Goddess movement

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The Goddess movement is a loose grouping of social and religious phenomena growing out of second-wave feminism, predominantly in North America, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand in the 1970s, and the metaphysical community as well. Spurred by the perception that women were not treated equitably in many mainstream religions, many women turned to a Female Deity, as more in tune with their beliefs and spiritual needs. Masculine gender and male imagery were, at the time, attached to deity to the exclusion of female gender and female imagery. A unifying theme of this diverse movement is the female-ness of Deity (as opposed and contrasted to a patriarchal, male "God").

Goddess beliefs take many forms, some people in the Goddess movement recognize multiple goddesses; some also include gods; others honor what they refer to as "the Goddess," which is not necessarily seen as monotheistic, but is often understood to be an inclusive, encompassing term incorporating many goddesses in many different cultures. The term "the Goddess" may also be understood to include a multiplicity of ways to view deity personified as female, or as a metaphor, or as a process. (Christ 1997, 2003) The term "The Goddess" may also refer to the concept of The One Divine Power, or the traditionally worshipped "Great Goddess" of ancient times.

One version of the Spiral Goddess symbol of modern neopaganism


[edit] Terminology

Capitalization of terms such as Goddess and Goddesses usually vary with author or with the style guides of publications or publishers. Within the Goddess community, it is generally considered proper to capitalize the word Goddess, but not necessary when generic references are made, as in the word goddesses.

A goddess in this sense can be considered to be an aspect of the Great Goddess as well as a goddess in a pantheon with a particular role. The Hindu goddess, Durga, is a case in point. The name Durga can refer to a specific aspect of the Goddess but in the Shakti forms of Hinduism generally refers to the Great Goddess as AdyaShakti : the primoridal Shakti who incorporates all aspects.) Anthropologists in their studies of goddesses have noted that adherents of goddesses often view their own goddess as a personal guardian or teacher.

  • The Goddess or the Great Goddess is a type of female deity who is primary. She historically existed in many cultures, though not under the same names and not necessarily with the same traits. If there is a male god, his powers may be seen as deriving from her. (Gottner-Abendroth 1987). These terms are not usually understood to refer a single deity that is identical across cultures but rather a concept common in many ancient cultures, which those in the Goddess movement want to restore. (Christ 1997). When Goddess is spoken of as a personal guardian, as in 'my Goddess' it means 'my worldview in Goddess spirituality.'
  • Goddess Spirituality is sometimes used as a synonym for Goddess Movement and sometimes as the spiritual practice that is part of the Goddess movement.
  • Goddessing is a recent contribution to Goddess vocabulary, possibly derived from the British journal of the same name, following from Mary Daly's linguistically suspect suggestion that deity is too dynamic, too much in process and changing continually, to be a noun, and should better be spoken as a verb (Daly 1973). Goddessing may also mean Goddess culture, Goddess way of life, Goddess practice, or 'my goddessing' as in my individual interpretation and experience of Goddess.
  • Priestess refers to women who dedicate themselves to one or more goddesses. It may or may not include leadership of a group, and it may or may not include legal ordination. The analogous term for men is "priest." However, not everyone who dedicates themselves to the Goddess or goddesses calls themselves a priestess (or priest).
  • Thealogy is a term whose first use in the context of feminist analysis of religion and discussion of Goddess is usually credited to Naomi Goldenberg (1979). It substitutes the Greek feminine prefix "thea" for the supposedly generic use of the Greek masculine prefix "theo." Frequently used to mean analysis of Goddess thought and mysticism, it can also be used more liberally to mean any kind of divine, not just deity divine, as in meditation, ethics, ritual pragmatics.

[edit] Background

Inclusive spirituality in the West initially gained ground in 19th century, when North American first-wave feminists such as Matilda Joslyn Gage introduced the idea of female Deity, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton published The Woman's Bible. Their contemporary, the Swiss Joseph Jakob Bachofen, increased the attention given in Europe to the idea of prehistoric matriarchal Goddess cultures. However these ideas were largely ignored in the North America and much of Europe until second-wave feminism. In addition to Bachofen, second-wave feminists who became interested in the history of religion also referred to the work of Helen Diner (1965) and M. Esther Harding (1935) Elizabeth Gould Davis and Merlin Stone.

Since 1970 a growing Western movement of Goddess Spirituality has emerged as an international, well networked and richly documented culture. From 1974 to 1984, WomanSpirit, a journal edited in Oregon by Jean and Ruth Mountaingrove, published articles, poetry, and rituals by hundreds of women, exploring ideas and feelings about female deity. The journal The Beltane Papers, which started publication at about the same time, has been publishing continuously for more than 30 years, making it the longest still-published Goddess publication in the U.S. In the 1980s and '90s, an adult education course offered by the Unitarian Universalist Church, "Cakes for the Queen of Heaven," (Ranck 1995) introduced thousands of women to what was the idea of suppression of the female divine[clarification needed], including information about supposed ancient Goddess cultures. In 1983, Jade River and Lynnie Levy founded the Re-formed Congregation of the Goddess, International(RCG-I). Motherhoused in Madison, Wisconsin, RCG-I continues today with groups called "Circles" in many U. S. localities, as well as an educational program, priestess training, and ordination. The Goddess movement is described or explored by various films and independent media, such as the Women and Spirituality trilogy made by Donna Read for the National Film Board of Canada. Read and Starhawk have produced a documentary about Marija Gimbutas called Signs Out of Time.

[edit] Use of mythological materials

Participants in the Goddess movement sometimes use myths either from reconstructed ancient or classical mythologies or received in oral tradition[citation needed] or invented. These myths are not understood literally, but rather figuratively or metaphorically. For instance, creation myths (Budapest 1980, Laura 1989, Starhawk 1979) are not seen as conflicting with scientific understanding but rather as being poetic, metaphoric statements that are compatible with, for example, the theory of evolution, modern cosmology and physics (Starhawk 1979, Laura 1997).

Myths from ancient or classical cultures are often rewritten or reinterpreted because there is little evidence from what is considered pre-patriarchal times, beginning 3500-3000 BC in the ancient near east and Europe (Eisler 1987). Because myths from religions that included goddesses after this time, including Greek and Roman mythology, are believed to have patriarchal bias, such myths are often rewritten or reinterpreted by Goddess movement writers to eliminate or minimize what they feel to be misogynist bias. One commonly reworked myth is that of Demeter and Persephone. (Christ 1987, Pollack, 1997, Spretnak 1978).

British scholar Daniel Cohen is currently creating new mythologies that help bring men into the Goddess movement in ways that use men's strengths in non-oppressive ways (Henning and Cohen 1988 and Cohen 1997).

[edit] Witchcraft and Wicca as Goddess-inclusive spiritual paths in modern Neopaganism

Some, but not all, participants in the Goddess movement self-identify aswitches, Wiccans or Wiccens. (Likewise, some, but not all, Wiccans and witches consider themselves to be part of "the Goddess movement.") Other participants in the Goddess movement call themselves Goddessians (Laura 2002). Still others use "pagan" as a generic label for their spiritual worldview, or no identifying label at all.

Some witches, especially Dianics, believe in a witch-cult hypothesis. This theory mistakenly attempts to trace the historical origins of their beliefs to Neolithic pre-Christian cultures. Believing that Wicce (a spelling matching the Old English feminine word for a witch, and therefore preferred by Dianic Wiccans) is a distillation of a religion found at the beginning of most, if not all, cultures. They consider wise women and midwives to be the first Witches. Dianic witchcraft first became visible in the 1970s, with Z. Budapest's writings.

Her feminist version of witchcraft followed a few decades after the founding (or discovery) of Wicca by Gerald Gardner in the 1940s. In its original and traditional forms, Wicca is a duotheistic pagan religion that honors a God and a Goddess equally. Gerald Gardner (1884-1964) who, with Doreen Valiente (1922-1999) founded Gardnerian Wicca in Britain, claimed to be initiated in the 1940s into a surviving coven of traditional witches, who worshipped both a male Horned God and a female Goddess.

For their time, Gardner and Valiente advocated a fairly feminist ideal of priestess authority in service to the Wiccan God and Goddess. Covens in 'traditional' Wicca (i.e., those run along the lines described by Gardner and Valiente) were and still are led pretty much equally by both a priest and a priestess; but the priestess is often considered "prima inter pares" (first among equals); according to the book A Witches' Bible, by Stewart and Janet Farrar. (Other early authors on Wicca and witchcraft, such as Paul Huson in his book Mastering Witchcraft, and Charles Cardell of the Coven of Atho, and Robert Cochrane of the Clan of Tubal Cain, generally saw the male priest or magister as being of more importance.)

While virtually all Wiccans honor the Goddess as one of their two main deities, they may or may not consider themselves to be feminists. For this reason, they may or may not identify with the label "Goddess worshipper" when it is construed as connoting a feminist ideological position, or when it is regarded as an ideology that aims at elevating the Goddess to a position of more importance than the God. Thus, the worship of a goddess or even a Great Goddess should not necessarily be construed as a feminist position per se. (For example, the worship of feminine deities by both men and women in India was historically very widespread, as it was in ancient Greece; even though both of those cultures can be considered more patriarchal than most.)

Doreen Valiente became known in Britain as the 'Mother of the Craft' and contributed extensively to Wicca's written tradition.[1][2] She is the author of The Witches' Creed, which lays out the basics of Wiccan religious belief and philosophy; including the polarity of the God and the Goddess as the two great "powers of Nature" and the two "mystical pillars" of the religion. One way to characterize the central male-female divine dyad in Wicca is to say that it's a duotheistic religion with a theology based on the divine gender polarity of male and female. Valiente also wrote both the Invocation to the Horned God and the Charge of the Goddess, the latter of which now exists in a number of variations, and is one of the most famous texts of the Neopagan movement.

The existence of witchcraft as the remnants of an old pagan religion as late as the early Modern Age was first suggested to a wide readership by Margaret Murray's books, The Witch Cult in Western Europe, The God of the Witches (1933) and The Divine King in England. Margaret Murray's books were focused mainly on the worship of a male Horned God, but she saw witches themselves as being either male or female. Murray's theories were widely discredited by experts at the time, and have been thoroughly debunked now, despite still having mass appeal. Gardner's publications on Wicca followed her theories and argued that witchcraft had survived longer than even she had guessed. Gardner's claimed history of Wicca is similarly discredited. See History of Wicca.

In formulating an outline of Wiccan theology and liturgy, Gardner drew not only upon the writings of Margaret Murray and her ideas about the the worship of an ancient Horned God, but also upon the writings of Charles Godfrey Leland, author of Aradia, the Gospel of the Witches - who speculated that witchcraft involved the worship of a moon goddess. In combining ideas from these two authors, Gardner arrived at Wicca as a duotheistic religion that honored both the male and female deities, and that saw them as divine lovers, in a polar male-female dyad.

Wicca and Neopaganism, and to some extent the Goddess movement, were influenced by 19th-century occultism, such as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (Greer 1995), and romantic nature movements in which both male and female were valued and honored as sacred, in contrast to and perhaps in reaction to mainstream Christian spirituality. Such views are described, for example, in the work of Robert Graves, especially The White Goddess (the origin of the neopagan 'Triple Goddess' concept) and Mammon and the Black Goddess.

Wicca was also heavily influenced by the ideas of alchemic symoblism, which emphasized the essential complementary polarity of male and female, and that characterized that basic duality or gender polarity as a partnership of the solar (male) and the lunar (female). In Wicca the moon is the symbol of the Goddess and the sun is the symbol of the God; and the central liturgical mystery and ritual act is "The Great Rite" or Hieros Gamos, which is a symbolic union of the God and the Goddess, as the primal male and female powers of the cosmos. In alchemy this was known as "the alchemical wedding" of the sun and the moon. In a parallel vein, traditional Wicca also draws heavily upon the Western Hermetic Tradition and its roots in the kabbalistic Tree of Life; where the twin pillars of masculine and feminine divine forces are joined by a Middle Pillar that encompasses and transcends both male and female. These "twin pillars" as they are shown in tarot decks are analogous to Valiente's depiction of the God and the Goddess as the two "mystical pillars." In this emphasis on the feminine as the equal and complementary polar opposite of the masculine, Wicca echoes not only kabalistic sources but also the polarity of yin and yang—feminine and masculine—in Taoism.

The main forums for the movement during the 70s and 80s were independently produced magazines and journals such as Green Egg in America and Wood and Water in the UK, among many others. These periodicals attempted to represent the diversity of thought and belief. Mention should also be made of the work of UK feminist groups such as the London-based Matriarchy Study Group which produced the Goddess issue of the feminist periodical Shrew (this was an occasional publication, produced by a different collective each issue) as well as the pamphlets Menstrual Taboos and The Politics of Matriarchy; these featured the early writings of Asphodel (Pauline) Long and the artist Monica Sjoo among others. Internal newsletters of the Matriarchy Study Group and the later Matriarchy Research and Reclaim Network contained much discussion of goddesses and their significance to modern and ancient women, and some of their members produced the periodical Arachne, which brought similar material to the public.

One of the founders of modern American Goddess religions is Zsuzsanna Budapest, (Zee or "Z"), who started a women-only Dianic Craft or Dianic Tradition version of witchcraft; this was in the mid-1970s, a few decades after Gerald Gardner. She was a prolific author, and who twinned Tarot and witchcraft from her Hungarian background, with feminism. Z challenged laws in California against Tarot reading and won.
The Dianic view is that separatism, in a world where gender roles were once strictly defined, is sometimes considered dangerous because it challenges what they see as patriarchal assumptions of Western culture (Budapest 1980). Zee is considered by her sect to be the honoured Mother of the American Dianic Craft and a primary proponent of modern separtist Goddess thealogy.
Later, in America came Starhawk, activist and author of numerous books, is an influential author/priestesses in the American Goddess movement. Her 1979 book, The Spiral Dance, played a large role in popularising the Goddess movement as well as modern Witchcraft among committed feminists, and is considered a classic of modern Paganism.

Many non-Dianics, as well as Starhawk (herself considered to be one of Zee Budapest's students), who also reject monotheistic patriarchal culture, do not agree with Zee's justification for separatism. Starhawk's paganism was more broadly based and also drew on the Feri tradition of Witchcraft which, itself, incorporated Hawaiian, European, and Middle Eastern elements. She was initiated into the Feri tradition in California by Victor and Cora Anderson. Starhawk is one of the founders of the Reclaiming Tradition of Witchcraft, which includes both women and men, and which honors both the God and the Goddess.

[edit] Thealogy

Goddess Spirituality characteristically shows diversity: no central body defines its dogma. Yet there is evolving consensus on some issues including: the Goddess in relation to polytheism and monotheism; immanence, transcendence and other ways to understand the nature of the Goddess.

[edit] One or many?

One question often asked is whether Goddess adherents believe in one Goddess or many goddesses: Is Goddess spirituality monotheistic or polytheistic (Eller 2000)? This is not an issue for many of those in the Goddess movement, whose conceptualization of divinity is more all-encompassing (Starhawk 2001). The terms "the Goddess," or "Great Goddess" may appear monotheistic because the singular noun is used. However, these terms are most commonly used as code or shorthand for one or all of the following: to refer to certain types of prehistoric goddesses; to encompass all goddesses (a form of henotheism ); to refer to a modern metaphoric concept of female deity; to describe a form of energy, or a process. (Long 1996, Laura 1997, Christ 1997 and 2003).

The concept of a singular divine being with many expressions is not a new development in thought: it has been a major theme in India for many centuries, at the very least as far back as the 5th century, though hymns in the early Vedas too speak of a one-Goddess-many-goddesses concept. (Jayran 2000)

One of the underlying themes of the earlier forms of Goddess religion is the concept of the aspects of deity. This is neither syncretism nor henotheism but a realisation of the unity behind a multiplicity of manifestations. It is apparent from the earliest written records that we have from Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Mediterranean. The Goddess speaks of herself as being known by many names and in many forms, and then recounts the individual names, attributes and placenames. This is as true of Inanna from Sumer as it is of the Isis in Rome and Egypt.

[edit] Within or without?

Another point of discussion is whether the Goddess is immanent, or transcendent, or both, or something else. Starhawk (1988) speaks of the Goddess as immanent (infusing all of nature) but sometimes also simultaneously transcendent (existing independently of the material world). Many Goddess authors agree and also describe Goddess as, at one and the same time, immanently pantheistic and panentheistic. The former means that Goddess flows into and through each individual aspect of nature—each tree, blade of grass, human, animal, planet; the latter means that all exist within the Goddess (Starhawk 1979, Laura 1997, Christ 1997).

Starhawk (1979:77) also speaks of the Goddess as both a psychological symbol and "manifest reality. She exists and we create Her" (italics hers). Laura (1997:175) describes Goddess as being interactive. Possibly building on Mary Daly's (1973 and 1978) suggestion that the divine be understood not as a Being (noun), but as Be-ing (verb), Carol P. Christ (2003), shows the similarities between Goddess thealogy and process theology, and suggests that Goddess thealogians adopt more of the process viewpoint.

The Aristasian religion, Deanism, on the other hand, states strongly that the Mother created us, that She exists independently of human beings and is the First Cause of all things.

[edit] Ethics

Although the Goddess movement has no Ten Commandments dictating a specific code of behavior, there are commonly held tenets and concepts within the movement that form a basis for ethical behavior. (Christ 2005) Those participants in Goddess spirituality who define themselves as Wiccan/en, usually follow what is known as the Wiccan Rede: " 'An it harm none, do what ye will," ("an" being an archaic English word understood to mean "if", or "as long as"). Many also believe in the Threefold Law, which states that "what you send (or do), returns three times over," (Starhawk 1979). Some traditions believe that this means it will be returned to you three times, or in a portion three times in volume, while others say it will instead be returned to you on three levels of being- physical, mental, and spiritual. Still others postulate that the number "three" is symbolic, meant to indicate a magnified karmic result for one's actions.

Some people in the Goddess movement honor the Triple Goddess of Maiden, Mother, and Crone. The Maiden aspect of the Goddess shows women how to be independent and strong; the Mother aspect shows women how to be nurturing; and the Crone aspect shows that respecting elders is important and focuses on wisdom, change, and transformation.(Starhawk 1979)

Because the Crone aspect of the Goddess is understood by some to at times be destructive, some consider it to contain both positive and negative imagery and to present an ethical quandary. The Hindu Goddess Kali, or Kali Ma, is often seen as an example of the Crone aspect. She is often mistaken as a cruel goddess by those ignorant of the Hindu tradition (a case in point being her depiction in the film Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom). But Kali is seen in India as the dark and destructive aspect of harmonious balance. The concept is that the corrective force in a Dark Age must be a righteously directed dark force. Thus, to combat the demons of ignorance, ego, anger, etc. the darker aspect manifests. Later on, even her fierce image softens in the love of her devotees. Her duality is easily reconciled with the monism of Hinduism, which claims to understand the fundamental unity of truth as being impersonal and stratified in an ego-knotted existence (such as the human condition), and thus to the evil or unrighteous she is destruction personified and to the loving and moral devotee she is nothing but the love of the mother. (Jayran 2000)

Other Goddess ethical beliefs are that one should not harm the interconnected web of life, and that peace and partnership should be the goals, rather than war and domination. According to Goddess theologian Carol P. Christ the following are ethical touchstones: "Nurture life; Walk in love and beauty; Trust the knowledge that comes through the body; Speak the truth about conflict, pain, and suffering; Take only what you need; Think about the consequences of your actions for seven generations; Approach the taking of life with great restraint; Practice great generosity; Repair the web." (Christ 1997:167).

[edit] Prehistoric cultures

The Goddess movement draws some inspiration from flawed archeological and anthropological reconstruction (Gimbutas 1974 and 1989, Mellaart 1967) claiming that Neolithic and some later cultures were not patriarchally-structured; that is, they were not based on patriarchal domination and almost always included reverence for the divine embodied as female.

Heide Gottner-Abendroth, working in the 1970s to mid 1980s and writing originally in German, called these cultures matriarchies. She presented what may have been the first cross-cultural analysis of the transformation of prehistoric cultures in which the local goddess was primary and the male god, if there was any, derived his power from the goddess. In what she terms the "Downfall," which occurred at varying times in various cultures, the gods overcame the goddesses and made them subservient. (Gottner-Abendroth 1987)

There seems to be some difference in North American and European nomenclature. The term "matriarchy" to describe these cultures has been rejected by many Goddess movement authors, especially those in North America, because it implies female domination as the reverse of the male domination present in patriarchy. These authors claim that such a reversal was not the case, but rather these prehistoric cultures had a social structure that included matriliny, that is, parentage traced through the mother (Eisler 1987, Gimbutas 1989, Christ 1997, Dashu 2000). According to Eisler, cultures in which women and men shared power, and in which female deities were worshipped, were more peaceful than the patriarchal dominator societies that followed. Eisler[unreliable source?] proposed the terms "dominator" and "androcracy" instead of "patriarchy," and "partnership" and "gylany" (taking the first letters of the prefixes gyne [female] and andro [male] and linking them with an "l") instead of "matriarchy." Others use the terms matrifocal (Christ 1997, Pollack 1997, Starhawk 1979) and matrix. Carol P. Christ (1997:58-59) writes, "The term matriarchy is not used by scholars who are aware of its controversial history."

Ian Hodder's reinterpretation of Gimbutas and Mellaart (2004) dispute the existence of "matriarchal" or "matrifocal" cultures, as do the majority of archaeologists and historians in this field (Hutton, 1991, Tringham & Conkey, 1998, Meskell, 1998, see also Eller 2000). Marija Gimbutas was dubbed "Grandmother of the Goddess Movement" in the 1990s,[3] and her theories have been widely criticised as mistaken on the grounds of dating, archeological context and typologies[4] with most archeologists considering her goddess hypothesis implausible [5] and her work has been called pseudo-scholarship.[6] This has been echoed by feminist authors such as Cynthia Eller[7] and religion writers such as Philip G. Davis. Her histories have been seen as a poetic projection of her personal life onto history hidden behind a facade of positivistic 'explanation', with her goddess-orientated society being based on her childhood and adolescence.[8]

Gimbuas is still cited by popular writers, such asMax Dashu, founder and director of the Suppressed History Archives and others outside of and within the academy (Dashu 2000, Marler 2003 and 2004, Rigoglioso 2002, Starhawk 2001).

[edit] Earth as Goddess

Parvati, a Hindu goddess, is seen as sprung of earth, and fertility goddesses found not only in the Indian subcontinent but all over the world (Dexter 1990; 1997) attest to a widespread culture that associated the large and fertile mother figure with rich harvest and crops. In traditions that can be seen to stretch back at least until the early 1st millennium, Indian farmers will often see the welfare of their crops through the lens of their local goddess deity. (Jayran 2000)

The "Venus" or Goddess of Willendorf is one of the oldest known examples of a Goddess figure, many conclude to represent a Mother Goddess because of her large breasts and other motherly body features. Found near Willendorf, Austria in 1908, and estimated to have been carved 22,000 to 30,000 years ago, it shows a figurine with large breasts, and large, though not pregnant, belly (Pollack 1997: 63).

Many people involved in the Goddess movement consider the Earth to be a living Goddess. For some this may be figurative, for others literal. This literal belief is similar to that proposed by Gaia theory, and the Goddess-name Gaia is sometimes used as a synonym for the Earth. Many of those in the Goddess movement become involved in ecofeminism, and are concerned with environmental and ecological issues (Starhawk 1988). Goddess movement adherents claim the hierarchical scheme giving humans dominion over the Earth (and nature) has led to the lack of respect and concern for the Earth, and thus to what environmentalists feel are current environmental crises, (Eisler 1987) such as global warming. Rather than having dominion over the Earth, Goddess movement theorists see humans living as part of the Earth environment, and also refer to Earth as "Mother." (Budapest 1980, Starhawk 1979)

[edit] References

  1. ^ Heselton, Philip (2003) Gerald Gardner and the Cauldron of Inspiration
  2. ^ Ruickbie 2004
  3. ^ Bryn Mawr Classical Review 1999.10.05 [1]
  4. ^ Roberta Gilchrist Gender and Archaeology: Contesting the Past p.25
  5. ^ Nelson, Sarah Milledge Handbook of gender in archaeology p 756.
  6. ^ William G. DeverDid God have a Wife p.307
  7. ^ Eller, Cynthia P., The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory
  8. ^ Chapman, John. A biographical sketch of Marija Gimbutas inExcavating Women p.299-301
  • Bailey, Douglass. (2005). Prehistoric Figurines: Representation and Corporeality in the Neolithic. Routledge Publishers. ISBN 0-415-33152-8
  • Budapest, Z., The Holy Book of Women's Mysteries, Part II, Susan B. Anthony Books, 1980 and later editions.
  • _________, Rebirth of the Goddess, Addison-Wesley, 1997.
  • _________, She Who Changes, Palgrave MacMillan, 2003.
  • _________, The Laughter of Aphrodite, Harper & Row, 1987.
  • _________, "Why Women Need The Goddess," in Womanspirit Rising, Harper & Row, 1979, p.273.
  • Cohen, Daniel, "Iphigenia: A Retelling," in Christ, 1997, p. 179.
  • Daly, Mary, Beyond God The Father, Beacon Press, 1978.
  • ___________, Gyn/Ecology, Beacon Press, 1978.
  • Dexter, Miriam Robbins, Whence the Goddesses, Pergamon Press,1990.
  • Dexter, Miriam Robbins, “Earth Goddess” In Mallory, J.P. and Douglas Q. Adams, eds., The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London and Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1997: 174.
  • Diner, Helen, Mothers and Amazons, (Introduction by Joseph Campbell, trans. John Philip Lundin), Julian Press, 1965.
  • Eisler, Riane, The Chalice and the Blade, Harper, 1987.
  • Gimbutas, Marija, The Gods and Goddesses of Old Europe, Thames and Hudson 1974 [1982].
  • _____________, The Language of the Goddess, (Foreword by Joseph Campbell), HarperCollins 1991 [1989].
  • Goddess Alive UK print publication with online presence.
  • Goldenberg, Naomi, The Changing of the Gods, Beacon Press, 1979.
  • Greer, Mary K., Women of the Golden Dawn, Park Street Press, 1995.
  • Harding, M. Esther, MD, Woman's Mysteries, Longmans, Green and Co., 1935.
  • Henning, Jan and Cohen, Daniel, Hawk and Bard Reborn: Revisions of Old Tales, Wood and Water, 1988.
  • Hodder, Ian, "Catalhoyuk," Scientific American, January 2004.
  • Hutton, Ronald, The Pagan Religions in the Ancient British Isles, 1991.
  • Jayran, Shan, presentation at Goddess Studies Colloquium, Bristol U.K, 2000.
  • Laura, Judith, Goddess Spirituality for the 21st Century, RTP/Open Sea, 1997.
  • __________, She Lives!The Return of Our Great Mother, Crossing Press, 1989
  • Long, Asphodel P., In A Chariot Drawn By Lions, Crossing Press, 1993.
  • MatriFocus A cross-quarterly web magazine for and by Goddess women.
  • Mellaart, James, Catal Huyuk, McGraw-Hill, 1967.
  • Meskell, Lynn, "Twin Peaks: The Archaeologies of Çatalhöyuk" in Goodison, Lucy and Christine Morris (ed.) Ancient Goddesses, 1998
  • Monaghan, Patricia, The Goddess Path, Llewellyn Worldwide, 1999.
  • Pollack, Rachel, The Body of the Goddess, Element, 1997.
  • Ranck, Shirley Ann, Cakes for the Queen of Heaven, Delphi Press, 1995.
  • Rigoglioso, Marguerite, "Women's Spirituality Scholars Speak Out: A Report on the 7th Annual Gender and Archeology Conference at Sonoma State," 2002, on http://belili.org/marija/rigoglioso.html, accessed 1/25/06.
  • Ruickbie, Leo, Witchcraft Out of the Shadows, Robert Hale, 2004.
  • SageWomanU.S.print magazine with online presence
  • Sjoo, Monica and Mor, Barbara The Great Cosmic Mother : Rediscovering the Religion of the Earth, Harper and Row, 1987.
  • Spretnak, Charlene, Lost Goddesses of Ancient Greece, Beacon, 1978.
  • Starhawk, The Spiral Dance, Harper, 1979 and later editions.
  • _________, Truth or Dare, HarperCollins, 1988.
  • The Beltane PapersU.S.print magazine with online presence
  • Tringham, Ruth & Conkey, Margaret, "Rethinking Figurines: A Critical View from Archaeology of Gimbutas, the 'Goddess' and Popular Culture" in Goodison, Lucy (ed.) Ancient Goddesses, 1998

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

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