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Natural Advantages

Andhra Pradesh, the pivot of industrial prosperity in South India, welcomes you to its resourceful land of minerals which includes coal, oil & natural gas, bauxite, limestone, gold, diamonds and more. A host of infrastructure facilities are offered by the State that include industrial development areas, industrial estates, growth centres and special complexes like a chemical complex, plastic complex, leather complex and a software technology park.

Andhra Pradesh provides a cosmopolitan environment with good quality of life at comparable costs. It is home to a skilled and dedicated workforce and has a large number of universities, technical colleges, ITIs, polytechnics etc. With all the inherent strengths of a dynamic industrial economy, Andhra Pradesh is the right choice for your business endeavours.


Andhra Pradesh is well linked internally by air. Regular air services to Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada and Tirupati are offered by regional airlines. Smaller airfields also available for private jets. Hyderabad has been declared a full fledged customs port, with an air cargo complex having customs clearance facilities. Hyderabad has been cleared for setting up an international airport. Work has already commenced for acquisition of land for the new airport. The State government also intends setting up an international airport at Visakhapatnam in the future. Night landing facilities have been recently established at Tirupati airport. The Vijayawada airport at Gannavaram has also been modernised recently. Boeing landing facilities are now available at Vijayawada, Tirupati and Putaparthi. Direct flights have been introduced between Hyderabad and Singapore. Hyderabad also has direct connectivity with the Middle East. For details of of flights available, you may visit the Air India site at www.airindia.com


Andhra Pradesh has one major port at Visakhapatnam and two intermediate ports at Kakinada and Machilipatnam. The State also has minor ports at Krishnapatnam, Gangavaram, Mutyalampalem, Bhavanapadu, Kalingapatnam, Bhimunipatnam, Narsapur, Nizamapatnam, and Vodarevu.

The government has taken a major initiative for the development of port infrastructure in State. Three ports namely Krishnapatnam, Kakinada and Vodarevu have been privatised Gangavaram is also process being privatised.

For setting up infrastructure in port towns, or for utilising the wide array of facilities available here, please write to apiic@andhrapradesh.com


Andhra Pradesh is covered by a 5055 km railway route. The older 1000 kms of metre gauge are being converted into broad guage, to ensure smoother movement of goods. 35 million tonnes of cargo is handled annually by railways. Inland Container Freight Depots with customs clearance are available at Sanathnagar and Hyderabad, and an inland container station is set up at Guntur.


Roads are the most important means of transport in Andhra Pradesh. The State, being predominantly an agriculture-oriented economy, depends on road transport for the movement of agricultural produce and raw and finished material. For obtaining details of development of Expressways and High Density Highway Corridors please write to r&b@andhrapradesh.com.

Facts & figures

  • State road length (in kms) 1,37,500
  • Registered Vehicles in 1956 70,080  
  • Registered Vehicles in 1994 20,71,050  
  • Growth rate of Vehicles 16% (highest in the country)  
  • A total of 1,46,944 kms of road are maintained by the State, of which State Highways comprise 42,511 kms, National Highways 2949 kms and District Roads 1,01,484 kms.  
  • A well developed goods transport network is operational by private lorries.  
  • 15,224 passenger buses are plied by Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation.  
  • The network provides linkage to various parts of the country, utilising the State's central location to the hilt! 
The State government has set up a Roads Development Corporation and has identified 10,266 kms of high traffic density roads for improvement. An amount of Rs.38.04 billion has been mobilised for revamping the roads infrastructure in the State.

For further information click on www.aproads.com


Andhra Pradesh has the third largest installed power capacity in the country. Power generated is in the order of 7330 MW, with a break-up as under: 

Units(in MegaWatts)
Total Generation
Share from Central Generating Stations

Human Resources

With a population of 66.5 million, according to the 1991 census, Andhra Pradesh is the fifth most populous State in India. The medium term projections of population of Andhra Pradesh place the State's population currently at 80 million.

In 1991, the State had a density of population of 242 persons per sq km. 26.90% of the State's population was located in urban areas. The Scheduled Castes formed 15.9% of the total population while the Scheduled Tribes contributed to another 6.3%. The literacy rate for males in 1991 was 55.1% while the corresponding figure for the females was 32.7%.The overall literacy rate in the State was 44.1%. 

A working population of 29.964 million forms 45.05 percent of the total population of the State. Cultivators and agricultural labourers constitute 80.80 % of the main workers in the rural areas.

Andhra Pradesh is home to a skilled and dedicated workforce. According to a study conducted by NASSCOM ( National Association of Service and Software Companies), 23% of India's software professionals are from Andhra Pradesh. This large number provides a distinct comparative edge to the State in it's transformation. The State has a large number of universities, technical colleges, ITIs, polytechnics etc. It has more than 50 prestigious Central and State research and training establishments like Administrative Staff College of India, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Centre for Cellular and Micro Biology, Defence Research and Development Laboratories, and more.

Fertile Land

Andhra Pradesh is favourably placed in the respect of agriculture. The key strengths of the State are :

  • A wide range of agro-climatic conditions suitable for a variety of crops 
  • Extensive water resources are available.  
  • Large area under vegetables, fruits, flowers and plantation crops - 5,92,655 hectares  
  • Endowed with highly fertile land  
  • Average rainfall of the state - 925 mm ie the rainfall is between 684 mm to 1151 mm  
  • A variety of natural sources and important rivers for irrigation 
Andhra Pradesh has one Agriculture University and seven Agricultural Colleges. It also has strong R&D infrastructure and institutions like CCMB, ICRISAT, NARM, MANAGE and NIRD .


Andhra Pradesh is a Mineral rich State ranking 2nd in the Country containing a vast and variety of Mineral Wealth particularly Industrial Minerals. Andhra Pradesh engaged in mining of 42 Industrial Minerals to name a few Limestone, Mica, Barytes, Bauxite, Beach Sands, Steatite, Quartz, Feldspar, Manganese, Dolomite etc. There is a still under-tapped and untapped Mineral Wealth throwing up many opportunities in this field for the new entrepreneurs. The Andhra Pradesh in its Vision 2020 Document recognized Mines and Mineral Sector one of the Growth Engines for accelerating economic activity and building up prosperity to the State. Akin to this the State has also made certain structural changes for the speedy processing and disposal of applications of the interested entrepreneurs in obtaining Mineral Concessions in a transparent time bound manner with a view to save the valuable time to the entrepreneurs. The State has an ambitious programme of processing and granting the Mineral Concessions "Online" keeping in tune the advancement in Information Technology.

Andhra Pradesh occupies a land area of 2.75 lakh Sq.km underlain by Igneous, Metamorphic and Sedimentary rocks, which is the most prospective region for most of the minerals ranking 2nd in the Country. Out of this area about 2.06 lakh Hectares is covered under mining leases. Still a vast scope is available to bring in from out of mineral potential areas still unexplored under exploitation. The State accounts for considerable reserves of important minerals, produces 42 minerals worth Rs. 2300 crores per annum, employs 5 lakh persons, accounts for Rs. 450 crores revenue to the state exchequer, 2.5% of GSDP and 4 - 5% of the total industrial production with over 5000 private & public sector mines operating in the state, Andhra Pradesh contributes Rs. 200 to 250 crores of Indian Mineral Exports. Mining sector plays a key role in the economic development of the state and it is identified as an important growth engine in its Vision 2020.

Mineral Potential
Andhra Pradesh is endowed with vast and variety of mineral wealth, much of which contains the Industrial Minerals. A wide range of these Minerals occurring in the State find use in Fertilizer, Ceramics, Refractories, Abrasives, Glass, Foundry, Oil Well Drilling, Fillers, Pigments etc. The State produces about 42 Industrial Minerals including certain Minor Minerals. Some of the Minerals produced have placed the State among the leading producers in the Country. These Minerals include Mica, Barytes, Limestone, Dolomite, Fire Clay, Ball Clay, Feldspar, Fullers Earth, Serpentine, Quartz, Quartzite, Silica Sand, Ochres, Asbestos, Talc / Steatite, Pyrophillite, Calcite, Vermiculite, Feldspar, Dimensional Stones etc. The States mineral wealth is either under-tapped or untapped due to various reasons of Technology, Finance, Value Addition etc.

The state accounts for considerable reserves of important minerals, viz, Barytes (97%), Calcite (75%), Vermiculite (27%), Limestone (44%), Garnet (23%), Feldspar (5%) Fuller's Earth (6%), Dolomite, Asbestos (96%), Fire clay, Ball clay (55%), Soapstone, Quartz, Silica sand, Graphite, Quartzite, Diamond, Corundum, Mica, Pyrophillite, Kyanite, Granite, Marble, Ochre, Apatite, Chromite, Shale, Slate, Tungsten, Limeshell, Limekankar, Green Quartz etc., The state have well geological prospective for host of minerals akin to South Africa, Australia & Canada.

Opportunities in Mineral Projects

The State has immense potential of untapped and under-tapped minerals like bauxite, limestone, dolomite, coal, diamonds, oil and natural gas, tungsten, semi-precious stones, beach sands, iron ore, base metals, gold, clays and granites. The State Government invites offers for taking up mining projects in all these untapped and under-tapped potential minerals.

Mineral Resources & Prospects


The state stands 2nd in the Mica deposits and production in the country. The Nellore Mica schist belt is known as the 2nd biggest mica belt in the country extends over a strike length of about 90 KM and covering an area of about 1000 Sq.km is found around Gudur, Rapur and Atmakur Mandals of the Nellore district. This mica belt is the repository of Muscovite mica, Quartz, Feldspar and vermiculite. Other Deposits of Mica are located in Khammam, Krishna, East and West Godavari, Nellore and Visakhapatnam Districts. The State contributes substantially to the production of Phlogopite & Muscovite Mica. At present bulk of the Mica production comes from Nellore and Visakhapatnam Districts. The book Mica, scrap Mica and Mica Powder are mostly exported due to lack of Mica based industry. There are opportunities for investment in development and establishment of manufacturing units for value added Mica based products.


Huge reserves of Barytes are found in Cuddapah, Prakasam and Nellore districts. World's largest single deposit with an estimate reserve of 70 million tonnes Grey Barytes occurs in Mangampet, Cuddapah district. In addition to these, there are number of snow white and white vein type Barytes occur in Khammam, Prakasam, Ananthapur and Kurnool districts, containing BaSo4 77 to 92% and specific gravity ranges from 3.6 to 4.21. Mangampet Barytes with grade 92% BaSo4 and an average specific gravity of 4.21 is used in oil & gas well drilling. The other grades are catering the needs of Chemical and Paint industries. The Mangampet low grade Barytes is amenable to beneficiate high grade ore to specific requirement and recovery of by-products. 

Andhra Pradesh is the leading producer and contributes about 90% of the total country's production. APMDC exploiting the Mangampet deposit under public sector producing about 5 to 6 lakh tonnes per annum and intends to increase the production level to 1 Million Tonne in the coming years. Drilling fluids dominate consumption of world barytes to the extent of 90% of the total production. Most of the production form the state is being exported to USA, Middle East including Saudi Arabia, Oman and UAE, Japan and South East Asia and Eastern Europe after catering to the requirement of ONGC. The Barytes is not reclaimed or recycled for use in other wells due to low cost. The demand for useage of the Barytes in the oil well drilling is increasing with exploration activity. 

APMDC is the largest producer of Barytes and intends to increase the production level to one million tonnes through joint sector participation for integrated project covering Maximization of production, beneficiation of low grade Barytes, setting up of Barytes based industries to create value addition and maximization of exports. 

Beach Sands / Placer Deposits

Potential Monazite beach placer deposits are found all along the coastal stretch right from Srikakulam district on north to Prakasam district in south and also along the Godavari, Krishna, Nagavalli, and Vamsadara river channels & confluence, which contains Illmenite, Monazite, Zircon, Rutile, Garnet and Sillimanite, out of which Zircon & Monazite are atomic minerals and classified. Illmenite & Rutile are Titanium bearing minerals. The concentration of these minerals are variable ranging from 15 to 20% in the sands, which are economically viable for commercial exploitation. The Geological Survey of India and Atomic Mineral Division have carried out investigations and explorations led to delineation of 16 potential Heavy Mineral Beach Sand Deposits over a cumulative length of 320 KM with an average width of ranging between 128 m and 1150 m from Ramayyapatnam (Nellore dist) in the south to Donkuru (Srikakulam dist) in North with heavies ranging from 20 to 32%. 

Generally, beach sands are also called heavy's, even 4% of heavy's are being mined and separated through Gravity process and different mineral components are being used for different purposes, Monazite & zircon in atomic energy, Rutile & Ilmenite for extraction of Titanium, manufacture of super alloys and also as pigments and abrasive, Silliminite in refractory and Garnet in abrasive industry.

The beach sands form the main source of Garnet, Sillimanite, Titanium and manufacture of vast number of down stream products useful in various industries. The vast potential of Monazite sand deposits can sustain large scale industry over longer period for manufacture of Titanium- Di-Oxide and down stream products. 

Monazite deposits being classified under atomic mineral category, State Government can take up this issue with the Atomic Energy Department, Atomic Mineral Division and Indian Rare Earth's Ltd. for taking up exploitation and processing of these vast stretch of deposits under joint venture with APMDC and manufacture of down stream products with foreign equity participation. Indian Rare Earth's Ltd. have already set up such facilities and which are running successfully in Tamilnadu, Kerala and Orissa. This proposed venture in the backward districts of AP will be successful due to proximity of consuming centres, rail and availability of port infrastructure facilities.


Andhra Pradesh is 2nd richest in Bauxite deposits in the country, huge reserves of 750 million tons of metal grade Bauxite have been proved in forest and tribal tracts of Visakhapatnam and East Godavari districts by detail explorations. MECON has prepared feasibility report for establishing alumina plant near the vicinity of Visakhapatnam port. APMDC has already applied for mining leases in 24 areas and 3 leases are under close finalisation by due completion of environmental impact studies, mine plan and under final stages of process for forest clearance. Under the above scenario, opportunity is available for establishing an integrated project -Mining, Manufacturing Alumina and Exports. All bauxite deposits are located in proximity to the fast growing Visakhapatnam port. APMDC offers joint ventures for mining Bauxite who intend to set up Alumina / Aluminium plants. Power being a major component and infrastructure in the manufacture of Alumina / Aluminium, Facilities like allotment of coal mines for captive power generation can be made available for immediate take off. The companies with latest technology and finance can interact with the APMDC and Govt. for starting a viable joint venture in Andhra Pradesh for Alumina / Aluminium industries.


Andhra Pradesh contains 44% of limestone reserves of the country with estimated reserves around 30,400 million tonnes of different grades, produces 15 million tonnes and contributes 15% of the total production of the country. State is one of the largest producer of cement (18-20%) with 18 major and 29 mini cement plants. 

Exploitation of Limestone is quite meager, when compared to the vast potential. The State has good potential to start many more cement plants and gives preference for setting up cement and Lime based industries. The State is looking for setting up slag and fly ash based Cement plants near Visakhapatnam Steel Plant and Thermal Plants. The State with growing construction activity has a vast scope to set up cement plants, ready mix cement concrete units. Entrepreneurs, who have a vision to setup such lime based industries, such Projects will be cleared under single window set up by the Government.


Dolomite is found in Khammam, Kurnool, Ananthapur, Warangal and Cuddapah Districts. Visakhapatnam Steel Plant and Southern Magnesium are exploiting metal and SMS grade Dolomite of Khammam and Warangal Districts. Dolomites from other Districts are presently been used as filler in detergents, and other industries. There is a scope to develop new mines and establishment of Dolomite based industries in the State.


Andhra Pradesh is known as Ratnalaseema (i.e. Land of Diamonds) for centuries for the best diamonds occurrences, some of world known diamonds like Kohinoor, Regent etc., are from the womb of the state. Diamond bearing areas are spread over 50000 Sq. km under different environs in Ananthapur, Kurnool, Cuddapah, Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam, Chittoor, Nalgonda, Khammam, Mahabubnagar and Warangal districts of the State. Integrated Geological surveys carried out under National Diamond Project identified Diamondiferrous Kimberlite / Lamproite Pipes, Conglomerates and Gravel. So far 53 Kimberlite / Lamproite pipes were identified and further explorations are continued. Average incidence is about 3 to 4 carats / 100 tons of source material. 


Andhra Pradesh is also known for Gold mining during various periods of history, specially during the regime of Vijaynagaram Empire. Number of Gold bearing green stone schist belts occur in Chittoor, Ananthapur, Kurnool, Guntur, Prakasam, Cuddapah, Khammam, Mahabubnagar and Nellore districts of the State, so far 28 such belts were identified extending over lengths of 16 to 185 km with an estimated reserve of 6.9 million tones of Gold ore and average assay of 3 to 5 grams of Gold per tonne of ore. Most of the deposits are associated with Scheelite. The vast terrain of potential Gold bearing fields are yet to be scanned thoroughly due to various reasons of Technology.

Semi Precious/ Abrasive/ Decorative stones

There are number of occurrences of semi-precious and abrasive stones like Amethyst, Green quartz, Corundum (Ruby), Beryl (Emerald), Apatite, Cat's eye, Alex, Agate, Quartz crystals, Moonstone, Sunstone, Garnet, Kyanite, Aquamarine, Tourmaline, Serpentine, etc.,. in Ananthapur, Cuddapah, Kurnool, Prakasam, Nellore, Khammam, Medak, Nalgonda, RangaReddy, MahabubNagar, East & West Godavari, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram & Srikakulam Districts. These are being either as an abrasive stone or in faceting industry based on the quality. 

Gem & Jewellery

Andhra Pradesh was the richest bazaar for Gem, Jewellery and lapidary in the annals of past history due to close vicinity of vast resources of raw materials like Gold, Diamond, Semi-Precious Stones and more particularly the skilled craftsmen. The antic beauty of Nizam Jewellery is still an envy of the world. Most of the traders from Jaipur , Surat and Combay source their material and designs from Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad is also known as Pearl Centre of the country . Andhra Pradesh offers abundant opportunity with potential resource of Gold, Diamond, Ruby, Aquamarine, Emerald, Cryso-Berly Cat's Eye, Silliminite Cat's Eye, Alex and other Semi-Precious Stones with cheap skilled master craftsmen have an advantage over other states to establish a Gem & Jewellery Park either in the Hyderabad or in the exclusive export zone in Visakhapatnam. The development of Gem & Jewellery is a thrust area under New Industrial Policy and package of incentives are being offered for setting up such park facility for value addition and export. Prospective entrepreneurs can avail this opportunity.


Andhra Pradesh is the sole producer of Coal in the entire South India, Coal occurs in Gondwana formations of Godavari valley and found over larger tracts of Adilabad, Karimnagar, Khammam and Warangal districts. These vast spreads of Coal formations are partially explored by different Geological agencies and measured reserves of around 10,500 million tones with possible reserves of 30,000 million tonnes. There are many more areas to be explored to prove the reserves in the Godavari Coal belt. M/s Singareni Collieries Company Limited is solely operating the mines under Public sector in the state, producing around 30 million tonnes per annum and catering to the needs of various industries in the whole of South India. 

The Government of India has liberalized the Coal Policy allowing private sector to explore and exploit the coal resources. M/s Singareni Collieries Company Limited has identified 6 blocks with 464 million tonnes of coal for Privatisation and offers are being invited for coal mining in the Godavari Coal Belt. However majority of the coal mines falls under the C and D Categories with an average ash content ranging from 24 to 34% rendering non usage in steel and other allied industries. The washer would decrease the ash content by 7 to 8 % down to level around 18 to 26% rendering its usage in such industries.

Andhra Pradesh with vast Coal Potential and infrastructure, invites the Private sector to participate in Coal mining to fill up the demand and supply gap and also to setup coal washery plants in the state. 

Oil & Natural Gas

Oil & Natural Gas occurs in an area of 20,000 Sq.KM on-shore and 21,000 Sq.KM off-shore in East and West Godavari and Krishna Districts. Production is under way in number of wells and a few industries like Gas Based Power Plant, Fertilizer Plant etc., have already come up. The present availability of Gas from Krishna, Godavari Basins is of the order of 3 to 4 Million Cu.Mt / day. Good prospects exists for setting up Gas Based Projects.

Copper, Lead & Zinc

Occurrences of Copper, Lead & Zinc are found at number of places in Cuddapah, Guntur, Khammam, Kurnool, Nellore and Prakasam Districts. The established reserves are about 9 Million Tonnes of Copper, Lead & Zinc with 1.35 to 1.60 % Copper, 3 to 9% Lead and 4 to 5% Zinc. The Lead deposits of Guntur District are being exploited by Hindustan Zinc Ltd., a public sector organisation, but there is potential to exploit other deposits with improved technology and investment. 

Low Grade Iron Ore

Iron ore occurs in Kurnool, Ananthapur, Chittoor, Khammam, Warangal, Karimnagar, Adilabad and Prakasam districts. The total estimated reserves are around 265 Million Tonnes of various grades of Iron ore. High grade Hematite Iron ore from Ananthapur and Kurnool is being exploited and catering the needs of Sponge & Pig Iron Plants in the State. 

The low grade Magnetite Iron ore deposits with 22 to 35% Fe are found over a length of 52 KM near the Port in Ongole- Prakasam district , which were thoroughly explored and estimated a reserve of 165 million tonnes. Feasibility report was prepared by M/s MECON for establishing a sponge Iron Plant. These vast Iron ore deposits are being offered under Joint Venture with M/s APMDC for Mining, Benefaction, Export and Value addition. 


The best crysotile variety of Asbestos is found near Pulivendla and Brahmanapalli in Cuddapah District. There are number of Asbestos deposits in Cuddapah, Kurnool and MahabubNagar Districts. The present level of production is around 2000 tonnes per annum.

Apart from the existing industry, there is good scope for promoting Asbestos based industries, with suitable environment safe guards, to manufacture break linings, clutch facings, automobile gaskets, asbestos fabrics and ropes.


Andhra Pradesh is one of the few States in India, producing Manganese ore. There are number of deposits in Vizianagaram, Srikakulam, Adilabad and Prakasam Districts. The estimated reserves are about 7.5 Million Tonnes of low grade manganese with 30 to 40% Mn in the state. The Manganese ore can be used for the manufacture of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide, Manganese Chloride, and Batteries in addition to exports.


Vermiculite is found in association with the Mica in Nellore and Visakhapatnam districts. The production is not consumerate with the potentiality in the areas. Vermiculite is mostly used in acoustic purposes after exfoliation and also exported. 


Low grade Graphite with less then 40% Fixed carbon is found in Khondalite suite of rocks in Khammam, West Godavari, East Godavari, Visakhapatnam, Vijayanagaram & Srikakulam districts of the state. The graphite is used in manufacture of electrodes, graphite crucibles and paints.

Tungsten Ore

Tungsten ore is occurring over a length of about 1 Km in Tapsikonda and Burugubanda in East and West Godavari districts. M/s NMDC has explored the area in association with BRGM and proved reserve of about 11 million tonnes of ore with 0.03 to 0. 05 % of W2O3 in association with Graphite. Tungsten is very much useful in super alloys and electronics.

Steatite/Talc/Soap stone

Best grade Steatite/Talc/Soap stone occurs at various places in Kurnool, Ananthapur, Cuddapah, and low grade occurs in Chittoor and Khammam Districts. Presently Steatite is being mined and supplied to various Cosmetic, Soap, Ceramic and as a filler in pesticide and insecticide industry. Presently, there are no Steatite based Cosmetic and Soap manufacturing industry in the State.


Semi- Transparent & Good grade Calcite with less than 2% of Sio2 occur in Ananthapur, Cuddapah, Khammam & Visakhapatnam districts. There are being used in metallurgy, welding flux, as filler in rubber and Paint Industry. There is a vast scope to develop and export the calcite from the state.


Only Apatite deposit in the entire Southern India ( P2O5 > 35%) occurs near Kasipatnam at Seetharamapuram- Visakhapatnam district, which is being exploited under joint venture with M/s APMDC. 


Andhra Pradesh has plenty of Minerals required for Ceramic industry and is the largest source for Various Clays, Feldspar, Quartz, Silica Sand, Pyrophillite, Nepheline syenite Rare Earths (Titanites/Zirconite). Conventional Ceramic Industry in Andhra Pradesh provides a strong base for development of Advance Ceramics with sophisticated processing and technology transfer. The State invite offers for development of Advanced ceramics like Electro and Mechano Ceramics.


Workable deposits of Fire Clay, Ball Clay, China Clay and Ordinary Clay occurs in Adilabad, Ananthapur, Cuddapah, East and West Godavari, MahabubNagar, Kurnool, Nalgonda, Guntur, Nellore, Prakasam, Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam and Vizianagaram Districts. The total estimated reserves of Clays to be around 21 Million Tonnes.

The Fire Clays occurring in Adlilabad and East Godavari Districts are being used in sanitary ware and stone ware industries. China Clay and Ball Clay occurring in Ananthapur, Kurnool, Cuddapah, Nellore, Nalgonda, West Godavari and Guntur Districts are being used in different Ceramic, Refractory & Filler Industries. Ordinary clay is being used in manufacture of Sewerage pipes & Mangalore Tiles.

Clays finds usage in many industries like Ceramic, Refractory, Paper, Textiles, Electrical, Cement, Petroleum, Foundries etc.

Fuller's Earth

Pocket deposits of Fuller's Earth occur at number of places around Vikarabad- Ranga Reddy district, which is being used in Oil well drilling, as a bleaching Earth in the edible Oil refining and exported to Middle east countries. 


Red & Yellow Ochre extensively occur at number of places in Kurnool, Ananthapur, Cuddapah, Visakhapatnam & West Godavari districts. They are being used in Paint & Polishing industry. 


Granular, Glassy, Semi-glassy and Massive Quartz/Quratzites deposits occur extensively in MahabubNagar, Ranga Reddy, Nalgonda, Medak, Nizamabad, Khammam, Kurnool, Ananthapur, Chitoor, Nellore, Prakasam, Guntur, West Godavari, Visakhapatnam & Vijayanagaram districts in the State. Quartz finds usage in Ferro-Alloys, Ceramic and Glass Industries. Presently Quartz is being mined from Ranga Reddy, MahabubNagar, Medak, Kurnool & Nellore districts and exported from Madras port to various countries.

The SiO2 ranges from 99.5 to 99.90%, Fe2O3 0.02 to 0. 08% with minute Percentages of Al203. Depending on the quality of the mineral, scope exists for setting up industrial units for the manufacture of Glass, Silicon Carbide, Fibreglass, Silica Gel, Quartz Wool, Ceramic Glass, Silicon Wafers and Refractories. Vast scope exists for exploitation, development & export of the Quartz/ Quartzite from the state.

Silica sand

Silica sand Occurs all along the East Coast from Guntur to Nellore districts. In addition, there are extensive Quartzites containing silica sand deposits around Orvakal in Kurnool district. The silica sand from these areas are used as Moulding sand, Sodium silicate, ceramics, refectories, glass etc., There is a vast scope to exploit and develop the deposits.

Feldspar/ Nephilene Syenite

Potash & Sodic Feldspar occur at number of places as pegmatites in Ranga reddy, MahabubNagar, Khammam, Nalgonda, Nellore, Cuddapah, Ananthapur & West Godavari districts. Nephilene Syenites occurs in Khammam and Prakasam districts.The percentage of K2O+ N2O will be around 12 to 15% in most of the areas. They are being used in Ceramics & Refractories and also a part of being exported. There is a vast scope to develop value-added products within the state.


Pyrophyllite occurs in Cuddapah and Ananthapur districts, which is being used in Refractories. There are prospects for exploitation and utility around the mineral occurrences.

White shale

Extensive deposits of White shale occurs in Kurnool, Cuddapah & Ananthapur districts in Cuddapah and Kurnool basins, which are being exploited and used as filler in number of industries like Pesticides, Insecticides etc.


Andhra Pradesh is one of the largest producer of granites in the country, 17 out of 23 districts have several occurrences of different varieties of granites. Jet black, Black Galaxy, Blue and White coloured are exclusive varieties in the international market. The estimated reserves of commercial granites are around 251 million Cubic metres in the state. There are a number of unexplored areas in the state, which contain workable and marketable deposits, Central and state Geological agencies have started exploration to identify new varieties and areas. Vast scope exists for development of granite industry in the state. The Govt. of Andhra Pradesh have the most progressive policy for granites in the country.

World's rare and exclusive variety of black Galaxy Granite occur in Chimakurthy- Prakasam district, M/s Andhra Pradesh Mineral Development Corporation invites Private sector for establishing a Granite Park primarily basing on world famous Black Galaxy in Prakasam/ Nellore districts close to the port. 


There are vast deposits of Slate / Phyllite in Prakasam, Guntur and Nalgonda Districts. Some of the varieties are already been exported from the State to Australia, New Zealand and European Market.


Different varieties of Marbles occur in Khammam, Cuddapah, Guntur and Nellore Districts. There is a scope to open up new areas in the above districts and establishment of cutting and polishing industry.

Limestone Slabs

Different colours of Limestone Slabs are extensively found in Ranga Reddy, Nalgonda, Guntur, Ananthapur, Cuddapah, Kurnool & MahabubNagar districts. They are being exploited locally and exported to different parts of the country and other countries for flooring.

Mineral Resources of Andhra Pradesh Vis-à-vis India


S.No Mineral Andhra Pradesh
(In Million Tonnes)
(In Million Tonnes)
% of AP Reserves
2.5 Lakh Tones
1071 Tones
15344 Tones
2000 Tones
170( Not Totally Estimated )
194990 Carats
60000 tones
Crude Oil-764.63 Mil.TonsN.Gas-706.69 Cu.M
312454 Tones