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Manufacturer's Designation: 27KS. Class: Manned. Type: Space Station. Destination: Space Station Orbit. Nation: Russia. Manufacturer: Korolev.

Designation given to the entire Mir space station.

  • MirManufacturer's Designation: DOS 17KS-12701. Part of: Mir complex. Class: Manned. Type: Space Station. Destination: Space Station Orbit. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Korolev.

    Improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space station with one aft docking port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station. Mir lasted 15 years, the complex in the end consisting of 7 modules with 11.5 metric tons of scientific equipment. It cost $220 to $240 million per year to keep in operation.

    The design of an improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space station was authorized as part of the third generation of Soviet space systems in a 17 February 1976 decree. At that time it was planned that the two stations (DOS-7 and DOS-8) would be equipped with two docking ports at either end of the station and an additional two ports at the sides of the forward small diameter compartment. By the time of the draft project in August 1978 this had evolved to the final Mir configuration of one aft port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station. Up to that time it was planned that the ports would provide docking positions for 7 metric ton modules derived from the Soyuz spacecraft. These would use the Soyuz propulsion module, as in Soyuz and Progress, but would be equipped with long laboratory modules in place of the descent module and orbital module.

    Following the decision to cancel Chelomei's manned Almaz military space station program, a resolution of February 1979 consolidated the programs, with the docking ports to be reinforced to accommodate 20 metric ton space station modules based on Chelomei's TKS manned ferry spacecraft. NPO Energia was made responsible for the overall space station, but subcontracted the work to KB Salyut due to the press of in-house work on Energia, Salyut 7, Soyuz-T, and Progress. The subcontractor began work in the summer of 1979, with drawings being released in 1982-1983. New systems incorporated into the station included the Salyut 5B digital flight control computer and gyrodyne flywheels (taken from Almaz), and the new Kurs automatic rendezvous system, Altair satellite communications system, Elektron oxygen generators, and Vozdukh carbon dioxide scrubbers.

    By early 1984 all work on Mir ground to a halt as all resources were put on getting the Buran space shuttle into flight test. This changed in the spring 1984 when Glushko was called into the office of the Central Committee's Secretary for Space and Defense and ordered to orbit Mir by the 27th Communist Party Congress in the spring of 1986. By the end of 1984 the static and dynamic test models of the station had been completed. The ground test model of the station was delivered in December 1984. The use of this full-fidelity test article, an approach taken on the Almaz program, was new to the civilian DOS project.

    A major problem was that the station ended up one metric ton heavier than designed due to the final weight of the electrical cabling Even after removing most of the experimental equipment (it would have to be delivered to the station later by ferry craft) it still exceeded the performance of the Proton booster to the planned 65 degree inclination orbit. The decision was finally taken in January 1985 to use the same 51.6 degree orbit as Salyut, although this would reduce photographic coverage of the Soviet Union. Meanwhile problems with development of the new software for the Salyut 5B computer lead to the decision to launch Mir with the old analogue Argon computer from Salyut DOS-17K. The digital computer would have to be installed later in orbit.

    By April 1985 it was clear that the planned processing flow could not be followed and still make the spring 1986 launch date. The decision was taken on Cosmonautics Day (April 12) to ship the flight model to Baikonur and conduct the systems testing and integration there. Mir arrived at the launch site on 6 May 1985. 1100 of 2500 cables required rework based on results of testing of the ground test model at Khrunichev. In October 1985 Mir was rolled outside of its clean room to conduct communications tests of the Altair system with the Cosmos 1700 satellite already in orbit.

    The first launch attempt on 16 February 1996 at very low temperatures was scrubbed when the spacecraft communications failed. The second attempt on 20 February was successful. The political deadline had been met.

    The early launch of Mir left the planners without Soyuz spacecraft or modules to launch to it. The decision was taken to launch Soyuz T-15 on a unique dual station mission. The Soyuz would first dock with Salyut 7, which was dead in space, and completely repair the station. They then would fly in their Soyuz to Mir, and put it into initial operation. This spectacular mission marked a new maturity in the Soviet space program.

    Spacecraft Description

    The Mir base block was the backbone of the Mir space station. It was the principal space station control element and contained the main computers, communications equipment, kitchen and hygiene facilities, and primary living quarters. The module provided 90 cubic meters of habitable volume. The base block included six docking ports used as permanent attachment points for the other station modules and for temporary docking of manned and unmanned resupply ships.

    Mir was equipped with its own orbital maneuvering engines. These could not be used after the arrival of Kvant (the first station module), but the base block still provided the principal propellant storage tanks and primary attitude control for the entire space station.

    The base block was divided into four compartments, designated as the working, transfer, intermediate and assembly compartments. All but the assembly compartment were pressurized. A small airlock was also available for experiments or for the release of small satellites or refuse.

    • Working Compartment (7.67 m long x 4.2 m diameter): The working compartment was the main habitable volume on Mir and consisted of two cylinders connected by a tapered conical section. The interior of the working compartment was divided into an operations zone and a living area. The operations zone occupied the smaller diameter section and was the control area for the entire Mir complex. Monitoring and command of the base block systems, scientific equipment and mechanisms were carried out in this area. The living area of the working compartment contained the galley, individual crew cabins, hygiene facilities and trash storage. Medical monitoring equipment and a bicycle ergometer were located in the conical portion of the working compartment. Spatial orientations of 'floor' and 'ceiling' were provided by dark green carpet on the 'floor', light green walls, and a white 'ceiling' with florescent lamps. The arrangement of equipment and the interior finish of the working compartment were designed to reinforce this orientation. The living area used the same spatial orientation concepts, but soft pastel colors were used to imply a home-like atmosphere.

    • Transfer Compartment (2.2 m diameter X 2.84 m long): The spherical transfer compartment was located at the forward end of the working compartment. It provided four radial docking ports, spaced at 90 degree angles, for additional station modules. A fifth axial docking port at the front of the station was dedicated to use by visiting transport spacecraft

    • Intermediate Compartment: The intermediate compartment was a 2 meter diameter pressurized tunnel that connected the working compartment to the aft docking port. The tunnel was located in the centre of the non-pressurized assembly compartment. The aft docking port was used for visiting transport vehicles until permanently occupied by the Kvant module (transports thereafter docked with aft port of Kvant).

    • Assembly Compartment. Main engine and fuel tanks were located in the annular non-pressurized assembly compartment. Externally, this assembly supported the station's satellite relay antenna, docking radar antennas, lights and optical sensors.

    Spacecraft systems

    Power to the base block was initially provided by 2 x 38 sq. meter arrays providing 9 kW. A third array was added to the base block in 1987 to bring total power to 10.1 kW. Additional power from visiting Progress-M and Soyuz-TM vehicles and other station modules added to the station's total supply as it grew. The arrays charged 12 NiCd batteries. The base block was equipped with an integrated refuelable pressure-fed propulsion system consisting of 32 x 137 N attitude control thrusters and 2 x 2.9 kN thrusters for orbital maneuver. The system used N2O4/UDMH hypergolic propellants.

    The life support system maintained the station's environment at 18-28 degrees. C and 20-70 percent humidity. The Vozdukh electrolytic system was used to recycle station atmosphere with a backup chemical scrubbing system. Station pointing could be controlled to within 15 arc-min.

    Two primary flight control computers provide most station control functions. Star sensors, infrared Earth horizon sensors, sun sensors, magnetometers, gyros, and accelerometers were used for attitude determination. Communication with the ground was via 11-14 GHz links either directly to ground stations or through Luch geosynchronous relay satellites. Rendezvous and docking was conducted automatically by transport spacecraft through use of the Kurs system transponders located at each docking port Mir.

    Equipment originally delivered with the base block included: - Splav-2 crystal growth facility - Zona zone melt facility - Kashtan electrophoresis unit - Bulgarian Rozhen photometer - Spektr-256 and MKS-M spectrometers - Pion-M multipurpose physics unit (41 kg) - Biryuza semiconductor materials unit Ruchei electrophoresis installation - Yantar metal coating equipment - Mariye magnetic spectrometer - Korund furnace (136 kg).

    An extensive suite of Earth observation instruments was operational on the Mir space station. Although only a pair of devices were carried abroad Mir at its launch in 1986, sixteen major systems were deployed to the Mir core module or the Kvant 2 and Kristal auxiliary modules:

    Mir Core Module:

    • EFO-1 electronic photometer for studies of atmospheric aerosols and dust
    • Haselblad camera
    • KATE-140 topographic camera (50-m resolution)
    • MKS-M multi-band spectrometer (0.4-0.9 micrometers
    • Spektr-256 multi-band spectrometer (256 channels in visible and infrared)
    • Terra impulse photometer for the study of atmospheric optical emissions

    Kvant 2 Module:

    • AFM-2 for study of the atmosphere and pollutants
    • Gamma 2 video spectropolarimeter
    • ITS-7D spectrometer
    • KAP-350 topographic camera
    • MKF-GMA multi-spectral camera (0.5-0.9 micrometer, 10-15 m resolution)
    • MKS-M2 multi-band spectrometer

    Kristal Module:

    • Priroda 5 multi-purpose high resolution (5 m) camera

    Plans call for the launch in late 1995 of the Priroda (Nature) auxiliary module to augment substantially the Earth observation capabilities of the Mir space station.

    The Mir space station was also equipped with a wide assortment of electric furnaces and other devices and with the added benefit of crew participation. One of the primary objectives of the Kristal module, attached to Mir in 1990, was to support microgravity experiments. Despite the fact that microgravity conditions were typically 10-100 times worse on a manned versus an unmanned spacecraft, man-tended experiments on Soviet-built space stations, some lasting more than a week, proved to be quite successful. The other principal drawback of materials science research on Mir was the extremely limited capability of returning samples to Earth. This was ameliorated in late November, 1990, when the Progress M recoverable capsule was successfully tested for the first time. This system was used approximately twice each year, returning up to 150 kg of cargo (including the product of materials science research) per mission.

    In 1987 three electric furnaces were delivered to Mir: Korund-1M, Kristallizator, and Mirror-Beam. These were augmented or superseded in 1990 by the five new furnaces installed on the Kristal module: Krater V, Kristallizator, Optizon, Zona 2, and Zona 3. Other Mir materials science devices were used for electrophoresis (Aynur-Kristall, EFU Robot, Ruchey, and Svetlana), protein crystallization (Aynur-Mir), and miscellaneous experiments (Biostoykost, Svetoblok, and Yantar). Most materials science experiments were of Russian origin, but some were created by Ukrainian specialists.

    Crew Size: 12. Typical orbit: 387 km x 395 km at 52 degrees inclination. Length: 13.13 m (43.07 ft). Span: 29.73 m (97.53 ft). Mass: 21,000 kg (46,000 lb). RCS Coarse No x Thrust: 32 x 135 N. RCS Fine No x Thrust: Gyrodyne reaction wheels. Main Engine: KRD-79. Main Engine Thrust: 5.880 kN (1,322 lbf). Main Engine Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. Main Engine Propellants: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Main Engine Isp: 305 sec. Electrical System: Solar panels 29.73 m span, area: 76 sq. m. Electric System: 2.50 average kW. Associated Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K.

  • KvantArticle Number: 11F37. Manufacturer's Designation: TsM-E 37Ke-010. Part of: Mir complex. Class: Manned. Type: Space Station. Destination: Space Station Orbit. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Chelomei.

    The Kvant spacecraft represented the first use of a new kind of Soviet space station module, designated 37K. An order authorizing the beginning of development was issued on 17 September 1979. The basic 37K design consisted of a 4.2 m diameter pressurized cylinder with a docking port at the forward end. It was not equipped with its own propulsion system. The original authorization was for a total of eight 37K's of various configurations:

    • One experimental 37KE (using a surplus FGB module of the cancelled Chelomei TKS manned ferry as a tug) which would be docked to the front port of the Salyut 7 space station.

    • Four 37KS modules for Mir. These would be delivered and docked to the station by a new lighter weight FGO tug.
    • Three 37KB modules. These would be carried in the payload bay of the Buran space shuttle. They could remain attached to the bay or (modified to the 37KBI configuration) be docked to the Mir or Mir-2 space stations using the Buran manipulator arm.

    The 37KE was designated Kvant and was equipped with an astrophysics payload. It also used the Salyut-5B digital flight control computer and Gyrodyne flywheel orientation system developed for Almaz. As the module neared completion Salyut 7 experienced numerous technical problems and Kvant was retargeted for a docking with Mir. But at that time Mir was planned to be in a 65 degree orbit, and Kvant was 800 kg too heavy for the Proton launch vehicle to place in such an orbit. In January 1985 Mir was changed to a 51.6 degree orbit, which solved one problem. But now it was planned that Kvant would dock with the rear port of Mir, requiring the addition of lines to conduct rocket propellant from Progress tanker spacecraft to Mir's storage tanks. This increased weigh again, forcing the FGB to have it's propellant load reduced to 60% in the high pressure tanks and empty low pressure tanks. Still, at 22,797 kg, Kvant was the heaviest payload ever lofted by Proton, requiring special custom modifications to its launch vehicle.

    Kvant was originally to be launched in late 1986 but problems with its scientific payload resulted in it spending 14 months at the spacecraft integration hall at Korolev. Software development delays with the Salyut-5B resulted in it being deleted as well (it was later delivered to Mir with the Kvant-2 module). Finally it was delivered to Baikonur in November 1986. Following a successful launch it managed to dock to Mir on April 12, 1987, on the second attempt after the crew removed a trash bag from the docking collar in a space walk. The FGB tug, its work done, then backed away from the station. But the maneuvers had cut into its already-reduced propellant supply. Unable to deorbit itself to a controlled burn-up in the atmosphere, the FGB was instead commanded to boost itself into a storage orbit 40 km above Mir. From there its orbit decayed until it made an uncontrolled re-entry on 25 August 1988.

    Kvant itself remained attached to the Mir station throughout its long life. Kvant successfully operated until fall 1989, at which time operation was stopped for a planned reconfiguration of the Mir station. Kvant was restarted in October 1990 with calibration observations showing no apparent degradation from the year off. Attitude control thrusters were added to one of the external masts mounted by cosmonauts in 1992 to reduce fuel consumption of pointing maneuvers. One solar array wing from the Kristal module was transferred to Kvant in 1992. Two new solar arrays (12 kW total) were delivered in 1995 to replace Kristal array. Most of Kvant's instruments had failed by the mid-1990's and by then it was used mainly for rubbish storage.

    Spacecraft Description

    The Kvant ('Quantum') module was the first addition to the Mir base block and contained scientific instruments for astrophysical observations and materials science experiments. Kvant conducted research into the physics of active galaxies, quasars and neutron stars. The module also supported biotechnology experiments in anti-viral preparations and fractions.

    The module was divided into a pressurized laboratory compartment (40 cubic meters total pressurized volume) and a non-pressurized equipment compartment. The laboratory compartment was further divided into an instrumentation area and a living area, which were separated by an interior partition. A pressurized transfer compartment connected the Mir base block with the laboratory compartment.

    The unpressurised equipment compartment contained power stabilizers. In addition to its primary scientific equipment, the module also carried Gyrodyne flywheel gyrostabilizers designed orient the station without use of propellant. Two external masts, erected by cosmonauts on the outside of Kvant, were used for a variety of experiments. Two Earth horizon sensors, two star sensors, and three star trackers were used for attitude knowledge.

    Payloads aboard Kvant included four experiments, that taken together, were sometimes referred to as the Roentgen Observatory. All four experiments pointed toward the same source at the same time:

    • TTM Coded Mask Imaging Spectrometer - a wide-angle camera that used a coded aperture mask to determine source location. It covered the energy range 2-30 keV with a 7.8 deg x 7.8 deg field of view. It could achieve an angular resolution of 2 arcminutes and a time resolution of 1 sec. Provided by the Netherlands/UK.

    • HEXE (High Energy X-ray Experiment) - Four detectors that covered the 15-200 keV energy range. The instrument had a 1.6 x1.6 deg field of view and has a maximum time resolution was 0.3-25 ms. Provided by West Germany.

    • Sirene 2 Gas Scintillation Proportional Spectrometer - a gas scintillation proportional counter that covered the 2-100 keV energy range. It had a 3 x 3 deg field of view with a maximum time resolution of 1.25-2.5 ms. Provided by ESA.

    • Pulsar X-1 - 4 Phoswich detectors that covered the 20-1300 keV energy range. It had a 3 x 3 deg field of view with a maximum time resolution of 10 s. Provided by the USSR.

    Additional experiments included:

    • Glazar UV Spectrometer - covered wavelengths between 1150-1350 angstrom. The instrument could provide up to 1-2 angstrom resolution and had a 1.3 deg FOV.
    • Mariya magnetic spectrometer - measured high-energy electron and positron fluxes in near-Earth space.
    • Arfa-E - installed on the exterior of the module in January 1990 to investigate the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere by injecting electron beams perpendicular to the geomagnetic field.

    Typical orbit: 385 km x 393 km at 52 degrees inclination. Length: 13.00 m (42.00 ft). Maximum Diameter: 4.15 m (13.61 ft). Span: 4.20 m (13.70 ft). Habitable Volume: 40.00 m3. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Payload: 4,100 kg (9,000 lb). Main Engine: KRD-442. Main Engine Propellants: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Electrical System: Batteries. Electric System: 6.90 average kW. Associated Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K.

  • Kvant-2Other Designations: Dmitri. Article Number: 11F77D. Manufacturer's Designation: TsM-D 77KSD-17101. Part of: Mir complex. Class: Manned. Type: Space Station. Destination: Space Station Orbit. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Chelomei.

    Kvant-2 was a utility module launched to the Mir station. It provided an airlock, additional electric power, and additional gyrodynes for orienting the station.

    Originally the modules attached to the Mir base block were to be of the NPO Energia 37KS design. Design and fabrication reached an advanced phase when it was decided that the separate tug concept resulted in too low a net scientific payload (3 metric tons). Integrating the tug with the module was expected to increase this to 5 metric tons and provide some reserve engine capability at Mir and additional pressurized volume. Accordingly the 37KS modules for Mir were cancelled in 1983. Competitive designs for integrated space station modules were submitted by KB Salyut and NPO Energia. The KB Salyut 77K modules were derived from the cancelled TKS manned ferry. The competing proposal from NPO Energia combined the 37KS module with the engine unit of Mir. In June 1984 the KB Salyut design was selected. The revised Mir program plan was to assemble the station over a three year period, and operate it for ten years (versus the original one year/five years).

    Kvant-2, which provided an airlock, additional electric power, and additional gyrodynes for orienting the station, was the first completed. It was to have been launched in March 1989, but the Kurs automatic rendezvous and docking system had suffered four failures in recent flights due to faulty microcircuits from PO Elektronika in Voronezh. Launch was delayed until October 1989 while the chips were replaced and the revised system fully tested. This caused a corresponding disruption in the Mir flight schedule. The spacecraft was finally launched on 26 November 1989 and docked on December 6 at the forward axial port of the Mir base block. It was transferred by a small manipulator arm on Mir to its permanent location at a radial port of the Mir Base Block's transfer compartment on December 8. Kvant-2 also delivered the Salyut-5B digital computer that would be used for control of the space station (this computer was originally to have been launched with Mir, then on Kvant).

    Description

    Kvant 2 was designed to host life science, materials science, and Earth observation experiments. It also carried a substantial amount of equipment to improve living conditions and operations of the Mir complex, including the Elektron electrolysis system to provide oxygen from recycled water, a water supply system, two water regeneration systems, sanitation facilities, a shower, and an airlock compartment

    The module was divided into three pressurized compartments: instrumentation/cargo, science instrument, and airlock. The total pressurized volume was 61 cubic meters. The airlock provided EVA capability and also contained a cosmonaut maneuvering unit that increased the range and complexity of tasks that could be accomplished during EVA. The large EVA hatch was 1 meter in diameter.

    Propulsion consisted of two 3.9 kN main engines and several 400N attitude control thruster clusters used for initial docking maneuvers (N2O4/UDMH propellants). The Kurs guidance system allowed the module to automatically rendezvous and dock with the forward port of the Mir base block. Two 26 sq. m solar arrays provided 6.9 kW. 360 A-hr of energy storage was provided by a NiCd battery system. Star sensors and six Gyrodyne momentum wheels were used to reduce propellant required for station pointing.

    Scientific payloads included:

    • MKF-6MA Earth resources film camera - 6 spectral bands. Provided by East Germany.
    • KAP-350 topographic camera
    • ASPG-M scan platform carrying ITS-7D IR spectrometer (using the Czech sensor platform first used on Vega spacecraft).
    • ARIZ X-ray spectrometer
    • MKS-M2 optical spectrometer
    • TV cameras
    • Gamma 2 spectrometer package
    • Sprut 5 charged particle spectrometer (installed 1991).
    • Phaza AFM-2 spectrometer
    • Spektr-256 spectrometer
    • Volna 2 propellant tank demonstration (250kg)
    • Inkubator 2 - bird egg incubator
    • Cosmic dust detectors
    • Icarus EVA unit

    Typical orbit: 388 km x 397 km at 52 degrees inclination. Length: 13.73 m (45.04 ft). Maximum Diameter: 4.35 m (14.27 ft). Habitable Volume: 59.00 m3. Mass: 19,565 kg (43,133 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Main Engine: KRD-442. Main Engine Propellants: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Electrical System: Solar cells 27.35 m span, 53.2 sq m. Electric System: 6.90 average kW. Associated Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K.

  • KristallOther Designations: Timofei. Article Number: 11F77T. Manufacturer's Designation: TsM-T 77KST-17201. Part of: Mir complex. Class: Manned. Type: Space Station. Destination: Space Station Orbit. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Chelomei.

    Kristal was a dedicated zero-gravity materials and biological science research module for the Mir space station, launched in January 1990

    Originally the modules attached to the Mir base block were to be of the NPO Energia 37KS design. Design and fabrication reached an advanced phase when it was decided that the separate tug concept resulted in too low a net scientific payload (3 metric tons). Integrating the tug with the module was expected to increase this to 5 metric tons and provide some reserve engine capability at Mir and additional pressurized volume. Accordingly the 37KS modules for Mir were cancelled in 1983. Competitive designs for integrated space station modules were submitted by KB Salyut and NPO Energia. The KB Salyut 77K modules were derived from the cancelled TKS manned ferry. The competing proposal from NPO Energia combined the 37KS module with the engine unit of Mir. In June 1984 the KB Salyut design was selected. The revised Mir program plan was to assemble the station over a three year period, and operate it for ten years (versus the original one year/five years).

    Kristal was a dedicated zero-gravity materials and biological science research module. It was to have been launched to Mir ten months after Kvant-2, in December 1989, but problems with the Kurs automatic rendezvous and docking system resulted in it being launched in January 1990, just over a month after Kvant-2.

    Description

    Kristal was the third addition to the Mir core vehicle and was primarily designed to investigate materials processing technologies in the space environment. The module also supported biological, Earth observation and astrophysical research. The module originally docked with the station on June 10, 1990 at the Mir forward axial port. After that it was moved several times by the small manipulator arm on Mir to accommodate the addition of the Spektr module to the station and to allow rendezvous with the US Shuttle at Kristal's main docking port. The module was transferred to its final location at the Mir transfer compartment's starboard radial port on July 17, 1995.

    Kristal had 61 cubic meters of total pressurized volume and was divided into two compartments. The Instrument-Payload Compartment housed food containers, and the industrial processing equipment Krater 3, Optizon 1, Zona 02, and Zona 03. An 0.8 m hatch led to the Junction-Docking compartment. This contained a spherical universal docking system with two APAS-89 androgynous docking units. One was to have been used to dock with the cancelled Buran space shuttle, which would have left behind a 1,000 kg X-ray telescope in 1991. Instead it was used for the first Shuttle/Mir rendezvous in 1995. A special Docking Module was delivered to the station to accommodate subsequent Shuttle visits. A third opening housed earth observation cameras.

    Kristal was originally equipped with two solar panels (72 sq. m total area) that provided up to 8.4 kW. Unlike the other solar panels on the Mir Complex, these could be folded or unfolded as a function of electrical power requirements. One of these panels was moved to Kvant in 1995 at NASA's insistence before the start of Shuttle-Mir docking missions. A 360 A-hr NiCd battery system provided energy storage. Propulsion during rendezvous and docking with Mir consisted of two 3.9 kN main engines (N2O4/UDMH) and clusters of 400N attitude control thrusters.

    Equipment delivered with Kristal included:

    • Krater 5, Optizon 1, and CSK-1/Kristallizator semiconductor materials processing furnaces.
    • Zona 2/3 materials processing furnaces.
    • Glazar 2 UV telescope - cosmic radiation studies.
    • Priroda 5 Earth resources camera system - consisted of 2 KFA-1000 film cameras.
    • Svet plant cultivation unit.
    • Mariya magnetic spectrometer.
    • Marina gamma ray telescope.
    • Buket gamma ray spectrometer.
    • Granar astrophysics spectrometer.
    • Ainur electrophoresis unit.

    Typical orbit: 388 km x 397 km at 52 degrees inclination. Length: 11.90 m (39.00 ft). Maximum Diameter: 4.15 m (13.61 ft). Mass: 19,500 kg (42,900 lb). Payload: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb). Main Engine Propellants: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Electrical System: Solar cells. Associated Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K.

  • SpektrOther Designations: Oleg. Article Number: 11F77O. Manufacturer's Designation: TKM-O. Part of: Mir complex. Class: Manned. Type: Space Station. Destination: Space Station Orbit. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Chelomei.

    Spektr was a module of the Mir space station. It began life as a dedicated military research unit. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, all such work was stopped, and the spacecraft never left the shop.In NASA agreed to provide funds to complete the Spektr and Priroda modules for Mir using US funds, with 600 to 700 kg of US experiments installed in place of the military experiments.

    Originally the modules attached to the Mir base block were to be of the NPO Energia 37KS design. Design and fabrication reached an advanced phase when it was decided that the separate tug concept resulted in too low a net scientific payload (3 metric tons). Integrating the tug with the module was expected to increase this to 5 metric tons and provide some reserve engine capability at Mir and additional pressurized volume. Accordingly the 37KS modules for Mir were cancelled in 1983. Competitive designs for integrated space station modules were submitted by KB Salyut and NPO Energia. The KB Salyut 77K modules were derived from the cancelled TKS manned ferry. The competing proposal from NPO Energia combined the 37KS module with the engine unit of Mir. In June 1984 the KB Salyut design was selected. The revised Mir program plan was to assemble the station over a three year period, and operate it for ten years (versus the original one year/five years).

    Spektr was to have been a dedicated military research unit, to test sensors and systems for the Soviet Fon counterpart to the American Star Wars program. KB Salyut had designed a spacecraft bus for space based weapons based on the TKS space tug. This was an alternate / competitive design to the NPO Energia USB.

    By September 1991 it was planned to launch the spacecraft one year later, conduct one month of autonomous tests, and then dock with Mir. But after the collapse of the Soviet Union, all Fon 'Star Wars' work was stopped, and the spacecraft never left the shop.

    In July 1993, as part of joint US-Russian activities leading up to the International Space Station, NASA agreed to provide funds to complete the Spektr and Priroda modules for Mir using US funds, providing 600 to 700 kg of US experiments would be installed. In place of the Oktava complex an unpressurised cylinder with mounting area for two additional solar panels was installed. The airlock that would have been used for the Oktava targets instead would be used to expose scientific experiments to the vacuum of space using a small manipulator arm. The configuration was approved in November 19983 with launch planned for one year later. Delays were encountered in getting NASA's equipment through Russian customs, and the launch did not finally take place until 20 May 1995.

    The original Spektr design was to be armed with Oktava interceptor rockets built by NPO Kometa. A prototype of the Spektr would be docked with the Mir space station for systems tests. By 1989 the military Oktava complex aboard Spektr consisted of the following systems, which would be operated by the crew from a command post at the forward end of the module:

    • Lira - optical sensor to identify ballistic missile warheads as well as satellites. After identification of a target the system handed off to the Buton tracking system.
    • Buton - radar system designed to track ballistic missile re-entry vehicles and satellites. The tracking data would be used by the Oktava interceptor rockets to destroy the target.
    • Oktava target dispensing system - small targets for test of the sensors would be ejected from three containers on the bottom of the Oktava complex. Larger targets would be ejected through an airlock at the top of the pressurized compartment.
    • PIM-K - this was a modified version of the multispectral instrument first tested on Cosmos 1686 aboard the Salyut-7 space station. Its purpose was to discriminate between re-entry vehicles and decoys.
    • Elas - military system of unknown purpose; possibly involving directed microwave energy.
    • Scientific instruments Balkan-1, Faza, Fenix, Astra-Z, Grif-1, and Taurus for spectral analysis of the earth's surface, upper atmosphere, and orbital charged particle environment.

    The revised Spektr module, the fifth Mir component to attain orbit, was primarily designed for Earth observation (specifically natural resources and atmospheric studies). The module also carried US/Russian equipment for material science, biotechnology, life sciences, and space technology studies. A small airlock and manipulator arm were available to attach small external experiments and deploy small satellites. The module's total pressurized volume was 62 cubic meters. The module originally docked with the station on June 1, 1995, and was moved to its permanent location at a Mir transfer compartment radial port on June 2, 1995.

    Two 3.9 kN main engines and 400N attitude control thrusters (N2O4/UDMH) were used for initial approach and docking. Two 27 sq. meter solar arrays (6.9 kW), and two 38 sq. meter solar arrays (9.3 kW) were attached to the module. Energy storage was available via a 360 A-hr NiCd battery system.

    Instruments delivered or operated on Spektr included:

    • Balkan 1 lidar - measures upper cloud altitude. Used a 5320 angstrom laser source, provided 4.5 m resolution.
    • Phaza spectrometer - surface studies. Examined wavelengths between 0.340-285 micrometer, and provides 200 km resolution.
    • Astra 2 - monitored atmospheric trace constituents, Mir environment.
    • Taurus/Grif - monitored Mir's induced X/gamma ray background.
    • KOMZA - interstellar gas detector.
    • 286K binocular radiometer.
    • VRIZ UV spectroradiometer.
    • EFO 2 photometer.
    • MIRAS absorption spectrometer - measured neutral atmospheric composition (installed July 1995)

    Typical orbit: 221 x 335 km, 51.6 deg inclinaton. Maximum Diameter: 4.15 m (13.61 ft). Mass: 19,640 kg (43,290 lb). Main Engine: KRD-442. Electrical System: Solar Panels. Associated Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K.

  • PrirodaArticle Number: 11F77I. Manufacturer's Designation: TsM-I 77KSI. Part of: Mir complex. Class: Manned. Type: Space Station. Destination: Space Station Orbit. Nation: Russia. Agency: RKA. Manufacturer: Chelomei.

    Priroda was the last Mir module launched. It was originally an all-Soviet remote sensing module for combined civilian and military surveillance of the earth. The Soviet Union collapsed before it could be launched, and it was put in storage. In 1993 NASA agreed to provide funds to complete the Spektr and Priroda modules for Mir using US funds, providing 600 to 700 kg of US experiments would be installed. It finally docked with Mir in April 1996.

    Priroda was to be the last Mir module launched. Its origins can be traced back to the 37KP remote sensing module originally programmed for Mir, which would have combined civilian and military surveillance of the earth. In 1985 the module took on an international aspect when experiments scheduled for launch aboard smaller satellites within the Interkosmos program were moved to Priroda. At that time launch was schedule for 1990; but by 1990 this had been pushed back to 1992. With the break-up of the Communist state, non-Russian experiments from other parts of the former Soviet Union were deleted (Ainur, Marina, Korund 1MP, Volna-2), and the German MOMS-2P multispectral scanner was added. Then the funding dried up entirely and in 1992 the module was put into storage.

    In July 1993, as part of joint US-Russian activities leading up to the International Space Station, NASA agreed to provide funds to complete the Spektr and Priroda modules for Mir using US funds, providing 600 to 700 kg of US experiments would be installed. Due to weight growth a forward retractable solar panel was deleted from the module (it was delivered later by Progress and installed by cosmonauts in an EVA). To power Priroda during its period of free-flight before docking with Mir, 160 expendable Al-Li batteries were installed, but the planned one month of autonomous flight before docking with Mir was eliminated. Priroda was taken out of storage in early 1994, delivered to the final test hall in Korolev in November 1995, and arrived at Baikonur in January 1996. The module originally docked with the station on April 26, 1996. It was transferred to its final location at the Mir transfer compartment's port side radial docking port on April 27.

    Originally the modules attached to the Mir base block were to be of the NPO Energia 37KS design. Design and fabrication reached an advanced phase when it was decided that the separate tug concept resulted in too low a net scientific payload (3 metric tons). Integrating the tug with the module was expected to increase this to 5 metric tons and provide some reserve engine capability at Mir and additional pressurized volume. Accordingly the 37KS modules for Mir were cancelled in 1983. Competitive designs for integrated space station modules were submitted by KB Salyut and NPO Energia. The KB Salyut 77K modules were derived from the cancelled TKS manned ferry. The competing proposal from NPO Energia combined the 37KS module with the engine unit of Mir. In June 1984 the KB Salyut design was selected. The revised Mir program plan was to assemble the station over a three year period, and operate it for ten years (versus the original one year/five years).

    Description

    Priroda ("Nature"), the last of the Mir modules, was designed for Earth remote sensing. The mission's internationally provided experiments supported a six-point research program for (1) determination of atmosphere-ocean system characteristics, (2) measurements of land local characteristics, (3) measurements of optical characteristics of the atmosphere, (4) investigation of the sea surface roughness state, (5) comparison of radiation and reflection characteristics of the sea surface in the microwave range, and (6) measurements of the concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere. Specific remote sensing objectives included measurements of ocean surface temperatures to within 0.5 deg K, measurements of surface wind velocities to within 1 m/s and +/-20 deg. , atmospheric temperature profile to within 3K, sea wave height measurements to within 20 cm, and cloud temperature measurements to within 1K. The vehicle also supported materials science, space technology, biotechnology and life sciences studies. The module had a total pressurized volume of 66 cubic meters.

    Priroda did not carry any solar arrays and relied on its internal battery system when not attached to the station. Propulsion consisted of two 3.9 kN main engines and 400N attitude control thrusters used during the initial docking process.

    Scientific equipment delivered with Priroda included:

    • Ainur electrophoresis unit.
    • Korund 1MP semiconductor unit.
    • Ikar N nadir microwave radiometers - 0.3, 0.8, 1.35, 2.25 6.0 micrometer wavelengths, resolution up to 60km and 0.15 deg. K.
    • Ikar D scanning microwave radiometer system - scanned 40 deg off track with a 400 km swath. 4.0, 0.3, 0.8, 1.35 micrometer wavelengths, resolution up to 5 km and 0.15 deg. K.
    • Ikar P panoramic microwave radiometers - 2.25, 6.0 micrometer wavelengths, 750 km swath, resolution up to 75 km and 0.15 deg. K.
    • Istok 1 IR spectroradiometer - wavelengths between 4.0-16.0 micrometer, 7 km swath, 0.7 x 2.8 km resolution.
    • Ozon M spectrometer - used for ozone/aerosol profiles. 160 channels between 0.257-1.155 micrometer, 1 km altitude resolution.
    • Travers Synthetic Aperture Radar - 1.28/3.28 GHz, 50 km swath, 38 deg. look angle, 50 m resolution.
    • Alissa lidar - measured cloud height, structure, optical properties. 150 m vertical resolution, 1 km horizontal resolution.
    • MOS-Obzor spectrometer - measured aerosol profile and ocean reflectance. 17 channels between 0.750-1.01 micrometer, 80 km swath, 700 m resolution.
    • MSU-E2 high resolution optical scanner - 10 m resolution, 3 channels between 0.5 and 0.9 micrometer, nadir viewing, 2 x 24.5 km swaths.
    • DOPI interferometer - studies gases and aerosols. 2.4-20 micrometer.
    • Greben ocean altimeter - 10 cm resolution, 13.76 GHz, 2.5 km swath, nadir viewing.
    • Centaur 400 MHz receiver - used to gather ocean buoy data.
    • MOMS 02P Earth imager - 4 channels between 0.440-0.810 micrometer. Multi spectral, stereo or high resolution data, 6 km resolution. German instrument, initially flown aboard Spacelab D2 on Shuttle.

    Typical orbit: 220 x 347 km, 51.6 deg inclinaton. Length: 13.00 m (42.00 ft). Maximum Diameter: 4.35 m (14.27 ft). Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Main Engine: KRD-442. Electrical System: Batteries. Associated Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K.


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