WOODGAS


 
FUEL DENSITIES
 

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We usually find the mass energy content of fuels tabulated on an energy/mass basis.  Yet the energy/volume is often equally important for shipment, storage and use.  This table includes the densities of various fuels and calculates the volumetric energy density.   

 

                                                          
  FUEL PROPERTIES:  From Reed, Jamie & Andries         LHV-base HHV-base LHV-base HHV-base LHV-base LHV-base LHV-base HHV-base HHV-base HHV-base
    Mass        Mass Volumetric Volumetric Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative        
ref nr FUEL TYPE Density Moisture Ash* Energy Density Energy Density Energy Density Mass Bulk Vol. Bulk Vol. Mass Bulk Vol. Bulk Vol. Unit** Cost Co2 Emissions      
  kg/m3 % MC % MJ/kg or GJ/ton GJ/m3 GJ/m3 Ener. Dsy Ener.Dsy Multiplier Ener. Dsy Ener.Dsy Multiplier Cost $ $/Gj kg/Gj1 kg/Gj2
  solid bulk         Solid bulk Solid bulk (to coal AW) (to coal AW) (to coal AW) (to coal TR) (to coal TR) (to coal TR)    
                   
1 Brown Coal - VIC 1120 860 62.5 2 8.0 9.0 6.9     0.33 0.34 2.97 5/t 0.63 93.3 87.7
2 Black Coal - NSW 1450 940 8 22 24.0 34.8 22.6     1.00 1.11 0.90 30/t 1.25 90.7 89.4
3 Petrol   n/a <1 <1 34.2/l         0.73/l 21.35 71.3
4 Auto Diesel 842 n/a <1 <1 45.7 38.5       1.90 0.74/l 19.25 69.7 74.9
5 LPG   n/a <1 <1 26.2/l           59.4 64.7
6 Natural Gas n/a n/a <1 <1 37.2/l         n/a 13.81 50.9 59.4
7 Sawdust (wet) 1100 367 50% <1 variable 11.85 13.0 4.3     0.49 0.21 4.69 20/t 1.69 90.0  
8 Sawdust (air dry) 800 267 10% <1 variable 17.06 13.6 4.6     0.71 0.22 4.48 20/t   90.0  
9 Woodchips (wet) 1100 550 50% <1 variable 11.85 13.0 6.5     0.49 0.32 3.13 35/t 2.95 90.0  
10 Woodchips (forest dry) 800 400 10% <1 variable 17.06 13.6 6.8     0.71 0.33 2.99 35/t   90.0  
11 Wood Pellets n/a 705 6+- 2% 0.33 to 1 19.75   13.9     0.82 0.68 1.47 165/t 8.35 90.0  
12 US Forest Residues n/a 340 50% <1 variable 11.6   3.9     0.48 0.19 5.17 38/t 1.64 90.0  
13 Bagasse (wet)   50%   8.2         0.34    
14 Bagasse (air dry)   13%   16.2         0.68    
15 Charcoal   5%   30         1.25    
16 Torrefied Wood 600 300 10% <1 variable 21.5 12.9 6.5     0.90 0.32 3.16 n/a    
                   
17 Internatl steam coal   850     24   20.4     1.00 1.00 1.00    
18 Loose saw dust (dry)   200     18   3.6     0.75 0.18 5.67    
19 Wood pellets (dry) 1300 650     18 23.4 11.7     0.75 0.57 1.74    
20 Torrefied pellets 1300 650 3%   22 28.6 14.3     0.92 0.70 1.43    
                     
21 softwood chips (dry)   190 7%     20       3.8 0.62 0.11 9.42    
22 HD 1/4"sawdust pellets   680     20       13.6 0.62 0.38 2.63    
23 3/8" peanut shell pellets   650     19.8       12.9 0.61 0.36 2.78    
24 Corn   760     19       14.4 0.58 0.40 2.48    
25 Soybeans   770     21       16.2 0.65 0.45 2.21    
26 Coconut shells 1/4"   540     20.5       11.1 0.63 0.31 3.23    
27 Coal bitumous   1100     32.5       35.8 1.00 1.00 1.00    
28 Biodiesel 920     41.2     37.9   1.27    
29 Diesel 880     45.7     40.2   1.41    
                                         
* Percentages by weight.
Mass energy density (in MJ/kg or GJ/ton) and Solid and Bulk Volumetric density (in GJ/m3) on Low Heat Value or High Heat Value
Costs - Unit cost for Black and Brown coal from Brockway (1997).
  Energy density - effects volume of throughput required, storage, cost of transport per btu etc 
Figures for Wood Pellets based on 8500 btu/lb.  Wood pellets range in energy from just under 8000 to almost 9000 btu/lb.
Figures for sawdust and woodchips are based on an energy value for oven dry eucalypt hardwood of about 19Kj/g.  Figures
for energy value by weight for softwoods such as pine, would be about 10% higher.  
Figures were converted to energy values at various moisture contents
 using the formula EV (energy value @ mc%) = EV(od)*(100-(MC/8))/(100+MC)
Density of wood reflect approximate averages for common East coast Australian hardwoods. Green density varies considerably
less than air dry density (700- to 900+), relfecting variation in moisture contents of 'green' timber.
Bulk Density of woodchips and sawdust are taken to be 50% and 33% of the original woods density respectively. 
1 - Co2 emission factors from www.gas.asn.Australia/gas1.htm
2 - Co2 emission factors from Oz inst energy site
35.315 cu foot per cu metre
1055.056 joules per btu British thermal units(International table)x 1055.056 
Btu (th) x 1054.350
Btu (mean)   x 1055.87
** - Unit cost is the cost of the fuel to the end user in units common for that fuel.
Hence coal is cost to power station, petrol to consumers etc.  Pellet costs are USD.
^ - Bulk densities for coal as sized for transporting on conveyors.  
In terms of value on the world market, 1 green tonne of woodchips is worth $75/tonne,
compared with $60 for coal and $30 for iron ore
FUEL SOURCE references
1 Pers Comm Mr. Michael Laird Mine Strategy Manager Loy Yang Power - email 31 Oct 2000
2 Pers Comm Ross Shirtly - Sevices Manager Eraring Power Station, email 2/11/00.
  Pers Comm Ministry of Energy & Utilities - Pers Comm 31 Oct 2000
3 Australian Institiute of Energy web site - www.aie.org.Australia/melb/material/resource/fuels.htm
4 Australian Institiute of Energy web site - www.aie.org.Australia/melb/material/resource/fuels.htm
5 Energy value from OzInst energy av of two figures given.
6 Gross calorific value after extraction of NGL's  WEC 2000.  Price (1998) from Energy at a Glance 1999 NSW
7
8
9
10
11 from Pellet Flame web site - www.pelletflame.com/pelletanalysis.htm, price averige retail from 
  Pellet Fuels Inst Arlington, VA USA in $US
  energy varies by +- 6% depending on fuel quality
12 Pers Comm Steve Jolley Dec1 00 @ 38$ per bdt
13 Energy and mc from Greenhouse Gas Assessment handbook
14 Energy and mc from Greenhouse Gas Assessment handbook
15 5mc and 29 according to GGAH
16 Assumed a 20% weight loss TW from "forest dry" chips. 
17 approximate plant data from A. Weststeijn 
18 approximate plant data from A. Weststeijn 
19 approximate plant data from A. Weststeijn 
20 data from Tom Reed via A.Weststeijn 
21 data from Tom Reeds posting of May 28th, 2001
22 data from Tom Reeds posting of May 28th, 2001
23 data from Tom Reeds posting of May 28th, 2001
24 data from Tom Reeds posting of May 28th, 2001
25 data from Tom Reeds posting of May 28th, 2001
26 data from Tom Reeds posting of May 28th, 2001
27 data from Tom Reeds posting of May 28th, 2001
28 data from Tom Reeds posting of May 28th, 2001
29 data from Tom Reeds posting of May 28th, 2001