
Explanation of Matrix Numbers
Almost every 78rpm side ever recorded has a matrix number. The number was normally etched onto the ungrooved surface near the center of each side of the disc. However, some very early recordings did not have matrix numbers, and some record labels—such as Victor, for its Americanmade recordings—would keep their matrix numbers secret and/or obliterate the numbers that had been present on other publishers' pressings. Matrix numbers continued to be used on LPs and even CDs, but they have special significance for 78's, as they are the one and only sure way of identifying a particular performance. Editing was essentially impossible in those days, and a side had to be recorded intact. The matrix number was stamped onto the master disc when the recording was made, and when the master was copied, so was the matrix number. This number is vital information to collectors of old records, because:
Matrix numbers were generally assigned consecutively. One can assume that, if the matrix numbers of a set are put into numerical sequence, one will know the order in which the sides were recorded. In most numbering systems, there was a suffix on the end of the number which identified the "take". To give a simple example, consider the 1927 Trial By Jury. Here are the details of that set, arranged in the order recorded:
We see here that five sides were recorded on September 20th, 1927, the remaining three on September 29th. The "2" suffix on all but the last matrix number indicates a second take. Sometimes, examination of the matrix numbers and recording dates allows one to piece together some of the circumstances under which a set was made. For example, the 1930 Patience was recorded on 22 sides, and 21 of them were recorded between September 24th and October 8th, 1930. However, side 13 ("I hear the soft note...") was recorded on November 9th. Its matrix number is Cc197986, suggesting that six takes were needed. Normally, one would not schedule a session to record just one side, so it's safe to assume that the original sessions failed to produce an acceptable take, so the company had to be assembled to redo it. A similar case is presented by the 1929 Pirates, where details are as follows:
Every side of this recording, except for 1 and 3, was recorded between February 21st and March 25th, 1929. The unusually high number of takes for sides 1 and 3 suggests that some problem was encountered, forcing the company to return to the studio at a later date. The seven operas D'Oyly Carte recorded in 194950 (the mono sets with Martyn Green et al) were originally issued on 78rpm records. However, Decca was by now using a different system, and the sequence of matrix numbers no longer signified the order in which the items were recorded.
 
Marc Shepherd, oakapple@cris.com Copyright ©19952005. All Rights Reserved. Last Modified: 21Oct01 URL: http://www.cris.com/~oakapple/gasdisc/intromat.htm 