• World federalism calls for the division of international authority among separate agencies: a separation of powers among judicial, executive and parliamentary bodies. find the colon a bit awkward, but not incorrect. I think it could be replaced by “through the separation of powers” or similar.
• The League of Nations, the UN, and the European Union all represent attempts at an institutional response to the problems of international anarchy and war. “Represent international responses” is clearer. “International anarchy” is a bit vague and melodramatic (and possibly incorrect).
• At that time, people began to realize that representative bodies could be used to determine international policies and federalism moved beyond national borders. Comma after international policies to separate non-parallel clauses. Breaking into two sentences would emphasize second part of sentence.
• States rely on these international organizations to regulate their disagreements and deal with their common problems, however advancement still needs to be made… Semicolon after problems; comma after however. Correct passive tense in “advancement still needs to be made.”
• The challenge that world federalism now must face is to show that it is capable of taking the lead in the process of transition towards world government. “World federalism now faces the challenge of…” avoids passive voice. “In transitioning” instead of “in the process of transition.” “Toward” (probably) instead of “towards.”
• The ultimate goal of world federalists is world federation.
• During the Cold War, world government lay in the vague and distant future, but today it has become a feasible objective to pursue. World federalists take up that challenge. “To pursue” is unnecessary; replacing objective with goal or similar makes following sentence clearer.
|Campaign for World Government started in Chicago|
||Federal Union formed in the United Kingdom, advocating both European and World Federations|
||Publication of Union Now by Clarence Streit, calling for a federation of the Atlantic democracies|
||The United Nations formed|
||Emery Reves’ An Anatomy of Peace published. Reves argues that the causes of war are the absence of world law and world government|
||United World Federalist formed in merger of Americans United for World Government and World Federalists, USA|
Montreux Meeting: The World Movement for World Federal Government established and Usborne Plan, a campaign for a Constituent Assembly of Peoples, drafted
||Robert Hutchins and G.A. Borgese’s Preliminary Draft of a World Constitution released|
||Founding of the International Register of World Citizens|
||Constituent Assembly of Peoples and Consultative Congress in Geneva|
||Founding of the World Association of Parliamentarians for World Government|
||NEPTUNO Plan calling for United Nations sovereignty over the oceans|
||Name of the Movement changed to World Association of World Federalists (WAWF)|
||Congress in the Hague received by Queen Juliana|
Federal Union publishes Proposals for a Permanent United Nations Force
||World Peace through World Law published, written by Grenville Clark and Louis B. Sohn|
||McCloy-Zorin Agreement reached between the United States and the Soviet Union, a joint agreement on recommended principles general and complete disarmament with verification by UN inspectors|
||NGO round table in New York organized by WAWF discusses disarmament, decolonization, aid to under-developed countries, and structure of the UN Secretariat|
U Thant speech at Uppsala, Sweden calls for world government
||Pope John XXIII’s Pacem in Terris Encyclical released, endorsing a world authority to deal with global problems|
||World Peace through World Economy manifesto released, authored by Finn Laursen and other young federalists with the assistance of economist Jan Tinbergen|
||Peacemakers Academy established with General Rhkye as President. Later becomes the International Peace Academy|
||Law of the Sea negotiation. World Federalists rally public support for the Law of the Sea treaty. Treaty adopted after a decade of negotiations|
||World Federalists launch the Planetary Citizenship Campaign|
||Parliamentarians for World Order established|
||Institute for Global Policy (IGP) formed as an affiliated body of the Movement “to carry out research and educational projects of relevance for world order reform”|
||Six-nation Declaration for Arms Reduction published|
Draft treaty establishing the European Union, written by Italian Federalist Altiero Spinelli, passes in the European Parliament
||Name of the Movement changed to World Association for World Federation|
||Third Special Session of the UN General Assembly on Disarmament. World Federalists across the globe lobby their governments on positive steps towards a global security system, with special emphasis on monitoring and verification|
||UN Declares 1990-1999 the Decade of International Law|
The first Global Structures Convocation “Structures for Peace” gathers hundreds of peace activists and other in Washington, DC
Delegation of World Federalists present their plan for United Nations security forces to UN Under-Secretary General for Special Political Affairs Marrack Goulding
||Name of the Movement changed to World Federalist Movement|
||“Earth Summit” or the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro Brazil, gathering the largest number of NGOs together in history|
Second Global Structures convocation, organized by the World Federalist Association addresses issues of environment and development. Over 1,400 people attend
||The UN General Assembly adopts the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, a permanent ban on nuclear testing sought by World Federalists and many other peace activists for over fifty years|
World Federalists around the world hold a vigil on the UN financial crisis
||WFM convenes the first meeting of the Coalition for the International Criminal Court (CICC). WFM Executive Director William R. Pace serves as Convenor.|
||Earth Summit II. WFM Co-sponsors an NGO/parliamentary plenary held panel to the Summit plenary at the UN|
||International Criminal Court treaty conference held in Rome, Italy. The movement is the Convenor for the broad-based coalition of citizen’s group advocating the creation of a permanent International Criminal Court|
||The Hague Appeal for Peace conference. WFM helps organize the global citizens peace conference which will be the first of a series of intergovernmental, General Assembly, and Red Cross conferences which together comprise the Third Hague Peace Conference|
||The Organization of African Unity changes its name to the African Union 53 African states are members of the new intergovernmental organization|
The International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) releases a report that first introduces the concept of the "responsibility to protect."
||The Rome Statute on the International Criminal court enters into force with 60 signatory countries ratifying the treaty|
||WFM launches its Responsibility to Protect – Engaging Civil Society (R2PCS) project primarily to raise awareness of the ICISS report, "developing greater NGO (non-governmental organization) cooperation and better coordination to implement the Responsibility to Protect principles."|
||The Millenium +5 Review Summit held at the UN headquarters in New York. The reform agenda proposed in the Secretary General's report In Larger Freedom is the largest in UN history, and includes a call for a new peacebuilding architecture at the UN. World leaders agree that they have a responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing, and to act on this responsibility.|
In September, world leaders endorse the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC).
In December, the Security Council and General Assembly establish PBC in concurrent resolutions.
||Following the selection of the eighth UN Secretary-General, IGP launches the UNelections.org Campaign for the appointment of better and more qualified leaders for those global institutions addressing the most sensitive and pressing problems of our world community.|
WFM-IGP launches its global civil society project on the PBC as the Peacebuilding Commission holds first meeting in June
||The Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly (UNPA) advocating citizen's representation at the United Nations launches at more than one dozen events on five continents.|
In June, the PBC submits its first annual report to the General Assembly and Security Council.
||In June, the first biannual reviews of progress in peacebuilding in Burundi and Sierra Leone are held.
Commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the adoption of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court is held at UN Headquarters in New York.