AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

Home | About the Database | Site Updates | Recent Elections | Terms and Definitions | Election Calendar | Electoral Authorities | Election Chronology | Freedom, Democracy, and Human Rights
Elections in Ghana
 
Political Profile
Political System: Democracy
President: John Agyekum Kufuor (NPP) [since 7 January 2001; elected 2000, re-elected 2004] The President is elected by direct popular vote for a 4-year term. Electoral System: Two Round (Run-off).
Parliament [unicameral] (230 Seats) Members are elected by direct popular vote in single-member constituencies using the first-past-the-post system; members serve 4-year terms.
Political Situation since Independence
1957-1958 Democracy
1958-1964 Restricted Democratic Practice
1964-1966 One Party State (CPP)
1966-1969 Military Regime
1969-1972 Democracy
1972-1979 Military Regime
1979-1981 Democracy
1981-1992 Military Regime
1992-1996 Emerging Democracy
1996-        Democracy
2007 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 1, Civil Liberties - 2, Status: Free
Next Scheduled Presidential Election: December 2008
Next Scheduled Parliamentary Election: December 2008
Political Parties: ACP - Action Congress Party, APRP - All People’s Republican Party, AYA - Anlo Youth Association, CPP - Convention People’s Party (socialist), EGLE - Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere, FY - Federation of Youth, GCP - Ghana Congress Party, GCPP - Great Consolidated Popular Party, MAP - Muslim Association Party, NAL - National Alliance of Liberals, NCP - National Convention Party, NDC - National Democratic Congress (center-left, authoritarian), NIP - National Independence Party, NLM - National Liberation Movement, NPP - New Patriotic Party (liberal), NPP - Northern People’s Party, NRP - National Reform Party, PAP - People’s Action Party, PCP- People’s Convention Party (far-left), PFP - Popular Front Party, PHP - People’s Heritage Party, PNC - People’s National Convention (center-left, socialist), PNP - People’s National Party, PP - Progress Party, SDF - Social Democratic Front, TC - Togoland Congress, TFP - Third Force Party, UGM - United Ghana Movement, UNC - United National Convention, UNP - United Nationalist Party, UP - United Party.
Coalitions: Great Alliance [Contested the 1996 Presidential Election] Member Parties: New Patriotic Party (NPP) and the People’s Convention Party (PCP); Grand Coalition [Contested the 2004 Presidential Election] Member Parties include the People’s National Convention (PNC), Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere (EGLE), and Great Consolidated People’s Party (GCPP).
 
Election Results
 
 
Presidential
--Multiparty: 1960, 1979, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004
--Single Party: 1965
Legislative
--Multiparty: 1951, 1954, 1956, 1969, 1979, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004
--Single Party: 1965
Referenda/Plebiscites
--National: 1960, 1964, 1978, 1992
--Sub-National: 1956
 
 
08 February 1951 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

663,069

The Convention People’s Party (CPP) won a plurality of seats in the election. No figures are available.
 
15 June 1954 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

Number of Seats (104)

Convention People’s Party (CPP)

71

Northern People’s Party (NPP)

12

Togoland Congress (TC)

02

Ghana Congress Party (GCP)

01

Muslim Association Party (MAP)

01

Anlo Youth Association (AYA)

01

Independents

16

 
17 July 1956 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

1,390,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (approx. 50%)

Party

Number of Seats (104)

Convention People’s Party (CPP)

71

Northern People’s Party (NPP)

15

National Liberation Movement (NLM)

12

Togoland Congress (TC)

02

Muslim Association Party (MAP)

01

Federation of Youth (FY)

01

Independents

02

 
27 April 1960 Plebiscite
Main Points: Presidential Republic, Increased Presidential Powers

Registered Voters

2,098,651

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

1,140,165

Results

Number of Votes

% of Votes

"Yes" Votes

1,008,740

88.47%

"No" Votes

131,425

11.53%

 
27 April 1960 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

2,098,651

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

1,140,699

Candidate (Party)

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Kwame Nkrumah (CPP)

1,016,076

89.07%

Joseph Boakye Danquah (UP)

124,623

10.93%

 
31 January 1964 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Sole Legal Party, Increased Presidential Powers

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

2,776,372

Results

Number of Votes

% of Votes

"Yes" Votes

2,773,920

99.91%

"No" Votes

2,452

00.09%

 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: Convention People’s Party (CPP)

1965 Presidential Election (Kwame Nkrumah re-elected unopposed)

1965 National Assembly Election

 
29 August 1969 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

2,360,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

% of Votes

Number of Seats (140)

Progress Party (PP)

58.7%

105

National Alliance of Liberals (NAL)

30.4%

29

United Nationalist Party (UNP)

3.8%

02

People’s Action Party (PAP)

3.4%

02

All People’s Republican Party (APRP)

1.8%

01

Others

1.8%

01

 
30 March 1978 Referendum
Main Points: A union of civilian and military institutions in government
Official Question: "Do you approve whether or not some form of Union Government would become the basis of Ghana's political system?"

Registered Voters

4,497,803

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

2,282,813

Results

Number of Votes

% of Votes

"Yes" Votes

1,372,427

60.11%

"No" Votes

910,386

39.89%

 
June & July 1979 Presidential Election
First Round (18 June 1979)

Registered Voters

5,000,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

1,788,201

Second Round (09 July 1979)

Registered Voters

5,000,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Candidate (Party)

First Round

Second Round

Number of Votes

% of Votes

% of Votes

Hilla Limann (PNP)

631,559

35.32%

62.0%

Victor Owusu (PFP)

533,928

29.86%

38.0%

William Ofori-Atta (UNC)

311,265

17.41%

-

Frank Bernasko (ACP)

167,775

9.38%

-

Alhaji Ibrahim Mahama (SDF)

66,445

3.72%

-

John Bilson (TFP)

49,104

2.75%

-

R.P. Baffour

8,812

0.49%

-

Kwame Nyanteh

8,480

0.47%

-

Mark Diamond Addy

5,959

0.33%

-

Alhaji Ayannah

4,874

0.27%

-

 
18 June 1979 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

5,000,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

Number of Seats (140)

People's National Party (PNP)

71

Popular Front Party (PFP)

42

United National Convention (UNC)

13

Action Congress Party (ACP)

10

Social Democratic Front (SDF)

03

Independent

01

 
28 April 1992 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Multiparty System, Division of Powers

Registered Voters

8,255,690

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

3,680,974

Results

Number of Votes

% of Votes

"Yes" Votes

3,408,119

92.59%

"No" Votes

272,855

07.41%

 
03 November 1992 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

8,229,902

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

4,127,876 (50.2%)

Candidate (Party)

% of Votes

Jerry John Rawlings (NDC)

58.4%

Albert Adu Boahen (NPP)

30.4%

Hilla Limann (PNC)

6.7%

Kwabena Darko (NIP)

2.8%

Emmanuel Erskine (PHP)

1.7%

 
29 December 1992 Parliamentary Election*

Registered Voters

7,336,846**

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,059,415** (28.1%)

Party

Number of Seats (200)

National Democratic Congress (NDC)

189

National Convention Party (NCP)

08

Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere (EGLE)

01

Independents

02

*The following opposition parties boycotted the election: New Patriotic Party (NPP), People’s National Convention (PNC), National Independence Party (NIP), and the People's Heritage Party (PHP).
**Registered Voters and Total Vote figures exclude 23 constituencies with unopposed candidates.
 
07 December 1996 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

9,279,605

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (approx. 78%)

Candidate (Party) [Coalition]

% of Vote

Jerry John Rawlings (NDC)

57.4%

John Agyekum Kufuor (NPP) [Grand Alliance]

39.6%

Edward Mahama (PNC)

3.0%

 
07 December 1996 Parliamentary Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

Number of Seats (200)

National Democratic Congress (NDC)

133

New Patriotic Party (NPP)

60

People’s Convention Party (PCP)

05

People’s National Convention (PNC)

01

Vacant*

01

*Voting was postponed in one constituency because of a legal dispute concerning the eligibility of candidates. The seat was subsequently won by the New Patriotic Party (NPP) in a by-election held in June 1997.
 
December 2000 Presidential Election
First Round (07 December 2000)

Registered Voters

10,698,652

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  6,605,084 (61.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     104,214

Total Valid Votes

  6,500,870

Second Round (28 December 2000) [Results by Region]

Registered Voters

10,698,652

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  6,459,003 (60.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       77,616

Total Valid Votes

  6,381,387

Candidate (Party)

First Round

Second Round

% of Votes

Number of Votes

% of Votes

John Agyekum Kufuor (NPP)

48.4%

3,631,263

56.90%

John Evans Atta Mills (NDC)

44.8%

2,750,124

43.10%

Edward Mahama (PNC)

2.5%

-

-

George Hagan (CPP)

1.8%

-

-

Augustus Obuadum "Goosie" Tanoh (NRP)

1.1%

-

-

Daniel Augustus Lartey (GCPP)

1.0%

-

-

Charles Wereko-Brobby (UGM)

0.3%

-

-

 
07 December 2000 Parliamentary Election [Seats Won by Region]

Registered Voters

10,698,652

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  6,633,306 (62.0%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     102,549

Total Valid Votes

  6,530,757

Party

% of Votes

Number of Seats (200)

New Patriotic Party (NPP)

44.98%

99

National Democratic Congress (NDC)

41.21%

92

People’s National Convention (PNC)

3.44%

03

Convention People’s Party (CPP)

1.31%

01

National Reform Party (NRP)

2.25%

-

United Ghana Movement (UGM)

0.50%

-

Independents & Others*

6.30%

04

Vacant

-

01

*All four seats were won by independents
**After a by-election held on 3 January 2001, the vacant seat was filled by the New Patriotic Party (NPP).
 
07 December 2004 Presidential Election [Results by Region]

Registered Voters

10,354,970

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  8,813,908 (85.1%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     188,123

Total Valid Votes

  8,625,785

Candidate (Party) [Coalition]

Number of Votes

% of Votes

John Agyekum Kufuor (NPP)

4,524,074

52.45%

John Evans Atta Mills (NDC)

3,850,368

44.64%

Edward Mahama (PNC) [Grand Coalition]

165,375

1.92%

George Aggudey (CPP)

85,968

1.00%

 
07 December 2004 Parliamentary Election [Seats Won by Region]

Registered Voters

10,354,970

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

Number of Seats (230)

New Patriotic Party (NPP)

128

National Democratic Congress (NDC)

94

People's National Convention (PNC)

04

Convention People's Party (CPP)

03

Independent

01