birth. December 17, 1866, Villa Gaida, diocese of Reggio Emilia, Itay. Of a profoundly Christian family. He was the second of four brothers; his two older brothers were also priests, as was one of his uncles, Giuseppe Mercati, pastor of Roteglia. His father was a veterinarian; he was a good friend of the Redemptorists of of Madonna del''Olmo, Montecchio d'Emilia and after the closure of the convent in 1859, a good part of its library was placed in the Mercati home.

Education. Minor Seminary of Marola, Marola, 1876-1882 (licence ginnasiale; Classic Lyceum Spallanzani, 1883; Seminary of Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia; resided in the Pontifical Lambardian Seminary, Rome, together with his brother Angelo; Vatican Library, Vatican (obtained a doctorate in Summer 1891; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in theology, 1891); Ambrosian Library, Milan (elected doctor, November 9, 1893).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 21, 1889, Reggio Emilia. Went to Rome for further studies, 1889-1891; frequented the public sessions of Accademia di Conferenze storico-giuridiche; admitted to the Vatican Library in February 1890; obligatory military service in Florence as soldato di sanità, 1891-1893. At the Ambrosian Library, Milan, 1893-1898. At the Vatican Library, 1898-1919; he was called by Pope Leo XIII in October 1898. Member of the Historical-liturgical Commission, established by the pope, November 28, 1902-1906. Consultor of the Pontifical Commission for Biblical Studies, January 31, 1903. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 2, 1904. Socio corrispondente of the Pontifical Roman Academy of Archeology, May 11, 1917. Prefect of the Vatican Library, October 23, 1919; in summer 1930, at his request for health reasons, he was relieved from the administrative functions of the library. Protonotary apostolic, January 12, 1936.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 15, 1936; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, June 18, 1936. Librarian and Archivist of the Holy Roman Church, June 18, 1936 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. He was a prolific writer and a great humanist, who had himself protected and supported a number of émigré scholars from Germany during the early years of the Second World War. He was a scholar who understood Aramaic and the intricacies of racing cars and rocketry.

Death. August 23, 1957, Vatican City. Buried in the church of S. Giorgio in Velabro, Rome.

Bibliography. Albareda, Anselm Maria. Gli scritti del Cardinale Mercati. Rome : Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1957. Note : Articolo apparso su "L'Osservatore Romano" preceduto da "Appunti biografici"; Campana, Augusto. Bibliografia degli scritti del Cardinale Giovanni Mercati, 1890-1956. Città del Vaticano : Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1957; Miscellanea Giovanni Mercati. Città del Vaticano, 1946. 6 vols. (Biblioteca apostolica vaticana. Studi e testi, 121-126 ; Variation: Studi e testi (Biblioteca apostolica vaticana) ; 121-126). Contents: v. 1. Bibbia. Letteratura cristiana antica.--v. 2. Letteratura medioevale.--v. 3. Letteratura e storia bizantina.--v. 4. Letteratura classica e umanistica.--v. 5. Storia ecclesiastica. Diritto.--v. 6. Paleografia. Bibliografia. Varia; Nel novantesimo anno del Cardinale Mercati, 1866-1956. Vatican City : Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 1956. Note : "Bibliografia degli scritti (1890-1956) : p. 57-130; Scaduto, Mario. "Un dotto: il cardinale Giovanni Mercati (1866-1957)," La Civiltà Cattolica, CVIII (1957), 49-60; Studi e ricerche nella biblioteca e negli archivi vaticani in memoria del cardinale Giovanni Mercati (1866-1957). Edited by Lamberto Donati. Firenze, L.S. Olschki, 1959. Contents: Il vescovo di Barcellona Pietro Garsias, bibliotecario della Vaticana sotto Alessandro VI, di A. M. Albareda.--Due liste di libri per la Biblioteca vaicana, di L. Berra.--La lettera di Walone, abate di S. Arnolfo di Metz e di S. Remigio di Reims a Gregorio VII (1073) di G. B. Borino.--Per il "Textus Evangelii" donato da Enrico II a Montecassino (Vat. Ottobon. lat. 74) di A. Campana.--Le fonti iconografiche di alcuni manoscritti urbinati della Biblioteca vaticana, di L. Donati.--I registri vaticani e la loro continuazione, di m Giusti.--Der Amstantritt des Botarichters Bernardino Giraud (1762-63) di H. Hoberg.--Enea Silvio Piccolominis Fortsetzung zum Liber Augustalis von Benvenuto Rambaldi aus Imola und ein ähnlicher zeitgenhossischer Aufholversuch, di P. Künzle.--La traduction française du "Dizionario" de Gaetano Moroni (1844-1862) di M. H. Laurent.--I due manoscritti urbinati dei privilegi dei Montefeltro, di L. Michelini Tocci.--Il clero della cattedrale di Lucca nei secoli XV e XVI, di L. Nanni.--La riforma della segreteria di Stato di LGregorio XVI, di L. Pásztor..--Recherche des deux bibliothèques romaines Maffei des XVe et XVIe siècles, di J. Ruysschaert.--Disavventure e morte di Vincent Raymond, miniatore papale, di N. Vian; Tisserant, Eugène. Giovanni Mercati, 1866-1957 : commemorazione tenuta nella seduta a classi riunite dell'11 maggio 1963. Roma : Accademia nazionale dei Lincei, 1963. (Problemi attuali di scienza e di cultura ; quaderno ; n. 63; Variation: Accademia nazionale dei Lincei. ; Problemi attuali di scienze e di cultura ; quaderno n.63); Vian, Paolo ; Mercati, Giovanni. Carteggi del card. Giovanni Mercati. Città del Vaticano : Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 2003- . (Studi e testi ; 413; Cataloghi sommari e inventari dei fondi manoscritti ; 7; Variation: Studi e testi (Biblioteca apostolica vaticana) ; 413). Contents: 1. 1889-1936; Vian, Paolo. "Per una biografia del Cardinale Giovanni Mercati." Rivista di storia della chiesa in Italia. LV (2001), 175-199.

Link. His arms.

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MERCIER, Desiré (1851-1926)

Birth. November 21, 1851, château du Castegier, Braine-l'Alleud, archdiocese of Mechelen, Belgium. Fifth of the seven children of Paul-Léon Mercier and Anne-Marie Barbe Croquet. His baptismal name was Desiré-Félicien-François-Joseph. Three of his sistes became nuns and a brother, Léon, a physician.

Education. Studied catechism and elementary Latin in Braine-l'Alleud under Abbé Oliviers; Collège Saint-Rombaut, Mechele November 1863-1868 (classical studies); Minor Seminary of Mechelen, Mechelen, October 1, 1868-1870; Grand Seminary of Mechelen, Mechelen, October 1, 1870-1874 (philosophy and theology); received the ecclesiastical tonsure in the chapel of the seminary on the Octave of Pentecost 1871, from Charles André Anthonis, titular bishop of Costantina, headmaster of the seminary and auxiliary of Mechelen; temporary dean at the minor seminary, January 19, 1873 to the end of that academic year; University of Louvain, Louvain (licentiate in theology, July 1877; doctorate in philosophy); Dr. J.C. Charcot Clinic, Paris (courses in psychology).

Priesthood. Ordained, Holy Saturday April 4, 1874, Brussels, chapel of the papal nunciature, by Giacomo Cattani, titular archbishop of Ancira, nuncio in Belgium, assisted by Msgr. Vincenzo Vannutelli, auditor of the nunciature, future cardinal; Cardinal Victor-Auguste-Isidore Dechamps, C.SS.R., archbishop of Mechelen, was not free on that day and was not able to confer the ordination. Further studies, 1874-1877. Professor of philosophy and spiritual director of the Minor Seminary of Mechelen, 1877-1882. He was granted the doctorate in theology by apostolic brief of Pope Leo XIII, September 26, 1882. Professor of philosophy at the University of Louvain, 1882-1905. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 6, 1887. Director of the Superior Institute of Theology, University of Louvain, November 8, 1889 until 1892. President of Leo XIII Seminary, Mechelen, July 27, 1892 until 1906. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Mechelen, August 12, 1882. Founded Revue Néoscolastique in Mechelen in 1894; he was its editor until 1906.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Mechelen, February 7, 1906. Consecrated, March 25, 1906, metropolitan cathedral of Saint-Rombaut, Mechelen, by Antonio Vico, titular archbishop of Filippi, nuncio in Belgium.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 15, 1907; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, April 18, 1907. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Because of the exile of King Albert I and his government during the First World War, he was Belgium's wartime resistance leader acting as the focal point of opposition to the German occupation. Founder of the International Union of Social Studies, 1920. Under his direction, the Social Code of Mechelen was published in 1920. Organized "Mechelen Conversations," ecumenical reunions with Anglican leaders, 1921-1926 (1). Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. He opposed the emancipation of the Flemish movement. Promoter of the Neo-Thomist philosophy. During his final illness, he was visited by King Leopold of Belgium and the queen, as well as by Lord Halifax and other personalities.

Death. January 23, 1926, Brussels. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Mechelen.

Bibliography. Baeuduin, Edouard. Le Cardinal Mercier. Tournai : Castermon, 1966. Boileau, David A. Cardinal Mercier: a memoir. Leuven : Peeters, 1996; Gade, John. The life of Cardinal Mercier. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1935; Goyau, Georges. Cardinal Mercier. London : Longmans, Green, and Co., Ltd., 1926; Hauke, Manfred. Maria, "Mittlerin aller Gnaden" : die universale Gnadenmittlerschaft Mariens im theologischen und seelsorglichen Schaffen von Kardinal Mercier (1851-1926). Regensburg : Friedrich Pustet, 2004. (Mariologische Studien ; Bd. 17). Contents: Die Aktualität des Themas -- Die "Initialzündung" der Bewegung für eine dogmatische Definition der universalen Gnadenmittlerschaft Mariens -- Die geistige Vorbereitung im Gefolge des Immaculata-Dogmas von 1854 -- Der geistliche Impuls von Mutter Magdalena (Palmyre Ryckaert) -- Der Lebensweg Merciers vor der Ernennung zum Erzbischof -- Die Bedeutung des Ersten Weltkriegs -- Die Spannung zum Ökumenismus der Mechelner Gespräche -- Die marianischen Initiativen Kardinal Merciers -- Der Ausgang der Initiativen Merciers -- Ergebnis; Mercier, Désiré. Mémorial jubilaire du Cardinal Mercier, 1874-1924. Anvers : V. Van Dieren, 1924. Note : "Essai de bibliographie des oeuvres du Cardinal Désiré-Joseph Mercier" (p. 117-130); Mercier, Desiré. The voice of Belgium; being the war utterances of Cardinal Mercier. London : Burns and Oates, [1977]; Meseberg-Haubold, Ilse. Der Widerstand Kardinal Merciers gegen die deutsche Besetzung Belgiens, 1914-1918 : ein Beitrag zur politischen Rolle des Katholizimus im ersten Weltkrieg. Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang, 1982. (Europäische Hochschulschriften. Reihe III, Geschichte und ihre Hilfswissenschaften ; Bd. 176 ; Publications universitaires européennes. Série III, Histoire, sciences auxiliaires de l'histoire ; vol. 176 ; European university studies. Series III, History and allied studies ; vol. 176; Variation: Europäische Hochschulschriften.; Reihe III ; Geschichte und ihre Hilfswissenschaften ; Bd. 176); Simon, Alois. Position philosophique du Cardinal Mercier: esquisse psychologique. Bruxelles : Palais des Académies, 1962.

Links. Biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in German; brief biographical data, in French, fifth entry on page; his portrait, bust, statue and brief biographical data, in Flemish; his role in WWI, in English; biography in Spanish; his portrait by Cecilia Beaux, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C., United States of America; his image on a postal stamp and brief biographical data, in French; his image in another postal stamp from Belgium; his image on a stained-glass window, Bapst Library Boston College, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America; his tomb in Saint-Rumbold's Cathedral, Mechelen, Belgium; and his arms.

(1) A series of conversations between prominent Roman Catholic and Anglican figures. The conversations were held between 1921 and 1926 in Malines, Belgium, under the presidency of Cardinal Mercier, at the instigation of Charles Lindley Wood, second viscount Halifax. Wood published the results in 1928 and 1930. All the conversations after the first took place with the knowledge of the pope and the archbishop of Canterbury. A wide range of agreements was reached on papal primacy of honor, real presence, eucharistic sacrifice, episcopacy, etc., which foreshadow the current discussions of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC). The conversations were held in in the archiepiscopal palace of Malines in 1921, 1923, 1925 and 1926, and also took part, for the Catholic Church, Msgr. Joseph Ernest van Roey, future cardinal; Ferdinand Étienne Portal, president of the Mission; Hyppolite Hemmer; Msgr. Pierre-Henri Batiffol; and for the Anglican Church, Walter Howard Frere, R.C.; Charles Gore, bishop; and Benjamin Kidd.

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MERRY DEL VAL Y ZULUETA, Rafael (1865-1930)

Birth. October 10, 1865, Spanish embassy in London, archdiocese of Westminster, England. Son of Rafael Merry del Val, Spanish diplomat, and Josefina de Zulueta. Of a Spanish family that resided in England until 1878.

Education. Initial studies, Bayliss House, Slough; Jesuit School Notre Dame de Namur, Belgium; College of Saint-Michele, Brussels; College of St. Cuthbert, Ushaw, Durham, 1883; Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1885; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in philosophy, 1886; doctorate in theology, 1891; licentiate in canon law, 1891 (1)). Privy chamberlain supernumerary, June 8, 1887. Member of the papal delegation to the celebration of the golden jubilee of the reign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain, June 1887. Received the diaconate on May 27, 1888, church of the Daughters of S. Anna, Rome, from Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, vicar general of Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 30, 1888, church of the Daughters of S. Anna, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, vicar general of Rome. Secretary of Archbishop Luigi Galimberti in the nunciatures in Germany and Austria-Hungary, 1888-1889. Further studies, 1889-1891. Privy chamberlain de numero participantium, December 31, 1891. Member of the pontifical family, 1891-1898. Returned to the pontifical mission in Vienna, 1893. Secretary of Pontifical Commission to study validity of the Anglican ordinations, 1896; participated in the redaction of the bull Apostolicæ curæ. Apostolic delegate to Canada, March 10, 1897 until July 1898, to solve the question of the schools of Manitoba (2); he left Rome March 15, 1897, embarked in Liverpool on the 20th and arrived in Québec on March 30; he remained there for a short time, and then stopped in Trois-Rivières and in Montréal; he established himself in Ottawa, making a short visit to Winnipeg from June 3 to 17, 1897. He met the French-speaking bishops in Montréal on April 8; and the Ontarian bishops on May 11 in Toronto (3). Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 13, 1897. Consultor of the S.C.of the Index from 1898. President of Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, October 21, 1899 to 1903.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicea, April 19, 1900. Consecrated, May 6, 1900, church of S. Maria in via Monserrato, Rome, by Cardinal Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of State, assisted by Edmond Stonor, titular archbishop of Trebisonda, and by Guglielmo Pifferi, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan. Papal representative to the coronation of King Edward VII of England, 1901. Provisional secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, July 21, 1903. Secretary of conclave of 1903. Pro-secretary of State, August 4, 1903 until November 12, 1903.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 9, 1903; received the red hat and the title of S. Prassede, November 12, 1903. Named secretary of State, prefect of the S.C. of Loreto, and prefect of Apostolic Palace, November 12, 1903; occupied the Secretariat of State until August 20, 1914. President of the Pontifical Commission for Administration of Wealth of Holy See, 1904. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1907. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 27, 1911 to December 2, 1912. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and prefect of the S.C. of the Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica, January 12, 1914. Participated in conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Prefect of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, October 14, 1914 until his death. President of the Academy of the Catholic Religion, Rome, December 7, 1915. Papal legate to the 7th centennial celebration of Saint Francis, Assisi, 1920. Papal legate to the Catechetical Congress, Umbria, 1920. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 16, 1920 to December 11, 1922. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the 7th centennial celebration of the death of Saint Francis, Assisi, September 25, 1926. Protector of the Venerable English College, Rome, May 6, 1929.

Death. February 26, 1930, after an appendicitis attack, Vatican City. The funeral took place in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on March 3, 1930. Buried in the grotto of the same basilica. On July 31, 1931, a new tomb, gift of the Spanish government, was dedicated by Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, secretary of State. The process for his beatification was opened on February 26, 1953.

Bibliography. Buehrle, Marie-Cecilia. Rafael Cardinal Merry del Val. London : Sands and Co., 1957; Cenci, Pio. Il Cardinale Raffaele Merry del Va. Rome : Roberto Berrutti, 1933; Dal Gal, Girolamo. Il cardinale Merry del Val, segretario di Stato del Beato Pio X. Roma : Edizioni Paoline ,1953; Dal Gal, Girolamo. The spiritual life of Cardinal Merry del Val. Translated by Joseph A. McMullin. New York : Benziger Brothers, 1959; Dalpiaz, Vigilio. Attraverso una porpora. Il cardinale Merry del Val. Torino : R. Berruti, 1935; Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 64; Figueroa Ortega, Rafael. Una gloria de la iglesia, el Cardenal Rafael Merry del Val. Con un prólogo de Pio Cenci. Puebla, México : La Enseñanza, 1937; Einsiedeln, Benziger & Co. 1937; Javierre, José M. Merry del Val. Barcelona : Juan Flors, 1956; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 242-245; Merry del Val, Raphael. The spiritual diary of Raphael Cardinal Merry del Val. New York : Exposition Press, 1964; Mitchell, Hary. Le cardinal R. Merry del Val : Secretaire d'Etat de Saint Pie X. Paris : Paris-Livres, 1956; Quinn, Mary Bernetta. Give me souls; a life of Raphael Cardinal Merry del Val. Westminster, Md.: Newman Press, 1958; Torre, Giuseppe dalla. The Cardinal of charity : memorial discourse on the work and virtues of the late Cardinal Raphael Merry del Val. New York : Paulist Press, 1932.

Links. Biography, in German; his photo in Canada, third on page.

(1) LeBlanc, Dictionnaire bigraphique des évêques catholiques du Canada, p. 242, indicates that he obtained the doctorate at the Gregorian University, Rome, but Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 411, says that he obtained it at the University of Ottawa, Canada, to which Fr. Leblanc adds that the degree was honoris cause.
(2) According to LeBlanc, Dictionnaire bigraphique des évêques catholiques du Canada, p. 243, the Manitobaine laws of 1870 removed the school rights of the Catholic minority and abrogated the official status of French. In 1896, the federal government, directed by the Conservative Sir Charles Tupper, had been prevented, because of the systematic obstruction of the Liberal party, from adopting the law répatratrice, and had to call elections. They were won, on June 23, in spite of the intervention of the bishops Québécois, by the Liberals of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, who concluded, in November, the agreement called Laurier-Greenway, with the government of Manitoba. The agreement, while not restoring separate schools, authorized religious and bilingual teaching under restrictive conditions, but the nationalists were not satisfied and caused a division within the Church and, at the request of the federal government, an apostolic delegate was sent. The federal government specified its preference to the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith: an emissary of English culture who spoke French and knew the British institutions.
(3) According to LeBlanc, Dictionnaire bigraphique des évêques catholiques du Canada pp. 243-244, his nomination strongly displeased the Québécois episcopate, which saw in it a lack of confidence on the part of the Holy See. The Canadian-French bishops received him rather coldly and were far from eager to collaborate with him. The prospects for the two sides to reconcile were not very good. The delegate, imbued of the hope (and of the illusion) prevalent in the Roman Curia at the time, hoped to bring back the Anglo-Saxon world into the flock of the church; he judged that it was better to prevent raising protests of fanaticism and sacrificing a small minority of French language than run the risk of reprisals against the Catholic minorities in Ontario and in les Maritime, which were of English language. He believed that the problem was not about a conflict between two political parties, but between Catholics and Protestants; that the attitude of the Conservative Party had been hypocritical, electoralist and more guilty that the Liberal Party, leaving the problem to the courts, and being slow in adopting a reparation law. The bishops for their part, thought that the delegate was too reconciling and that he had been deceived by promises, which were to confirm the future, because no legislative measurement was introduced, but only administrative arrangements, and the temporary solution of Laurier would become permanent. They estimated that the delegate understood the historical context very badly, defended the constitutional rights, and argued that to yield on this question would possibly produce the disappearance of the rights of the minorities in North and the West, which indeed was carried out. Presented by the most radical as anglophile and even hostile to the French culture, even if he spoke French as well as English and Italian, he was completely surrounded by the Irish bishops and the governmental mediums, met First Minister Laurier, was received by Governor General Lord Aberdeen, was celebrated by the liberal government of Ontario, and concluded that the adversaries of the agreement Greenway-Laurier (Msgr. Langevin and the majority of the bishops Québécois) were too close to the Conservative Party and lacked political direction. The Vatican, by the encyclical Affari vos of December 8, 1897, disapproved the agreement as imperfect because it promoted the neutral schools, while recommending to the Catholics to accept these partial satisfactions. The Canadian-French bishops had finally to subject themselves. The majority of the historians recognize that the mission of Msgr. Merry del Val paved the way for the establishment of a permanent delegation in Canada, which he recommended as the best means of uniting the episcopate and of establishing harmonious relationships with the civil authorities.

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MEYER, Albert Gregory (1903-1965)

Birth. March 9, 1903, Milwaukee, United States of America. Son of Peter James Meyer and Mathilda Thelen, German immigrants.

Education. St. Mary Parochial School, Milwaukee; Marquette Academy, Milwaukee; Saint Francis Seminary, Milwaukee; Pontifical North American College, Rome; Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, 1927-1930 (doctorate in Holy Scriptures, 1930).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 11, 1926, church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, by Cardinal Basilio Pompilj, vicar of Rome. Further studies, 1926-1930. Pastoral work in St. Joseph parish, Waukesha, archdiocese of Milwaukee, 1930-1931. Faculty member of Saint Francis Seminary, Milwaukee, 1931-1937; taught religion, Greek, Latin, Christian archeology, dogmatic theology and Sacred Scriptures; rector, 1937-1946; pastoral work among the Italian immigrants as well as chaplain of "Serra Club". Domestic prelate of His Holiness, February 14, 1938.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Superior, February 18, 1946. Consecrated, April 11, 1946, cathedral of Saint John, Milwaukee, by Moses Elias Kiley, archbishop of Milwaukee, assisted by Aloisius Joseph Muench, bishop of Fargo, and by William Patrick O'Connor, bishop of Madison. Promoted to metropolitan see of Milwaukee, July 21, 1953. Transferred to metropolitan see of Chicago, September 19, 1958.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, December 17, 1959. Attended the first three sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1964; member of the board of presidency, 1963-1964. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. April 9 (1), 1965, Mercy Hospital, Chicago, of a heart attack after an operation to extirpate a malignant brain tumor. Buried in the cemetery of Saint Mary of the Lake Seminary, Mundelein, archdiocese of Chicago.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, pp. 106-107; "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1966, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1966, p. 103*; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 202; Schuster, G.N. Albert Gregory Cardinal Meyer. Vol. 11 of The men who made the council. Edited by M. Novak. 20 vols. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1966, p. 103*, which indicates that he died on April 7, 1965.

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MICARA, Clemente (1879-1965)

Birth. December 24, 1879, Frascati, Italy.

Education. Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome; Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 20, 1902, Rome. Further studies, 1902-1904. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1904-1909. Secretary of the nunciature in Argentina, 1909-1915. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, January 5, 1910; reappointed, December 25, 1914. Auditor of the nunciature in Belgium, April 16, 1915; in the nunciature in Austria, 1916-1919. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 21, 1918. Special papal envoy to Czechoslovakia, 1919-1920.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Apamea di Siria, May 7, 1920. Named nuncio in Czechoslovakia, May 17, 1920. Consecrated, August 8, 1920, chapel of the Bohemian College, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Antonio Valbonesi, titular bishop of Memfi, and by Karl Kašpar, titular bishop of Betsaida, auxiliary of Hradec-Králové. Nuncio in Belgium and internuncio in Luxemburg, May 30, 1923. Extraordinary papal envoy to consign the Golden Rose to Queen Elizabeth of Belgium, December 10, 1925. Resided in Rome during Belgium's occupation by the Nazi regime, 1940-1944. Resumed his nunciature in Belgium, 1944-1946.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, February 22, 1946. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Velletri, retaining in commendam ad nutum Summi Pontificis his title, June 13, 1946. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, 1947 (or 1948) to November 11, 1950. Papal legate to the 7th centennial celebration of Cologne's cathedral, July 25, 1948; to the Bolivarian Eucharistic Congress, Cali, Colombia, January 6, 1949. Prefect of the S.C. of Religious, November 11, 1950 to January 17, 1953. Pro-prefect of the S.C. of Rites, November 11, 1950 to January 26, 1953. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 13, 1951. Vicar general of Rome and its district, January 26, 1951. Papal legate to the 10th National Eucharistic Congress, Namur, Belgium, June 2, 1951; to the 15th National Eucharistic Congress, Nîmes, France, September 15, 1951. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the first three sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1964. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. March 11, 1965, Rome. Buried in the basilica of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

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MIMMI, Marcello (1882-1961)

Birth. July 18, 1882, Poggio di Castel San Pietro, archdiocese of Bologna, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Bologna, Bologna.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1905, Bologna. Pastoral work and faculty member of the Seminary of Bologna, 1905-1930. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, November 19, 1919; reappointed, April 3, 1922. Rector of the Regional Seminary of Romagna.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Crema, June 30, 1930. Consecrated, July 25, 1930, metropolitan cathedral of Bologna, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano, archbishop of Bologna, assisted by Ettore Lodi, titular bishop of Messene, auxiliary of Bologna, and by Giovanni Franzini, bishop of Carpi. Promoted to metropolitan see of Bari, July 31, 1933. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 6, 1936. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Naples, August 30, 1952.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, January 15, 1953. Papal legate to the Regional Plenary Council of Salerno, August 15, 1955; to the 15th National Eucharistic Congress, Lecce, Italy, April 18, 1956. Named secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, December 15, 1957. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, June 9, 1958. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Papal legate to the 16th National Eucharistic Congress, Catania, Sicily, Italy, August 2, 1959. Papal legate to the First Interamerican Marian Congress, Buenos Aires, Argentina, October 21, 1960.

Death. March 6, 1961, Rome. Buried in the cathedral of Sabina, Magliano Sabina.

Bibliography. Mimmi, Marcello. Marcello Mimmi e la svolta pastorale moderna della chiesa di Bari : 1933-1952. Bari : Edipuglia, 1995. (Per la storia della Chiesa di Bari, 12). Responsibility : a cura di Salvatore Palese, Francesco Sportelli.

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MINDSZENTY, József (1892-1975)

Birth. March 29, 1892, Csehimindsent, diocese of Szombathely, Hungary. Son of János Pehm and Borbála Kovács. He had five siblings, three of which died in infancy; two sisters survived. He took the name of his native town as his last name.

Education. Seminary of Szombathely, Szombathely.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 12, 1915, Szombathely, by János Mikesde Zabola, bishop of Szombathely. Pastoral work in the diocese of Szombathely, 1915-1944. Arrested during the Communist revolt of Bela Kun, 1919.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Veszprém, March 3, 1944. Consecrated, March 25, 1944, metropolitan cathedral basilica of Esztergom, by Cardinal Jusztinian Séredi, O.S.B., archbishop of Esztergom, assisted by Lajos Shvoy, bishop of Székesfehérvár, and by József Pétery, bishop of Vác. Imprisoned by the Nazi regime, 1944-1945. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Esztergom, October 2, 1945.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, February 22, 1946. Condemned to life imprisonment by the Communist regime, March 1949. Freed by the Hungarian revolt, October 1956. In political asylum in the United States of America embassy, Budapest, 1956-1971. Did not participate in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII; and the one of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Left Hungary, September 28, 1971. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, March 29, 1972. Considering the pastoral problems of the archdiocese, Pope Paul VI asked him to resign its government; the see was declared vacant and an apostolic administrator ad nutm Sanctae Sedis appointed, February 2, 1974.

Death. May 6, 1975, Vienna. Buried, temporarily, Hungarian chapel, Shrine of Mariazel, Austria. His body was transferred to the metropolitan and primatial cathedral of Esztergom on May 4, 1991.

Beatification. Beatification process started by the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints, October 22, 1996.

Bibliography. Cardinal Mindszenty speaks ; authorized white book, pub. by order of Joseph Cardinal Mindszenty. Introduction by Akos Zombory. New York : Longmans, Green, 1949. Notes: A translation of papers selected from those sent out of Hungary by Cardinal Mindszenty. A similar publication in German was issued under the title: Weissbuch; vier Jahre Kirchenkampf in Ungarn; Fabian, Bela. Cardinal Mindszenty. New York : C. Scribner's Sons, 1949; Mindszenty, József. Memoirs. Translation of Erinnerungen. New York : Macmillan Publishing Co., 1974; Mindszenty, József. Mindszenty-Dokumentation. 2 vols. Bearbeitet und übersetzt von Josef Vecsey und Johann Schwendemann. [s.l] : Sonderausgabe im Selbstverlag der Verfasser, 1956- ; Pölten : Pressvereins-Druckerei. Contents: 1. Kardinal Mindszenty warnt -- 2. Ungarns Kirche im Kampf; Shuster, George N. In Silence I Speak. The Story of Cardinal Mindszenty. Today and of Hungary's "New Order". With the research assistance of Dr. Tibor Horanyi. New York : Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, 1956; Swift, Stephen. The cardinal's story. New York : Macmillan, 1949; Vecsey, Joseph. Mindszenty the man. St. Louis : Cardinal Mindszenty Foundation, 1972.

Links. Photographs and biography, in English; The Life and "Crimes" of Cardinal Jozsef Mindszenty, in English.

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MINORETTI, Carlo Dalmazio (1861-1938)

Birth. September 17, 1861, Cogliate San Dalmazio, archdiocese of Milan, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Milan, Milan.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1884. Faculty member of Seminary of Monza, Milan, 1890-1907. Faculty member of Seminary of Milan, 1907-1909. Pastoral work in archdiocese of Milan, 1909-1915.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Crema, December 6, 1915. Consecrated, January 16, 1916, Seregno, by Cardinal Andrea Ferrari, archbishop of Milan, assisted by Pietro Viganò, titular bishop of Aezani, and by Giovanni Mauri, titular bishop of Famagusta, auxiliary of Milan. Promoted to metropolitan see of Genoa, January 16, 1925.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1929; received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, December 19, 1929. Papal legate to centennial celebration of Our Lady of Mercy, Savona, Italy, March 1, 1936.

Death. March 13, 1938, Genoa. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Genoa.

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MIRANDA Y GOMEZ, Miguel Darío (1895-1986)

Birth. December 19, 1895, León, México. Son of Cirpriano Miranda and María de las Nieves Gómez.

Education. Seminary of León, León; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1918, Rome. Pastoral work in the diocese of León and faculty member of its seminary, 1919-1925; 1929-1937. Director of the National Social Secretariat, 1925-1926. Imprisoned and exiled during the religious persecution, 1926-1929.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tulacingo, October 1, 1937. Consecrated, shrine of Guadalupe, December 8, 1937, by Leopoldo Ruíz Flores, archbishop of Morelia, assisted by José Ignacio Márquez Toriz, titular archbishop of Bosporo, coadjutor with right of succession of Puebla de los Ángeles, and by Maximino Ruiz y Flores, titular bishop of Derbe. Promoted to titular archbishop of Selimbria and appointed coadjutor of México, December 20, 1955. Transferred to the metropolitan see of México, June 28, 1956. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM), 1958-1963. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria di Guadalupe a Monte Mario, April 30, 1969. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, December 19, 1975. Papal legate to the dedication of Our Lady of Guadalupe's basilica, México City, October 12, 1976. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 19, 1977.

Death. March 15, 1986, León, México. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of México.

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MISTRANGELO, Sch.P., Alfonso Maria (1852-1930)

Birth. April 26, 1852, Savona, Italy. Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 17, 1859.

Education. Seminary of Savona, Savona. Joined the Congregation of the Clerics Poor Regular of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools (Piarists), province of Liguria, October 23, 1870; simple profession, 1871, province of Liguria; solemn profession, 1874. Piarist houses of study, 1870-1877. Received the insignias of the clerical character and the minor orders, February 28, 1875; subdiaconate, May 13, 1875; diaconate, July 18, 1875.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 17, 1877, Aquis. Faculty member in Piarist schools of Finalborgo, Carcare and Ovada; rector of the Piarist school in Ovada from 1880.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pontremoli, January 16, 1893. Consecrated, January 22, 1893, church of S. Pantaleone, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, bishop of Albano, vicar general of His Holiness for the City of Rome, assisted by Antonio Maria Grasselli, O.F.M. Conv., titular archbishop of Colosse, secretary of the S.C. of the Apostolic Visitation, and by Luigi Maria Canestrari, titular bishop of Terme, rector of Seminario Pio and canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Florence, June 19, 1899. Superior general of his congregation, 1900-1904.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 6, 1915; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, December 9, 1915. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI.

Death. November 7, 1930, Florence. Buried, cemetery of Trespiano (1), Florence.

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 16. Annuario Pontifico per l'anno 1930, p. 80, says that he was buried in the cemetery of Soffiano.

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MONDUZZI, Dino (1922-2006)

Birth. April 2, 1922, Brisighella, diocese of Faenza (now Faenza-Modigliana), Italy. Son of Secondo Damiano Monduzzi and Ida Ragazzini.

Education. Seminary of Faenza, Faenza (ginnasiale, liceale and theological studies); Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (licentiate in utroque iure).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 22, 1945, Brisighella, by Giuseppe Battaglia, bishop of Faenza; celebrated his first mass on July 23, 1945 in archpresbyteral church of Brisighella. Further studies, Rome. Collaborator in the Catholic Action social missions in several Italian regions, especially, Calabria and Sardinia. Spiritual assistant to the agrarian reform zones of Fucino, 1954-1959. From May 1959 to 1967, entered the service of the Holy See as adjunct, and later, secretary for the audiences in the Office of the Master of the Papal Chamber. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness, March 24, 1961; June 28, 1966; title changed to chaplain of His Holiness, March 28, 1968. From 1967-1986, secretary, and later regent of the Pontifical Household, Vatican City. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, June 6, 1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Capri and appointed prefect of the Pontifical Household, December 18, 1986. Consecrated, January 6, 1987, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by José Tomás Sánchez, archbishop emeritus of Nueva Segovia, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. In the same ceremony was consecrated Gilberto Agustoni, titular archbishop of Caorle, secretary of the Congregation for the Clergy, another future cardinal. As prefect of the Papal Household, he was in charge, among other things, of the pontifical ceremonies, excluding their liturgical aspect, and the private and public audiences of the pope. He participated in the preparation of 130 pastoral pilgrimages of Pope John Paul in Italy and 268 pastoral visits to Roman parishes. He occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Sebastiano al Palatino, February 21, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, April 2, 2002.

Death. October 13, 2006, at 1 a.m., after a long and painful illness, Vatican City. Exposed in the church of S. Stefano degli Abisini, Vatican City. On Monday October 16, at 5 p.m., in the altar of the Chair of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, took place the exequial liturgy presided by the pope. Cardinals Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, and Roger Etchegaray, sub-dean, were the main concelebrants. On Tuesday October 17, 2006, at 3 p.m., a funeral mass was celebrated in the collegiate church of Brisighella. His remains were buried in the tomb of his family in the cemetery of Brisighella.

Link. His arms.

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MONTINI, Giovanni Battista (1897-1978)

Birth. September 26, 1897, Concesio, diocese of Brescia, Italy. Son of Giorgio Montini and Giuditta Alghisi. His baptismal name was Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria.

Education. Seminary of Brescia, Brescia; Seminary of Milan, Milan; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome; University of Rome, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 29, 1920, Brescia, by Giacinto Gaggia, bishop of Brescia. Further studies, 1920-1923. Staff member of the nunciature in Poland, 1923. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1924-1937. National ecclesiastical assistant of the university section of the Italian Catholic Action, 1925-1933. Privy chamberlain of His Holines, October 19, 1925. Faculty member of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, 1931-1937. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 8, 1931. Substitute of the Secretariat of State and secretary of ciphering, December 16, 1937. Referendary prelate of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, September 24, 1936. Protonotary apostolic, May 10, 1938. Pro-secretary of State for Ordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, November 29, 1952 until November 1, 1954. Declined the promotion to the cardinalate in 1952.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Milan, November 1, 1954. Consecrated, December 12, 1954, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, bishop of Ostia and Porto e Santa Rufina, dean of Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Giacinto Tredici, bishop of Brescia, and by Domenico Bernareggi, titular bishop of Famagosta and vicar capitular of Milan. Pope Pius XII was going to consecrate him but could not do it because of ill health.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, December 18, 1958. Attended the first session of the Second Vatican Council, 1962. Participated in conclave of 1963 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected, June 21, 1963; took name of Paul VI. Crowned, June 30, 1963, by Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani, protodeacon of S. Maria in Domnica. He issued the motu proprio Ad purpuratorum patrum on February 11, 1965, in which he stipulated that Eastern-rite patriarchs incorporated to the Sacred College of Cardinals would not belong to the clergy of Rome and consequently no title or deaconry should be assigned to them. He created 143 cardinals in six consistories. On February 24, 1965, he issued the motu proprio Sacro Cardinalium Consilio, by which he established that the dean and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals should be elected to their posts by and from among the cardinal bishops instead of succeeding by order of seniority as had been the practice for centuries and as was legally stipulated by canon 237, paragraph one, of the Code of Canon Law of 1917. This election by the cardinal bishops requires papal confirmation to be valid. By his motu proprio Ingravescentem aetatem, dated November 21, 1970, he decided that cardinals older than eighty years were deprived of their right to elect the pope and to participate in the conclave; and that cardinals heading dicasteries in the Roman Curia were asked to submit their resignation to the pope upon reaching 75 years of age and ceased as members of the same at 80. Finally, he promulgated the apostolic constitution Romano Pontifici eligendo, of October 1, 1975, issuing norms for the College of Cardinals during a vacancy of the Holy See and the election of the Pope. He created one hundred forty three cardinals in six consistories.

Death. August 6, 1978, Castelgandolfo, Italy. He was buried on August 12, 1978 in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Beatification. The diocesan process for cause of beatification and canonization opened May 11, 1993; it was closed March 18, 1999.

Bibliography. Adornato, Giselda. Paolo VI. Il coraggio della modernità. Cinisello Balsamo : San Paolo, 2008; Barret, William. Shepherd of Mankind. Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1964. Clancy, John G. Apostle for our time. Pope Paul VI. New York : P.J. Kenedy & Sons, 1963; Chiron, Yves. Paul VI, le pape écartelé. Paris : Perrin, 1993; González, J.L. & Péres, T. Paul VI. English Version by Edward L. Heston, C.S.C. Boston : St. Paul Editions, 1964; Hatch, Alden. Pope Paul VI. New York : Random House, 1966; Hebblethwaite, Peter. Paul VI : The first modern pope. New York/Mahwah : Paulist Press, 1993; Vaccaro, Luciano and Giselda Adornato. Montini. "Ha giunta un'ora nuova...". Introduction by Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi. Milan : Centro Ambrosiano, 2004; Versace, Eliana. Montini l'apertura a sinistra. Il falso mito del vescovo progressista. Milano : Guerini e Associati, 2007; Vian, Giovanni Maria. "Paolo VI.' Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 657-674; Vian, Nello. Anni e opere di Paolo VI. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 1978.

Links. Photograph, coat of arms and biography, in English; portrait, arms and biographical information, in English; his episcopal lineage, in English; and his arms.

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MOONEY, Edward Aloysius (1882-1958)

Birth. May 9, 1882, Mount Savage, archdiocese of Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. Son of Thomas Mooney and Sarah Heneghan.

Education. Saint Charles College, Ellicott City; Saint Mary's Seminary, Baltimore; Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 10, 1909, Rome. Faculty member of Saint Mary's Seminary, Cleveland, 1909-1916. Principal of the Cathedral Latin School, Cleveland, 1916-1922. Pastoral work in the diocese of Cleveland, 1922-1923. Spiritual director of the North American College, Rome, 1923-1926. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 3, 1925.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Irenopoli and appointed apostolic delegate in Eastern Indies, January 21, 1926. Consecrated, January 31, 1926, chapel of the Pontifical North American College, Rome, by Cardinal Willem Marinus van Rossum, C.SS.R., prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, assisted by Francesco Marchetti-Selvaggiani, titular archbishop of Seleucia in Isauria, president of the Pontifical Work for the Propagation of the Faith, and by Giulio Serafini, titular bishop of Lampsaco, secretary of S.C. of Council. Apostolic delegate in Japan, March 30, 1931. Transferred to the diocese of Rochester, with title of archbishop ad personam, August 28, 1933. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Detroit, May 26, 1937.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, February 22, 1946.

Death. October 25, 1958, Rome, less than three hours before the beginning of the conclave. Buried, crypt of St. John's Seminary, Detroit. In 1988, when the seminary was closed, his remains were transferred to Holy Sepulchre Catholic Cemetery, Southfield, archdiocese of Detroit.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, pp. 79-80; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, pp. 206-207.

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MORANO, Francesco (1872-1968)

Birth. June 8, 1872, Caïvano, diocese of Aversa, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Aversa, Aversa; Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome (doctorates in philosophy, theology and canon and civil law); Royal University, Rome (doctorate in physics and teaching diploma in physics); "Studio" of the S.C. of the Council, Rome (diploma of lawyer of the Roman Curia).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 10, 1897, Rome. Further studies, 1897-1900. Assistant at the observatory of the Vatican, 1900-1903. Officer of the Supreme S.C. of Holy Office, 1903-1925. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, July 20, 1918. Referendary prelate of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, April 21, 1921; voting prelate, December 28, 1922. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, January 30, 1925. Secretary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, December 20, 1935.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, December 17, 1959.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Fallaba, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Augustin Bea, S.J., Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Alfredo Ottaviani and Francesco Roberti. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. July 12, 1968, Vatican City. Buried in Aversa.

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MORI, Giuseppe (1850-1934)

Birth. January 24, 1850, Loro Piceno, archdiocese of Fermo, Italy .

Education. Seminary of Fermo, Fermo; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 17, 1874, Rome. Pastoral work in the diocese of Rome, 1874-1880. Staff member of the S.C. of the Council, 1885-1903; auditor, 1903-1908. Honorary chamberlain of His Holiness, October 4, 1880; reappointed, December 7, 1903. Undersecretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, October 20, 1908. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, February 9, 1909. Secretary of the S. C. of the Council, December 8, 1916.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 11, 1922: received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, December 14, 1922. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, March 13, 1933.

Death. September 30, 1934, Loro Piceno. Buried in the chapel of the cemetery of Loro Piceno; later transferred to the family tomb.

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MOTTA, Carlos Carmelo de Vasconcellos (1890-1982)

Birth. July 16, 1890, Bom Jesus do Amparo, archdiocese of Mariana, Brazil. Son of João de Vasconcellos Teixeira da Motta, a deputy during the empire, and Francisca Josina dos Santos.

Education. Initial studies at Fazenda da Prata, in the parish of Taquaraçu, Caeté, Minas Gerais; Colégio Matosinhos, of the Marist Brothers, in Congonhas do Campo (humanities); in 1904, he entered the Minor Seminary of Mariana and stayed there for a brief period; studied at the Faculty of Law of Belo Horizonte, 1910-1911; studied at the Major Seminary of Mariana, Mariana, 1914-1918.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 20, 1918, Mariana, by Silvério Gomes Pimenta, archbishop of Mariana; celebrated his first mass in Taquaruçu, on July 7, 1918. Vicar coadjutor of Taquaruçu for eleven months; named chaplain of Asilo São Lums da Serra da Piedade; later, he was chaplain of Recolhimento das Macaúbas and worked in the parishes of Caeté and Sabará; and finally, he was named rector of Seminary of Belo Horizonte until 1932. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, October 23, 1925.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Algiza and appointed auxiliary of Diamantina, July 29, 1932. Consecrated, October 30, 1932, in the church of São José, Belo Horizont, by António dos Santos Cabral, bishop of Natal, assisted by Ranulfo da Silva Farias, bishop of Guaxupé, and by Antonio Colturato, O.F.M. Cap., bishop of Uberaba. Administrator of the diocese of Diamantina, 1933-1934. Promoted to the metropolitan see of São Luis do Maranhão, December 19, 1935. Promoted the creation of the sees of Caxias and Pinheiros; was administrator of the latter from 1940 until 1944. Transferred to the metropolitan see of São Paulo, August 13, 1944; he established more than one hundred new parishes.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio, February 22, 1946. On March 18, 1946, he established the Paulista Faculty of Law, initial nucleus of the the Catholic University of São Paulo on September 2, 1946; in 1947, Pope Pius XII, granted it the rank of pontifical university. Presided over the 7th centennial celebrations of the Carmelite scapulary, Recife, July 6, 1951. First president of the Episcopal Conference of Bishops of Brazil, 1952-1958. Attended the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 25 to August 4, 1955. On March 2, 1956, he founded Rádio Nove de Julho, in commemoration of the 8oth birthday of Pope Pius XII. He personally selected the name of Brasilia for the new federal capital city and celebrated there the first mass on May 3, 1957. Administrator of the archdiocese of Aparecida since it establishment on April 19, 1958 until April, 1964. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Aparecida as its first archbishop, April 18, 1964; he built the National Shrine of Nossa Senhora Aparecida, the patroness of Brazil. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. Cardinal protoprete, October 23, 1979.

Death. September 18, 1982, Aparecida. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Aparecida.

Bibliography. Vidigal, Pedro Maciel. O Cardeal de Vasconcellos Motta. Belo Horizonte: Imp. Oficial, 1973.

Links. Biography, in Portuguese; and his arms.

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MOZZONI, Umberto (1904-1983)

Birth. June 29, 1904, Buenos Aires, Argentina. His family migrated from Macerata, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Macerata, Macerata, Italy; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome; University of Rome, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 14, 1927, Rome. Pastoral work in the diocese of Macerata and faculty member of its seminary, 1927-1935. Successively, 1935-1954, secretary and auditor of the apostolic delegations in Canada and Great Britain, and in the nunciature in Portugal. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, October 7, 1936; reappointed, March 3, 1939. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, January 2, 1948.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Side and appointed nuncio in Bolivia, November 13, 1954. Consecrated, Sunday December 5, 1954, chapel of the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome, by Cardinal James Charles McGuigan, archbishop of Toronto, assisted by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Sivio Cassulo, bishop of Macerata e Tolentino. Nuncio in Argentina, September 20, 1958. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Nuncio in Brazil, April 19, 1969.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Eugenio, March 5, 1973. President of the Cardinalitial Commission for Shrines of Pompeii and Loreto, June 19, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Cardinal protodeacon, 1980?-1983. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, February 2, 1983.

Death. November 7, 1983, Rome. Buried, cathedral of Macerata, Macerata.

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MUENCH, Aloisius Joseph (1889-1962)

Birth. February 18, 1889, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America. Son of Joseph Muench and Theresa Kraus.

Education. Saint Francis Seminary, Milwaukee; State University of Wisconsin, Madison; University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland; University of Louvain, Louvain, Belgium; University of Oxford, Oxford, England; University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England; La Sorbonne University, Paris, France .

Priesthood. Ordained, June 8, 1913, Milwaukee, by Sebastian Gebhard Messmer, archbishop of Milwaukee. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of Milwaukee, 1913-1919. Faculty member of Saint Francis Seminary, Milwaukee, 1922-1929. Further studies, 1919-1922. Rector of Saint Francis Seminary, Milwaukee, 1929-1935. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, September 21, 1934.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Fargo, August 10, 1935. Consecrated, October 15, 1935, church of the Gesu, Milwaukee, by Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, titular archbishop of Laodicea di Frigia, apostolic delegate in the United States of America, assisted by Christian Herman Winkelmann, titular bishop of Sita, auxiliary of St. Louis, and by William Richard Griffin, titular bishop of Lida, auxiliary of La Crosse. Military vicar delegate of the United States of America Armed Forces in Germany and apostolic visitor in Germany, 1946-1949. Regent of the nunciature in Germany, 1949-1951. Given the title of archbishop ad personam, October 28, 1950. Nuncio in Germany, March 9, 1951. Promoted to titular archbishop of Selimbria, December 9, 1959.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red hat and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, December 17, 1959. Papal legate to the 19th centennial celebration of Saint Paul's visit to Malta, March 3, 1960.

Death. February 15, 1962, Rome. Buried, Holy Cross cemetery, Fargo, North Dakota.

Bibliography. Barry, Colman. American nuncio : Cardinal Aloisius Muench. Collegeville : St. John's University Press, 1969; Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1790-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 91; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 209.

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MUNDELEIN, George William (1872-1939)

Birth. July 2, 1872, New York, New York, United States of America. Son of Francis Mundelein and Mary Goetz.

Education. Manhattan College, New York; Saint Vincent's Seminary, Latrobe; Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 8, 1895, Rome, by Charles Edward McDonnell, bishop of Brooklyn. Pastoral work in the diocese of Brooklyn and secretary to its bishop, 1895-1897; chancellor, 1897-1909.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Loima and appointed auxiliary of Brooklyn, June 30, 1909. Consecrated, September 21, 1909, St. James Pro-cathedral, Brooklyn, by Charles E. McDonnell, bishop of Brooklyn, assisted by Charles Henry Colton, bishop of Buffalo, and by John Joseph O'Connor, bishop of Newark. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Chicago, December 9, 1915. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 8, 1920.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 24, 1924; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, March 27, 1924. Papal legate to the 8th National Eucharistic Congress, New Orleans, September 13, 1938. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. October 2, 1939, unexpectedly in his sleep, in Mundelein, town named after him. To accommodate the cardinal's funeral, the city of Chicago hastily re-paved State Street, where the subway had been under construction. More than one million people paid their respects as the body of the cardinal lay in state in the nave of the cathedral. His remains were buried behind the main altar of the chapel of the Seminary of Chicago.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 63; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 211; Martin, Paul R. The first cardinal of the West. Chicago : The New World Publishing Co., 1934.

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MUÑOZ DUQUE, Aníbal (1908-1987)

Birth. October 3, 1908, Santa Rosa de Osos, Colombia. Son of José María Muñoz and Ana Rosa Duque. He was baptized in the parish church of Santa Rosa de Osos on October 16, 1908.

Education. Seminary of Santa Rosa de Osos, Santa Rosa de 0sos.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 19, 1933, Santa Rosa de Osos. Faculty member and prefect of the Minor Seminary of the Institute of Missions of Yarumal, 1933-1937; rector and vice-superior general of the Institute of Yarumal, 1937-1950. Pro-vicar general of the diocese of Santa Rosa de Osos, 1950-1951.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Socorro y San Gil, April 8, 1951. Consecrated, May 27, 1951, primatial and metropolitan cathedral basilica of Bogotá, by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, nuncio in Colombia, assisted by Miguel Angel Builes, bishop of Santa Rosa de Osos, and by Ángel Ocampo Berrio, S.J., bishop of Tunja. Transferred to the diocese of Bucaramanga, December 18, 1952. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Nueva Pamplona, August 3, 1959. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Episcopal Conference of Colombia, 1964-1972. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Apostolic administrator sede plena of the archdiocese of Bogotá, April 15, 1967. Transferred to the titular see of Cariana, March 30, 1968. Hosted the visit of Pope Paul VI to Bogotá in August 1968 on the occasion of the 39th International Eucharistic Congress; it was the first papal visit to Latin America. Named coadjutor archbishop of Bogotá, with right of succession, February 2, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the II Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Succeeded to the archdiocese of Bogotá, July 29, 1972. Military vicar of Colombia, July 30, 1972.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, March S. 1973. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the III General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the V Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Bogotá, June 25, 1984.

Death. January 15, 1987, Bogotá. Buried in the chapel of "El Sagrario", next to the metropolitan cathedral, Bogotá.

Bibliography. Agudelo Giraldo, Guillermo. Los arzobispos de Bogotá que he conocido : medio siglo en la historia eclesiástica colombiana, 1928-1984. Bogotá : s.n., 1987. Notes: "Ensayo sobre los cuatro arzobispos que han dejado huella profunda en la agitada historia contemporánea de Colombia: monseñor Ismael Perdomo, cardenal Crisanto Luque, cardenal Luis Concha, cardenal Aníbal Muñoz Duque." Originally presented by the author on entering the Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica on Nov. 15, 1986. Cover title: Cuatro arzobispos que han marcado nuestra historia, 1928-1984. "Ediciones Verdad y Vida", volumen 14, nos. 24-25 y 26, diciembre de 1986".

Link. Archbishops of Bogotá, in Spanish.

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MUÑOZ VEGA, S.J., Pablo (1903-1994)

Birth. May 23, 1903, Mira, diocese of Tulcán, Ecuador. Son of Antonio Muñoz Carrera and Josefina Vega.

Education. Joined the Society of Jesus, September 27, 1918; Jesuit houses of studies, Quito; Colegio Máximo de Oña, Burgos, Spain; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 25, 1933 Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1933-1937. Faculty member of the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1937-1949; 1958-1964. Jesuit provincial of Ecuador, 1949-1955. Rector of the Pontifical Pio-Latin American College, Rome, 1955-1958. Rector magnifico of the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1958-1963. Expert at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1963.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ceramo and appointed coadjutor sedis datus of Quito, February 7, 1964. Consecrated, March 19, 1964, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, by Cardinal Carlo Confalonieri, secretary of S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Martin John O`Connor, titular archbishop of Laodicea di Siria, president of the Pontifical Commission for Social Communications. Attended the last two sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1964-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Quito, June 23, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. President of the Episcopal Conference of Ecuador.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Roberto Bellarmino, April 30, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the II Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; named one of its three president delegates, August 2, 1971. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the IV Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the III General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, May 23, 1983. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, June 1, 1985. Attended the II Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Attended the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992.

Death. June 3, 1994, Quito. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Quito.

Link. Photograph and biography, in Spanish.

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MURPHY-O'CONNOR, Cormac (1932-

Birth. August 24, 1932, Reading, diocese of Portsmouth, England. He was the fifth son of Dr. George Murphy-O'Connor and his wife, Ellen. His brother Brian is a priest of the Portsmouth diocese, and his deceased brother, Patrick, was also a priest of the same diocese. Three of his uncles were also priests.

Education. Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1956, Rome, by Cardinal Valerio Valeri, prefect of S.C. for Religious. Incardinated in the diocese of Portsmouth. From 1957 to 1966, vicar in the parish of Corpus Christi, Portsmouth and of the Sacred Heart, Fareham. Later, from 1966 to 1969, secretary to Bishop Worlock. From 1969 to 1971, pastor of the Immaculate Conception parish, Southampton. From 1971 until his episcopal appointment, rector of the "Venerabile Collegio Inglese", Rome. Prelate of honor, March 10, 1972.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Arundel and Brighton, November 17, 1977. Consecrated, December 21, 1977, cathedral of Our Lady and Saint Philip Howard, Arundel, by Michael Bowen, archbishop of Southwark, assisted by George Patrick Dwyer, archbishop of Birmingham, and by Anthony Joseph Emery, bishop of Portsmouth. Co-chairman of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission since 1983. Apostolic Visitor to Irish Seminaries. Promoted to metropolitan see of Westminster, February 15, 2000. Elected president of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales, November 2000.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, February 21, 2001. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, March 10, 2001. Attended X Ordinary Assembly of World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the diocese of Stockholm, Sweden, October 12, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005.

Bibliography. Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, p. 64, 168-169 and 179; Schofield, Nicholas ; Skinner, Gerard. The English cardinals. Oxford, UK : Family Publications, 2007, p. 222-225.

Links. Photographs, arms and biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); and his arms.

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