A Middlesex University resource by Andrew Roberts
The asylums index began as just England and Wales - but it is stretching out

Index of English and Welsh Lunatic Asylums and Mental Hospitals
Based on a comprehensive survey in 1844, and extended to other asylums.

  • The Lunacy Commission Contents Page
  • Mental Health History Timeline 1842-1844
  • 1844 Lunacy Report
  • may I introduce you? home page to all of Andrew
Roberts' web site
    mental health and learning
    The asylums index (on the right) lists asylums on this page (paupers in 1844) in yellow, and asylums on other pages in white. Some asylums outside England and Wales are indexed in blue.
    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y

    4.13.TA Institutions with Pauper Lunatics in 1844

    All County Asylums open in 1844 are listed and all Hospitals receiving paupers. Workhouses mentioned in the 1844 report are listed. The table lists all licensed houses receiving paupers in 1844 and shows which were commended and which severely censured in the 1844 Report.

    In the 1844 Report, all asylums apart from workhouses are listed, but only some the workhouses with lunatic wards. This was because the Inquiry Commission did not systematically visit workhouses in the way that it did the other asylums.

    After the 1844 Report, legislation ensured that public asylums were provided for all areas of the country. These new public asylums are shown in white on green.
    National Health Service Psychiatric Hospitals were classified as "Mental Illness" or "Mental Handicap". I am adding listings of the Mental Handicap ones (1970s) on yellow.
    Some hospitals will appear on the green and the yellow, usually because they started as chronic asylums in the late nineteenth century.
    There are some asylums in grey that do not fit in to any of the above categories, but are conveniently included on this page. These include hospitals not receiving paupers in 1844.

    The table is arranged geographically:

    Some prices for weekly costs of maintaining paupers

    4d: a useful pauper farmed in Wales,
    1/6 tp 2/6: average for pauper lunatics or idiots farmed in Wales,
    2/9: Ellen Davies, a harmless idiot, farmed with Edward Grey,
    4/1d, not including clothes: Cheshire paupers at Cheshire County Asylum
    5/- a "dangerous" and "dirty" lunatic farmed in Wales, after Haydock's competition
    5/6d: Cornwall paupers at Cornwall County Asylum
    6/- Lancashire paupers at Lancaster County Asylum
    6/- to 7/- excluding clothes: West Auckland
    7/-: Haydcock Lodge in 1845
    7/- a "dangerous" and "dirty" lunatic farmed in Wales, before Haydock's competition
    7/6: Haydcock Lodge in 1844
    7/- to 8/- including clothes. Wreckenton
    7/6 to 8/- including clothes. Laverstock House
    8/- (including clothes): Belle Vue, Devizes, Fiddington House, Fisherton House, Dunston Lodge, Gateshead Fell, Bensham,
    8/- excluding clothes: Hull Refuge
    8/6: Bottom price for private patients at Haydock Lodge
    8/- to 9/- Kingsdown House
    9/- including clothes: Lainston House, Gloucestershire County Asylum, Droitwich Lunatic Asylum, Hoxton House (London),
    9/- excluding clothes: Green Hill House
    9/- to 9/6: Hilsea Asylum
    9/8d farthing: Bethnal Green (London),
    10/- : paupers from outside Cheshire at Cheshire County Asylum
    10/- including clothes: Duddeston Hall, Peckham House (London),
    10/6: paupers from outside Cornwall at Cornwall County Asylum
    Welsh patients at Lancaster County Asylum
    10/6d excluding clothes - but an "admission charge" of £1..1/-. Plympton House
    10/- to 12/- excluding clothes: Hereford Lunatic Asylum
    12/- including clothes: Liverpool Lunatic Asylum


    The main parts of London are the City (see local London timeline), Westminster, large parts of Middlesex (the County north of the Thames) and Surrey (the County south of the Thames)

    London postcodes

    External links to Peter Higginbotham's London Poor Law Unions and regions map (needed for areas bordering his London map)

    Hanwell (1st Middlesex) County Asylum
    [A Sarah Rutherford case study]
    Built 1829 to 1830. Opened 16.5.1831
    Architect: William Alderson. Peter Cracknell classifies it as Corridor form. Jacobi classifies it as a distinct form.
    Landscape: Designer D. Ramsay
    Built in what was then country. Closest market town was Brentford. Technically in Norwood Parish, but known as the Hanwell Asylum from the beginning as it was much closer to the centre of Hanwell than to Southall or Norwood. See GENUKI (1868 National Gazeteer)
    For the early history of Hanwell see the biography of James Clitherow
    Tessa Speight's history
    Superintendent January 1831 to early 1838: William Ellis. Matron, Mrs Ellis
    Visiting physician from 1832: Alexander Morison
    1834: The Hanwell Lunatic Asylum by Harriet Martineau
    From about 1835 to about 1840, George Peacock Button was house surgeon. He witnessed William Ellis's will in April 1839. He became superintendent of the Dorset County Asylum.
    Extra wings added 1837/1838
    Architect: William Moseley.
    Superintendent April 1838 to 1839 Gideon John Millingen
    Superintendent 1839 to 1844: John Conolly, who abolished mechanical restraint.
    "old mode of treatment" - "new methods"
    October 1839 51st Report Visiting Justices
    January 1840 52nd Report Visiting Justices
    April 1840 53rd Report Visiting Justices
    July 1840 54th Report Visiting Justices
    January 1841 56th Report Visiting Justices
    April 1841 57th Report Visiting Justices
    July 1841 58th Report Visiting Justices: they had "been imperatively called upon to annul the appointment of the Reverend Francis Tebutt as chaplain to the asylum. His duties will cease on the 11th of the month, and he will be succeeded by the Reverend Thomas Burt"
    October 1841 The Fifty-ninth Report of the Visiting Justices of the Lunatic Asylum of Hunwell. The Resident Physician's Report, and the Report of the Chaplain, . This formed the basis of
    an extensive review in the a New York newspaper on 2.4.1842
    1844 to 1852 John Conolly visiting physician Hanwell). Conolly became the proprietor of Lawn House and Hayes Park
    1.1.1844: 975 patients. All pauper. 1844? 14.6% of patients epileptic
    Superintendent: April to August 1844: John Godwin (not medical)
    Visiting Physician: J. Conolly M.D.; House Surgeons: J. Beyley, M.D.; Davies M.D.
    15.1.1848 Full page illustration and short article "Twelfth Night at the Hanwell Asylum" in the The Illustrated London News
    From about 1850 to about 1872, W.C. Begley was resident medical officer (Annual Reports). William Chapman Begley had witnessed William Ellis's will in April 1839.
    A third floor added in 1859.
    13.11.1861 Theodore Edward Edwards, a patient, killed himself. An autopsy [inquest?] was carried out by Thomas Wakley. Hospital records show that Theodore was buried within the hospital grounds. A descendent would like to know where were this is. We have located the burial ground on an 1868 map. In the late twentieth century, a Regional Secure Unit was built on these grounds.
    July 1873 R R Alexander, MB, CM. appointed Assistant Medical Officer in the place of J. Hawkes who went to Westbrooke House Asylum in Hampshire.
    Biography of a patient (Alfred Woodhurst) admitted 1877
    1880 Large chapel (surviving) built to replace a smaller one. The asylum now had nearly 2,000 patients.
    1881 Census: Middlesex Lunatic Asylum, Norwood, Middlesex. There are two medical superintendents: Joseph Pake Richards (married, aged 40, surgeon) and Henry Rayner (unmarried, aged 39, physician). Isabella Elizabeth Hicks is Matron.
    Became a London County Asylum in 1889.
    About 1894?: Robert Reid Alexander M.D. resident medical superintendent; Rev. Robert Andrews MA. chaplain; James William Palmer, clerk & Alfred Henry Larcome, steward.
    Hanwell Mental Hospital from 1929 to 1937.
    St Bernard's Hospital from 1938 to 1980. Uxbridge Road, Southall, UB1 3EU.
    By 1960 known as St Bernard's, Southall. It had 2500 staffed beds
    Sometime before 1962, Andrew O'Brien visited his uncle in St Bernard's Hospital. It was "like a small town in itself". There was a church, a laundry, and a point on the Grand Union Canal where barges brought the coal for the Hospital. He can remember the tall Victorian wards and that there seemed to be many patients in each ward, and white coated male orderlies who seemed to spend some of their time lighting patients cigarettes. He felt very sad and could not face going again after his second visit.
    In 1971 it had 2,039 beds, 189 in locked wards.
    Two general hospitals: King Edward Memorial Hospital and Claypond's (started as an isolation hospital) form Ealing Hospital between 1978 and 1980.
    Ealing Hospital built adjacent to St Bernard's. A District General Hospital "in the form of a multistorey concrete slab with lower blocks around it" (Scher, P. 1999)
    [ Ealing Hospital weblink]
    By 1985, staffed beds reduced to 950
    "Since then St Bernard's, a Grade II listed building, has become a 'wing'" [of Ealing Hospital], "albeit a large one, comprising the central and eastern parts of the original, the western part having been sold for redevelopment." (Scher, P. 1999)
    West London Mental Health Trust weblink

    The address of West London Healthcare NHS Trust is St. Bernard's Wing, Uxbridge Road Southall, Middlesex UBI 3EU. 020 8574 2444. (Community services, Mental health services)

    Stephen James, Head of Partnerships and Diversity, Ealing Primary Care Trust writes (26.8.2005) "There is a large range of [psychiatric] services (including inpatient and forensic) provided by West London Mental Health Trust (WLMHT) at the site. There is also a museum, which I understand the Trust cannot open regularly because of lack of funds".

    Three Bridges Regional Secure Unit St Bernard's Hospital, Uxbridge Road, Southall, Middlesex, UB1 3EU established 1980s?

    " The burial grounds were used for building the Regional Secure Unit (RSU). Any human remains that were uncovered were removed and later re- interned in the "Garden of Remembrance". This is the small upright rectangle one can see in the Google aerial photo - If you compare it to your old map you can make the match easily. The garden of remembrance is the above the left hand canal lock and directly above the lock's left-hand gate. To the immediate right is a parking lot with white hospital vans and the RSU is the complex further the right with the semicircular crescent." (Paul Champion, email 12.8.2006)

    mid 1990s? Corsellis Brain Collection moved to St Bernards?
    "Inner Space" by Peter Scher in Hospital Development 1.3.1999 has history and present development
    2003 use: "Part luxury housing and part psychiatric hospital"
    (external link history of Hanwell district) (external link Boston House)

    Museum and Chapel of St Bernard's Hospital, Uxbridge Road, Southall. Georgian. Formerly the Middlesex County Lunatic Asylum. "Not suitable for under-16s". I can sadly confirm that the Hanwell hospital museum has permanently closed and the collection dispersed. Some of it went to the Gunnersbury Park Museum http://www.hounslow.info/gunnersburyparkmuseum (prior permission is required to view as it is not on display) and some to the Welcome Trust (I think this would have been the apparatus and other clinical hardware) and the London Metropolitan Archives took the records and papers. (Paul Champion, email 12.8.2006)

    private asylums in Surrey outside the Metropolitan area

    Surrey County Asylum
    Springfield, near Wandsworth
    Nick Hervey says that the asylum was "in response to the growing expense of farming out the county's chronic insane to private licensed houses in the metropolis" and that " Sir Alexander Morison who was appointed as Visiting Physician before building commenced, carried out a survey of these patients".
    "The site at Springfield Park, Wandsworth was bought from Henry Perkins, a wealthy brewer and partner in the firm of Barclay and Perkins, who had himself obtained the freehold from the 2nd Earl of Spencer"
    1838 Building started
    Architect: usually stated to be E Lapidge, but Nick says he was only one of the designers and that it "was done to the design of William Moseley, who was the County Surveyor for Middlesex and had previously been working on extensions at Hanwell". - Corridor form
    The present "Main Building", built around a lawn and fountain area (See external link), appears to be the centre of the original corridor. Some of the corridors and main rooms (not all) have a pronounced slope, some running down towards the south-west of the building. One (at least) main corridor slopes towards the southeast. Does anyone know why this is?
    opened 14.6. 1841 Cost: Total £85,366..19..1d. Comprised of Land: (97 acres) £8,985..9..5 - Buildings: £67,467..1..10 - Furnishings etc and preliminary expenses: £7,514..19.3 (1844 Report p.222)
    Nick Hervey says that 299 patients were brought in on the day of opening, increasing to 385 in the first year. They included 172 from Peckham House, 51 from Hoxton and 54 from Bethnal Green. However, patients may have moved in from these asylums earlier as their movement was noted in a report for the year 1.6.1840 to 31.5.1841.
    1.1.1844: 382 patients. All pauper.
    Superintendent: S. Hill, Surgeon
    1844 At the time of the 1844 Report, Surrey was the most modern county asylum. Its construction was generally approved of. "the house and galleries generally are warmed by the circulation of steam, and the introduction of hot air through apertures in the floor. The temperature is regulated by stop-cocks, and kept between 56 degrees and 58 degrees. There are open fires, with proper guards, in the several day rooms on the female side; and it is proposed to adopt them also in the male division". (1844 Report p.20)
    1848-1858 Hugh Welch Diamond (1809-1886), photographic pioneer (External links: RSM, Getty, Leggat, Pearl Science and Society Picture Library), was Resident Superintendent of the Female Department. See Lutwidge 1853 and Millar 1853. He appears to have left to set up his own, high class, lunatic asylum in Twickenham
    Until about 1857, Alexander Morison, Charles Snape and Hugh W. Diamond were the medical officers connected with Surrey Asylum
    About 1860 John Meyer appointed Resident Physician. William Orange was Assistant Medical Officer
    1863 John Meyer and William Orange move to Broadmoor. James Strange Biggs became Resident Physician
    1881 Census: James Strange Biggs, physician, aged 53, was asylum head
    1889 to 1912 Hugh Gardiner Hill medical superintendent. His son, Harold, a family historian, was very proud of the way his father carried on Robert Gardiner Hill's non-restraint work at Springfield. The graves of Hugh and his wife Rosie are in the Magdalen Road Cemetery not far from Springfield
    Transferred to Middlesex County Council after the 1888 Local Government Act, when it was known first as Wandsworth Asylum.
    From about 1918 known as Springfield Asylum.
    A detached annexe for 260 "low-grade mental defectives, 180 children and 80 adults" was built under the 1913 Mental Deficiency Act.
    1919 Post Office Directory: Middlesex County. Beechcroft Road, Upper Tooting, SW17 and Garrat Green, Burntwood Lane, Tooting SW17. Reginald Worth MB medical superintendent; Gayton Warwick Smith, MD assistant medical officer; Rev William Parkinson Iddeson, MA, chaplain; Thomas W. Beale, clerk to the asylum.
    1926 Nurses were instructed to show kindness and forbearance with "example being better than precept" (Regualations and Orders of Springfield Mental Hospital, London). (external link)
    In 1939 "Springfield (Mental) Hospital" had 2,000 patients, 83 acres of farm land and 14 acres of garden. There was close cooperation between Springfield and Westminster Hospital.
    Now Springfield Hospital (external link), 61 Glenburnie Road, London, SW17 7DJ.
    Autumn 2002: Reported still open, or closed and empty (street map - multimap. Simon Cornwall: Was to close but parts have remained opened. 30.1.2006: from David Gardiner-Hill "It is definitely open and a Mental Health Trust associated with Georges Hospital Trust. The Gardiner Hill Unit has unfortunately changed its name though signs to it still litter Tooting/Wandsworth!! I have visited on open day, and seen the old history exhibition in the mortuary. The superintendent's house Hugh Gardiner Hill lived in is now offices overlooking the golf course in the grounds, but I have recognisable photos of the drive and gardens of this house when Hugh's children were babies and a lovely one of his wife in a 1906 car, also a record of speeding ticket from a newspaper. Speeding was newsworthy".

    London Licensed Houses receiving paupers:

    Warburton's, Bethnal Green
    1.1.1844 562 patients. 336 pauper and 226 private.

    Hoxton House
    1.1.1844 396 patients. 315 pauper and 81 private.

    Peckham House
    1.1.1844 251 patients. 203 pauper and 48 private.

    London Workhouse Lunatic Wards

    St Marylebone See Peter Higginbotham's site

    First workhouse established in 1730, after the Workhouse Test Act. A local Act of Parliament, passed in 1775, enabled the Vestry to build a new workhouse. Under this, the administration of poor relief in the parish was conducted by Directors and Guardians of the Poor who included thirty parishioners appointed by the Vestry. The old building was used as an infirmary.

    1792 new infirmary block for 300.

    War led an widespread increase in pauperism and St Marylebone was over-full with 1,168 inmates in 1797. The Guardians resorted to out-relief without demanding entry into the workhouse.

    1815: Lord Robert Seymour, a Director of Poor for the Parish of Saint Marylebone was "in the practice of visiting the insane poor of that parish at Mr Warburton's, Bethnal Green"

    1844 Report page 87: "In the Lunatic wards of the Marylebone Workhouse there were admitted in the years 1842 and 1843, 190 paupers considered as insane. Some few of these, however, were stated to be only under temporary excitement. The overseers of this parish could obtain admission into the Hanwell Asylum for only twenty-seven of these 190 cases..."

    Workhouse Masters:
    1842-1850 James Jones
    1850-1851 W Barlow
    1851-1856 George Whelan
    1856 Richard Ryan (the "woman flogger" of a London ballad)
    1857 James Barnet

    1847 approval for Marylebone workhouse to become a temporary asylum for lunatics. (Hervey, N.B. 1987)
    On lists of licensed houses as "St-Mary-le-Bone. Workhouse":
    30.6.1846: Licensed to Dr Boyd with 35 patients
    30.6.1847: Licensed to Dr Boyd and T. Jones, surgeon, with 68 patients
    1.1.1849: 79 patients, 30 male, 49 female. All pauper.

    A Dr Robert Boyd, born Ireland about 1810, was proprietor of Southall Park by 1874. Robert Boyd (1808-1883) is listed in Munk's Roll of the Royal College of Physicians, London.

    London Workhouse Union

    Westminster Union See Peter Higginbotham's site

    Archives Metropolitan Archives contain Registers of patients maintained by the Union in imbecile asylums 1885-1895 (reference WEBG/WM/52/1) and 1896 - 1902 (reference WEBG/WM/52/2).

    1885-1895 relates to Hanwell*; Banstead*; Colney Hatch*; Cane Hill*; Hoxton House*; Bethnal House*; Grove Hall, Bow*; Peckham House*; Salisbury, Fisherton House*; Kent County, Barming Heath*; Camberwell House*; Kent County, Chartham*; Moulsford nr. Wallingford; Bristol Borough; and Claybury*

    1896-1902 relates to the ones marked with an asterisk (*) above, plus Exeter Borough, Heavitree; Surrey County, Brookwood ; Nottingham Borough, Mapperley Hill ; Dorset County; Glamorgan County; Dorchester; Northampton County, Berry Wood ; Wadsley nr. Sheffield; Warwick County, Hatton; Isle of Wight, Newport; Bristol City, Fishponds; Lancashire, Haydock Lodge; Bexley; Stone nr. Dartford; Manor at Horton; Lancashire County, Prestwich; Winson Green; Hertfordshire County, Hill End; Leicester Borough; Middlesex County, Wandsworth and West Sussex, Chichester

    In the early nineteenth century, the City of London and its parishes had a diversity of institutional resources to call on to accommodate pauper lunatics. It controlled Bethlem Hospital. St Lukes was just outside its "square mile", as were the large private pauper asylums at Hoxton and Bethnal Green. Many of the parishes had their own workhouses and, in Hoxton and elsewhere, there were also several private workhouses (pauper farm houses).

    Bethlem Hospital, (1844) St George's Fields, South London.

    1.1.1844: 355 patients of whom 90 were criminals.

    Bethlem was outside the Commission's investigative authority. For statistical purposes:

    "In the absence of any specific information ... we have entered the Criminal Lunatics ... seventy Males and twenty Females, as Paupers. We have also assumed that the remainder of the Patients ... generally, are of Private class, although we have reason to believe that some of them are maintained, wholly or in part, at the charge of Unions or Parishes" (1844 Report p.186)"

    1377: old Bedlam (St Mary of Bethlem)
    1403: visited
    1536 on: monasteries dissolved - City gets Bethlem
    1559: Bethlem on oldest map of London (sketch map)
    1615 Oldest surviving written lyrics of the ballad Mad Tom of Bedlam
    1618 Helkiah Crooke (1576-1648), physician to James 1st, non- resident "keeper"
    1633 An enquiry into the affairs of Bethlem Hospital led to Helkiah Crooke's dismissal
    From 1634 a resident steward was responsible for the practical management. Also from the 1630s there was a (non-resident) physician.
    1676: Moorfields Bedlam and pay to view insanity (sketch map)
    [A Sarah Rutherford case study]
    Architect: Robert Hooke
    The Bedlam page on Molly Brown's tour of Restoration London
    1684 Edward Tyson (1650-1708) physician
    1698-1770 Ned Ward's The London Spy
    1700 David Irish in Guildford advertised "good fires, meat, and drink, with good attendance, and all necessaries far beyond what is allowed at Bedlam"
    1701 Henry Mackenzie The Man of Feeling
    1704 Swift's Tale of a Tub
    1708 Death of Dr Edward Tyson
    2.10.1728 James Monro appointed physician
    1730s: wings for incurables added. These necessitated alteration to the airing courts.
    1737 A General Committee of about 46 Governors appointed to administer Bridewell and Bethlem on behalf of the (large) Court of Governors
    24.7.1751 John Monro appointed physician with his father
    4.11.1752: death of James Monro. John sole physician.
    From the 1750s a resident apothecary was appointed.
    21.4.1764 Following holiday riots at Christmas, Easter and Whitsun, it was ordered that constables and assistants be placed in the galleries during the forthcoming holiday.
    (Hunter and Macalpine 1963 p.427)
    John Monro's 1766 Case Book
    1770 Visiting restricted to people with tickets of admission from a Governor. By 1779, visiting was restricted to Mondays and Wednesdays (by 1794, "between the hours of ten and twelve o,clock in the forenoon". On 22.5.1779 it was ordered that the number of visitors on one ticket be limited to the person who it was made out to and three others, to curb the "great number of persons admitted". (Hunter and Macalpine 1963 p.428 + 429)
    1772 John Gozna Apothecary to Bedlam.
    Thomas Monro appointed assistant to his father
    27.12.1791: death of John, Thomas Monro succeeds
    1795: John Haslam (born London 1764, died July 1844) succeeded John Gozna as Apothecary to Bedlam.
    October 1796:
    Mary Lamb fearful of being confined in Bethlem
    Bethlem on 1799 map of London (sketch map)
    1800: 266 patients
    1804 to 1806 Urbane Metcalf a patient for the first time. His case note on his second stay (1817-1818) say "he is frequently engaged in the occupation of a tailor.. but I am informed that he gets his living out of doors as a hawker and pedlar." In 1817 he considered himself heir to the throne of Denmark, and was suffering as much from depression as delusions. He was discharged cured.
    "I spent twenty-two months in that dreary abode, Old Bethlem Hospital; not more I believe than six weeks during that time I was incapable, through indisposition, of judging the occurrences that daily took place. From the supineness of the then physician, the cruelty of the apothecary, the weakness of the steward, and the uncontrolled audacity of the keepers [scenes took place that should have been discovered if only six humane people a year had visited] but what was the fact? it stood in the midst of the most populous city in Europe... was almost daily visited by some of the most exalted characters in the country, as well as by feigners. Part of the time, I occupied the next room to... Norris... the iron bar to which he was fastened stood at the foot of my bed."
    1806: Transport Board responsible for naval maniacs. See description of relations with Hoxton House etc - In 1815, John Haslam was asked whether "nine or ten years ago" there were empty cells. He replied "I think, from the war, we had them pouring in from the Transport Board and the War Office" (p.103)
    1814: 119 patients. Decline in numbers may have been due to deteriorating conditions of the building making some parts uninhabitable. Many pauper lunatics were moved to Warburton's in Bethnal Green
    25.4.1814: Edward Wakefield's first visit
    2.5.1814 Edward Wakefield's party visit the women's galleries where they find a side room with ten chained patients clothed only in blanket gowns. In a cell on the lower gallery they found William Norris, 55 years old, who said he had been confined about fourteen years.
    7.6.1814: drawing made of William Norris, in restraint
    1815: St George's Field Bedlam and criminal lunatics.
    Piddock, S. 2002: Linear design: wards over three full storeys and an attic floor. Men and women accommodated in mirror wings on either side of a central administrative section. Accommodation primarily in single cells with a small spur ward on either side providing three cells for the noisy. Arlidge, J.T. 1859 "argued that most, if not all, lunatic asylums were based on the design of Bethlem Hospital, itself based on the monasteries which had provided the early asylums for the insane".
    July 1816: John Haslam and Thomas Monro not re-appointed, but Thomas succeeded by his son, Edward Thomas Monro and another (jointly appointed) physician, Sir George Leman Tuthill (born 1772, died 1835). Reforms in the management introduced about this time included keeping case notes on patients. The British Library Catalogue lists To the Governors of the Royal Hospitals of Bridewell and Bethlem, etc. [Asking for support in his candidature for the post of physician to the Hospitals] by Sir George Leman Tuthill, London, 1816.
    1.6.1817 to 12.11.1818 Urbane Metcalf a patient for the second time. On his release he published a pamphlet The Interior of Bethlem Hospital which he sold around London (3d a copy?).
    "I... became again a patient in the New Bethlem Hospital, and am happy to be able to state that I found many alterations in the provisions, and in other things that greatly added to the comfort of patients, and to the honour of those governors through whom those alterations were effected. I found there were four galleries, and that the patients in one gallery had seldom access to those in another, except when in the green yard, and the establishment to be considerably larger, but not so many patients. I became Dr Tothill's patient, and was put in the upper gallery, Thomas Rodbird keeper. I wish to observe that I have read the printed rules of the establishment, and their principle is good, the comforts of the patients are secured in every respect, but these regulations are departed from and the keepers do just as they please."

    Urbane then lists the staff [this is of the male side] as Physicians: Drs Tothill and E.T. Munro; Apothecary: Mr Wallett; Steward: Mr Humbly; Porter: Simmons; Keepers: Allen and Goose (first gallery or basement); Dowie (second gallery); Blackburn (third gallery); Rodbird (fourth gallery); Cutter: Vickery.

    "It is to be observed that the basement is appropriated for those patients who are not cleanly in their persons, and who, on that account have no beds, but lay on straw with blankets and a rug; but I am sorry to say, it is too often made a place of punishments, to gratify the unbounded cruelties of the keepers.

    The present physicians, I think too supine: providence has placed them in situations wherein they have it in their power greatly to add to, or diminish from the comfort of the unfortunate; I have known patients make just complains to them, which have been received with the utmost indifference, and not at all attended to."

    Urbane arranges his complaint under sub-headings of the keepers and officers names, attempting to show how the institution is being run for their benefit, at the expense of the patients

    March 1819: E. Wright appointed Apothecary Superintendent
    October 1830:
    Dr E. Wright, Apothecary Superintendent, dismissed, having forfeited the confidence of the Governors. [Note that he calls it "the Royal Hospital of Bethlem"]
    Consultant physician (with E.T. Monro) from 1835 to 1853: Alexander Morison
    1837 extensions to the building
    1841 Census: (ages of adults are given to nearest five years) Nathanial Nicholls, Steward, 50. Hannah Nicholls, 45. John Thomas, Apothecary, 45. Mary Thomas, 35. Henrietta Hearn, Matron, 40. John Hearn, 20. William Brown, Porter, 50. Thomas Medley?, Gate Keeper, 40. Elizabeth Medley, 30. Mary David, Kitchen Maid, 30. Charles French, Cutter of Provisions, 30. Three Laundry Maids. Twelve male Keepers. Twelve female Keepers. William Howard, Gardener, 35. Mary Pandigrath, Housemaid, aged 15. Harriet Eliza Hunter, aged 15 (an officer's relative). Five female servants to officers and two male. 167 male patients. 166 female patients, 333 total patients.
    Friday 7.4.1843 Mr Hume (MP) objected to £4,122 being "granted for defraying the expense of maintaining criminal lunatics in Bethlem Hospital". He visited them "many times at intervals, and there were several...who appeared to him to be perfectly sane. Mr Hatfield, among others. Hume wanted a way that "offenders... who had their intellects restored...should no longer enjoy comparative impunity".
    The Lancet 15.2.1845: Editorial comparing Bethlem unfavourably with Bicêtre and Salpétrière in Paris which are "open to all pupils and medical men, who have a right to follow the physicians in their daily visits to the wards". "The directors of Bethlem have, it is true, lately relaxed the extreme severity of their regulations, and distributed amongst the schools a few tickets of admission, for which we give them due credit, but this relaxation of former rules is by no means sufficient. Every facility should be afforded to students to acquire a familiar knowledge of insanity, and our hospitals ought to be freely open..."
    1846: Dome, designed by Sidney Smirke, added
    1852:: Critical Report
    William Charles Hood became Resident Medical Superintendent
    1862 W.C. Hood became a Chancery Visitor. Succeeded as Resident Medical Superintendent by William Rhys Williams
    1878 William Rhys Williams became a Lunacy Commissioner. Succeeded as Resident Medical Superintendent by George Henry Savage.
    1863: criminal lunatics sent to Broadmoor
    1881 Census: "Bethlem Royal Hospital", St Georges Cross, Southwark - St George Martyr, Surrey. Resident Officer (Physician) George Henry Savage, widower, aged 38, born Brighton. His housekeeper and housemaid. A friend, Wilhelm Von Speyr (physician aged 28), from Basle in Switzerland was visiting. William Edward Ramsden Wood: Medical Officer (Physician), aged 31. His wife, children and servants. The Gate Porter and his wife. Under Storekeeper. Cutter of Provisions. Assistant Hall Porter. Edmund Smeeth, married, aged 63: Head Attendant Male Side and 15 male and 21 female "Attendants on Insane". A laundress. A housemaid. Another female domestic servant. About 255 patients, only about 94 of whom were men. There were also two "other" and one "visitor". The Gardener, Richard Whibley, and his large family, lived at St Edwards Schools in St Georges Road. Two of his daughters were training to be teachers.
    1882 Charity commissioners gave permission for paying patients to be admitted. 1896 extensions to the building
    1930: Kent Bethlem Hospital

    19th century Bedlam and 20th century war: The patients' wings and most of the hospital at St George's Field were demolished in 1931 and 1932. The administrative block and dome, and parts of the 1837 and 1896 extensions remained as the Imperial War Museum, opened in this building on 7.7.1936.

    Bethlem Royal Hospital Archives and Museum
    Monks Orchard Road
    Kent BR3 3BX

    Royal Bethlem Hospital Museum   other museums

    external link to map with arrow pointing to present site Notice the sites of several other asylums in south London.

    For Bethlem's history:

    see the Timeline for 1377, 1676, 1815, 1852, 1863, 1930, on this site

    Follow external links for
    The word "Bedlam": lovatts.com - xref entry
    Brief History of Bethlem, by Patricia Allderidge
    Catholic Encyclopedia
    West Beckenham Association history
    Museum of London web exhibit at
    Mad Tom of Bedlam lyrics and midi from the Living History web. Using a Civil War tune.
    Tom O'Bedlam's Song. Fuller version
    Bedlam on stage from the Shakespeare's times website
    Robert Hooke's architecture (Moorfield's Bedlam)
    The Bedlam page on Molly Brown's tour of Restoration London
    History on the John Snow site
    Texts of visits to Bedlam on Jack Lynch's site
    Web exhibition of Hogarths' prints - inluding the Rake's Progress
    Hogarth prints on the ArtArchive site
    Donald Cousin's visits remains and plaques

    For today's Royal Bethlem:
    BBC Mental Health "Inside a hospital"
    South London and Maudsley NHS Trust

    Catalogue of Records

    In the 1860s Bethlem became a hospital for the "superior class". Criminals were sent to Broadmoor and paupers to:

    City of London Lunatic Asylum

    (map link) (See also the London County Council asylum at Bexley)

    Built by the Corporation of London at Stone near Dartford, Kent during 1862 to 1866. Designed by James Bunstone Bunning, the City's Clerk of the Works (later City Architect and Surveyor).
    Opened 16.4.1866. (Later additions made)
    1881 census: Medical Superintendent: Octavious Jepson (Widower); Assistant Medical Officer: Frank William Marlow
    From 1892, private patients were admitted.
    From 1924 known as the City of London Mental Hospital.
    From 1924 able to receive voluntary boarders
    The Committee of Visitors had originally been composed of the Aldermen and Recorder as Justices, but under the Local Government Act 1888 the Justices powers and duties passed to the City's Court of Common Council which appointed 12 of its members to be the Visiting Committee. 2 Women were added to the committee from January 1931 (Under the Mental Treatment Act 1930).
    In 1948 the hospital was transferred to the Minister of Health under the National Health Service Act 1946.
    Became Stone House Hospital, Cotton Lane, Stone, Dartford, Kent, DA2 6AU.
    The hospital is due to close and will be converted into luxury apartments.
    The City of London Record Office has most of the archives (to 1948/1949), but some appear to be in the London Metropolitan Archive

    St Clement's

    The City of London Union Workhouse opened in 1849. At some stage it ceased being a general workhouse and became Bow Infirmary.

    Peter Higginbotham's site says:

    "In 1909, it was vacated by the City of London Union who had decided to concentrate their work at Homerton in the former East London Union workhouse which had just been substantially enlarged.

    After a period of standing empty, the building was re-opened on 1st March 1912 as Bow Institution. It was later renamed the City of London Institution, then in May 1936 it was renamed St. Clement's Hospital which it is still known as today."

    I do not know at what stage it became a psychiatric hospital. It passed from the City of London Poor Law Union to London County Council in 1930 and, about the same time (from about 1929), had, or was, a Mental Observation Unit. It became part of the National Health Service in 1948.

    St Clement's Hospital (from 1936) was administratively absorbed by The London Hospital in 1968 and became The London Hospital (St Clement's), 2A Bow Road, London, E3 4LL.

    St Luke's Hospital
    probably not receiving paupers in 1844
    17.6.1750 Meeting in the King's Arms in Exchange Alley that decided to found a hospital: Founders Thomas Crowe, physician; Richard Speed, druggist of Old Fish Street; William Prowing, apothecary of Tower Street; James Sperling and Thomas Light, merchants of Mincing Lane; and Francis Magnus (250 year history booklet)
    Opened 1751 Upper Moorfields, opposite Bethlem. (see sketch map). Took its name from the new parish of St Luke's
    "The first patients were admitted in July 1751. In February 1753 the number was increased to 57. From 1754 some incurable patients were readmitted and for some time the numbers remained steady: 50 curable and 20 incurable patients. The staff consisted of the keeper and his wife plus two male and two female attendants." (250 year history booklet)

    William Battie (1703-1776) was physician to 1764

    1781 Samuel Foart Simmons (born 17.3.1750, died 23.4.1813) became physician.

    "From this time... he devoted himself almost exclusively to the treatment of insanity... he attained a high reputation and from it accumulated an ample fortune."
    1782 Thomas Dunston moved from being "senior basketman" at Bethlem
    1786 moved to Old Street. (New building designed by George Dance and erected 1782 to 1784?) Mr and Mrs Thomas Dunston became Master and Matron from 1786, previously (from 1782) they had been head man keeper and head woman keeper. Their son, John Dunston, apothecary, married the daughter of Thomas Warburton
    1810 Benjamin Rush refered to "Dr Dunston" "physician of St Luke's Hospital... eminent for his knowledge of diseases of the mind"
    February 1811 Samuel Foart Simmons resigned as physician. Appointed consultant physician. His son did not wish to succeed him, but did wish his university friend, Alexander Robert Sutherland, to succeed. One of the unsuccessful candidates was George Leman Tuthill

    Alexander Robert Sutherland elected physician:

    "The House also for private patients at Islington was consigned to Dr S. on certain valuable considerations"

    1812 Samuel Tuke visited St Lukes and compared ideas with Thomas Dunston. In a manuscript memorandum, he wrote:

    "There are three hundred patients, sexes about equal; number of women formerly much greater than men; incurables about half the number. The superintendent has never seen much advantage from the use of medicine, and relies chiefly on management. Thinks chains a preferable mode of restraint to straps or the waistcoat in some violent cases. Says they have some patients who do not generally wear clothes. Thinks confinement or restraint may be imposed as a punishment with some advantage, and, on the whole, thinks fear the most effectual principle by which to reduce the insane to orderly conduct. Instance: I observed a young woman chained by the arm to the wall in a small room with a large fire and several other patients, for having run downstairs to the committee-room door. The building has entirely the appearance of a place of confinement, enclosed by high walls, and there are strong iron grates to the windows. Many of the windows are not glazed, but have iron shutters which are closed at night. On the whole, I think St Luke's stands in need of a radical reform." (Quoted Tuke, D.H. 1882 pages 89-90)

    1813 Mrs Foulkes prosecuted for keeping lunatics without a licence in a house owned by Thomas Dunston.
    1816 Evidence of John William Rogers (a surgeon dismissed by Warburton) that Thomas Dunston received £500 a year from Warburton for recommending patients. Mr and Mrs Dunston had a joint salary from St Luke's of £150 and St Luke's, at one time, had 700 people on its waiting list. Dunston was also said to board lunatics in single houses. (Morris, A.D. 1958, apparently from 1816 Select Committee Reports)
    1816 Death of Mrs Dunston, the Matron. Thomas Dunston's title became "Steward"

    31.3.1829 After setting fire to York Minster, Jonathan Martin was found not guilty on the ground of insanity. He was confined in St Luke's, where he died 3.6.1838

    1829: John Warburton MD elected physician
    1830 Death of Thomas Dunston, the Steward who had been in day to day charge of St Luke's since 1782
    From 1830 some attempt was made to separate patients according to categories.
    From 1833 recognised as important to provide some form of occupational therapy for patients

    "From 1833 it was recognised that it was important to provide some form of occupational therapy for patients. This was another idea supported by Dr Sutherland and also by John Warburton. Whilst this was a step forward they nevertheless maintained some older forms of treatment such as the use of occasional forcible restraint. This was said to be necessary because the number of staff employed to care for the patients was relatively small, in fact a ratio of 7 to 1." (250 year history booklet)
    31.8.1833 Clementina and William John Stinton had a baby girl who they christened Clementina Stinton at Saint Luke Old Street on 25.9.1833
    1841 Census: Henry Lambert, aged 24, Resident Apothecary. William Jno Swinton, aged 37, Steward. Clementina Stinton, aged 39, Matron. Eight year old daughter (same name as Mrs Stinton] and a second Matron (Harriet Camerow?) aged about 60. Apart from Henry Lambert, the above were all born in Middlesex. Clementina Stinton, born Middlesex about 1834, was living in Lewes in 1881. The 1841 Census return was certified on 7.6.1841 by "Wm Jm Stinton, Steward of St Lukes Hospital for Lunatics".
    1841 Alexander Robert Sutherland retired as physician and was succeeded by his son AlexanderJohn Sutherland
    1842: A chaplain was hired and a chapel was being built
    1844: Steward: Mr Stinton
    1.1.1844: 93 curable patients, 84 incurable
    Henry Monro was a physician from 1855 to 1882.
    1860 AlexanderJohn Sutherland retired as a physician to St Luke's
    From 1871 the Governors began to examine the possibility of acquiring a site for a second building in the country which could be used for convalescent patients.
    1881 Census: George Mickley (Physician, unmarried, aged 37) [May previously have worked at Wyke House], Resident Medical Superintendent; Francis William Edward Hinners (unmarried, aged 23) and Edgar Vivian Ayre Phipps (unmarried, aged 24) Resident Clinical Assistant Surgeons. Steward: Thomas Collier Walker, aged 72, born Scotland. Matron: Charlotte Eliza Walker, aged 65, born Douglas, Isle of Man (presumably husband and wife), living with unmarried and unoccupied son and daughter of Steward, both born in Scotland: George Lyell Walker, aged 47 and Margaret Jane Walker, aged 40.
    1882 The practice of having a husband a wife as Steward and Matron of the hospital ended. (250 year history booklet)
    In 1893 Nether Hall, near Ramsgate, was taken over for the benefit of [convalescing] female patients. Initially the property was rented but in 1901 it was purchased by the Hospital.
    12.6.1904 to 5.11.1905 painted postcards from Edward O. Cole (patient). The research for most of the information from 1871 to the present was carried out by Jean Cullen, present owner of these postcards.
    1910 the Hospital bought the Welders Estate near Jordans in Buckinghamshire, with the intention of building a substantial convalescent home. The project was never brought to completion, but an Encyclopedia reference in 1922 refers to new buildings being constructed at Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire.
    "When St Luke's Hospital closed at the end of 1916, all the remaining patients were either discharged to their homes or transferred to other institutions. In 1922 it was suggested that a psychiatric unit should be instituted by St Luke's in cooperation with a General hospital. This led to the funding by the St Luke's charity of both an out-patient clinic and a psychiatric in-patient ward at the Middlesex Hospital. This continued until the new St Luke's-Woodisde Hospital opened in 1930." (Richard Morris to Jean Cullen)
    1917? Site of Old Street St Luke's sold to the Bank of England. Until later than 1958, the building was used as a printing works for Bank of England notes.
    1930 "Third St Luke's" opened in Woodside Avenue, Muswell Hill after an "association with Middlesex Hospital" that began in 1923"
    1930: Woodside Nerve Hospital
    1940: St Luke's Woodside Hospital for Functional Nervous Disorders
    1948 St Luke's Woodside, Woodside Avenue, Muswell Hill, London, N10 3HU
    2001 250 year history booklet

    Guy's Hospital Lunatic Ward
    not receiving paupers in 1844
    1.1.1844: 25 private patients
    Batavia Hospital Ship
    Moored in the Thames, off Woolwich, this ship received naval patients from Hoxton House when they were considered fit for convalesecence. It also sent patients to Hoxton House and Bethlem.
    A second Middlesex County Asylum, known as Colney Hatch Asylum, was opened on 17.7.1851. It had 1,293 patients in 1858.
    Corridor form
    1851 William Charles Hood (1824-1870), first medical superintendent.
    1862 W.C. Hood appointed to Bethlem
    1881 Census.
    1889 Became a London County Council asylum
    1893: A small room was set aside "for microscopic observations" to supplement gross anatomical findings by histological examination. See Claybury. In 1915 the Board of Control reported "under consideration the provision of a laboratory for clinical and pathological research". In 1924 it reported "a useful laboratory" staffed by a specially trained male nurse and supervised by an assistant medical officer. Hunter, R.A. and Macalpine, I. 1974 pp.165-166
    Became Colney Hatch Mental Hospital from 1918 to 1937. "The Cockfosters extension on the Piccadilly line.. started at a ... slow pace. In February 1934 Arnos Grove station had served only 500,000 passengers.The proximity of a mental hospital, sewage farm and cemetery were blamed for hindering development." Colney Hatch was renamed Friern Mental Hospital in 1937. But even in 1955, when my grandfather became a patient, it still had to be explained that the new phrase was "mental hospital", and that this meant a different attitude to the one perpetuated by we schoolchildren calling one another "Colney Hatch cases". From 1959 it was Friern Hospital, Friern Barnet Road, New Southgate, London, (N11 3BP) (map). In 1971 Friern Hospital, had 1,862 beds. Hunter, R.A. and Macalpine, I. 1974, Psychiatry for the Poor is a substantial history of the asylum from 1851 to 1973, and one of the best insights into asylum life. Friern closed in 1993. It is a listed building which has been converted into luxury apartments (Princess Park Manor). At one time it was considered as a site for Middlesex University.
    You don't have to be mad to live here
    2003 use: "Gated housing development"
    1.11.2006 Visit to Princess Park Manor: A billboard advertises "Individually designed quality apartments set in thirty acres of stunning parkland". The parkland is the ground in front of the asylum, which is planted with trees. Barnet Borough have created Friern Village Park out of the land in front of the west wing. This is open to the public daily from dawn to dusk. The Middlesex coat of arms above the asylum says "East Saxons"

    Friern Cemetery: In 1883 a memorial to an unknown pauper lunatic was erected in the grounds of Colney Hatch Asylum. "2,696 inmates of the asylum were buried here from 1851-1873. The inscription recording the fact was removed after the advent of the Mental Health Act 1959 to unburden the hospital of its past. From 1873 patients were buried in the neighbouring Great Northern Cenetry 'where by a considerate arrangment of the visitors, funerals are privately conducted, and not in forma pauperis (Chaplain's report, CHA 1877) Hunter, R.A. and Macalpine, I. 1974 p.69)

    Two Metropolitan Asylum Board asylums were opened for chronic London patients in October 1870: Leavesden at Abbots Langley in Hertfordshire and Caterham Asylum in Surrey. Later asylums built by the Board were Darenth, Belmont and Tooting Bec.
    The Lunacy Commissioners visiting in 1904 were: Sidney Coupland, H.F. Gifford, F. Needham, Harold Urmson, E. Marriott Cooke, F. A. Inderwick, A. Hill Trevor.
    The Metropolitan Asylums Board was abolished in 1930, when its functions were transferred to London County Council
    This extract from a 1911 encyclopedia shows how the provision of "asylums" was only a small part of the Board's functions:

    "The Metropolitan Asylums Board, though established m 1867 purely as a poor-law authority for the relief of the sick, insane and infirm paupers, has become a central hospital authority for infectious diseases, with power to receive into its hospitals persons, who are not paupers, suffering from fever, smallpox or diphtheria. Both the Board and the County Council have certain powers and duties of sanitary authority for the purpose of epidemic regulations. The local sanitary authorities carry out the provisions of the Infectious Diseases (Notification and Prevention) Acts, which for London are embodied in the Public Health (London) Act 1891. The Board has asylums for the insane at Tooting Bec (Wandsworth), Ealing (for children); King's Langley, Hertfordshire; Caterham, Surrey; and Darenth, Kent. There are twelve fever hospitals, including northern and southern convalescent hospitals. For smallpox the Board maintains hospital ships moored in the Thames at Dartford, and a land establishment at the same place. There are land and river ambulance services."

    Peter Higginbotham has just (autumn 2004) added a comprehensive history of the Metropolitan Asylums Board to his website

    October 1870: Caterham Asylum opened
    Architects: Giles and Biven - Dual Pavilion
    May 1871 nearly 1,400 patients
    1872: Long report of a visit (on the Rossbret site)   Rossbret picture
    1878 An outbreak of enteric fever in Caterham and Redhill did not affect the asylum or the troops in Caterham barracks who were supplied with water from the asylum well. (R.H. Firth 1908 p.60)
    1881 Census: Medical Superintendent: George Stanley Elliot, aged 36.Metropolitan District Asylum for Imbeciles, Caterham, Surrey. May also have been known as Caterham Lunatic Asylum for Safe Lunatics and Imbeciles. The names of patients are given in full, not just initials.
    24.5.1920 "Ottington Street, Wolling Road, Camberwell. This is where my life began. After I was born, my mother was in bed, my Grandma Brewer heard a knock on the door... it was my dad coming home from the army" (Joseph Deacon p.13)
    1920 Caterham Mental Hospital
    1926 "my mother's life ended when I as six years old. My Auntie Em took me over, and Grandma Deacon looked after me for a little while. And my auntie had a lot of work to do... At seven years old, I went to Carshalton Hospital for more treatment. They could not understand me when I went to the toilet... Carshalton sent me away to Roehampton, Queen Mary's Hospital for more treatment, and the nurses were very good to me... On 12th February, 1928 my dad told me that I was coming to Caterham. On the following Thursday, 16th February, I came to Caterham. I was first nursed on the female ward"
    (Joseph Deacon pages 14-15).
    1941 St Lawrence's Hospital, Caterham, CR3 5YA
    "The girls came to see me... They tried to speak to me but I could not answer. My friends told the girls I could not speak. They said they knew, my brother had told them... I was still working in the mat shop and in 1941 Mr Treece got two new boys from the female side. The boys were Ernie and Victor. Mr Treece asked Ernie to help me sort out he wool. When I wanted something or to tell him something I made some noises to make him understand. It was not easy at first but Ernie did not give in. He tried very hard until he began to understand me... [One] Sunday... my cousin Ann and her friend came to see me... I wanted to talk.. There was nobody who could understand me. I made signs and pointed to Ernie. Mr Harris understood me and brought Ernie and I introduced him to my cousin. He understood me. That's how it all began. This was the first time I started to talk a little. We asked her how she liked the A.T.S. I was twenty-two at the time. My cousin was very pleased that she could understand me. Ernie was very good. When she went home she told Grandma how she was able to speak to me through Ernie.
    (Joseph Deacon p.21-22)
    1950s Peter, a Hackney boy, was on a ward with 60 patients. There were four rows of beds plus beds on the veranda. When the weather was bad, they cleared the beds and kicked a ball around the ward. His mother was horrified on her first visit at the thick chunks of bread plus chunks of cheese which were served for tea - But the residents had a terrific appetite. The "children" were taken out for walks in crocodiles. In those days, staff had to rely on patients to help with bathing. At 3pm one round of bathing started, at 7pm a second round. The residents wore old clothes - "like Meths drinkers in the East End".
    1971 listed a Mental Handicap Hospital with 1,902 beds
    1974 Tongue Tied by Joseph John Deacon, a resident in St Lawrence's since 1928, published by the National Society for Mentally Handicapped Children. "Joey Deacon has cerebral palsey, seriously affecting all four limbs and his speech and Ernie Roberts is the only person who can really understand him. But Ernie cannot read and write. So as Ernie listened to Joey's story and then repeated it intelligibly to Michael, Michael wrote it down. The handwritten version was then typed by Tom at the rate of four to six lines per day".
    10.6.1981: St Lawrence's and Borocourt featured unfavourably in a television documentary Silent Minority

    "St Lawrences in the 1970s became known as you say through Joseph Deacon's book and film Tongue Tied, and from the documentary Silent Minority. Joseph lived in MC1 (Male C1) and spent a lot of his time on the cosy verandah. Across the airing court was another long verandah where the residents seen in Silent Minority spent their aimless days (MD1). MC1 was a well run homely ward. MD1 was a stark place. Just 10 yards of court separated them. And on the top floor above MD1 was MD3, the lock up ward. Joseph would have heard the shouts from up there when one of the residents went 'up the wall.' 'You'll be sent to D3' was a threat to patients from other wards. Most of the time it was relatively calm. It was a lock up ward, but many of the residents were let out unsupervised to go to work at the concrete works - making slabs and gnomes." (Alastair Fear, who met Joseph Deacon when working at St Lawrences in 1975-1976, and who also worked there, for a while, about the time of Silent Minority)

    The third Middlesex County Asylum was opened at Banstead, in Surrey, in 1877. See Miniature city under medical mayor - For "chronically insane pauper lunatics" - Also Banstead Places
    Architect: Frederick Hyde Pownall - Dual Pavilion
    Landscape Designer: Alexander MacKenzie
    National Grid Reference TQ 263 613
    Address Sutton Lane, Sutton, Reigate, Surrey
    Database information that Banstead became a Surrey asylum is incorrect:

    "Banstead Asylum was built and maintained by the Middlesex Justices prior to 1889. It became the responsibility of the London County Council on 1 April 1889" (London Metropolitan Archives Catalogue), which is confirmed by the following:

    1900 89 year old patient's death certificate shows him as dying from "chronic brain wastage" in "the London County Asylum, Banstead". (information from Richard Seymour)

    1897/1898 Cheam Parish Council: Water and sewerage file - Correspondence re contamination of water supply from Banstead asylum burial ground
    1.1.1927: 1,976 patients of whom all but 142 were Rate Aided. 845 were men, 1,131 women. In 1926 the proportion of recoveries to admissions was 20.0%. The proportion of deaths to the asylum population was 7.1%
    In 1960s and 1970s (about), part of Kensington and Chelsea and Westminster Area Health Authority (West London)
    1982: Plans for closure and concentration of services on Horton
    October 1986 Closed
    Demolished 1989
    "High Down and Down View, two state-of-the-art prisons, were built on the site in the early 1990s"
    Archive link

    Middlesex JPs were discussing the need for a fourth asylum in 1881. This was to have been Claybury, but local government reorganisation in 1888 transferred this project to the new London County Council.

    Middlesex asylums after 1888

    In 1889 Middlesex lost much of its population to the new London County Council. There was a massive reorgansiation of London asylums, which I am still trying to work out. Hanwell and Friern and Banstead became London County Council asylums. The Surrey County Asylum at Springfield became the Middlesex County Asylum. It may have been the only one until 1905 See Middlesex 1939

    Claybury Asylum at Woodford Bridge in Essex was opened in 1893. It was the fifth London County Council asylum. Built: 1889-1893 Architect: George Thomas Hine Peter Cracknell describes as the first Compact Arrow design.
    Edward Sackett was transferred from Brookwood in September 1896, and died from heart disease on 14.10.1899. Joseph Stockton died 20.10.1896 at London County Lunatic Asylum, Ilford, which was also the name of the asylum in 1900 (Registration District: Romford, Sub-District: Ilford) on the death certificate of Mr Hopson (55 years old), an upholsterer formerly of 19 Bee Hive Brick Lane, Whitechapel, who died there. His certificate was signed by the Medical Superintendent, Robert Youes (or Young?) [information from Joan Robblee].
    The Central Pathology Laboratory Commissioners in Lunacy 1896 quoted Hunter, R.A. and Macalpine, I. 1974 p.165: "Even when the new Laboratory has been brought into use by the Specialist Pathologist for the County of London [Dr F.W. Mott at Claybury], there will still remain much useful work of this nature to be done in the several Asylums, for which due provision should be made". See Friern
    1899 Start of Archives of Neurology from the Pathological Laboratory of the London County Asylums, Claybury, Essex Published: 1899-1907 and 1909-1934
    Journal of Mental Science, April 1900, 46, 393: At Claybury Asylum provision is made for private patients who can claim a settlement in the county of London at a charge of 30 shillings a week, and for others at a charge of £2 (See 1890 Act)
    1901 or 1902 Dr Macmillan, a medical officer at Claybury, read a paper on The History of Asylum Dysentery at Claybury to a meeting of the Southern Eastern Division of the Medico-Psychological Association. Dr Macmillan, himself, died of asylum dysentery soon after. (source)
    Report for the year ended 31.3.1902. Dr Robert Jones: medical superintendent. 2431 patients: 1015 men - 1416 women. 426 admissions during the year: 131 men and 295 women. 16% of men admitted had general paralysis. 14% of men and 9% of women were admitted suffering from alcoholic insanity. 148 patients were discharched recovered during the year, whilst 201 patients died. 50 died of general paralysis of the insane - 25 of tuberculosis - 24 of cardiac disease - 21 of colitis (asylum dysentery). "Asylum dysentery attacked 40 males and 81 females, and was responsible for 21 deaths, or over 10 per cent. of the total deaths."
    A 1911 Encyclopedia entry for Ilford says "Claybury Hall is a lunatic asylum (1893) of the London County Council".
    About 1952: Thomas Bewley's recollections of the dysentery wards
    1955 Denis Martin appointed
    1962 Denis Vincent Martin Adventure in Psychiatry: Social Change in a Mental Hospital With an introduction by J.S. Harris Oxford : Cassirer
    31.3.1994: 361 patients
    Claybury Hospital closed in 1997. Its address was Claybury Hospital, Woodford Green, Essex, 1GB 8BY. (map). Records: London Metropolitan Archives
    Simon Cornwall: Demolished and converted. Now Repton Park. (Claybury Wood)
    2003 use: "Gated housing development"
    There is a book: A Hospital looks at itself - Essays from Claybury

    Goodmayes Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, Ilford. Essex. lG3 8XJ (map)
    External map shows boundaries proposed in 1885 for the new borough of West Ham
    the red
flies over West Ham   In 1898, the first Labour controlled local council was elected - West Ham.
    The building of a new lunatic asylum and the declaration of May 1st as a public holiday are listed amongst its many achievements (external link). On 18.3.1920 a stampless viewcard of Calais was addressed to West Ham Mental Hospital. George Jacomb of Plaistow died 8.1.1931 at West Ham Corporation Mental Hospital Goodmayes Essex. He left £1,056 9s. 1d to be administered by Ellen Mary Jacomb spinster. There was a stationary steam engine (derelict in 1980) here that was manufactured by Belliss & Morcom Ltd. of Birmingham in 1938.
    New adult acute mental health facilities were being built at Goodmayes Hospital, to open March 2002, and "re-provide" 107 beds for people living in Redbridge - 62 for adults with acute mental illness, thirty beds for the elderly mentally ill and fifteen psychiatric intensive care beds. "Goodmayes is getting its first new facilities for seventy years". "The unit will have all single bedrooms, some with en-suite facilities, and has fully taken into account Government guidelines on sex segregation". "Patients will really feel the benefit of receiving their services in a purpose built, modern and light unit." Mental Health Matters North East London Mental Health Trust. Issue 9, July 2001.

    Brookside Young People's Unit, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, Ilford. Essex. lG3 8XJ (Same address as Goodmayes)
    "Mental Illness". Shown in a 1979 Directory as having 20 beds 31.12.1977.

    Bexley Asylum at Bexley in Kent was opened by the London County Council in 1898. (map link). Nigel Roberts has a set of plans for "the Heath Asylum Baldwyn's Park Bexley", with the name of "Geo T Hine 1896" on. The chapel was designed to seat 850 people. David Cochrane speaks of a "striking similarity to the design" Hine had used at Claybury
    Compact Arrow
    Website (October 2006) on the history of Bexley Hospital
    In 1907 a death certificate was signed "London County Asylum, The Heath, Dartford, U.D." (information from Michael Ball). The City of London Asylum at Stone was on the opposite side of Dartford. The Bexley Asylum became Bexley Hospital, Old Bexley Lane, Bexley, DA5 2AW. It has now closed. Between 2001 and 2007, Dartford Council plan to build houses on it, plus a new primary school and the "retention of community facilities" (Office of the Deputy Prime Minister). Kingswood Ward (archive) was a rehabilitation ward for adults with severe and enduring mental health problems. External link to Edenwood, Old Bexley Lane, Bexley - (partial archive) 27.11.2002: Bexley Water Tower comes down (partial archive) - See timeline. 5.5.2006 "I live in Bexley and the local asylum was known as Bexly Mental Hospital, it has now been demolished and is a vast estate of new houses which is still growing. They have kept the main building, i think because it was listed, and turned it into a fitness centre for the local residents" Susan Hammond - Rootsweb archive

    The Epsom Group

    1890? London County Council bought all the land belonging to the Manor of Horton in Epsom, Surrey, to develop a complex of asylums which was to become the largest in Europe. The five hospitals built were

    Simon Cornwall's tour of all 18.4.2003
    This scan is from Barnett's Street Plan of Epsom and Ewell, purchased about 1973. The online Horton Country Park map (with history) shows the area on the east of this map.
    The usual approach to the institutions, when they were built, may have been from Epsom station via Chase Road to Hook Road, then up Hook Road to Long Grove, and so on. This is suggested by the houses along Hook Road going north from the railway bridge. Dates and architectural features suggest that many of these were built as homes for the staff. Near the bridge there are several with the date 1896, when the Manor was being built. Then there are ones dated 1902, when Horton was opened. These are followed by ones dated 1903, when Ewell Epileptic Colony was opened.
    Common facilities David Cochrane (1988 p.258) says that water, gas and electricity supplies were centralised for all of the estate. Sewage disposal was centralised. Similarly, the cemetery and the rail link to Ewell were for all the asylums. Sports centre built round boiler-house. David Lloyd Sports Centre, Epsom, website

    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Epsom branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was Mr R.C. Baker, who lived at 20 Court Farm Gardens, [Manor Green Road], Epsom [post code now KT19 8SL]. This is in the back streets in the crook of Hook Road and Long Grove Road - south of the cricket ground. The Manor (which was a certified institution, not an asylum) had its own branch..

    The open land north of West Park, and circling Long Grove on the south, east and north, is now Horton Country Park (External Link). (map) - See also ride and drive web. This land (or part of it) was farms for West Park and Long Grove. These became "surplus to requirements" and were bought (1973) by Epsom and Ewell Council to create the park.
    11.6.2002: Hansard: Commons debate on future of sites - Mental Health Services (Mid-Surrey) - 1.29 pm - Westminster Hall
    MP's latest news

    The Manor Asylum (Epsom) or Manor House at Horton was originally meant as a temporary asylum, whilst Horton Asylum was built. Building may have begun in 1896. The asylum was opened in 1899. It consisted of the existing Manor House (restored) for staff, and corrugated iron buildings for patients. The scheme was disapproved by the Lunacy Commission, but approved by the Home Secretary. The architect was William C Clifford Smith, the Asylum Committee's chief engineer. It was opened for 700 female patients of the "comparatively quiet and harmless class". (Cochrane, D. 1988 p.257)
    Journal of Mental Science, April 1900, 46, 393: Provision made for about 60 female private patients at a weekly charge of about 15/- (not including clothes) (See 1890 Act)
    By 1901 approval was given for extra accommodation for 110 male patients required for manual labour power. (Cochrane, D. 1988 p.257)
    Became The Manor Certified Institution from 1921 to an unknown date.
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Nation Asylum Workers Union at Manor (Epsom) was Mr George G. Galey who lived at 4 Percy Cottages, Elm Road, Claygate (about three mile away in a straight line - perhaps he cycled). The other four hospitals seemed to have been one branch (Epsom).
    Became The Manor, Horton Lane, Epsom, KT19 8NL.
    1962 (Hospital Plan) 1,200 beds in 1960. Plans to rebuild by 1971. By 1975 expected have 500 mental subnormality patients, and there to be another 700 in St Ebbas (converted) and 500 in "Horton new hospital".
    1971 The Manor, Epsom 1,067 beds, 1,034 patients on 31.12.1971. 16% in dormitories with over fifty patients. (60% of adults sleeping in groups of less than 30. 93% of children sleeping in groups of less than 20, but the other 7% of children in dormitories of 30 or more). 25 security beds in locked wards.
    1979 Manor Hospital Mid-Surrey Health District's mental handicap hospital with 800 beds
    July 1998 efforts to stop development
    March 2002 Progress report on redevelopment, and plans for other sites.
    Some ex-patients have been rehoused on Ethel Bailey Close. The rest of the site has been entirely redeveloped into around 340 new houses & flats. Re-development completed about 2000. Peter Cracknell's photographic tour
    2003 use: "Housing"

    In addition to the buildings on the main site, The Manor had a large annexe called Hollywood Lodge on the triangle of land between West Park Hospital, Horton Lane and Christ Church Road." Christine Lawes

    The Manor Farm In reponse to the question "was there a farm on the land to the south?", Christine Lawes wrote "There ... was a self-sufficient market garden, worked by the patients in times past. It bordered Horton Lane. Up to about 1994 it was still a thriving organic market garden and sold fruit and vegetables to the public. After that date it gradually became more difficult to maintain as the residents were being moved out. At least up to a couple of years ago it had become more of a garden centre, selling plants to the public from some specially converted barns. I believe the garden centre is probably still there.

    Horton Asylum, at Epsom was opened in 1902.
    Simon Cornwall: Horton Asylum, Epsom, Surrey (Epsom Cluster number 2) Originally: Seventh London County Council Asylum. Built: 1902 Architect: George Thomas Hine (replica of Bexley Heath Asylum)
    Horton War Hospital (1915-1918); Horton Mental Hospital (1918-1939);
    1920 John Robert Lord's story and reflections on the war hospital
    22.1.1935 George Pelham (Trimmer), patient (archive) to 28.8.1939, when he was transferred to Longrove, probably because Horton became a general hospital serving the forces.
    Death Certificate of George Trimmer
    1939 to 1949: Horton War Hospital
    1949: returned to Mental Hospital. It became Horton Hospital, Long Grove Road, Epsom.
    1962 (Hospital Plan) 1,524 patients in 1960. Possible to be closed by 1975. (But 500 beds in "Horton new hospital" for mental subnormality)
    In 1960s and 1970s (about), part of Kensington and Chelsea and Westminster Area Health Authority (North East Health District). At this time, someone with a mental crisis in an office in West London, could find themselves taken to Horton, to the south of London.
    1971 1,587 beds, 1,438 patients on 31.12.1971. 23% in dormitories with over fifty patients. 17 beds in a specialist psychogeriatric unit.
    1979 1,203 beds
    Autumn 2002: reported closed and empty (map), but in good condition. Redevelopment has now started. (See Peter Cracknell's photographic tour (2003)). The developers have renamed it Livingstone Park. This name is not recognised by the council or the post office. A small modern enclave called Horton Haven is used by about 50 ex-patients. 460 houses and flats and a small retail store are planned for the rest of the site.
    July/August 2003 fire
    December 2003 Convenience store wanted for site
    There is a book: Asylum, hospital, haven: A history of Horton Hospital
    "Horton Cemetery. In memory of those buried in these grounds between 1899 and 1955". Words in black on a simple white plaque fixed to the railings of a field surrounded by trees on Hook Road, near the junction with Horton Road. It was a cemetery for patients from all five institutions. "... a strip of land in the elevated and well-drained north-east corner of the estate was fenced off to serve as an unconsecrated burial ground for pauper patients". (Cochrane, D. 1988 p. 258). (See George Pelham). The "burial ground ... was sold many years ago by the NHS to a developer. All the headstones were removed ... It has always been referred to as Horton Cemetery" (email 2004). Jane Lewis, Surrey History Centre (email 27.10.2005) advises that some burial records survive at the History Centre under reference 6336/1-2. They cover the dates 4.4.1902 to 29.3.1955. A burial plan of the area does not seem to have survived and the removal of the headstones has now made it impossible to try and find exactly where the original plots were sited,
    re-burying bones - a more detailed report - This says the last funeral took place in 1958. - but this may be a mistake - Each grave "usually housed three or four bodies", Headstones were removed before it was sold in 1983 by the North West Thames Regional Health Authority to "Marque Securities, a development company in Kingswood". Its bids to develop have been refused by the Epsom and Ewell Council.

    Horton Farm The triangle of land south of the cemetery, bordered by Hook Road, Long Grove Road and Horton Lane, has a building called Horton Farm. It is possible that the whole triangle was the farm estate. St Ebbas farm is on the other (west) side of Hook Road. Long Grove and West Park had their own farms (below). One website says each hospital had its own farm.

    Ewell Epileptic Colony (Epsom) opened in 1903
    Simon Cornwall: Built: 1903. Architect: William C Clifford Smith (Epsom Cluster number three)
    Dispersed form.
    1927 Not listed as a mental hospital, so presumably still Ewell Epileptic Colony. This epileptic colony is not mention in Jones and Tillotson's pamphlet on epileptic colonies. They do mention that the Metropolitan Asylums Board established units for epileptics at Edmonton and Brentwood, and that these were taken over by London County Council in 1935. The conversion of Ewell Colony to a Mental Hospital may have taken place as part of this process.
    Became Ewell Mental Hospital and then St Ebba's Hospital Hook Road, Epsom, KT19 8QJ
    1962 (Hospital Plan) 865 mental illness patients in 1960. 700 mental subnormality patients expected by 1975. Later in 1962? it ceased being a mental illness hospital and became a mental subnormality hospital.
    1971 611 beds, but 616 patients on 31.12.1971. 38% of adults in dormitories with over thirty patients. No dormitories with over fifty patients.
    1979 St Ebbas Hospital was Sutton and West Merton Health District's largest mental handicap hospital with 629 beds - (outside District).
    A Parents and Relatives Group was formed about 1987 to campaign for retention of a village community. external weblink - August 2002 There is now (2004) a "village campus" with about 60 residents in a mixture of old and new houses. The council has approved construction of 280 houses and flats on the rest of the site.

    St Ebbas Farm is now used by Epsom Riding for the Disabled Association

    Long Grove Asylum, at Epsom built 1903 to 1907 and opened in June 1907. Tenth London County Asylum and fourth in the Epsom Cluster. It became Long Grove Hospital, Horton Lane, Epsom, KT19 8PU (map)
    Architect George Thomas Hine. A replica of Horton with differences to make it (a little) more like a Maryland, USA plan that was favoured. In the design, 500 beds were moved from the main (zig-zag) crescent to autonomous villas, each with its own unfenced garden.
    March/April 1919? Felix arrested in St Martin's in the Fields. He lived in Shaftesbury Avenue. He was brought to Long Grove from the City of Westminster Union Workhouse, which was responsible for his expenses. See procedures for emergency admission. Maria Jose Gonzalez is researching Felix's history.
    1.1.1927: 2,120 patients of whom all but 204 were Rate Aided. 1,091 were men, 1,029 women. In 1926 the proportion of recoveries to admissions was 24.0%. The proportion of deaths to the asylum population was 5.3%
    1941 Felix died
    1959: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association formed. This provided links to Hackney (on the other side of London), where many patients came from.
    1962 (Hospital Plan) 2,151 patients in 1960. 1,000 expected in 1975
    about 1967 Long Grove Hospital Epsom. Information for Patients, their Relatives and Friends, a small booklet, produced by the Kingston and Long Grove Group Hospital Management Committee. At the back, it lists Out-Patient Clinics at Hackney Hospital (Monday and Wednesday 2pm); Kingston Hospital, Kingston upon Thames; Royal Hospital, Richmond; and Surbiton Hospital.
    1971 1,625 beds, 1,373 patients on 31.12.1971. 10% in dormitories with over fifty patients. 36 beds in regional adolescent unit.
    1979 1,183 beds. Kingston and Richmond [Surrey] Area Health Authority's mental illness hospital (outside district).
    April 1992 closed. Clarendon Park (developers' name - not recognised by council or post office) housing development started in 1998. There is no housing for ex-patients. A portion of the "zig zag" ward blocks and most of the outlying original villas have been converted for flats and houses. (See Peter Cracknell's photographic tour). There are about 300 houses and flats.
    June 2002 re-development completed - facade preserved - interiors gone
    2003 use: "Luxury housing"
    March 2004 why no affordable homes on site

    Long Grove Farm (see Horton Country Park map) was south of the asylum. The Horton Park Children's Farm is there now. However, the piggery of Long Grove was to the north-east, so the Long Grove Farm may have stretched round the asylum.
    David Cochrane says that London County Council replaced the name "asylum" by "hospital" in 1918. If this is so, the first name for West Park (given below, from the Hospital Database) was never used.
    West Park Asylum at Epsom was opened in 1921. Referred to by David Cochrane as "the eleventh and the last great asylum built for London's insane".
    Simon Cornwall: Architect: William C Clifford Smith. Built: 1912-1924. Eleventh London County Asylum. (Epsom Cluster number five)
    Dispersed form on an echelon plan
    By 1929 it was known as West Park Mental Hospital, and then, from about 1950, West Park Hospital, Horton Lane, Epsom, KT19 8PB.
    1962 (Hospital Plan) 2,045 patients in 1960. 1,000 expected in 1975
    1971 1,724 beds, 1,580 patients on 31.12.1971. 39% in dormitories with over fifty patients. (Only 8% of patients sleeping in groups of less than 30). 20 beds in a regional alcoholic unit. 17 beds in a specialist metabolic unit.
    1979 Mid-Surrey Health District had its headquarters in the hospital. West Park had 1,217 beds (mental illness and geriatric). Manor Hospital was the local mental handicap hospital. Horton, Long Grove and St Ebbas were not local hospitals.
    Autumn 2002: reported closed and empty, but in good condition. (map). The local council has produced its own development brief for the site, which the NHS has yet (2004) to approve. The site will retain facilities for patients with challenging behaviour and the cottage hospital, which is only about twenty years old. Peter Cracknell's photographic tour
    Peter Cracknell's new site
    June 2003 sale of land, including West Park, Horton and part of St Ebbas
    4.7.2003 plans to vary transport
    30.9.2003 fire
    October/November 2003 consultation on plans
    March 2004: proposal for new hospital
    West Park Farm (see external link).

    Epsom Hospital
    intensive care unit

    Maudsley Hospital In 1907, Dr Henry Maudsley offered London County Council £30,000 (subsequently increased to £40,000) to help found a new mental hospital that would 1) be exclusively for early and acute cases, 2) have an out-patients' clinic, 3) provide for teaching and research
    Buildings were completed in 1915 and an
    Act of Parliament was secured to make voluntary treatment possible.
    However, the empty buildings were taken over as a military hospital.
    After the war, the Ministry of Pensions continued to use it for the treament of shell shock
    The London County Council Mental Hospital was opened in 1923.
    Sometime: Maudsley Hospital Medical School officially recognised by the University of London.
    1936-1948 Clinical Director Dr Aubrey Lewis
    1948 The hospital amalgamated with The Bethlem Hospital.
    Medical School renamed Institute of Psychiatry. [external link] Its Department of Psychiatry was under the chairmanship of Dr Aubrey Lewis from 1945 to 1966
    South London and Maudsley NHS Trust

    Central London clinics and nursing homes

    National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic

    British Hospital for Mental Disorders

    Beaumont Street, St Marylebone (close to Harley Street) in 1901 (census) and 1915 (trade directory) consisted almost entirely of nursing homes, some of whose patients were psychiatric (but not certified lunatics). Charlotte Mew died at 37 Beaumont Street in 1928.

    The Medico Psychological Clinic operated from 14 Endsleigh Street from the autumn of 1913 and then from Brunswick Square from July 1914 to 1923 - Medico Psychological was a contemporary term for what we would now call psychiatric.

    The Tavistock Clinic   (external link)   started in Tavistock Square in 1920. [See 1929, when, as Tavistock Square Clinic, it joint sponsored a conference on Mental Health] It moved to Malet Place. Then moved to Beaumont Street (where it was in the 1960s). In 1967 it moved to Swiss Cottage.

    Belmont Asylum, Brighton Road, Sutton, Surrey was established by the Metropolitan Asylums Board in the premises of the South Metropolitan District School (Poor Law), probably in the first decade of the 20th century. It appears to have occupied the older part (boys school), whilst the girls school became Sutton and Cheam General Hospital. In 1930, it presumably passed to the London County Council. A building next to Belmont Hospital became the Henderson Hospital. Under its medical director, Dr Maxwell Jones, Henderson was one of the birth places of the therapeutic community, whilst Belmont was associated with the physical forms of treatment favoured by Dr William Sargant. Belmont is closed, but Henderson continues in new premises: 2 Homeland Drive, Sutton, Surrey, SM2 5LT. See Peter Higginbotham on the schools and the Henderson Hospital web site

    Surrey County Asylum at Brookwood, Knaphill, near Woking
    Knaphill Asylum
    National Grid Reference SU 961 581
    Erected 1862-1867
    Architect: Charles Henry Howell - Peter Cracknell classifies it as Corridor and Pavilion.
    Too large for Conolly's ideal
    Landscape: Designer possibly Robert Lloyd; plants from Jackmans' Nursery, Woking. (The asylum landscape designer Robert Lloyd was head gardener here for thirty years and may have laid out the landscape when he arrived). Archive at Surrey Record Office.

    Opened as a second Surrey County Asylum in June 1867. 328 patients were received in 1867. On an 1873 map it is on Knaphill Common, south west of "Woking Convict Prison".

    "The site was selected for cheap land and the Surrey Justices purchased 150 acres in 1860 for £70 per acre... The asylum was designed to be self sufficient with its own gas works, sewage plant, a water tower with reservoirs holding one million gallons of water, the four acre Home Farm, and recreational areas. Occupational therapy was born and able patients put to work on making items the asylum needed such as furniture, baskets, rugs, tools, etc. and growing their own food. It was all commendably enlightened for its time and with building extensions the number of inmates grew steadily from 670 in 1875 to 1500 in the 1930s. Besides providing a great deal of local employment for nursing and maintenance staff the hospital became a major social centre for the district, organising fetes, shows, weekly dances, sports events and fund raisers." (John Quarendon's Surrey Walks: "Roots of Woking" downloaded from WokingAlive.com, can now be downloaded from dirty boots)

    Edward Sackett (born 1840) was admitted to the [Workhouse] Infirmary, Russell Street, Bermondsey on 14.11.1874, but moved to Brookwood Lunatic Asylum a week later. 1881 Census: Edward listed as Henry Sackett. Assistant Medical Officers: James M. Moody (27 unmarried) and James E. Barton (36 unmarried) who was being visited by George H. Barton (aged 28), a stockbroker, and Thomas "Waklay" (medical student aged 29) who is probably Thomas Wakley (1851-1886), grandson of Thomas Wakley founder of the Lancet, who became joint editor with his father in 1886. Edward Sackett was one of thirty patients moved to the Berkshire asylum on 12.9.1882 to relieve overcrowding at Brookwood. His condition was described as "unimproved". Brookwood's contract with Berkshire expired 31.3.1884, when Edward was moved to the new asylum at Cane Hill.
    Between 1889 and 1909 it was the only Surrey County Asylum. Edward Sackett returned to Brookwood on 1.5.1895, but was sent to the London County Asylum at Claybury, Ilford in September 1896.
    1909: From this point, Brookwood served the western half of Surrey.
    It became Brookwood Hospital, Knaphill, Woking, GU21 2YP.
    Closure planned from 1986, but did not take place until 1994. "The surviving buildings have now been converted into luxury apartments". (Part of the site was developed as housing Percheron Drive, GU212QY). See Woking's Villages
    2003 use: "Luxury housing"
    Cataloguing its records - archive

    Surrey County Asylum at Cane Hill was opened in 1883. It was originally the third Surrey County Asylum. (map link)
    Click on the plan for a
picture of Cane Hill Click on the plan for a picture of Cane Hill
    Architect: Charles Henry Howell - The ward blocks are arranged around a D shaped network of corridors. Ian Richards describes it as an example of the Pavilion Plan in which the wards where housed in long thin ward blocks arranged around a central corridor. The pavilion design was a development of the straight corridor plan (e.g. Friern) that led on to echelon plan asylums like Severalls). The design was popular in the second half of the 19th century and it was about this time that the Recreation Hall and Water Tower became a standard feature of asylums. The picture here is from a 1960s AtoZ reproduced on the urban explorations site.
    Edward Sackett was admitted from Moulsford on 31.3.1884, and moved back to Brookwood on 1.5.1895.
    London County Council Asylum, with provision for Croydon: 15.3.1889: Sub-Committees of the Provisional Councils of London and Surrey met at Spring Gardens, London, to make suggestions about dividing the relevant assets of Surrey (previously managed by the County Justices). It was suggested that Cane Hill be taken by London, with one-eighth of its accommodation reserved for the Borough of Croydon. (Information, with references, from Margaret Griffiths for Surrey County Archivist). [Croydon became a county borough in 1889, under the same legislation that created County Councils for London and Surrey] By an agreement dated 25.3.1890, backdated to 1.4.1889, London County Council agreed to "accommodate and maintain" in Cane Hill "all such pauper lunatics of the county borough of Croydon" for five years. Croydon would meet all the costs of caring for its patients. "There are periodic references in the minutes to lunatics being housed elsewhere although the majority were at Cane Hill. Croydon appointed officials to regularly inspect conditions." (Chris Bennett, archivist Croydon Local Studies - Croydon Library, who provided above information, with references). Cane Hill was probably used as Croydon's main asylum until 1903, when its own asylum was opened.

    Hannah Harriett Pedlingham Hill born 11 Camden Street, Walworth on 6.8.1865. She married Charles Chaplin senior on 22.6.1885. Charlie Chaplin was born 16.4.1889. See also Wikipedia (German)

    Hannah Chaplin was a vaudeville artist until her voice failed. After that she lived in rooms in Kennington, in Lambeth workhouse, or Cane Hill Asylum. Charlie Chaplin and his brother Sydney visited her in Cane Hill in 1912:

    "It was a depressing day, for she was not well. She had just got over an obstreperous phase of singing hymns, and had been confined to a padded room. The nurse had warned us of this beforehand. Sydney saw her, but I had not the courage, so I waited. He came back upset, and said that she had been given shock treatment of icy cold showers and that her face was quite blue. That made us decide to put her into a private institution - we could afford it now."

    They moved her to Peckham House for a few years (until the money ran out).
    1918 Cane Hill Mental Hospital
    1937? Cane Hill Hospital
    1948 Under the South West Metropolitan Hospital Board
    31.12.1971: 1,451 patients. In 1971 there were usually 1,750 beds with 83% occupied. 66 of these were in locked wards. 18% were in wards with 30 or more beds, 3% in wards of 50 or more beds.
    1974 moved from the South West Metropolitan Hospital Board to the South East Thames Regional Health Authority (and Bromley Health Authority)
    The main part of Cane Hill Hospital closed in 1992. The surviving part is now Ravensbourne Trust Medical Secure Unit, Cane Hill Hospital, Cane Hill, Coulsdon, Surrey, CR3 3YL.
      Simon Cornwall's The Cane Hill Project on his Urbex (urban explorations) web site includes archive of the original Urbex explorations. Another web site is just called Cane Hill Mental Hospital

    Surrey County Mental Hospital at Netherne, founded 1907
    Simon Cornwall: Netherne, Hooley, Surrey. Built: 1909. Architect: George Thomas Hine
    Became Netherne and Fairdene Hospital about 1982, and then Netherne Hospital, Coulsden, CR3 1YE
    Simon Cornwall: Closed in 1994. Redeveloped as housing.
    2003 use: "Luxury housing"

    Tooting Bec Asylum, opened in 1903 by the Metropolitan Asylums Board, mainly for people with senile dementia.
    1919 Post Office Directory: Tooting Bec Asylum (Metropolitan Asylums Board), Tooting Bec Road, Upper Tooting, SW17. Edwyn H Beresford LRCP medical superintendent
    It became Tooting Bec Mental Hospital in 1924 and, in 1930, passed to the London County Council. In 1937 it became Tooting Bec Hospital. Address: Tooting Bec Road, London, SW17 8BL
    Closed May 1995 demolished 1996/1997

    1919 Post Office Directory: also lists a private asylum: Newlands House Mental Hospital. Tooting Bec Road SW17. J. Noel Sergent, MB, BS London, proprietor and resident physician.

    Fountain Asylum Established as a fever hospital in 1893
    Architect: Thomas W Aldwinckle
    1911: "the hospital was redesignated as a mental hospital and became used for the accommodation of the lowest grade of severely subnormal children.
    (Peter Higginbotham)
    1919 Post Office Directory: Metropolitan Asylums Board Fountain Asylum, Tooting Grove, Tooting SW17 Thomas Brushfield MA, MB, MRCS medical superintendent; Cedric Davis, steward; Miss Flora Harris, matron.
    In 1930, administration of the hospital passed to the London County Council who retained it as a hospital for mentally defective children.
    The Royal College of Surgeons (England) has archived Case notes on c. 4000 children - photos, treatment, school work, clinical histories, post- mortems, etc; photo album of staff, hospital, entertainments etc from 1914-1927 (Hospital Database)).
    In 1959 as a consequence of the Mental Health Act the children from the Fountain Hospital were transferred to Queen Mary's Children's Hospital, Carshalton. (external link)
    Closed 1963
    The Fountain was demolished in the 1960s and the site is now occupied by the St George's Hospital" (Peter Higginbotham)

    Pauper lunatics from Croydon went to the Surrey asylum at Cane Hill, and this continued when Croydon became an independent County Borough in 1889. However, the "Lunacy Visiting Committee" of the new "County Borough of Croydon" also made arrangements for patients to be kept in the Isle of Wight County Asylum (1897-1902), others may have gone elsewhere. Croydon Mental Hospital opened 1903, in Chelsham and Farleigh, about a mile north east of the centre of Warlingham. The East Surrey Bus Routes called it Chelsham Mental Hospital from 1923 to 16.4.1930 when it became Croydon Mental Hospital. On 1.1.1937 they changed it to Warlingham Park Hospital. ("You'll end up in Warlingham" - Croydon children's abuse in 1950s/1960s). 1954: Introduced out-patient nurses.
    the clock tower The Clock Tower, described as hideous in 1908, is now a Grade two listed building. The hospital was closed in February 1999, and demolished in summer 2000, but the clock tower and many trees have been preserved. The site is being redeveloped for housing. Postcode CR3 9YR
    2003 use: "Water tower preserved as symbol of development"

    Holloway Sanatorium
    Virginia Water, Surrey
    Opened as a private asylum in 1884
    Closed December 1980
    2003 use: "Gated housing development"

    Lingfield Training Colony
    1894: Opened
    Became St Pier's School, St Piers Lane, Lingfield, Surrey RH7 6PW
    19/23.3.2001: pdf: Ofsted report

    Latchmere Special Hospital for (Army) Officers
    Latchmere, Ham Common, Richmond, Surrey.
    A private house before the first world war. Taken over in
    November 1915 with beds for 51 officers. (external link and another ). In March 1920, Mrs. M. J. Shepperd, Sister, Special Hospital for Officers, Latchmere, Ham Common, Surrey, was awarded the Royal Red Cross (Second Class), by the King, in recognition of her valuable services in connection with the War (British Journal of Nursing 27.3.1920, p.124 - pdf-) ---- "MI5's Secret Interrogation Centre - Latchmere House - 'Camp 020' - at Ham Common, Richmond", After the Battle --- Latchmere House: "The Prison Service took over the site from the military in 1948. As a Prison Service establishment it has had several roles as a young offender institution, remand centre, and a deportees prison. It became a resettlement prison in 1992". HMP Latchmere House, Church Road, Ham Common, Richmond, Surrey, TW10 5HH Operational Capacity: 198

    Hackney (East London)

    1967 Some psychiatric beds opened at Hackney Hospital. Before this, there were out-patient clinics, but the in-patient beds were at Long Grove Hospital, Epsom, about 25 miles away on the other side of London.
    April 1974 After this date, all hospital admissions for mental illness were to units within the borough. (But existing patients remained at Long Grove). St Lawrences, Caterham, previously the catchment area hospital for mental handicap, ceased taking Hackney patients in 1974
    1980 and 1981 John Bligh's survey of patients in hospitals outside Hackney revealed at least 80 mentally ill patients at Long Grove and about 200 patients dispersed in mental handicap hospitals in a ring around London, including: St Lawrences: 161; Farmfield: 2; The Manor, Epsom: 13; St Ebbas, Epsom: 2; Darenth Park, Kent: 11; South Ockendon, Essex (the closest): 7; Harperbury, Hertfordshire: 1; Leavesden, Hertfordshire: 10. In 1980 Hackney's Director of Social Services told councillors that mentally handicapped people were no longer sent outside the borough "except in exceptional circumstances".
    1981 There were 80 mental illness in-patient beds at Hackney Hospital, 73 at the German Hospital and six at St Bartholomews.

    Robin Farquarson House
    37 Mayola Road, Hackney
    Established by mental patients for mental patients
    Opened July 1973, closed August 1976
    One of the residential houses set up by members of the Mental Patients' Union

    Mental Handicap Unit in Hackney

    Eastern Hospital The Eastern Hospital, Homerton Grove, London, E9 6BY was demolished in 1982 to make way for the new Homerton Hospital. Amongst its last residents were a group of severely disabled children who moved to a hostel in Malpas Road, Hackney. The Eastern Hospital had a long history as a fever hospital and as a hospital for diseases of the skin. Its use as a home for children with learning difficulties is not mentioned in the extensive historical notes on the Hospital Database.

    Mental Handicap Hospitals North East of London

    Royal Eastern Counties
    North Station Road, Colchester
    Established 1849 for Young inmates of Royal Earlswood By 1858 all patients transferred to Earlswood.
    1859: Eastern Counties Asylum
    1.2.1868: Feature in The Builder about an infirmary refers to Essex Hall Asylum for Idiots (See Rossbret)
    Royal Eastern Counties Institution for Mental Defectives
    c.1948 - 1972 Royal Eastern Counties Hospital
    1962 In her journal, Valerie Argent calls this Essex Hall (the term she always used), whereas her psychiatrist writes "Royal Eastern Counties Hospital, Essex Hall, Colchester"
    1972: Essex Hall
    1979: 338 beds (Mental Handicap)
    1986: Closed

    Also in Colchester Health District, for mental handicap, in 1979:
    Turner Village Hospital, Turner Road, Colchester, 476 beds
    Lexden House, Lexden, Colchester, 78 beds
    Barker House, Coppings Road, Clacton on Sea, 43 beds
    Brunswick House, Mistley, Manningtree, 43 beds
    Severalls Hospital had 38 beds for mental handicap
    Ramsey Lodge, Oakley Road, Dovercourt, Harwich, 37 beds
    Crossley House, Marine Parade, Clacton-on-Sea, 33 beds
    Hillsea, 10 East Hill, Colchester, 30 beds
    Handford House, Queens Road, Colchester, 20 beds
    Kingsmead, Straight Road, Colchester, 10 beds

    South Ockendon Colony
    Established 1932
    Became South Ockendon Hospital, South Road, South Ockendon, RM15 6SB
    1979: 724 beds (Mental Handicap)
    Closed 1994
    Hospital Database says: See (i) Randal Bingley, 'South Ockendon: Echoes from an Essex Hospital' (typeset, 1993); a copy is available at the Essex Record Office, Chelmsford. (ii) Richard Harris, ' Preserving and using archives', in Dorothy Atkinson, Mark Jackson and Jan Walmsley (eds) Forgotten Lives: Exploring the history of learning disability (BILD Publications 1997

    Leytonstone House or Leyton House
    2003 use: "Shops, supermarket"


    St Faith's Hospital, Brentwood
    London Road Brentwood CM14 4QP (Telephone was 01277 219262)
    An Industrial School for Shoreditch and Hackney (possibly opened by Shoreditch in 1854) - Hackney Branch Institution
    Brentwood Epileptic Colony (1916-1936?). For women.
    Established by the Metropolitan Asylums Board
    Taken over by London County Council in 1935. Probably renamed St Faith's Hospital at this point. See Ewell Epileptic Colony
    1962 (Hospital Plan): 332 beds in 1960, 303 of them for epilepsy, plus 15 acute and 14 geriatric. "At present takes only female patients" but "will be developed into the regional epileptic centre, thus allowing St David's Hospital, Edmonton to be closed". Development to be completed by 1971.
    1979: 293 beds. "Chronic Sick (Geriatric and Epileptics)"
    Demolished towards the end of the 20th century and replaced by "BT Workstyle 2000" building.


    St David's Hospital
    Silver Street London N18
    "From 1849 to 1915, this site was the Strand Union's workhouse school. It was then bought and converted by the Metropolitan Asylums Board and operated as St David's Hospital for "sane epileptics" until 1971. (email from Peter Higginbotham - external link to his site)
    Edmonton Epileptic Colony (1916-1936). For men. Metropolitan Asylums Board
    Taken over by London County Council in 1935. Probably renamed St David's Hospital at this point. See Ewell Epileptic Colony
    Hospital Database says it closed in 1947 - But it was part of a survey in 1962
    St David's, along with the Edmonton Union Institution and North Middlesex Hospital, shown on a map printed about 1950
    1962 (Hospital Plan): 271 beds in 1960, all for epilepsy. St David's was a regional centre for epilepsy. It was planned to close by 1971 (see St Faith's above) and the site was to be used for a new, 400 bed, hospital for mentally handicapped patients. Building the new hospital was expected to start sometime between 1966-1967 and 1970-1971. [But, by then, public policy had changed]

    Mental Handicap Hospitals North West of London 1971



    Cell Barnes

    Broomham and Fairfield Unit

    Normansfield Idiot Asylum
    Kingston Road Teddington [TW11 9JH]
    Founded 1868
    1881 Census: John L.H. Down physician head of Normansfield Idiot Asylum, Kingston Road, Middlesex.
    Owned by the Langdown Down family until purchased by the National Health Service in 1951. Its archives are the only ones for a private asylum held in the London Metropolitan Archives. (email from Bridget Howlett, Senior Archivist)
    A voluntary institution until 1948, then part of the National Health Service.
    1948? Normansfield Hospital
    1997 Closed
    History website
    Miriam Bruinsma's photographic gallery of Normansfield
    2003 use: "Luxury housing"

    Church Hill House

    Click for Mental Handicap Hospitals North East of London 1971

    Mental Handicap Hospitals South of London 1971

    Darenth Park Opened by the Metropolitan Asylums Board in 1878 as Darenth Asylum and Schools, 1913: Darenth Industrial Colony, 1920: Darenth Training Colony. In 1930, passed to the London County Council. 1937: Darenth Park Hospital, Dartford, DA2 6LZ. Closed 1988

    Leybourne Grange


    Princess Christian's

    St Lawrence's, Caterham

    Botley's Park Hospital
    Guildford Rd Chertsey Surrey KT16 0QA
    1765 Mansion
    external link archive of a history
    Records include at Surrey History Centre include:
    minutes of visitors 1914 - 1960
    1929 Mansion bought by Surrey County Council
    Management Committee Reports 1949 - 1950
    Botleys Plc and Murray House 1932 - 1933
    Deeds re Porook House Hostel 1913 - 1949
    Plans and contracts re construction 1930 - 1962
    Chertsey Workhouse Records
    Closed late 1997?
    2003 use: "Business"

    Murray House was the Chertsey Workhouse. See Peter Higginbotham's site
    In 1930, the workhouse was taken over by Surrey County Council and later became Murray House Certified Institution for the Mentally Defective

    Royal Earlswood
    1847: Park House, Highgate
    1855?: Earlswood Asylum for Idiots and Imbeciles
    Brighton Road, Redhill, RH1 6JL
    1858: John Langdown Down
    (external link) medical superintendent.
    1868 See Normansfield
    By 1929: Royal Earlswood Institution (to 1959)
    1995: Closed
    2001: Mental Disability in Victorian England: The Earlswood Asylum 1847- 1901 by David Wright. External link to review
    2003 use: "Luxury housing"

    The Manor, Epsom

    St Ebbas, Epsom

    Queen Mary's

    Mental Handicap Hospital South of London after 1971

    Grove Park Hospital Greenwich
    external link
    2003 use: "Housing"

    South East England

    Hook Norton, Oxfordshire
    Licensed House
    The asylum at Hook Norton and the one at Witney are the subjects of a special study by William Parry-Jones (1972 chapter six). Page numbers below are to this.
    About 1725: opened. The village of Hook Norton is near the edge of Oxfordshire, near to Warwickshire
    1815 list: Hook Norton: Harris
    1.1.1844 ??
    Closed 1854

    Warneford Asylum, Oxford (Headington)
    Warneford Hospital history in health authority archives
    not receiving paupers in 1844
    Architect: Richard Ingleman
    Opened 1826
    Before it opened (from 1821 to 1826) its was referred to as Oxford Lunatic Asylum
    1826: Radcliffe Asylum (1826 - 1843
    1843 Warneford Asylum
    1844: Superintendent: F.T. Wintle, MD
    1.1.1844: 42 private patients,
    1881 Census:. Warneford Asylum, Headington, Oxford. Medical Superintendent: John Ward, married, born Leeds about 1844.
    Warneford Hospital Warneford Lane, Oxford, OX3 7JX
    1909 Leaflet in book

    Associated with:
    Park Hospital for Nervous Diseases 1939 to 1958
    Park Hospital for Children 1958 to Present

    Oxfordshire and Berkshire County Asylum opened on 1.8.1846 at Littlemore, Oxford. This became the Oxford County Pauper Lunatic Asylum. By 1922 it was the Oxford County and City Mental Hospital. It is now Littlemore Hospital, Sandford Road, Littlemore, Oxford, OX4 4XN
    2003 use: "Gated housing development, business"

    A separate asylum for Berkshire County, and boroughs of Reading and Newbury was planned in 1867/1868: Moulsford Asylum opened in 1870. (external link to asylum history). (archive copy).
    Architect: Charles Henry Howell - Corridor form
    1881 Census: "Berks County Moulsford Asylum, Cholsey, Berkshire". Medical Superintendent (Physician) Robert Bryce Gilland, unmarried, aged 42, born Scotland. Under a contract with Surrey, 30 patients, including Edward Sackett were admitted from Brookwood on 12.9.1882, and sent back to Surrey on 31.3.1884. 1885-1902 imbecile patients from Westminster Fair Mile Hospital, Reading Road, Cholsey, Wallingford, OX10 9HH, had 613 beds on 31.12.1977. Autumn 2002: Reported open, or closed but empty (map)
    English Heritage: Fairmile, Oxfordshire, built 1868-1870 as the pauper asylum for Berkshire

    Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum was opened at Crowthorne, Berkshire, in 1863.
    BBC Profile - Wikipedia
    "designed by Major General Joshua Jebb, a military engineer who is said to have based the building off two other hospitals - Wakefield in Britain and Turkey's Scutari Hospital" (BBC Profile) - Joshua Jebb (8.5.1793 - 26.6.1863) was Surveyor-General of Prisons. He made the design for Pentonville Prison, which acted as the model for many others. (Neil Sturrock - email 7.12.2006)
    1863 to 1948 Run directly by the Home Office
    Dr John Meyer (died 1870) was the first Medical Superintendent. His deputy was William Orange (born 1833, died 1916). Both came from the Surrey Asylum
    1865: Report (HMSO) Superintendent: John Meyer, Chaplain: J.T. Burt
    1866 While kneeling at Communion Service, one Sunday, Dr Orange was hit on the head by a patient with a stone hidden in a handkerchief.
    July 1868 W.G. Maddox MRCS appointed Assistant Medical Officer in place of A J Newman, who had resigned
    January 1970 D M'K Cassidy, MD, late Assistant Medical Officer to the Northern District Asylum at Inverness appointed Assistant Medical Officer
    October 1870 W. Orange, MD Heidelberg, MRCP apponted Resident Medical Superintendent in place of J. Meyer MD. deceased. Meyer's obituary on page 311 of the Journal of Mental Science. William Orange had been Deputy Superintendent and W.Douglas MD, LRCS Edinburgh was appointed to that post in April 1871
    1870: Report (HMSO 1871) Superintendent: W. Orange, Chaplain: J.T. Burt. October 1871 A.R. Gray, MD, MRCS Edinburgh appointed Assistant Medical Officer
    1873-1874 Series of articles by David Nicolson on "The Morbid Psychology of Criminals" in the Journal of Mental Science
    1873 David Nicolson expressed opinion that habitual criminals "possess an unmistakable physique with rough and irregular outline and a massiveness in the seats of animal expression" while the accidental criminal "differs little or nothing from the ordinary run of mortals" 1878 After dealing with the inmates of the asylum, David Nicolson no longer believed most criminals differed physically from non-criminals. (Flemming, R. 2000 citing Weiner, M.J. 1990 )
    1881 Census Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum, Sandhurst, Berkshire. Some senior officers (see below) live outside the asylum. Inside is John Baldwin Isaac, unmarried, aged 33, born in Ireland a "Doctor Of Medicine (Civil Service)". The names of patients are given in full.
    1881 Census: Superintendent's House (William Orange)
    Thomas Ash (Chaplain) - David Nicolson - Robert Hazel
    1887 Report of the Superintendent (W. Orange), plans of the asylum, 1886 (men's division, men's division - blocks 1 and 6, women's division and block plan of the complete asylum), report of the Chaplain (Thomas Ashe), statistical tables, report of the Commissioners in Lunacy and post-mortem records
    1888 Report of the Superintendent - David Nicolson
    1892 Superintendent still David Nicolson. Chaplain still Thomas Ashe
    12.12.1894 Letter from Robert Hazel (non-medical superintendent at Broadmoor) to one of his daughters. He tells her about a theatrical entertainment at the Asylum that was to happen the next day (Friday 13.12.1894) Dr Lawless was the stage manager. He goes on to say "The elections come off next week in the School Room at Crowthorne, so it rather interferes with Mr Sharp's concert. Other concerts are also under way." [Information from Fiona Douglas. a descendent]
    1896 "When there was a change of Directors at Broadmoor around 1896 things became very tough in the Institution, and I believe that is when Robert Hazle retired to Hanwell in Middlesex"
    1901: Report (HMSO) Superintendent: R. Brayn, Chaplain: Hugh Wood. Visiting Lunacy Commissioners: F. Needham and C.S. Bagot
    1903: article by George Griffith
    1917 David Nicolson "William Orange, CB, MD, FRCP, formerly Medical Superintendent, Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum" Obituary, British Medical Journal 1917, volume 1 pp 67-69
    4.11.1919: Beth Wood admitted. Dr Sullivan was Superintendent at this time. Beth was conditionally discharged to the care of her husband on 4.12.1921
    1920 Rampton
    10.9.1924 The Nation "W. C. Sullivan, Medical Superintendent of the Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum in England, in his recent book, Crime and Insanity"
    26.2.1926 Death of William Charles Sullivan (1869-1926) sometime superintendent at Broadmoor.
    1948 Criminal Justice Act section 62(3) moved Broadmoor from the Home Office to the Board of Control. The name was changed to Broadmoor Special Institution
    1957: See Percy Report
    1959 Mental Health Act sections 97-98: Broadmoor, Rampton and Moss Side became Special Hospitals under the Ministry of Health.
    English Heritage: Broadmoor, Berkshire, built 1860-63 as the state criminal lunatic asylum
    HSH Broadmoor Hospital
    The Terrace, Upper Broadmoor Road, Crowthorne, Berkshire RG45 7EG
    freedom campaign prison list

    Buckinghamshire County Asylum opened 17.1.1853
    Stone, Near Aylesbury (HP17 8PP)
    Simon Cornwall: Built: 1850-1853. Architect: TH Wyatt and David Brandon
    Corridor form - Close to Conolly's ideal
    "Dr John Millar, Superintendant of the County Asylum close to Stone Vicarage" was a photographic pioneer and friend of Joseph Bancroft Reade (1801-1870) (external link). Appears to have been superintendent in 1855. A John Milar was proprietor at Bethnal Green by 1859. A John Millar wrote a book about insanity in 1861
    1853 to (about) 1930 registers of admissions and discharges in Buckinghamshire Records, County Hall.
    1919 Buckinghamshire Mental Hospital
    1948 St John's Hospital
    Associated Hospitals: Manor House Hospital - Joint Management Committee from 1954
    550 beds in 1979
    Buckinghamshire County Pauper Lunatic Asylum - St. John's by John Lewis Crammer. Publisher: London: Gaskell, 1990 195 pages: illustrated and indexed ISBN/ISSN: 0902241346
    Simon Cornwall: Demolished. Site developed for housing. Only Chapel and some staff houses remain.

    Mental Handicap Hospitals

    Borocourt Certified Institution for Mental Defectives
    A converted Victorian Mansion at Rotherfield Peppard, near Henley on Thames, Oxfordshire. (multi-map)
    5.5.1933: first residents
    Became Borocourt Hospital, Wyfold, Reading, RG4 9GD
    Renamed Wyfold Court, it is being converted into flats.
    Maureen's story
    2003 use: "Luxury housing"

    Bradwell Grove Hospital
    Built as Transit camp for US troops in
    World War two. Later used for casualty reception. Briefly used as a Royal Marine School of Music.
    Converted to a mental deficiency hospital about 1948
    External link includes history
    Closed 1986
    2003 use: "Zoo"

    Manor House Hospital
    Blerton Road, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire.
    216 beds in 1979

    Chalfont Colony opened 1894
    The National Society for the Employment of Epileptics, Chalfont St Peter, Buckinghamshire
    Doctors from the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic , in London, were amongst the people who established the colony. It was run from London and visited regularly by doctors from the hospital.
    (an external link)

    Fort Clarence: Asylum opened 1819

    "The Military Hospital at Fort Clarence, near Chatham, is well situated. The part of the fort which is appropriated to the residences of the officers is very gloomy, and ill suited for a receptacle for insane persons. Some of the sleeping-rooms for the private soldiers are sufficiently good, but others are dull and cheerless. The exercising grounds for the officers, and the yards for the soldiers, are cheerful, but are not sufficient in number or size. The buildings and grounds admit of great improvement; but we understand that the inmates of this hospital are about to be removed to a new asylum." (1844 Report p.31)

    Kent County Asylum
    Barming Heath, near Maidstone
    The term "barmy" (crazy) dates back to the 16th century, and was not derived from this asylum.
    Need for a county asylum first raised by the County Justices in 1825 (Administrative History)
    7.7.1825 "a return made by order of the county magistrates showed that there were 160 pauper lunatics and 50 dangerous idiots in Kent"
    (Nick Hervey)
    18.11.1828 Order made for its establishment. Committee of Visitors established to oversee: "after difficulty had arisen over the placement of a criminal lunatic from St. Augustine's prison". 37 acres site bought from the parish of Maidstone, "situated at 200-300 feet above the Medway on Barming Heath. The site overlooked a valley covered in hop plantations and was faced by timbered and park-like hills". (Nick Hervey)
    Simon Cornwall: Built: 1830-1833. Architect: John Whichcord Senior.
    Corridor form "The first building consisted of a central house of four stories, with two wings, or tiers of wards of three floors, on each side. This front faced south, and at each end there was a wing extending backwards at a right angle. There was an artificial warming and ventilation system heated by a steam engine. The latter also raised the asylum's water from a well". (Nick Hervey)
    Opened 1.1.1833 according to the 1844 Report and other sources. Built for 168 patients
    First superintendant George Poynder MRCS LSA, previously at Gloucestershire County Asylum
    1836 Part added to asylum
    1836 Richard Adams criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Kent". (HO 20/13)
    August? 1836 Publication by Charles Dickens of the fictional A Madman's Manuscript
    1837 Part added to asylum
    1838 William Deane, criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Barming Heath, Kent". (HO 20/13)
    [Many other criminal lunatics listed for West Malling and the Lunatic Asylum, Maidstone]
    1842 Part added to asylum
    1.1.1844: 249 patients. All pauper. 1844? 11.6% of patients epileptic
    1845 Part added to asylum: Now room for 443 patients.
    1846 George Poynder retired and was succeeded by James Edmund Huxley MD MRCS LSA. (aged 25), also previously at Gloucestershire County Asylum. (Nick Hervey)
    1847 Part added to asylum
    1850 Additional buildings added the Chronic/Additional Building)
    Annual medical report of the Kent County Lunatic Asylum, for the year ending July 4th, 1853. Presented to the Committee of Visitors, 10.9.1853 and to the Court of General Sessions, 18.10.1853. 24 pages and folded leaf of plates. Consists of statistical tables, remarks on the tables and report of the superintendent, James E. Huxley (Wellcome Library catalogue)
    1857: Wet beds and the threat to the British Constitution
    Sixteenth annual medical report : for the year 1861-1862 ("Thirtieth year") Consists of statistical tables, the 15th and 16th annual reports of the superintendent (James E. Huxley), including the report of the Commissioners in Lunacy (W.G. Campbell, S. Gaskell). Last with James Huxley as superintendent.
    About 1862-1869 William P. Kirkman Superintendent
    1867-1872 (Third Asylum/New Building).
    Accomodation problems eased by the opening of Chartham Asylum
    1881 Census: Kent County Lunatic Asylum Barming Heath, Maidstone. Francis Pritchard Davies (married, aged 38) Superintendent.
    1885-1902 imbecile patients from Westminster
    Asylum no longer there. Part of site occupied by new Maidstone Hospital.
    Oakwood Hospital, Maidstone (formerly Kent County Lunatic Asylum, Barming Heath), East Barming, Kent and Maidstone, Kent. 1829-1986 records in Centre for Kentish Studies, County Hall, Maidstone.
    Simon Cornwall: Closed. To be converted to housing.

    West Malling Place, Kent
    Licensed House
    Established about 1770 by William Perfect (1737-1809)
    Lent 1830 Sarah Blunt criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, West Malling, Kent". "felony" (HO 20/13)
    1.1.1844: 47 patients. 13 pauper and 34 private.
    "Lunatic Asylum" shown near the remains of St Leonard's Chapel at St Leonard's Street, on 1870 map.
    From 1875 to 1948 there was a Malling Place Private Mental Nursing Home, St Leonards Street, West Malling. Archives in Centre for Kentish Studies, Maidstone.
    1881 Census: St Leonard St Lunatic Asylum, West Malling, Kent. Thomas H. Lowry, aged 63, born Maidstone, Kent, Physician. Elizabeth I. Lowry, his wife, aged 50, born Chatham, Kent, and Mimie Lowry, there unmarried daughter, aged 19, born West Malling
    10.11.1912 William Smart Harnett, a farmer, admitted under certificate to Malling Place, West Malling, Kent, a licensed house owned and managed by Dr George Henry Adam.
    Hunter and McAlpine (1963) say that was "still in use"
    Postcode ME19 6PD (map to postcode)
    The site of the asylum on old maps is close to the present Manor Homes Elderly Residential Care at 96 St Leonards Street

    Kent County Asylum at Chartham
    East Kent Lunatic Asylum
    Opened 1875.
    Architect: Giles And Gough - Corridor-pavilion
    1885-1902 imbecile patients from Westminster
    Kent County Mental Hospital, Chartham from 1920 to 1948. Combined with St Martin's Hospital Canterbury and Canterbury City Mental Hospital in 1948. Then St Augustine's Hospital, Chartham Downs, Canterbury.
    April 1974 St Augustine's Hospital, Chartham Down, near Canterbury, Kent - A Critique Regarding Policy by Brian Ankers and Olleste Etsello
    "Drugs were given almost automatically to new admissions...ECT (Electroconvulsive therapy) was sometimes used as a punitive measure - although it was not openly admitted. I have heard the term 'punitive ECT' used in the hospital in reference to "that is what a patient needs". Some psychiatrists had a certain faith in ECT and at times patients were threatened with it" (page 14)
    31.3.1976 Report of the Committee of Inquiry at St Augustine's Hospital, Chartham, Canterbury
    "The consultants at St Augustine's readily admitted that they gave priority to the patients who were acutely ill. These tend to be younger than the chronic patients... the patients in the back wards often have intractable illness.." (Dr Tony Smith The Times 1.4.1976)
    This aerial view was sent me by Brian Bradley. It is included on Chartham Paper Mill's intranet as part of its heritage. Brian says that Canterbury City Council have refused Wilcon Homes permission to knock down the old hospital water tower (centre right in photo) as they consider it a significant landmark that could be turned into some sort of viewing tower. The photograph looks as if it may have been a postcard.
    Closed 1993. Econ construction, specialist in asbestos removal and demolition, charged a quarter of a million pounds to destroy the complete hospital complex of sixty acres, reclaiming of bricks, timber and slates and recycling and crushing 6,000 cubic metres of concrete, employing thirty demolition workers at the peak and completing on time in 1997 - on behalf of Wilcon Homes.
    Simon Cornwall: Closed in 1992, demolished in 1997.
    Peter Cracknell: Admin block, villa, lodge, chapel and tower survive. Rest of complex cleared by 1997.

    From 1902, Canterbury Borough had its own Mental Hospital (later St. Martin's Hospital). Prior to this, Canterbury Borough patients were reported as being in various location including Fisherton House, Wiltshire and in 1896 at Derby County Asylum.
    St Martin's Hospital Canterbury
    1994: 120 patients

    Sevenoaks Workhouse
    Built in 1843 "The workhouse later became Sundridge Institution catering for mental patients. Under the National Health Service, it became Sundridge Hospital but this closed in the late 1990s. The site is awaiting redevelopment".
    Peter Higginbotham
    July 1998 Closed

    The 1844 Report estimated the pauper lunatics of Sussex to be 251 in 1842, and reported the number chargeable to Unions in Sussex by August 1843 to be 278 (105 idiots and 173 lunatics. But there was no public or private asylum in the county that received paupers. Several were in asylums outside the county. Eight were in county asylum/s. [There is no column for "hospitals" so this may have included St Luke's Hospital]. Eighty Five were in licensed houses. Only 69 of those who remained in the county were in a workhouse, the other 116 were "with their friends or elsewhere".

    History of Haywards Heath - Haywards Heath and its Hospitals - - Brief history of Haywards Heath (archive). Joe Hughes of the Friends of St Francis has helped considerably with the history below and on the Charlotte Mew page (where the pictures are). He provided me with a full copy of A History of St Francis Hospital 1859 - 1995 by Jim Mable

    Sussex Asylum, Haywards Heath was being erected in 1858
    Known as Sussex County Lunatic Asylum from 1854 (when first planned) to 1892
    Architect: H. E. Kendall Junior. See Charlotte Mew Chronology
    Corridor form - Too large for Conolly's ideal?
    1870: 800 patients, dining halls, a nurses home, farm and sports ground
    Sarah Rutherford: Built 1856-1859
    National Grid Reference TQ 336 228
    "The polychrome building is sited at the top of steep terraces incorporated into the airing courts, with long views to the South Downs"
    Archive at East Sussex Record Office
    (Hospital database says "founded 1854")
    Opened 25.7.1859 (St James Day).
    Superintendent: Dr Charles Lockhart Robertson (selected from 83 applicants). Annual salary £450
    "It included accommodation for 420 inmates plus offices, superintendent's apartments, chapel, lodge, stable, gas house, engine and boiler room, boundary walls, gas works, baths, showers, brewhouse and washrooms." An artesian well 217 feet deep supplied water - and continued to do so until the hospital closed... The first patients came from other (private?) asylums and included 82 from Bethnal Green Asylum. (On Call p.2)
    1881 Census: Sussex County Lunatic Asylum, Haywards Heath, Wivelsfield, Sussex. Medical Superintendent: Samuel Blutes D. Williams (unmarried, age 41) Physician. Assistant Officer: Thomas Blair Worthington (unmarried, age 32)
    1891: Kelly's Directory: "The Sussex County Lunatic Asylum, about one mile south-east from Haywards Heath railway station, but locally situated in the in the parish of Wivelsfield, stands on an eminence in grounds covering nearly 300 acres: it was opened 25 July, 1859, and is a structure of brick, in the Lombardo-Venetian style, erected under the superintendence of Mr H. Kendall, jun. architect; additions were made in 1873 and continued till 1885, bringing the entire cost ups to about �120,000; there is a chapel for the officials and inmates: the number of patients at the present time (1890) is 848, and there is a staff of about 100 employees: the asylum is managed by a committee appointed by the County Councils of East and West Sussex and the County Borough of Brighton, who meet on the last Saturday of each month: William Henry Campion esq. is chairman."
    County Lunatic Asylum, Charles Edward Saunders MD, CM, resident medical superintendent; Edward Brooking Cornish Walker MB, CM, junior assistant medical officer; Richard John Fox MB, CM, junior assistant medical officer; Rev Francis Frederick John Greenfield BA chaplain; Reginald Blaker Lewes, clerk to the committee of visitors; Samuel Allen Mortlock, clerk to the asylum; Mrs E. Woodhouse, housekeeper; William Thomas Buckle, head male attendant; T. Lenton, storekeeper.
    East Sussex County Lunatic Asylum 1894 to 1903

    Brighton County Borough Asylum 1903 - when the new asylum at
    Hellingly became East Sussex County Asylum
    Brighton County Borough Mental Hospital 1919 to 1948
    1925 picture
    1.1.1927: 834 patients of whom all but 78 were Rate Aided. 310 were men, 524 women (an unusually high proportion). In 1926 the proportion of recoveries to admissions was 48.9%. The proportion of deaths to the asylum population was 7.6%
    St Francis Hospital 1948
    1979: St Francis Hospital had 612 beds
    Princess Royal Hospital (from?), Lewes Road, Haywards Heath, RH16 4EZ
    November 1995 "The life and work of St Francis Hospital 1895-1995": Special edition of On Call, the hospital magazine.
    "This magnificent yellow brick building has recently been transformed into a luxury home development known as Southdown Park. The views from the building are outstanding"
    First floor, single bedroom flat £157,500
    Records from 1854 to 1983 of Princess Royal Hospital (formerly Sussex County Lunatic Asylum and St Francis Hospital), Haywards Heath, East Sussex in East Sussex Record Office.
    There is a book: Sweet Bells Jangled Out of Tune: A History of the Sussex Lunatic Asylum

    [West Sussex County Asylum?]
    4.1.1896 Contract for reception of 5 males and 5 females in the
    Isle of Wight County Asylum made by Visiting Committee of County of West Sussex
    An asylum opened at Chichester in 1897
    It became Graylingwell Hospital, College Lane, Chichester, PO19 4PQ
    Graylingwell Hospital had 841 beds in 1979
    Autumn 2002: Reported closed but empty (map)
    English Heritage: Graylingwell, Chichester, West Sussex, built 1895-1897 as the pauper asylum for West Sussex

    [The new] East Sussex County Asylum opened in 1903 (see above)
    Simon Cornwall: Built: 1901-1903 Architect: George Thomas Hine
    Compact Arrow
    Became East Sussex County Mental Hospital and then Hellingly Hospital, Hellingly, Hailsham, BN27 2ER.
    Autumn 2002: reported closed and in a dangerous state of disrepair.
    Simon Cornwall: Closed in 1994. Standing derelict. Targetted by arsonists? June 2002 -

    External links mechanised org tours derelict building and says "Further Reading: Hellingly is one of the most documented of asylums- and the sites below offer the most interesting interpretations. Sub-Urban has a fascinating "Then and Now" section comparing the hospital as it stands with images from the 1900s - Exploration Station has reminiscences of former staff, patients and local residents; also contains countless photos - Urbex is the most accessible tour of the hospital; an extended journey through all of the main points of interest - Abandoned Britain is a black and white tour that perhaps comes closest to capturing Hellingly's calm and stillness" (Mechanised Spring 2006)

    Roffey Park Rehabilitation Centre (?) opened 1943
    It became Roffey Park Hospital, Horsham, Sussex and had 109 beds in 1979
    Closed 1981

    Maldon Lane, Witham, Essex
    Licensed House
    1.1.1844 ? patients. pauper and 17 private.

    Essex County Asylum: Plans date back to 1819:, but original proposal was for Springfield, Chelmsford. (Essex County Archives): Q/ACp 1: Papers and reports re Proposed County Lunatic Asylum Committee 1819-1827. "Committee reports, correspondence and opinion of counsel relating to purchase of the Ordnance Depot at Springfield, 1819, for conversion into a Lunatic Asylum. Includes a petition against the proposed scheme signed by 20 inhabitants of Springfield. Copies of printed Reports and Rules and Regulations of other County Lunatic Asylums collected by the Clerk of the Peace. Copy of printed Act 48 George 3, c.96 [1808]. Correspondence relating to request from Select Committee of the House of Commons, 1827, for information concerning care of lunatics in Essex and several copies of the Select Committee's Report printed, together with an account of the abortive scheme in Essex, by order of the court. For Minutes of this Committee see Q/ACm 3"
    1834 Received circular about cheap method of constructing an asylum
    Michaelemas Session 1837: Q/SBb 529/47 Draft court order for [Thomas] Hopper [County Surveyor] to investigate practicality and cost of providing lunatic asylum at Springfield.
    1846 Great Dunmow, St. Mary the Virgin, Parish Overseer's records: Circulars opposing erection of County lunatic asylum.
    1849 County Lunatic Asylum: Treasurer's Account (Q/ALc 9). One volume 1849-1861
    Diaries of Charles Gray Round of Birch Hall (D/DR F68) 27.6.1849 - 3.7.1854, include consecration of St. Peter, Birch, gift of C.G.Round, 25.10.1850; visit to Great Exhibition in Hyde Park, London, 16.5.1851; laying of foundation stone of County Lunatic Asylum at Brentwood, 2.10.1851, and appointment as chairman of Visitors, 16.1.1854.
    Essex County Lunatic Asylum opened 23.9.1853 at Brentwood. Probably built for 300 patients, it had 450 patients in 1858. - Too large for Conolly's ideal?
    Architect: H. E. Kendall [Essex County Archives Catalogue has "Kendall and Pope" as "architects". H.E. Kendall and R.R. Pope: See initials in brickwork Simon Cornwall's website: "It consisted of two main blocks orientated north to south and facing east, with miscellaneous buildings dotted behind these to the west. The use of red and black bricks, the stone mullion windows, and the use of octagonal towers gave the hospital a medieval appearance."
    Corridor form
    1870:model for a South Australian asylum
    Brentwood Mental Hospital from about 1920 to 1953. Then Warley Hospital, Warley Hill, Brentwood, Essex, CM14 5HQ.
    1953 G.S Nightingale, Warley Hospital, Brentwood. The first hundred years 1853 - 1953. Typed. Photocopy said to be available at the Essex Record Office, Chelmsford.
    "From 1974 the hospital lay geographically within the Chelmsford District of the Essex Area Health Authority, but in common with other hospitals in Brentwood was administered by the Barking and Havering Area Health Authority."
    1979: 1,025 beds
    Served people living in Brentwood, Havering and Barking and Dagenham.
    Closed in June 2001. Patients, staff and support services moved into purpose built "Mascalls Park" accommodation.
    Urbex (Simon Cornwall) map and photograph index
    Brentwood history at boredtown
    Cofton Projects (all archives, that is 14.11.2002 to 24.2.2005)
    Now Clements Park, Warley

    Also in Brentwood: St Faith's Hospital (epilepsy)

    Severalls Hospital, Colchester
    The second Essex County Asylum
    Opened May 1913
    Essex archives online:
    1915-1916 Case Papers relating to James Keeble of Heybridge Basin in Heybridge, removed from the London Lunatic Asylum at Stone near Dartford (co. Kent), to Severalls Asylum at Colchester on 15 July 1915
    1920-1921 Case papers relating to Susan Mott a lunatic pauper spinster confined in Severalls Asylum at Colchester
    1929 Case papers relating to Constance Julia Hardy aged 43 years a pauper lunatic and singlwoman formerly of 30 Stainforth Road, Seven Kings [Ilford] and later of Wayside House, Stow Maries, and now in Severalls Lunatic Asylum at Colchester
    1929 Case papers relating to Henry Arthur Willett, born at Burnham-on- Crouch 15 October 1895, and his wife Marion Blair Willett a pauper lunatic now in Severalls Mental Hospital at Colchester
    Last patient moved out 20.3.1997

    The Save Severalls Group website seems to have closed. Visit the archive. This says:

    "The main hospital complex is a good and externally largely unchanged and intact example of an echelon plan hospital, The main hospital complex is surrounded by a variety of villas, accommodation blocks which were built between 1910 and 1935. This makes the site particularly interesting as it represents the changing attitudes of asylum design in the early 20th Century, away from the large hospital complexes so popular in the 19th century to the more 'homely' Colony Style where the wards where housed in smaller individual villas rather than large ward blocks."

    "dominating the site in the Northwest of the building there is a tall water tower and chimney." (picture) [See Enoch Powell's Water Tower speech]

    David Wright, engineer at Severalls for 16 years, explains the tower:

    "The tower at Severalls houses the lift pumps that abstract water from a bore hole. The water is lifted to the cistern at the top of the tower and supplies the Domestic Hot Water Supply and the Cold Water Downservice. All drinking water is taken directly from the public main as are the fire hydrants."

    original picture The chimney can be seen at the back of the tower. Originally the stack was a third taller, but was reduced in the second world war because it posed a threat to crippled US bombers landing at Boxted airfield near by. The chimney takes the fumes from the oil and gas fired boilers that heat the water. There were four large steam boilers and one which was half size. In the event of electrical power loss to the hospital site, a large generating set made the site self sufficient if necessary.

    The Save Severalls Group website is maintained by Ian Richards. It also has information about other asylums Ian has visited. Ian has provided me with information about asylum design in the between 1850 and 1950 that I am using on this website.

    See also Urbex (Simon Cornwall) map and photograph index

    Diana Gittins, 1998 Madness in its Place: narratives of Severalls Hospital, 1913-1997 London: Routledge, Memory and narrative series. 12 pages introductory, 242 pages. Oral history from patients and staff

    Also in Colchester Health District 1979: many mental handicap units

    Runwell Mental Hospital
    Runwell Chase, Runwell, near Wickford, Essex
    1934-1937 was one of the two last mental illness asylums to open, the other being Shenley. It was a joint venture of Southend and East Ham boroughs, situated on the railway line mid-way between them.
    20.6.1934: Founded
    Following the ending of contracts accomodating patients at the Essex county's Brentwood mental hospital, joint facilities were developed between East Ham and Southend-on-sea boroughs. A site was chosen at Runwell Hall, to the east of the town of Wickford and an extensive complex of buildings was developed utilising the colony plan. Considered advanced amongst its kind". (Peter Cracknell)
    Architect: Charles Ernest Elcock and Frederick Sutcliffe, of London
    Colony plan
    21.5.1936 First patients admitted
    14.6.1937 Opened
    1950 Dr J.A.N. Corsellis (1915-1994) "known as Nick" began his collection of brains at the hospital.
    About 1955 became Runwell Hospital, Wickford, Essex, (SS11 7QE)
    The first psychiatric hospital to "treat" me: As a boy (not long after 1955) I had the waves of my brain measured. I thought the lady might be reading my mind, so had to be very careful.
    1968 Dr Clive Joseph Bruton (18.9.1941-1.2.1996) became a Senior Registrar at Runwell, working with Dr J.A.N. Corsellis. He left for general practice in 1971, but retained his connection.
    1979: 848 beds. Administered by Southend Health District. Outside the District
    1986-1994 Dr Bruton honorary consultant, Department of Neuropathology, Runwell Hospital
    the mid-1980s until 1995, the department of neuropathology at Runwell had been largely funded by the Medical Research Council.
    1993 Brain specimens number abot 8,000
    When, in 1994, plans were announced to break up and re-distribute the archive, Bruton was instrumental in ensuring that the custodianship of the department and the material was transferred to Southend Community Care Services NHS Trust, leading to his appointment as curator of the Corsellis Collection brain bank".
    1994-1996 Dr Bruton curator of the Corsellis Collection
    The Corsellis Collection is now housed at St Bernard's. "It is reputed to be the world's largest collection. I believe it is kept down in one of the basements" (Paul Champion, email 12.8.2006)
    31.3.1994: 320 patients

    5.3.1999 "Runwell lands big cash handout"
    13.12.1999 (Hansard) "Southend Community Care Services National Health Service trust is preparing plans for the reprovision of all services currently on the Runwell Hospital site, including the Medium Secure Unit"
    June 2004 trip to Runwell by "Mechanised"
    August 2004 Runwell appendix by "Mechanised"
    September 2004 Runwell Research Labs on the Abandoned Britain website
    Due to close end of 2006?
    Peter Cracknell: "Currently in use, closure proposed for 2008"
    See also Obituary Clive Bruton - Isaac Report on Corsellis Collection

    Suffolk County Asylum
    Melton, near Woodbridge
    Previous history (1765-1827) House of Industry for Looes and Wilford Incorporated Hundreds.
    Peter Higginbotham says many incorporated Hundreds were set up in rural Suffolk in the 25 years after 1756
    Asylum opened 1.1.1829
    Suffolk County Lunatic Asylum to 1906
    1.1.1844: 213 patients. 206 pauper and 7 private.
    1881 Census
    Suffolk District Asylum from about 1906 to about 1930
    Also known, from about 1917, as St Audry's Hospital for Mental Diseases
    Became St Audry's Hospital, Melton, Woodbridge, IP12 1QT
    1979: 530 beds
    Now closed
    External link to a nearby walk
    Felixstowe Museum has a room devoted to it   [other museums]
    Archives in Suffolk Record Office (Ipswich Branch)

    Belle Vue House, Ipswich, Suffolk
    Licensed House
    Opened 1835
    1.1.1844 32 patients. 20 pauper and 12 private.
    Licensed to James Shaw (surgeon)
    "Belle Vue Asylum, Ipswich Pleasantly situated on the Woodbridge Rd, is a private establishment, for the reception of persons afflicted with insanity. It was commenced in 1835, by its present proprietor, Mr James Shaw, surgeon, & has accommodations for 40 patients". White Directory 1844 - p 84 Submitted by Betty Longbottom to Rossbret
    1870 Belle Vue House, Ipswich, Suffolk licensed to Miss S A F Walter

    Eye workhouse
    Charles Mott, 1837:
    "the man at Eye ate potato peelings...because he was an idiot"
    Also see Peter Higginbotham on Eye workhouse

    Ipswich Borough Asylum
    Built: 1869-1870 Opened 1870.
    Architect: WR Ribbans
    It became Ipswich Mental Hospital about 1908, then St Clement's Hospital, Foxhall Road. Ipswich, IP3 8LS, about 1947.
    Autumn 2002: reported closed and empty, but in good condition.
    Still open, no plans to close. (Simon Cornwall)

    In 1700 Norwich was the second largest city in England. Its population approached 30,000. Its closest rival, Bristol, had a population of more than 20,000

    Bethel Hospital, Norwich
    [Following history based mainly on
    Winston, M. 1994 "The Bethel at Norwich: an eighteenth-century hospital for lunatics"
    Established 1713.
    The original house, known from its image on the seal of the Bethel and from a written descnption, seems to have been a two-storey building with two wings, set back from the road, then known as Committee Street.
    8.1.1724 Death of Mary Chapman, founder of the Bethel.
    1727: Six new wards
    For the trustees:
    City & County of Norwich January 1730

    We whose names are herein Subscrib'd being appointed Trustees for the Endowment of Bethel do require you on Sight hereof to take and Receive into the aforesaid House take due care of and provide for A B belonging to the parish of C aged about years He being Certify'd under the hand of our Physician to be under Lunacy and there being Security given for his maintenance by D_ _ E.. while he shall continue there to our Satisfaction.

    To F G Robert Waller
    Keeper of Bethel

    The Bethel at Norwich
    For the applicants:
    Norwch Janry 1730

    Having this Day receiv'd an order from the Trustees for the Endowment of Bethel directed to the Keeper to Receive & take into the aforesaid House, take care of & provide for A.. B of the parish of C aged about years. In consideration thereof we do hereby promise to pay to H J Treasurer of the aforesaid Endowment or to his order the Summ of Four Shillings per Week and to pay the Same Monthly for so long time as he shall remain in the aforesaid House and also to allow for all Damages and Wasts that shall be committed by the said A B and to Supply him with necessary Cloathing during his abode there, and if he shall dye there, do promise to remove the Corps or else to be at the charge of Burying him from the aforesaid House in witness whereof we now Set our Hand the Day and Year above written.

    1747: Ordered that "Thomas Benning, Carpenter, do make a partition in each story in order that the Mens apartments may be wholly on one side of the Hospital and the Womens on the other. And also that he make a new Window on the South side of that Cellar where some of the Lunatics are lodged"
    1749 Existing bathroom to converted to a cell, and strawroom to a "Cellar for the worst of the Lunatics to be put in", and a new strawhouse, bathroom and wash-house were to be built.
    The number of residents remained stable between twenty and thirty until 1750. There was then a steady increase which continued throughout the decade. By 1760 numbers had risen to almost fifty.
    1765 Trust incorporated and trustees became governors.
    1762 Bequest of £1,000 by Bartholomew Balderston in order that two persons from the Congregation of Independents in Norwich could be kept "on the foundation" from time to time. (archive) - Relates to Congregational Church, Old Meeting, Norwich (archive)
    Patient numbers dropped from between forty and fifty resident before 1780 to little more than thirty in the early 1790s.
    1792 - 1867 Members of the Gurney and Birkbeck families, Quaker bankers, amongst the Governors.
    27.7.1807: Frederick Reeve Spalding criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum". He had been tried for a felony at Norwich and was held on the order of Warner & Richard Car Spalding. (HO 20/13)
    1814 On the opening of the County Asylum notice was given to parishes that certain pauper patients would be discharged. The parishes arranged their admission to the county asylum. For the next three decades, until the Lunatics Act of 1845, the number of patients at the Bethel remained between seventy and eighty, while those in the new asylum increased
    1818 Letter from Samuel King, Bethel Hospital, Norwich, to Thomas Stimson, Emneth, stating that patient John Marshall of Emneth would be returned as the parish had ceased to pay for him - 'It will fall to my Lot...to take him home in a Post Chaise' (archive)
    September 1828 Joseph John Gurney (a visiting governor) visited with his sister, Elizabeth Fry. Two days later a Middlesex magistrate visited and pronounced himself "much pleased"
    June 1830 William J. Tuke accompanied Gurney to the house and suggested that the galleries might be opened up to provide a variety of exercise for the patients.
    1831: Uriah Baldwin criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Norwich". He had been tried at Norwich.
    July 1832: Thomas Iveson criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Norwich". He had been tried for murder at Kings Lynn. He also spent time in Bethlem (HO 20/13)
    Superintendent 1844: -- King.
    1.1.1844 66 patients. "It is believed that some of these are maintained partly at the charge of parishes" (1844 Report p.210)
    1870 Superintendent C. M. Gibson (surgeon)
    1881 Census: "Hospital For Lunatics Bethel" Bethel Street, Norwich St Peter Mancroft
    1956 Sale of the five Bethel Hospital farms. (archive) [I think these were the source of investment income since the 18th century - But see national policy]
    1962 (Hospital Plan) Grouped with Hellesdon. Bethel had 122 patients in 1960 and was expected to close by 1975

    "the oldest surviving hospital in the country specifically founded for the care of the mentally ill and currently the oldest building in the UK to have been in continuous psychiatric use (though it has been threatened with closure for some time) Since 1974 when the in-patient facilities were closed, it has continued as the Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry." Medical Heritage

    1979 The Bethel Hospital, Norwich, NR2 1NR (no beds) Child and Family Psychiatry
    2005: Bethel Child and Family Centre (Child and Adolescent Services), Mary Chapman House, 120 Hotblack Road, Norwich, Norfolk, NR2 4HN (NHS Direct)
    Archives link

    Norfolk County Asylum
    at Thorpe, near Norwich
    one and a quarter miles east of Thorpe village church
    third oldest county asylum.
    [A Sarah Rutherford case study]
    11.10.1808 Resolved at Norwich Quarter Sessions that the next General Sessions "take into consideration the expediency and propriety of providing a Lunatic Asylum..." under the provisons of the 1808 County Asylums Act
    July 1809 committee appointed "for the purpose of making inquiry into the number of idiots and lunatic paupers...". It reported that there were 153 lunatics in the county.
    October 1810: A committee of nine appointed to look into the best means. It reported that the asylum should be near Norwich and that the County Surveyor had prepared a plan for an asylum capable of receiving 180 lunatics which could be enlarged to hold 300. The estimated cost was £20,000.
    April 1811: Committee reported purchase of five acres of land at Thorpe at for £600
    The earliest part of the building is by Francis Stone and was constructed between 1811 and 1814.
    Opened 18.5.1814
    It was built for 102 patients, but by 1820 had averaged only 80.
    1814 First patient escaped over the walls
    4.8.1815 Cemetery consecrated
    1816 F.H. Stone, Ground floor plan of Norfolk Asylum [whereabouts unknown, copy in RCMHE file 100458, NMR, Swindon].
    Summer 1821: Elizabeth Baldry criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Norfolk". She had been tried for a felony at Norwich. (HO 20/13)
    1825 a lengthy description
    1828 Andrew Halliday's description
    April 1828: John Kenney criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Norfolk". He had been tried for murder at "Norfolk". (HO 20/13)
    April 1829: Richard Scott criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Norfolk". He had been tried for murder at "Norfolk". (HO 20/13)
    March 1832: John Rudd Turner criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Norfolk". He had been tried at "Norfolk" for murder (HO 20/13)
    April 1832: Mary Ann Pycroft criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Norfolk". She (was to be?) tried at Wymondham, and was held for "want of Bail" (HO 20/13)
    1839: William Gathercole criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Norfolk". He had been tried at "Norfolk". (HO 20/13)
    Visiting commissioners stimulate changes
    1.1.1844: 164 patients. All pauper.
    1854 extra land
    1857 Additions by John Brown, the County Surveyor. (Peter Cracknell) - Sarah Rutherford
    1858: 420 patients
    1867/1868 Superintendent of Norfolk Thorpe near Norwich; Dr W.C Hills
    April 1873 James Shaw (MD Queens) appointed Assistant Medical Officer in the place of William Paynton, resigned
    About 1878/1880: an annex was designed by Makilwaine Phipson: Corridor-Pavilion?. (Peter Cracknell)
    1881 Census: "Norfolk County Lunatic Asylum, Thorpe Next Norwich, Norfolk". Superintendent William Charles Hills
    Thorpe Lunatic Asylum 1891 census names
    Served as a war hospital 1915-1919. Was Norfolk Mental Hospital from 1919 to 1923 and then St Andrews Hospital, Thorpe Road, Norwich, NR7 OSS.
    "In 1939 340 beds were put aside for use by the Emergency Hospital Scheme. On 30.6.1945 111 beds were handed back for normal use but the EHS retained beds in St Andrew's Hospital until 1947" Hospital database:
    1957 An Act of Parliament made the Yarmouth Naval Hospital (re-named St Nicholas) a part of St Andrew's.
    31.12.1971: "St Andrew's and St Nicholas" 958 resident patients, but 1,109 beds.
    31.12.1975 "St Andrew's" 551 resident patients, but 646 beds.
    31.12.1977 St Andrew's 647 beds. St Nicholas 211
    It closed in 1998. The patients from the last ward to closed moved to Hellesdon
    Looks intact. Grounds being redeveloped (Simon Cornwall)
    Tuesday 20.6.2006 Radio 4 programme The Asylum Band by violinist David Juritz. Traced the history of the asylum orchestra and music in the asylum, back from the recovery of sheet music when the hospital closed.
    External link to archives
    External link to online catalogue includes a history

    Norvic Clinic, Yarmouth Road, Norwich
    First purpose built Regional Secure Unit
    Opened early 1980s?
    "The Norvic Clinic (plus the associated rehabilitation units of Meadowlands and Highlands) are the Trust Forensic service, providing a local and Regional facility. They are situated on the east of Norwich, close to the A47 southern by-pass, on the site of the former St. Andrews Hospital, now the Broadland Business Park". (source)

    Norwich Infirmary Bethel
    A Workhouse Asylum
    "Wards exclusively appropriated to lunatics" (1844 Report p.10)
    Norwich Incorporation of the Poor was established in 1712, shortly before the Bethel Hospital
    "A separate infirmary, near St Augustine's Gate in the parish of St Clement, accommodated up to 130 aged and infirm men and women aged 65 or over. Adjoining it was a building erected in 1828, and enlarged in 1838, as an Asylum for Pauper Lunatics, with a ward for sick patients. Peter Higginbotham
    1859 national comparisons

    Email on Rootsweb: "Infirmary Road ran from where the swimming pool was to the junction of Angel Road and Waterloo Road. The Borough Lunatic Asylum was in Infirmary Square in what is now Starling Road and the building you remember as preceding the swimming pool was, in fact, St. Augustine's School. The school was badly bombed on April 27th, 1942, and was never used as such again. Two of my ancestors are shown as living in Infirmary Road in the 1861 C.R. The area became New Catton but prior to that was in St. Clement Without."

    In 1859/1860 a new workhouse was built north of Bowhill Road, which eventually gained an infirmary. The establishment of Norwich Borough Asylum appears to have followed the disappearance of the Infirmary Bethel.

    Norwich Borough Asylum

    Competition for the design of reported in The Builder 1868 Volume 26, 7.11.1868 (Alan Longbottom on the Rossbret site)
    1870 Norwich St Augustine's Gate: Superintendent Dr H,G, Stewart

    Kellys Norwich 1883: "The corporation of Norwich have built a Lunatic asylum for the city, at Hellesdon, distant about two miles, to supersede the one formerly used in Infirmary Road: the new building was erected to hold 350 patients and the administrative portion is large enough to work an asylum for 500 or 600 inmates: the plan is on what is known as the "block system" -- detached buildings connected together by communicating corridors and surrounded by airing courts -- and there is one peculiar feature in the arrangements which has never been carried out in any other lunatic asylum: i.e. the upper floors are entirely empty during the day, and the ground floor during the night, thus giving perfect ventilation to each story every twelve hours: the cost of the works has exceeded �60,000, including the purchase of the site and furniture: the architect is Mr Makilwaine Phipson F.S.A.: there are about 50 acres of land attached to the asylum, the cultivation of which is entrusted to the patients, under direction, with very satisfactory results: the building is lighted by gas supplied from the Norwich gas works: the water is pumped up by steam from a well 100 feet deep on the premises: there are about 100 single room, and the other 250 inmates are associated together in dormitories containing from 4 to 16 patients each: in 1851 a mortuary and stables were built near the entrance lodge, also two semi-detached cottages for the artizans: the asylum was opened and organised by the first and present superintendent, Dr. William Harris FRCS."

    1881 Census: "Norwich City Lunatic Asylum, Sprowston, Norfolk"
    Hellesdon Lunatic Asylum 1891 census names
    During the first world war, Norfolk County Asylum was used as a War Hospital. Patients who should have been admitted to that Asylum were temporarily admitted by the Norwich City Asylum.
    Became Hellesdon Hospital, Hellesdon, Norwich, Norfolk, NR7 OSS
    During the second world war, Bethel Hospital was closed and the Hellesdon Hospital admitted patients on behalf of that hospital.
    Still seems very much alive. See Jeremy Jones web, especially inside Hellesdon Hospital
    2005: Hellesdon Hospital, Drayton High Road, Norwich, Norfolk, NR6 5BE (NHS Direct)

    Royal Naval Hospital, Yarmouth (Norfolk)

    See naval lunatics summary on timeline

    "Many military buildings have been built in Great Yarmouth over the years. One of the most striking is the Naval Hospital, which was originally for sailors wounded in the Napoleonic Wars. It then became a barracks, but was converted back to a hospital 40 years later and was used to accommodate sailors who were mentally ill. Hence the navy slang to describe those sailors who are showing signs of mental wear and tear is going to Yarmouth. (online leaflet)"

    From Crisp's History of Yarmouth (1877?) - archive copy
    The Royal Hospital or Asylum built by Government at a cost of £120,000
    Foundation stone laid by Admiral Rilly Douglas in 1809
    The building was erected by Mr Peto (father of Sir Samuel Morton Peto) from designs by H. Pakington, Esq., for a Naval Hospital. "The rooms in front are 150 feet long, and the whole area within the Asylum is about fifteen acres, and the interior arrangements are admirable, to say nothing of the spacious court-yard to the north".
    Opened 1811?
    13.3.1812 The South Gate taken down and sold for £26 to Mr. Jonathan Poppy. It presented, two massive round towers, flanking a square curtain, beneath which was the arch.
    1815 600 wounded men from Waterloo lodged in the Naval Hospital
    1844 The Naval Hospital converted into a Lunatic Asylum. [See below] The building was re-modelled in 1863, and 37 new wards added, by Mr. G. Tyrrell. Eighty inmates were received the same year (September) from Haslar, making a total of 169.
    The eleven acres of ground on the east cost the Government £11,000 in 1875.

    From 1846 to 1854 the hospital was used as a Military Naval Hospital. The Naval Hospital Muster Books for Haslar finish in 1854

    The Twenty Second Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy (1867/1868) includes a "Report on Yarmouth Naval Lunatic Hospital" (See Rossbret site)

    Report of the Royal Commission on the Law Relating to Mental Illness and Mental Deficiency. 1954-1957, paragraph 880: "The Yarmouth Naval Hospital Act, 1931 Under this Act special procedures are laid down for the admission, detention and discharge of patients in the Yarmouth Naval Hospital. Persons who may be admitted as patients include officers of the Royal Navy or Royal Marines whether they are on the active list or not, and certain other categories of persons who are serving of have previously served in the Royal Navy, Royal Marines, Royal Fleet Reserve, Royal Naval reserve or Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, and also other war pensioners already detained elsewhere under the Lunacy and Mental Treatment Acts (except voluntary and temporary patients). The procedures for the compulsory admission, detention, visitation and discharge of patients in this hospital (other than voluntary patients) differ in many ways from those which apply to certified and temporary patients under the Lunacy and Mental Treatments Acts. We understand that the future of this hospital is at present under consideration, and that changes are contemplated which, if approved, would involve the abolition of these special procedures. It seems to us desirable that the procedures and safeguards which we have recommended for patients in other hospitals should also apply to patients in this hospital.

    St Nicholas Hospital
    Queens Road, Great Yarmouth.
    Simon Cornwall:: Originally: Naval Hospital/Barracks Built: 1800-1811. Architect: Henry Pilkington. Converted to housing.
    Clive Baulch: This building opened 1876. Closed as a naval hospital in 1956. Became NHS.
    St. Nicholas' Hospital in Great Yarmouth, the former Royal Naval Hospital, was attached to the St Andrew's Hospital under the Yarmouth Hospital Transfer Act 1957
    1960 Hospital Plan 245 beds. Planned to close by 1975
    31.12.1977 211 beds. Mental Illness

    Paul P. Davies History of Medicine in Great Yarmouth, Hospitals and Doctors (ISBN:0954450906), published by the author, Great Yarmouth, 2003. I am told that this has about 100 pages devoted to the Royal Navy Hospital. This description is taken from an online bookseller: 718 pages of A4 size... history of all the Gt Yarmouth hospitals up to the opening of the James Paget Hospital in 1981. It includes the General, Escourt (Isolation), St Nicholas' (Naval), Gorleston Cottage, Gorleston and Northgate (Workhouse) Hospitals. The various smallpox, cholera and military hospitals, which at one time were in the town are also included. Details of many of the past doctors of the town are given, dating back to the 18th century and the well-established practices are traced back to their origins. The book is well illustrated with photographs, advertisement and health notices. Medicine is interlinked witrh local and social history and, were appropriate, this is included.

    Samuel Whitbread (30.8.1720-11.6.1796), founder of Whitbread's brewery who bought large estates in Bedfordshire and Bedwell Park in Hertfordshire, was Tory MP for Bedford from 1768 to 1790. He was very strictly religious. (DNB under son)
    1803 Bedford General Infirmary, "on the Ampthill Road" erected "with funds bequeathed chiefly from Samuel Whitbread esq". (See Rossbret site)
    Samuel Whitbread (1758-1815) Only son of Samuel who died in 1796. He did not share his father's strict religious views. He married, in 1789, Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of Charles (later 1st Earl) Grey. Samuel Whitbread was Whig MP for Bedford. He was on the 1807 select committee on criminal and pauper lunatics. A speech recorded in Hansard 14.6.1814 (A governor of St Lukes) On 1814-1816 Select Committee on Madhouses , but cut his own throat 6.7.1815, before the committee's third session. He had three sisters including Mary his step-sister who married George Grey, the father of the lunacy commissioner.
    William Henry Whitbread (4.1.1795-1867) The eldest son of Samuel who died in 1815, was MP for Bedford Borough from 1818 to the 1830s. His votes recorded in the Annual Register for 1820 were radical.
    Samuel Charles Whitbread (1796 - 27.5.1879), the second son of Samuel who died in 1815, was MP for Middlesex from 1820 to 1830.

    Bedfordshire County Asylum

    5.10.1808 Bedfordshire Justices gave notice of their intention to provide a lunatic asylum

    Building commenced 1810
    Architect: J. Wing. Landscape designer unknown. "Limited grounds reminiscent of earlier charitable asylums". Archive at Bedfordshire Record Office.
    Opened June or August 1812
    Ampthill Road, Bedford from 1812 to 1860
    National Grid Reference SP 047 485
    Dr Grant David Yeates, physician to the Duke of Bedford, helped to establish both the Bedford Infirmary and the County Asylum. He was the infirmary physician and visiting physician to the County Asylum from 1813 to 1814. He tried to convince the Bedfordshire magistrates that they should concern themselves as much with the cure of asylum inmates as with their safe custody. (Munk and Scull, A.T. 1979 p. 155)
    27.4.1812 William Pether and his wife appointed "the Governor and Matron of the Lunatic Asylum".
    May have provided for 52 patients at opening. Twice enlarged before 1844. The second enlargement being with a view to taking paupers from other counties, to reduce the cost of the asylum to Bedfordshire.
    1825: Copied mounds in yards from Brislington House
    1844 (and long before) Superintendent J. Harris, Surgeon
    1.1.1844: 139 patients. All pauper. It had accommodation for 180.
    Weekly charge for paupers 7/6. For out-county paupers 8/6

    Bedfordshire County Asylum became Bedford and Hertfordshire County Asylum in 1847.
    Demolished in 1860

    A Bedford, Hertfordshire and Huntingdonshire County Asylum at Arlsey (Arlesey) was being erected in 1858. It may have opened in 1860 and was known as the Three Counties Asylum (until 1928) and then Arlesey Three Counties Hospital.
    Corridor form - Too large for Conolly's ideal?
    From 1964: Fairfield Hospital, Stotfold, Hitchin, SG5 4AA. It closed in 1999. The Rossbret Asylums Website has history and photographs under "Three Counties Asylum". GenUK on Bedford has 1831 information about Bedford, including the asylum. The site has now been developed.

    See The Imbeciles Asylum, Leavesden on Peter Higginbotham's website

    Leavesden Asylum was one of two asylums for chronic patients opened by the Metropolitan Asylums Board in October 1870.
    Architects: Giles and Biven - Dual Pavilion
    May 1871: 1,600 patients
    1915: Medical Superintendent: Frank Ashby Elkins
    1920: Leavesden Mental Hospital
    1937: Leavesden Hospital
    As a student in the 1960s Liz Lane worked there in the summers and winters with patents who were known as "high grades":

    "Leavesden was a grim place that looked like a Victorian workhouse, on both sides of the main road with a tunnel going under so that people didn't get run over.. I was on the easier side, away from the more secure part.

    Probably 60% of the patients I dealt with (about 60-80 altogether I think) would have been considered mentally handicapped by today's standards, but not enough to be institutionalised, better dealt with in a special needs educational class. There was one woman who was referred to as a "burnt out" psychopath who had been transferred from Rampton, and did have violent tendencies. There were a few who had been caught for various kinds of sexual misconduct when they were kids. and then there were a few who seemed perfectly normal intelligence-wise, but just a bit "off" or easily agitated. I think there was probably some truancy or what would now be considered attention deficit and/or hyperactivity disorder. It was really hard to tell, given that these people had been locked up for 40 years or more.

    By the way, "high grade" was a term used by the patients themselves. I seem to remember some of the "high grades" reading the paper, and they were certainly capable of carrying on a conversation, although often repeptitive. Probably bored half to death!

    I remember the staff doing the best they could mostly. Our patients didn't get, or seem to need, much in the way of psychiatric help other than some antipsychotics here and there, so the day was spent keeping an eye on them, providing some sort of entertainment, three meals a day plus snacks, and the bathing routine which involved three or four patients at a time, all in very large bathtubs in a huge bathroom, and a lot of clothes-darning and repair done by the staff. It seems really archaic looking back..."

    1971 listed a Mental Handicap Hospital with 2,164 beds, 111 in locked wards.
    Address: Leavesden Hospital, College Road, Abbotts Langley, Hertfordshire, WD5 0NU (map to postcode -- multi-map)
    Closed 1995
    A pamphlet on its history of Leavesden Hospital should be in both Hertfordshire Archives and the London Metropolitan Archives (Placed there by Christine Lawes).

    Hertfordshire County Mental Hospital
    Opened 1899
    Simon Cornwall: Hill End, St. Alban's, Hertfordshire. Built: 1896-1900. Architect: George Thomas Hine
    Sometimes known as Hill End Hospital for Mental and Nervous Diseases and Hill End Hospital and Clinic for the Prevention and Treatment of Mental and Nervous Disorders.
    Then as Hill End Hospital, Hill End Road, St Albans, AL4 0RB
    1994: 153 patients
    Closed 1997
    Autumn 2002: Reported still empty
    Simon Cornwall: Closed in 1997, now looks totally demolished for housing.
    2003 use: "Housing"

    In 1939, Middlesex had three mental hospitals and two institutions for mental defectives, all but the smallest of these (Bramley House, Enfield) were outside the county. The oldest was in Surrey. The others were in Hertfordshire: Napsbury, Shenley Mental Hospital and Shenley Colony. Between them they had "approximately 7000 patients, and the care of these unfortunate people requires the services of a very large staff."

    Napsbury Asylum, Hertfordshire opened in 1905. It was a Middlesex County Council Asylum from 1905 to 1948
    County of Middlesex War Hospital, Napsbury from September 1915 to 1.8.1919, with 1600 beds, 350 of which were for mental patients (no officers) (external link)
    It was known as Napsbury Mental Hospital from about 1918 to about 1943. Then as Napsbury Hospital, Napsbury, St Albans (AL2 1AA).
    English Heritage: Napsbury, Herts, built 1902-1904 as the pauper asylum for the county of Middlesex

    "In 1994 proposals were made in the Mental Health Strategy for Barnet that Napsbury Psychiatric Hospital, a Victorian 'asylum' in London Colney be closed and patients be cared for in the Borough of Barnet. A cornerstone of the agreement was that services be provided on both the East and West sides of the Borough. Napsbury Hospital finally closed in 1999 and in-patients have since been cared for at Edgware Community Hospital, where an old hospital building was refurbished to create the Dennis Scott Unit." (Barnet CHC)

    2003 use: "Luxury housing"

    Shenley Mental Hospital
    1934. It was one of the two last mental illness asylums to open, the other being Runwell.
    See Harperbury
    Became Shenley Hospital, Shenley, Radlett, Hertfordshire, (WD7 9HB).
    2003 use: "Luxury housing"

    Middlesex Colony
    Opened 1934 and known as that until 1949. Later known as Harperbury Hospital, Harper Lane, Shenley, Radlett, WD7 9HQ. See
    "awaiting immediate development" in Autumn 2002
    "Harperbury, previously Harperbury Hospital, is still in existence, but with only about 60-90 residents on the site. They live in purpose built bungalows on two locations called Bowlers Green (beside the still-used bowling green) and Forest Lane. Other services on the site include wheelchair assessment and continence services, but the site is now largely used for training purposes such as IT training, inductions, and postgraduate medical education. Owned by Hertfordshire Partnership NHS Trust and previously by Horizon NHS Trust. There is a booklet on the history of Harperbury in the possession of both Hertfordshire Archives and the London Metropolitan Archives." (Christine Lawes)

    Addenbrookes Hospital, established in 1766, does not appear to have developed an associated asylum - See Oxfordshire (the other English University county)

    Fulbourn Hospital, Cambridgeshire served Huntingdonshire after 1939. Cambridgeshire was slow to build an asylum. In 1852 they "counted up the lunatics in Huntingdonshire to try to bring them in". Then they tried to combine with Bedfordshire, and were stopped by the Lunacy Commission. Eventually, they began to build in 1856. The Pauper Lunatic Asylum for the County and Borough of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely - opened at Fulbourn in November 1858
    Corridor form - Close to Conolly's ideal?

    See David Clark's "Fulbourn - The asylum years". [A story of a Mental Hospital, Fulbourn is the memoirs of a former Superintendent until 1983.

    The following history of Cambridge psychiatry is taken from the Cambridge University psychiatry website:

    "Addenbrooke's Hospital used to be situated in Trumpington Street: a psychiatric clinic was established in the nineteenth century." In 1934 "a child guidance clinic was established at the previous Addenbrooke's Hospital."

    1960s: "Fulbourn rose to international prominence for its pioneering therapeutic community under the leadership of Dr David Clark, the last holder of the title of Medical Superintendent and later Consultant for the Cambridge Psychiatric Rehabilitation Service. Subsequently the early community psychiatric work in Fenland and in general practice by Dr A R K Mitchell became well known nationally. The psychiatric outpatient clinic was established at 2 Benet Place on the edge of the old Addenbrooke's site. 1966: The Ida Darwin Hospital opened on an adjacent site to Fulbourn. Dr Gwyn Roberts was subsequently appointed from it to become the first Professor of Mental Handicap in Nottingham. 1970: Child and adolescent inpatient units were established in Douglas House. 1970s and 1980s: The Hospital gradually transferred to its new site on Hills Road at the southern edge of Cambridge. 1989: The first psychiatric ward in Addenbrooke's (R4) was opened by transfer of the Professorial Unit from Fulbourn Hospital. 1992: The outpatient clinic, the Psychotherapy Unit and Young People's Psychiatric Service moved to Addenbrooke's on the closure of Benet Place. Further facilities have since been opened on the Addenbrooke's site.
    County Asylums website "Closed 1992, although still operates on adjoining site"
    1999 Consultation that could lead to full closure
    External link: Cambridgeshire Mental Health Hospital Services

    Mental Handicap Hospital

    Ida Darwin Hospital, Fulbourn, Cambridge, CB1 5EE see above

    South West England

    Dorset and Hampshire

    Dorsetshire County Asylum (Forston, near Dorchester)
    Dorset County Lunatic Asylum
    National Grid Reference ST 667 953
    Erection 1827-1832
    Opened 1.8.1832
    Sarah Rutherford: "A small manor house was incorporated at the centre of a much larger asylum bsuilding"
    Reported in 1843 that patients had previously been subject to dysentery "from the floors being damp". Patients admitted since the floors were replaced had not suffered dysentery. (1844 Report p.17)
    1834: Circular letter from George Wallett medical superintendent of Dorset County Lunatic Asylum promoting cheap method of constructing Lunatic Asylums; with testimonial of Suffolk Magistrates (29 November). [In Essex County Archives: Reference Q/SBb 518/79]
    1.1.1844: 107 patients. All pauper.
    Superintendent: G.P. Button

    A new hospital (Charminster) was opened in 1864, but both remained in operation. They were close to one another and were administratively interrelated.
    Simon Cornwall: Originally: Second Dorset County Lunatic Asylum. Built: 1859-1863 Architect: HE Kendall Junior Corridor form - extended often.
    1881 Census: "Dorset County Lunatic Asylum, Charminster" Surgeon Medical Superintendant: Joseph Gustavus Symes, married, age 56, born Crewkerne, Somerset.
    1890: enlarged by George Thomas Hine - Compact Arrow
    1895 New female annexe and Chapel added. (Peter Cracknell)
    1900 "None of the doors were locked"

    A hospital for private patients, known as Herrison was opened in 1904.
    8.1.1902 Private Patients at Dorset County Asylum (external link)
    [About 1940? Herrison Hospital was adopted as the name for the whole hospital]

    Dorset County Mental Hospital from 1920 to about 1940
    1.1.1927: 902 patients, including 206 who were not Rate Aided. 365 were men, 535 women. In 1926 the proportion of recoveries to admissions was 31.6%. The proportion of deaths to the asylum population was 5.1%
    1940? Herrison Hospital, Herrison, Dorsetshire, [DT2 9RL]
    1962 (Hospital Plan) On 31.12.1960 there were 1,186 staffed beds. In 1975 there were expected to be only 860.

    "Patients in Herrison psychiatric hospital in Dorset, which opened in 1863, were locked in at night and left unsupervised until morning. It closed in 1992, and is being redeveloped by Bellway Homes and Charlton Down Developments, which has turned the three main buildings into luxury apartments" (Anne Caborn, The Observer Sunday 18.8.2002)


    In 1844, the Poor Law Unions in Hampshire had more pauper lunatics in licensed houses those of any other county apart from Middlesex. The 1844 Report, appendix F shows 452 pauper lunatics and idiots chargeable to Hampshire unions; 3 in county asylum/s; 199 in licensed houses (compared to 245 for Middlesex); 135 in a workhouse and 115 with friends or elsewhere. Appendix D makes an estimate of 43 pauper lunatics not in unions, which it adds to 405 (yes) in unions to give 448 as the estimated total. As far as one can tell from the figures, Hampshire paupers were in Hampshire licensed houses and the Hampshire houses catered for Hampshire patients.

    The truly private Hampshire pauper houses were at Lainston, near Winchester, and Nursling, near Southampton. In the Portsmouth area and, across the Solent, on the Isle of Wight there were smaller institutions connected with workhouses. Two of these, Carisbrooke and Hilsea were licensed. Portsea Workhouse was not licensed.

    Planning a Hampshire County Asylum (in the Portsmouth area) did not begin until 1849. It opened at the end of 1852. The pauper houses were no longer licensed in 1867.

    Portsea Island and Portsmouth

    In the 1830s, Portsmouth was the area now known as Old Portsmouth. Portsea was the area around the Portsmouth Naval Base (previously the Dockyard). Both areas were surrounded with massive wails, and gates, so that at that time Portsmouth was the most heavily defended town in Europe. (Terry Swetnam). See also Tim Lambert's Brief History of Portsmouth (archive of old site)

    See naval lunatics summary on timeline

    Haslar Hospital: Asylum part opened 1818

    "The part of the Naval Hospital at Haslar which is set apart for officers of the Navy and seamen afflicted with insanity, is admirably adapted to its purpose. The rooms are lofty, spacious and airy; and they command a view of the entrance to Portsmouth harbour. There are excellent exercising-grounds between the hospital and the shore, and the patients are frequently taken out in boats" (1844 Report pages 31-32)

    The Hospital Muster Books for "Haslar (Lunatics)" begin with a book for 1818 to 1819 (ADM 102/356) and continue to 1854 (ADM 102/373). Naval lunatics were moved from Hoxton House in 1818. However, there is also ADM 305/35 "Governor's orders; with (at back) list of Haslar lunatics 1813-1817". Possibly a list of insane patients in the general naval hospital who had not (yet?) been moved to Hoxton.

    The Haslar Muster Books finish in 1854, which is when the hospital at Yarmouth ceased being used for military lunatics. Not all the insane patients were moved to Yarmouth, however. More followed when the hospital was enlarged in 1863.

    Portsea Workhouse, near Portsmouth, Hampshire
    [St Mary's Road]
    A Workhouse Asylum
    Portsea Island Poor Law Union was formed 18.7.1836. It include the two parishes of Portsea and Portsmouth, population 1831: 50,389 (Portsea - 42,306, Portsmouth - 8,083).

    Visited 28.8.1843:

    "26 Lunatics; 15 Females and 11 Males ... 7 were Epileptics and 2 Idiots. Many of the Patients, although not strictly speaking, imbecile persons, were individuals of weak intellect. Some of them, however, were decidedly Insane, and occasionally violent and unmanageable unless restrained, and some of them were labouring under delusions." (1844 Report p.234)

    See Peter Higginbotham's workhouse site from which it is clear that the workhouse and infirmary continued to accommodate lunatics throughout the 19th century.

    1881 Census: Union Work House, Portsea Island, Portsea, Hampshire. Master of Workhouse: John Quintrell
    There is a separate entry:
    1881 Census: Portsea Island Borough Lunatic Asylum, Milton, Portsea, Hampshire: Medical Superintendent: William Charles Bland, married, surgeon, aged 33.
    I think this is the separate building that became St James Hospital (see below). St Marys, St James and the Prison all seem to be in what was the village of Milton. [See map. St Marys south of the prison. St James to the east by the creek]
    1898 Portsea Island Union Infirmary
    1928St Mary's Infirmary
    1930 St Mary's Hospital
    by 1969 St Mary's General Hospital
    by about 1980 St Mary's Hospital, Milton Street, Portsmouth, PO3 6AD

    Hilsea Asylum, Portsea Island, near Portsmouth
    A Licensed House
    1844: Proprietor G.J. Scales (Surgeon) who appears to have recently taken over, his predecessor having died as a consequence of a bite from an inmate.
    1.1.1844: 35 patients. 29 pauper and 6 private.
    Weekly charge for paupers: 9/- to 9/6 a week. "established and carried on" in connection with a workhouse (not named) which sent unmanageable patients and took them back when tolerably tranquil. (See quotations from 1844 Report)
    Hilsea was in the area of the Fareham Union (not Portsea Union) (links are to Peter Higginbotham's workhouse site). Portsea had a workhouse asylum.
    1868 Lunatic asylum in the hamlet of Hilsea mentioned in National Gazeteer . However, Hilsea was not a licensed house by 1867 (see Rossbret)

    Portsmouth Lunatic Asylum
    Simon Cornwall: Built 1875
    Opened 1879
    Architect: George Rake Peter Cracknell classifies it as Corridor form.
    1880: Many patients moved back from Fisherton House (Judith Kennerdale, email 14.7.2003)
    see above for 1881 census
    picture postcard on Stephen Pomeroy's web"Greetings from Portsmouth Borough Asylum" Stephen's original text "The Borough Asylum in Locksway Road, now St James Hospital - not postally used!" Now says "... Commercial view by unknown photographer. Postmarked 1907.
    1919 Post Office Directory: Portsmouth Borough Lunatic Asylum, Asylum Road, Milton, Portsmouth. Bonner Harris Mumby MD medical superintendent; Frederick Ernest Stokes MB, Ch B. Glasgow, DPH Cambridge and Edward Hope Ridley, MD Edinburgh, assistant medical officers; Rev Joseph Fowler, MA, chaplain; Arthur E. Bone, treasurer; Edward W. Rogers, clerk
    Known as Borough of Portsmouth Mental Hospital from 1914 to 1926.
    an external link Dr Marjorie Franklin, "as a young junior medical officer in the Portsmouth Borough Mental Hospital in the early 1920s, became intensely interested in the relationship between mental illness and the patients' environment. She observed not only the often-noted improvements that occurred in response to a cheerful, encouraging environment and sympathetic nursing but also, in some cases, the dramatic improvement of the psychotic condition with the onset of severe physical illness. The latter phenomenon she attributed not only to a change in the location of the cathexis but also to the greatly increased attention and care which the ill patient received. The improvement was seldom maintained but Dr Franklin considered that with skilful psychoanalytical intervention and support it might have been"
    After 1926: uncertainty about its name until it became St James' Hospital in 1937. It was in Asylum Road until the name of the Road was changed to Locksway Road, Portsmouth (PO4 8LD). (map)
    Simon Cornwall: "Grounds preserved as city park. Some rebuilds and regeneration going on". Peter Cracknell: "Asylum building in NHS use"
    Isle of Wight

    Isle of Wight History Links

    Peter Higginbotham's site: The Isle of Wight had control over its own poor law administration under a local Act of Parliament of 1771. It had the power "to manage the poor persons incapable of providing for themselves in the parishes of the island; to let out poor to harvest work" and "to apprehend idle persons not maintaining their families in the island". It did not adopt Poor Law Union status under the 1834 Act until 1865. The island's workhouse was to the north of Newport (see map). It was a large two-storey L-shaped building in red brick.

    Also see Rossbret site

    modern maplink Newport and Carisbrooke
    1890s maplink

    Eric F. Laidlaw's 1994 A History of the Isle of Wight Hospitals (Newport: Cross, 207 pages: illustrated, with maps and plans) is currently out of print. See review on the Isle of Wight Family History Society website. It includes The House of Industry - Whitecroft (mental hospital) - Military and Naval hospitals - and Parkhurst Prison Hospital.

    House of Industry, Carisbrooke, Isle of Wight [St Mary's Hospital, Newport, developed in three parts: The lower (south) part, which is the House of Industry (later workhouse) discussed below. The upper, north part, which developed from the infirmary of the House, and the new buildings recently constructed between the two parts]
    1771 Act of Parliament authorising construction of a House of Industry. (Laidlaw p. 60)
    1784 Two "cells" provided for lunatics.
    By 1810 there were six cells for lunatics.
    1820 Some female lunatics sent to Finch's Laverstock House (Laidlaw p. 68)
    By 1813 a separate building for lunatics. This was the west side of the quadrilateral of buildings making the House. (see map below)
    1822 lunatic wing enlarged
    1830 lunatic wing enlarged
    By 1831: the part of the workhouse containing lunatics and idiots was licensed as an asylum. (A Licensed Workhouse Asylum from 1832-1853)
    1832 28 asylum inmates
    1840 Some female lunatics sent to Finch's LaverstockHouse (Laidlaw p. 68)
    1.1.1844 27 patients all pauper.
    Proprietor: Riches, Surgeon
    Weekly charge for paupers not stated.
    On 1844 list of best conducted: reasons commended
    1853 ceased to be a licensed house. I think this would be due to the opening of the Hampshire County Asylum. In 1852 the Guardians had resisted a comprehensive transfer of patients the new County Asylum. In 1853, twenty women and several men were sent across the Solent in a steamer specially commissioned (for seven guineas) from The Isle of Wight Steam Packet. Some patients had been absorbed by the main workhouse and the west wing was re-planned and re-built with male and female receiving wards, an "Idiot Ward" and a residence for the chaplain. (Laidlaw p. 69)
    Union Workhouse on an 1862 map. The coloured areas are the imbecile airing grounds. Yellow = female. Green = male. The imbecile wards are in the adjacent building. This is the west wing of the House. Although many time re-built, buildings on the west appear to have been used for mentally handicapped people from the late 18th century through to the second half of the twentieth.

    1865 Poor Law Union
    1867 35 insane, idiotic, and imbecile inmates. 16 men, 19 women.
    1896 Opening of Whitecroft
    Known as Forest House, because it was in the forest of Parkhurst
    1935 St Mary's Hospital (not a mental hospital)
    Address Parkhurst Newport PO30 5TB (Since 1771)
    Closed 1999 [Hospital database:, but I think that has to be wrong - See below]
    Woops! new hospital - remedial work - (archive)

    1990 Patients from Whitecroft transferred to Newcroft. Newcroft, although a modern building, did not allow staff to keep patients under observation effectively and high levels of violence developed. A new purpose built unit, Sevenacres, was designed to clinical specifications. Building began in July 1999 and was completed in 22 months. The cost was 5.2 million pounds. Whilst attempting to get away from an "institutional feel" and be "homely", the unit seeks a "balance of observation and privacy". There is a central point (the doughnut) from which the staff can see both wings (male and female). In the intensive care unit, staff can see into bedrooms. There is a "seclusion room", although the design of the building has meant it has not been used much. Patients have gardens and an opportunity to garden. (Video about Newcroft and Sevenacres)

    Sevenacres appears to incorporate many design principles that would have been approved by Jeremy Bentham and John Conolly. An analysis of the similarities and differences between the ideal early 19th century model and the ideal early 21st century model of a mental health unit would be interesting.

    "Sevenacres, which houses the Mental Health Unit, is also on this site and is the base of the administration and management of the Mental Health and Learning Disability Services. Also based here is the Island Crisis Intervention Services and the Mental Health Assertive Outreach Team. Other parts of this service are delivered from 17 properties across the Island." (The Isle of Wight Healthcare NHS Trust)

    April 1890 Isle of Wight County Council established
    1896: Isle of Wight (County) Lunatic Asylum Sandy Lane Newport [PO30 3EB] See also modern streetmap and 1890s maplink
    Architect: B.S. Jacobs of Hull. Peter Cracknell classifies it as Compact Arrow.
    Harold Bailey Shaw, previously a medical officer at the Hampshire County Asylum was appointed Medical Superintendent in August 1895, but started in September 1896. He died in office in 1914. Several other asylum staff, as well as patients, came from Hampshire.
    "In the first Annual Report by the Medical Superintendent, he indicated that a block to hold 50 private patients would soon be ready". "Soon after opening a private patient block was available with a billiard room. This was the block near the main gate separate from the rest of the hospital; later it became an admission ward, and was named Tennyson Ward. (p.99)
    1899 Kelly's Directory page ---: "The Isle of Wight County Lunatic Asylum, erected in 1896 at a cost of £60,000 (not including equipment), is a building of red brick, pleasantly situated about the centre of the Island; there is a separate block employed for the accommodation of private paying patients; the building is capable of holding 310 persons, and there are at present (1898) 260 inmates". page ---: County Lunatic Asylum. Harold Bailey Shaw BA, MB, BC, DPH superintendent; Patrick Taffe Finn LRCP + S. Edinburgh, assistant superintendent; William Morgans, clerk
    4.2.1899 Freda Mew admitted to the private block. Previously in The Limes - Her certificates were signed by "J. Groves, M.B. and S.Foster, LRCP.Ed, Newport". Trade directories show: Joseph Groves BA, MD, London, FGS, FR Met. Soc. Glen cottage. Physician and medical officer for the Isle of Wight rural sanitary district. Stanley Foster, LRCP + S. Ed. (of Coombs and Foster, surgeons, 6 + 10 High Street) Arreton District Medical Officer and Public Vaccinator fro Whippingham District, who lived at 6 High Street. His partner, Milbourne Lascombe Bloom Coombs, LRCP, LRCS Edin., surgeon and medical officer for Newport and Whippingham district Isle of Wight union and public vaccinator for Newport borough, lived at 104 High Street,
    1898-1903 Contracts for the reception of patients from Croydon made by Visiting Committee of Isle of Wight County Council. Other contracts with West Sussex and London County Council
    1901 census: Isle of Wight County Lunatic Asylum, Whitecroft. It is in the civil parish of Carisbrooke, but the ecclesiastical parish of St John the Baptist. Also in Carisbrooke, but the ecclesiastical parish of St Mary the Virgin, are the Isle of Wight Union Workhouse Parkhurst, Parkhurst Prison Convict Prison and Parkhurst Barracks. On the 1866 Ordnance Survey map, Albany Barracks is just south of the prison and the workhouse south-east of that.
    1901 Occupations of women in private unit.
    1911 Kelly's Directory page 677: "The Isle of Wight County Lunatic Asylum, erected in 1896 at a cost of £45,000 (not including equipment), is a structure of red brick, pleasantly situated, nearly in the centre of the island, and includes a separate block for private patients; the building is capable of holding 330 persons, and there are at present (1911) 316 inmates". page 678: County Lunatic Asylum. Harold Bailey Shaw BA, MB, BC, DPH superintendent; Arthur Francis Reardon LMSSA London, assistant medical officer; James H. Green, clerk
    January 1919 380 patients, including 58 private patients, 38 patients from outside the island and seven "service" patients.
    8.12.1921 Letter stating annual cost of Freda Mew's maintenance about £130 a year.
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Nation Asylum Workers Union at Whitecroft was "Mr L.B. Sykes, County Mental Hospital, Whitecroft, Carisbrooke, Isle of Wight"
    1.1.1927: 328 patients of whom all but 54 were Rate Aided. 119 were men, 209 women. In 1926 the proportion of recoveries to admissions was 43.5% (One of the highest). The proportion of deaths to the asylum population was 8.6%
    Became Isle of Wight (County) Mental Hospital by 1929
    1932 Dr Erskine, Medical Superintendent since 1915, retired. Dr Charles Davies-Jones (from Oxfordshire) succeeded. Dr A. Wood joined him in 1933. About this time "the private patient block was converted into an admission block". (p.103) [See national changes]
    The following taken from the archives catalogue:
    December 1933 'Programme of a mystery play in honour of the Nativity of Our Lord' by Robert Hugh Benson
    1937 Notes re arrangements for Christmas includes list of food required.
    Notes re arrangements for patients' holiday camps June 1937 and July 1939
    28.10.1937 Contrct to send some patients to Basingstoke
    11.6.1938 Contract to send some mentally defective from the Isle of Wight to West Hartlepool, County Durham
    1938/1939 Plans and contract for a new nurses home
    1939Papers giving details of arrangements for annual fete
    1941-1943 Circulars and other papers re food rationing
    1947 Correspondence and papers re Patients' Sports Day
    1950 Whitecroft Hospital, Newport
    February/March 1958 death of Freda Mew, aged about 78
    1960: 455 staffed beds, planned to be reduced to 170 by 1975
    31.12.1975: 410 beds, only 270 of which were occupied. The 66% bed occupancy was almost the lowest in England and Wales. 55 beds were in a special "self care" unit or wards and 7 beds were in a rehabilitation ward.
    1979: 327 beds
    Closed 1990 "The few remaining patients were transferred to a new ward, "Newcroft" at
    St Mary's Hospital in Newport" (Andrew Crowther)
    Gatcombe Valley - OK - try one of these!
    26.8.2004 Isle of Wight County Press
    3.9.2004 Isle of Wight County Press

    Archives at the Isle of White Record Office - See access to records

    Outpatient facilities

    After 1932 a Mental Welfare Clinic, which also became a Child Guidance service, was established at the County Hall (Newport)

    Shortly after the County Hall facility, a weekly psychiatric out-patient clinic was established at Ryde Hospital: the Royal Isle of Wight County Hospital, West Street Ryde [PO33 2PD] which was established in 1849 as the Royal Isle of Wight Infirmary (name changed 1905).
    1979: There were three acute general hospitals on the Island. Ryde had 121 beds, Frank James (Cowes) had 31 beds and Shanklin had 33. No in- patient psychiatric beds were planned for these hospitals, but they may have had out-patient clinics.

    St Mary's, Parkhurst, with 327 beds, was mainly long stay. A psychiatric unit had been planned for it (since 1962 or earlier).

    Whitecroft had 327 beds. It had been planned to close it when the St Mary's Psychiatric Unit was opened.

    Ryde Hospital closed in 1992.

    Isle of Wight Mental Handicap

    Longford Hospital
    Havenstreet, Ryde, PO33 4DR
    1979: 42 beds

    Castle View:
    52 Staplers Road, Newport, PO30 2DE
    1979: 25 beds

    The Limes, Newport In 1899, Freda Mew was admitted to the Isle of Wight Lunatic Asylum from "The Limes, Newport". I have not been able to identify in Trade Directories. There was a

    Mrs Weeks, The Limes, Cambridge Road, East Cowes and a
    Mrs Weeks, 85 Castle Road, Newport, IOW

    Lainston House, Winchester
    Licensed House   A mansion and outhouses asylum
    "A fine brick house of about 1700, with something older and something a little younger" (Pevsner's Buildings)   "There is a private lunatic asylum, situated in an ample demesne of 40 acres, and approached by three avenues of trees. The house was built in the reign of Charles 2nd, and was once the seat of Lord Bayning". (1868 Gazeteer)
    July 1831: Thomas Miles criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Lainston House". He had been tried for murder at Winchester. (HO 20/13)
    October 1832 Robert Frampton criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Lainston House, Hampshire". He had tried at "Winchester" for assault. (HO 20/13)
    1836: John Marchant criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Winchester". He had been committed from "Winchester". (HO 20/13)
    1839: William Fizzard criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Lainston House". He had been committed from "Hampshire". (HO 20/13)
    By 1842 and at least to 1844: Proprietor J.W. Twynham, M.D. (I assume this as nothing is said in the 1844 about a change of proprietor in the period of the visits)
    Dr Twynham was unresponsive to national or local efforts to improve his house:
    Friday 14.10.1842: First visit of the commissioners who found the "buildings appropriated to the paupers consisted of stabling and out-houses converted to that purpose, and were quite unfit to be used as an asylum". They called attention to the urgent need for a county asylum.
    No date given: "these evils were so manifest, that the visiting commissioners expressed a hope that means would be found to put an end to them, either by refusing the license, or otherwise"
    Local magistrates visited the house several times
    Tuesday 22.8.1843 Third visit:
    1.1.1844: 94 patients. 84 pauper and 10 private.
    Weekly charge for paupers: 9/- including clothes.
    April 1844 Another visit
    Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 (p.254) says that Lainston House had closed by 1847
    Not a licensed house by 1867 (see Rossbret), although 1868 Gazeteer still mentions.
    Lainston House is now a hotel. Its web site does not discuss its history.

    Grove Place, Nursling, near Southampton
    Licensed House
    A mansion and outhouses asylum
    Present building probably erected between 1565 and 1576. It is on the site of an older house.
    "In 1831 the manor was bought by Dr. Edward Middleton who transformed it into a lunatic asylum" But: Epiphany 1823 James Banting, criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Grave Place". He had been tried for assault and sent from "Hampshire". (HO 20/13)
    February 1832 Thomas Randall criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Southampton". He had been previously held in a "Lunatic Asylum, Dorset". He had been tried for murder at Winchester.
    1844: Proprietor Mrs H. Middleton.
    1.1.1844: 72 patients. 53 pauper and 19 private.
    Weekly charge for paupers not stated.
    Severely censured in 1844 Report: summary of criticisms
    Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 p.247: In 1853 "the Hampshire Visiting Magistrates recommended the discontinuation of the licence granted to the proprietor of Grove Place, Nursling, largely because of substantiated evidence of the cruel and severe treatment of a patient.." (Eighth Report (1854) Lunacy Commission, pp 19-20)
    Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 p.88: In 1854 Dr James Baillie bought Grove Place, paying a large sum of money for the good will. In their 1855 Report (pages 20-21) the Lunacy Commissioners considered "A payment of this nature... offers a strong temptation to those who purchase to curtail the comforts and accommodation of the patients... in an attempt to reimburse themselves out of the profits of the asylum". However, Parry Jones says "This statement was contradicted in the next report and the licence was not renewed". [I do not understand that]
    "There is a private lunatic asylum, called Grove Place, which was formerly a hunting-seat of Queen Elizabeth, and is approached by an avenue of lime trees" (1868 Gazeteer). In fact, it was not a licensed house by 1867 (see Rossbret). The avenue of lime trees may be the trees framing the top picture on the Grove Place Prep Schools site (below)
    used as a farmhouse from 1867
    Now The Atherley & Grove Place Prep Schools, Grove Place, Upton Lane, Nursling, Southampton SO16 0AB

    Hampshire County Asylum
    Situated near the hamlet of Funtley in the parish of Fareham [map]   This being a little north of Portsmouth and east of Southampton. [map]
    Hospital database: "The first minute book of the Committee of Visitors for erecting a County Lunatic Asylum is dated 1849 - 1853 (18M93) but is not with the main collection". See 1842-1844 Inquiry
    Simon Cornwall: Built: 1850-1852
    Architect: J. Harris
    Opened 13.12.1852
    First Medical Superintendent: Dr Ferguson
    1881 Census: Hants County Lunatic Asylum, Knowle, Fareham, Hampshire. Medical Superintendent: John Manley, Physician, married, age 56.
    1896 Isle of Wight County Asylum opened
    1911: A child born to RN Stoker of Hants Lunatic Asylum
    1919 Post Office Directory: Hampshire County Lunatic Asylum. Knowle, Fareham, Henry Kingsmill Abbott BA, MD superiintendent; William John MacKeown BA, MB, B,Ch, senioar assisstant medical officer; Joseph William Rodgers, LRCS and LRCP Ireland, second assistant medical offcer; Wilfred Metcalfe Chambers, LRCS and LRCP Edinburgh, third assistant medical officer; Rev William Richard Williams chaplain; John Railton Wyatt, clerk to the asylum and visitors; Frederick Joyce, storekeeper; Miss Mary Heading, housekeeper.
    Knowle Mental Hospital about 1923
    1948: became Knowle Hospital
    1976: R. Bursell, History of Knowle Hospital (Hampshire County Asylum), 1852-1884 Duplicated typescript. Southampton University Library
    Closed 1996
    2003 Susan Margaret Burt: "Fit objects for an asylum" : the Hampshire County Lunatic Asylum and its patients, 1852-1899 Thesis (Ph.D.) University of Southampton, Department of Sociology and Social Policy.
    Simon Cornwall: Proposals for conversion to housing. Probably all housing now. weblink to plans for Knowle Village Jess Knowles: "the old site is not quite all houses. Ravenswood House, the regional medium secure unit, is still there and thriving. Originally the secure unit moved into Ravenswood Ward the one time admission ward for Knowle Hospital. The medium secure unit has grown, but the old building is still there in the middle of it all."

    Park Prewett Hospital, Aldermaston Road, Basingstoke
    Simon Cornwall: Park Prewett, Sherbourne St John, Hampshire.
    Second Hampshire County Lunatic Asylum. Built in response to overcrowding at Knowle Hospital. The special committee to look at the feasibility was appointed in 1898 and building work started in 1910. Work had commenced in 1912 but the opening was delayed due to World War.
    Opened 1921
    Architect: George Thomas Hine . Size: 1200 patients.
    Peter Cracknell classifies it as Compact Arrow of the later type with with open sided corridors and ward blocks becoming further detached - a movement towards the "perceived therapeutic benefits" of the colony layout.
    1930 Rooksdown House opened as private patient block. During Second World War Rooksdown House became plastic surgery hospital and continued in this capacity till 1959
    1939 Emergency Military Hospital. Patients moved to Wells, Somerset
    Closed 1996. Appears intact.
    June 2004 Photographic tour of abandoned hospital
    Photos spark review

    Royal Victoria (Military) Hospital:
    Southampton SO3 5GZ
    Opened 1863
    D Block, Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley was a Military Mental Hospital before the first world war. During the war it had beds for 3 officers and 121 others. (external link)

    Mental Handicap Hospitals Wessex

    Sherbourne House
    Sherbourne Road, Basingstoke
    30 beds in 1979
    2000+ Undated research findings Social validation data on three methods of physical restraint, Joanna Cunningham, University of Portsmouth, thanks "the carers and service-users of Sherbourne House, Basingstoke"

    Darlington House
    1 Darlington Road, Basingstoke, RG21 2NY
    20 beds in 1979
    Not far from Sherbourne House map

    Coldeast Hospital
    Sarisbury Green, Southampton, SO3 6ZD
    854 beds on 31.12.1971
    559 beds in 1979

    Tatchbury Mount and White House 556 beds on 31.12.1971
    Tatchbury Mount Hospital
    Calmore, Southampton, SO4 2RZ
    397 beds in 1979
    White House Hospital
    Westover Road, Milford-on-Sea, Lymington, Hampshire
    35 beds in 1979

    Coldharbour Hospital
    Coldharbour, Sherbourne, Dorset, DT9 3JU
    Hospital Scandal - Bopcris
    363 beds on 31.12.1971
    309 beds in 1979

    Wiltshire, Gloucestershire and Somerset
    1: Near Bristol or Bath

    In 1720 the three largest towns in England were London (half a million people?), followed by Norwich, followed closely by Bristol, each of which had probably no more than 30,000 inhabitants. (Cole, G.D.H. 1938 p.63). Public asylums developed early in Bristol and Norwich. Bristol was still the sixth largest British city in 1801. Bristol was the second port (after London) at the start of the 18th century, but was eclipsed by Liverpool during the century. (See John Penny Is the Economic History of the Bristol Region between 1780 and 1850 a Story of Relative Decline?). The roads between London and Bristol, were, therefore, amongst the busiest in the country. The roads passed through Wiltshire, which, although mainly rural (it had a woollen industry), developed a number of large private madhouses receiving patients from a wide area. Following a line from Bristol to London (1844): Bristol itself had Fishponds and Brislington, Bath had Bailbrook, Box had Kingsdown and mid-Wiltshire had Belle Vue and Fiddington. Further south in Wiltshire, the Finch family had houses near Salisbury which were linked with houses in West London. Apart from the mid-Wiltshire houses, all these asylums had a long history.

    St Peter's Hospital, Bristol
    This 17th century building was destroyed by bombs in 1940. It stood between St Peter's Church and the River Avon. The area is now Castle Park
    Used as a workhouse from 1696.
    Kathleen Jones says that "almost from its inception" the original building (The Mint) was used for the "impotent poor" and other premises used as a "manufactuary".
    An "early regulation" (Jones) recommended "the lunatic wards be floored with planks".
    Local physicians and surgeons attended patients without fee. In April 1768 a regulation said they should visit the "Frenzy Objects" once a week, and also "such Objects as shall from time to time be brought in by Warrants of Lunacy"
    29.2.1814: James Cowles Prichard a physician to to St Peters, which is described as "having a ward for lunatics"
    1832 Due to overcrowding following cholera, most pauper patients moved to Stapleton workhouse. Lunatics remained in Bristol.
    Made a "County Asylum" under a local Act (date not known, but before 1844)
    1.1.1844: 72 patients. All pauper.
    Treatment praised but building criticised in 1844 Report

    "...in March 1857, Fishponds was approved as the site of a new asylum. J. R. Lysaght, a local architect of Imperial Chambers, Bristol was commissioned to produce the plans. Work began tardily in 1858 and proceeded slowly. When the first patients were transferred from St Peters to Fishponds in March 1861, the building work was still incomplete: (Glenside history)

    The Bristol Lunatic Asylum was opened in 1861 immediately to the north-west of Fishponds workhouse in Stapleton.
    Corridor form - Close to Conolly's ideal?

    "By 1915 the Hospital became the Beaufort War Hospital, when patients were moved to other hospitals in the West, and the premises taken over by the War Office to provide general hospital care for wounded soldiers." (Glenside history)

    "The hospital was handed back to the City of Bristol on the 28th February 1919".

    "By 1921 the name was changed to the Bristol Mental Hospital, originally designed for 250 patients, it became very overcrowded, resulting in the building being enlarged until its bed capacity reached 800. Many improvements followed including, Out-patient departments, Pathology Dept. Occupational Therapy, etc."

    1938 New Barrow Hospital

    "..following the inauguration of the National Health Service in 1948, the large 120 bedded wards were divided into more manageable units, and an Industrial Therapy Unit was established.

    It became Glenside Hospital, Blackberry Hill, Stapleton, Bristol, BS16 1DD. [Name changed 1959]
    1960 1,150 beds, expected to fall to 800 by 1975
    31.12.1977 633 beds
    20.8.1994 Main hospital closed. It now houses the Faculty of Health and Social Care of the University of West of England
    Rossbret says closed 1992 - But I think this should be 1994
    There is a book: The Lunatic Pauper Palace. Glenside Hospital Bristol 1861-1994

    This account of the Glenside Hospital Museum is copied from the Wrington World Day - Saturday, 21st June 2003 website

    Julius Herrstein - Wrington - I am the deputy chairman of Glenside Hospital Museum and I spent the morning showing visitors round the museum, in fact, this morning we had a lady from Göttingen, Germany.

    Glenside Hospital was built in 1861 and served the city until 1994 when apart from two wards and the forensic unit it, was passed over to the University of West of England.

    What used to be the patients' chapel is now the museum and it is the latest museum of Bristol. We are open every Wednesday and Saturday morning from 10a.m until 1.00 p.m depending how many visitors we entertain. If we have no visitors then we close at 12.30

    The museum is registered charity we have no admission charges but if anybody is generous enough to put a pound or two in the box we give them a few booklets to describe life in the hospital as it was experienced by patients in the past. The museum is situated between Fishponds and Stapleton, the entrance is opposite the Old Tavern

    Barrow Hospital
    Barrow Gurney Bristol BS19 3SG
    See Glenside history
    1930 Bristol City Council bought 260 acres of land at Barrow Gurney, North Somerset, eleven miles from Fishponds.
    "landscaped grounds to purpose-built hospital, encompassing ancient woodlands. Hospital built 1934-1937.
    May 1938 Barrow Hospital recieved its first patients
    Visiting Consultants were common to Fishponds and Barrow Hospital
    3.5.1939 Official opening by Sir Lawrence Brock CBE, Chairman of The Board of Control
    3.9.1939 Became a Royal Naval Hospital for the duration of the war
    Autumn 1946 Returned to Bristol City, relieving overcrowding at Fishponds
    1948 Under the National Health Service Fishponds and Barrow Hospital were run under joint management
    1951 290 beds
    1960 453 beds, expected to fall to 200 by 1975
    31.12.1977 356 beds
    "Among Returns of Glenside Hospital"
    External links:
    Trees at Barrow Hospital
    "to close"
    The future of mental health services
    15.12.2005 Apologies for dirt

    Grove Road Psychiatric Hospital
    Now Grove Road Day Service
    Opened 1955
    "We think it was the second Day Hospital to open in the country. It was a crippled children's hospital in 1875 until about 1910.
    1979: The Day Hospital (Mental Illness), 12 Grove Road, Redland, Bristol, BS6 6UJ
    It is the 50th anniversary this year (2005) and
    we would like to hear people's memories. (Trish - from the day service)

    Mental Handicap Hospital

    Farleigh Hospital, Flax Bourton, Bristol, BS19 3QX, was the Bedminster Workhouse from the 1830s to 1929. It then became Cambridge House It closed in 1993, but the building remains as it is listed.

    See Peter Higginbotham's site: "The Bedminster Union was renamed Long Ashton in 1899. Between 1929 and 1956, the workhouse became Cambridge House, a mental deficiency colony run by Somerset County Council. It subsequently became known as Farleigh Hospital, which was the centre of a scandal in 1971 when two members of the nursing staff spoke out about the appalling treatment being meted out to the vulnerable patients. The former hospital site has now been redeveloped for other uses although much of the original building has been preserved."


    Bath Union Workhouse
    A Workhouse Asylum
    "Wards exclusively appropriated to lunatics" (1844 Report p.10) Visited 20.10.1843 (1844 Report p.233)

    "...there were twenty-one insane persons, of whom one female was constantly under restraint; another was under excitement, and secluded in a cell; and one man had been in the house four months without any medicine, although his case appeared susceptible of benefit from medical treatment." (1844 Report p.98)

    Kingsdown House, Box, Wiltshire
    Licensed House
    may have been a madhouse since about 1615 as it was claimed in 1815 that there had been a madhouse in Box for 200 years. (map showing Box)
    On 1815 list
    Place: Kingsdown. Name: Changworthy (Langworthy?)
    1.1.1844 137 patients. 101 pauper and 36 private.
    Weekly charge for paupers: 8/- to 9/-
    Proprietor 1844: C.C. Langworthy M.D.
    The proprietor, Dr R.A. Langworthy, became a patient in Fishponds (below) on 23.3.1847. In May 1848 it was alleged to the Lunacy Commission that the interested motives of his wife were keeping him there, although he had recovered. (MH50 3.5.1848)
    1881 Census: Kingsdown Asylum, Box. Charles Knight Hitchcock, aged 32, born Market Lavington see Fiddington House, Physician and his wife, Alice, aged 25, born Bottisham, Cambridge, with six month baby son, Humphrey K., born Market Lavington. Matron of Asylum (Hospital), Jane Elliott, unmarried, born Box. Visitor: Harriett Elliott, widow, aged 59, also born Box. All but one of the inmates are described as "Insane Patient". M. W., unmarried famale born Warminster, Wiltshire, is described as "Boarder"
    Early 20th century: external link to photograph - archive

    "The postal address of Kingsdown, Box, Chippenham, Wiltshire for at least a hundred years have been known almost world wide For Kingsdown House became one of the very best nursing homes for the very rich people of the land that had mental trouble. In fact Kingsdown House was called an asylum and it was run by a Doctor Mac Bryant who had a large staff of high-class nurses of both male and female also doctors on hand, and of course, there were a very large staff of servant girls and the very best cooks and kitchen maids" (from The Kingsdown Memories of Victor Painter (born 1906, died 2002). See part eight)
    Asylum remained open until November 1947

    Wiltshire and Swindon Record Office have patient records for Fiddington House, Market Lavington, Laverstock House and Kingsdown House, Box. However, the catalogue is marked "Not to be produced before 2006" Reference A1/565

    Fishponds, Stapleton, Bristol
    Licensed House
    Originally (1738) opened as Mason's Madhouse by Joseph Mason in Stapleton, it moved to Fishponds in 1760.
    1779 Death of Joseph Mason, the founder
    Until 1788, Mason's married daughters, Elizabeth Cox and Sarah Carpenter, continued the asylum.
    1787 A birth in the Bompas family who worshiped at Broadmead Baptist Church, Bristol. George Gwinnett Bompas senior and his wife (born Selina Carpenter in 1767, died 1809) had a daughter, Sarah, who died in 1810.
    6.6.1789 Birth, in Bristol, of George Gwinnett Bompas(s) (junior), who became a doctor and Superintendant of Fishponds Lunatic Asylum. He died in 1847.
    1788 Joseph Mason Cox (1763- 1818), a grandson of Joseph Mason, took Fishponds over. His Practical Observations on Insanity in 1806 propounded the theory that insanity can be cured by inducing the symptoms of severe physical illness in patients.
    15.2.1791 Birth of Charles Carpenter Bompass (Son of George Gwinnett senior and Selina). He became Serjeant-at-Law and is thought to be the inspiration for Charles Dickens's Serjeant Buzfuz in Pickwick Papers. Henry Mason Bompas was his son.
    2.6.1793 Birth of Joseph Cox Bompass, later Joseph Cox Cox, Physician of Park St Bristol, who died in 1851. (Son of George Gwinnett senior and Selina). Not long before he died, he took over Fishponds from his nephew.
    About Spring 1806 the Baptist minister Robert Hall became a patient of Dr Cox. He spent about a year here, before returning to his relatives in Leicestershire. Robert Hall spoke his mind. He would speak openly of the necessity of ameliorating the condition of the insane. At a large party he showed people the scars on his head to illustrate his point, saying "for these are the wounds that I received in the house of my friends". His biographer thinks they were the result of a blow from a keeper. However, Cox in 1806 recommended shaving a patient's head and rubbing in a powder that produced a "crop of eruptions, very similar to those of small-pox...Blisters, issues, setons etc"
    By 1812: George Gwinnett Bompas(s), surgeon, Superintendent of Fishponds Lunatic Asylum. He was the cousin of the proprietor, Joseph Mason Cox, and took over Fishponds after his death. He was married to Frances Henrietta Smith (daughter of Joseph Smith) who was born in 1792 at Bath Easton, and died in 1863.
    6.9.1812 Birth of George Joseph Bompas (died 23.6.1889), (eldest child?) of Dr George Gwinnett junior and Frances. He became MD and Schoolmaster in Fishponds House.
    4.10.1816 Birth of Mason Cox Bompas, another son of Dr George Gwinnett junior and Frances.
    1818 Death of Joseph Mason Cox
    24.1.1823 Birth of Joseph Carpenter Bompas (died 1855), another son of Dr George Gwinnett junior and Frances. He became MD and proprietor of Fishponds. He married Ruth Conquest Bompas (born about 1823), who was head of a school in Middlesex in 1881.
    19.4.1835 Birth of Charlotte Shay Bompas, a daughter of Dr George Gwinnett junior and Frances. By 1881 she was a patient in the Warneford Lunatic Asylum, Oxford
    1.1.1844 49 patients. 1 pauper and 48 private. Proprietor G.G. Bompas MD.
    1847 Death of George Gwinnett Bompas senior
    1848 Gloucester JPs Inquiry: Proprietor, Dr Joseph Carpenter Bompas accused of numerous misdemeanours such as receiving patients without certificate. Evidence presented of harsh and neglectful treatment.
    The evidence taken on the inquiry into the management [by J.C. Bompas] of the Fishponds Private Lunatic Asylum Ordered by the last Court of Quarter Sessions to be printed, and sent to every acting magistrate in the County of Gloucester. 1848. 139 pages. It included illustrations.
    Dr J.C. Bompas was eventually prevented from holding a licence and the asylum was managed by other members of the family, including Dr J.C. Cox "late of Naples". Joseph Carpenter Bompas died in 1855 "late of Adelaide, Australia".
    1851 Death of Dr Joseph Cox Cox
    1852 Fishponds taken over by Dr J.D.F. Parsons, previously proprietor of White Hall House, near Bristol
    1859 Closed. Parry-Jones, (1972) (p.277) links the closure to the opening of Bristol Borough Asylum in the Fishponds district of Bristol
    1871 The Best Means of Evangelising the Masses, a paper read at the annual meeting of the Baptist Union by Henry Mason Bompas.

    Bailbrook House, near Bath
    An 18th Century Mansion designed by John Everleigh
    Opened as an asylum in 1831
    Licensed House
    1.1.1844 94 patients. 66 pauper and 28 private.
    A mansion and outhouses asylum
    A Registered Mental Nursing Home under the 1959 Mental Health Act?
    Now a Conference Centre: Bailbrook Road House, London Road West, Bath, BA1 7JD

    Wiltshire, Gloucestershire and Somerset
    2: Away from Bristol

    Fairford Asylum, Fairford, Gloucestershire
    Licensed House
    1.1.1844 140 patients. 119 pauper and 21 private.
    1859 national comparisons

    Gloucester Public Asylums and Hospitals

    Gloucester Lunatic Asylum (Gloucester)
    A County/Subscription Hospital
    Originally planned (1793) as a Subscription Hospital by the governors of the Gloucester Infirmary. In 1806, one of those involved, George Onesiphorus Paul, gave evidence about the pressure on County funds of the 1800 Criminal Lunatics Act, and the need for asylums that would share costs. This was made possible by the 1808 County Asylums Act, under which the asylum was eventually opened.
    A union of the county, city and subscribers was agreed in 1813, for the purpose of building the asylum.
    Opened 24.7.1823
    Original accommodation for 120: 30 of each sex, private and pauper.
    The first asylum became Horton Road Hospital, Horton Road, Gloucester, GL1 3PS.
    Visit the new gloucesterasylums.co.uk site Horton Road Hospital. Click on it to visit Gordon Tozer's gloucesterasylums.co.uk site. Gordon and Peter Tozer with Nigel Roberts are just starting World of Asylums
    [External link to position of Horton Road Hospital Annex on modern map]
    Samuel Hitch was resident medical superintendent from 1828 to 1845.
    Rev. F.T. Bayly as Chaplain and S. Hiteth? (Hitch?) as Surgeon and Superintendent of the Lunatic Asylum in Pigot's Directory for 1830
    1844 accommodation for 261 (actual numbers below): 95 of each sex, paupers. 32 male and 39 female private patients.
    1.1.1844 257 patients. 189 pauper and 68 private. Superintendent: Samuel Hitch, M.D.
    Weekly charge for paupers:: 9/- including clothes
    Samuel Hitch was the founder of the asylum doctors' association in 1841. He was a loud campaigner on behalf of Welsh lunatics. Statisticians used the Gloucester Asylum death rate as the "natural" death rate for lunacy - on the basis that Gloucester patients were well cared for.
    See below for history after 1844

    First Gloustershire County Lunatic Asylum

    The County/City and Subscription parts of Gloucester Lunatic Asylum separated in 1856 and the asylum became a county asylum for pauper patients only. A new asylum (Barnwood House) was built for the private patients (opened in 1860).
    1881 Census: Gloucester County Lunatic Asylum, Wotton St Mary, Gloucester, England. Assistant Medical Officers (both unmarried surgeons): William Kebbell, aged 29, and Edward George Thomas, aged 27.

    A second Gloucestershire County Asylum opened in 1884. It was under the same management as the first, and had the same superintendent.
    Visit the new gloucesterasylums.co.uk site The second asylum became Coney Hill Hospital, Coney Hill, Gloucester, GL4 7RQ.

    Click here to see what it looks like in 2003
    [This external link should show Horton Road Hospital ringed and position of Coney Hill Hospital]

    Architect: Giles and Gough - Broad Arrow
    1971 Hospital Statistics group Coney Hill with Horton Road. The combined hospitals had 1,251 beds and 1,114 patients.
    In 1979, Horton Road had 353 beds and Coney Hill had 467 for mental illness. The Twyver Unit at Coney Hill had 60 beds for mental handicap.
    Horton Road, the original asylum, closed in 1988. It is a listed building. For plans to develop, see Redrow developers
    Coney Hill Hospital closed in the mid 1990s

    See Rossbret entry on Gloucestershire asylums (archive of old site). I have drawn heavily on this article, which comes from the Victoria County History, Gloucestershire

    Barnwood House Hospital for the Insane
    Barnwood Road, Gloucester
    A Hospital.
    Opened 1860
    1881 Census: Superintendent: Fredrick Needham
    Barnwood House Hospital for Mental and Nervous Diseases from an unknown date to about 1948
    Barnwood House Hospital
    Hospital closed 1968
    Manor House Nursing Home (Barnwood House Trust)
    Closed 1977

    See Gloucester Asylums

    Wiltshire was a major centre for madhouses, and the second largest centre of the trade in pauper lunacy after London. The next largest was County Durham. The importance of Wiltshire is related to its position between London to Bristol. A large percentage of the pauper patients in Wiltshire asylums (1844) came from outside the county. Most Wiltshire parishes were in Poor Law Unions, but only 174 of the 519 paupers in the houses came from Wiltshire unions. (1844 Report, appendix A and F).

    Wiltshire asylums receiving paupers in 1844

    In 1844, most private asylums in Wiltshire received paupers.
    Click here for the asylums in South West England that did not.
    Some of these will have received paupers at other times.

    Kingsdown House, Box, Wiltshire, is near Bath, and listed there.

    map showing Salisbury with arrow pointing to Laverstock
    The Finch family had asylums in London and Wiltshire
    William Finch
    William Finch (surgeon), grandson of above, took over Laverstock in 1799. His name is on an advertisement of 26.12.1807
    Entry in Fellows list of the R.M.+C.S. 1843: "elected 1841, William Finch, M.D., F.L.S., Laverstock-hall, Salisbury."
    William Corbyn Finch (born about 1800? died 7.1.1848, at some time owned Laverstock
    External Link: William Corbyn Finch - archive
    William Corbyn Finch (eldest son of above) was born 1833 in Kensington and christened 17.1.1840 in Fisherton Anger, Wiltshire.

    Finch's Laverstock House, Salisbury, Wiltshire
    Licensed House
    Opened before 1779
    1810 Female paupers from the Isle of Wight
    On 1815 list
    Place: Laverstock. Name: Finch
    1823 Laverstock House Lunatic Asylum, near Salisbury : for the reception of insane patients, under the immediate superintendence of William Finch, M.D. Three page Prospectus written by Finch. Printed by Brodie & Dowding, Sarum. [Cambridge University Library]
    1825: 103 patients. Only provincial house apart from Droitwich with over 100.
    1828: Resident medical officer required by law
    1831: 120 patients.
    1840 Female paupers from the Isle of Wight
    1.1.1844 126 patients. 35 pauper and 91 private.
    Proprietor: W. Finch MD.
    Weekly charge for paupers: 7/6d to 8/- (including clothes)
    1860 Our holiday at Laverstock House Asylum; how we visited Stonehenge, and what we learned there by John Stevenson Bushnan. 67 pages. London: Churchill
    1870: Licensed to Dr S L Haynes
    1881 Census Henry John Manning, age 45, born St Pancras, Middlesex. Medical Superintendent MRCS, and Ellen Frances Manning, his wife, age 36, born Marylebone, Middlesex. Daughters born Laverstock: Grace Ellen (age 12) and Mary Agnes (age 9), plus their Governess, Inez Uhlhorn, aged 20, born in Hanover. Mary Haynes, Mother In Law, age 63, born St Giles, Middlesex, and Jane Adela Haynes, Sister In Law (unmarried), aged 28, born Marylebone, Middlesex.
    1955: Closed.

    A complete register of patients from 1797 to 1955 exists. See Archives

    Finch's Fisherton House, Salisbury, Wiltshire
    Not shown on 1815 list, although claims to have been founded 1813
    Open by 1826
    Licensed House
    1.1.1844: 112 patients. 90 pauper and 22 private.
    Proprietor W.C. Finch M.D.
    Weekly charge for paupers: 8/- (including clothes)
    1850 One of three licensed house outside London named as especially defective in the Lunacy Commission's Report. The other two houses named were Belle Vue and Kingsland Workhouse . (Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 p.255)
    "Largely because of the overcrowding of the Bethlem criminal lunatic buildings, official arrangements were made in 1850, for the reception in special wards at Fisherton House, of a number of harmless criminal lunatics from Bethlem and from asylums in other parts of the country" Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 p.66)
    1859 national comparisons
    1870: 616 patients, 502 of them paupers (Parry-Jones Table 6)
    1870: Licensed to W C Finch (surgeon) and Dr J A Lush M.P.
    Reception of criminal lunatics had ceased by 1872
    1877-1878 Dr Lush a member of the Select Committee of the House of Commons inquiring into the operations of Lunacy Law so far as regards security afforded by it against violations of personal liberty
    "During the period 1878 to 1890, Fisherton House was licensed to receive 672 patients, including 542 pauper or criminal lunatics, making it the largest private licensed house ever known in this country" Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 p.43)
    1880 Patients from Portsea Island moved to the new Portsmouth Lunatic Asylum
    1881 Census Fisherton House Asylum, Fisherton Anger, Wiltshire. Two Medical Officers, both unmarried, both born London, Middlesex, and both Surgeon MRCS ELSA: Henry Baskcombe Harrison, aged 32 and Henry Joseph Hind, aged 28
    1885-1902 imbecile patients from Westminster
    1911 Rules for the attendants at Fisherton Asylum, Salisbury 28 pages. Bennett Bros. Salisbury
    Taken over by the Ministry of Health in 1954. It became the Old Manor, Wilton Road, Salisbury, SP2 7EP (map)

    Fonthill Gifford, Hindon, Wiltshire
    Opened 1718
    Licensed House
    On 1815 list
    Place: Fonthill. Nane: Spencer
    1.1.1844 4 patients. 1 pauper and 3 private.

    The mid-Wiltshire asylums. Belle Vue and Fiddington were considered by the Metropolitan Commissioners in 1844 as amongst the best outside London. Both had large farms which provided employment for their pauper patients. The proprietors were non-medical men, but the houses had "resident physicians or apothecaries" (1844 Report p.41). Both provided a good diet for their pauper patients, and the commissioners commended their dormitories, saying they had "seldom seen any sleeping rooms for paupers more comfortable, and more cleanly or better ventilated, than some of the dormitories in the licensed house at Bethnal Green, Fairford, Devizes and Market Lavington". (1844 Report pp 12-13) Belle Vue, Devizes, Wiltshire
    Licensed House
    1.1.1844 156 patients. 148 pauper and 8 private.
    The provincial licensed house with the most pauper patients, but not many more than Fiddington House
    Proprietor: T. Phillips (Surgeon) [This is given on page 213 of the 1844 Report. Page 41 (see above) says the proprietor was non medical]
    Weekly charge for paupers: 8/- (including clothes)
    1850 One of three licensed house outside London named as especially defective in the Lunacy Commission's Report. The other two houses named were Fisherton House and Kingsland Workhouse . (Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 p.255)
    1853 Commissioners recommended closure of the pauper department, but the justices re-licensed it. . (Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 p.255)

    Fiddington House, Market Lavington, Wiltshire
    Licensed House
    1.1.1844 180 patients. 144 pauper and 36 private.
    Proprietor: R. Willett
    Weekly charge for paupers: 8/-
    William Charles Hood, a resident physician at Fiddington House, became medical superintendent of the second Middlesex County Asylum in June 1851, then superintendent of Bethlem, then Lord Chancellor Visitor in Lunacy.
    1851 Census Worthy Dunford (christened Great Cheverell 3.7.1825, died 1885, married Mary Watts, 1.11.1849 in Great Cheverell) was Assistant at Lunatic Asylum (Fiddington Parish. Wife and baby Benjamin at home in Great Cheverell). By 1861, he was a millwright in Great Chervil. In 1881, he and daughter Emily are at Great Cheverell, but his wife Mary is a patient in Devizes Lunatic Asylum.
    1870: Licensed to Dr C Hitchcock (See Kingsdown House)
    1881 Census Fiddington House, Lavington West: Charles Hitchcock, widower, age 69, born Bushton Clyffe Pypard, Wiltshire, Physician MRCL FSA RCP. Elizabeth Watts, House Keeper, widow, age 46, born Market Lavington. Hospital Matron. George Gusdale Hicks, Boarder, age 45 Coberley, Gloucester, Clergyman Without Cure Of Souls. Other inmates are entered as Patient.

    Wiltshire County Asylum, Devizes opened 19.9.1851. In 1858 it had 350 patients. Became Roundway Hospital, Devizes, Wiltshire.
    1881 Census:. "Wilts County Lunatic Asylum" Devizes St James, Wiltshire. Medical Superintendent Edward Marriott Cooke, physician aged 29, born Gosport, Hampshire, living with his wife, Mary Anne Henrietta Cecil Cooke, housewife aged 30, born Reading, Berkshire, and two local women as cook and housemaid. The patients in this asylum are listed by names not just initials.
    There is a book: Down Pans Lane - Wiltshire County Asylum, Roundway Hospital

    Somerset runs south from the river Avon, and Bristol and Bath, to Dorset and Devon. Taunton is at the Dorset/Devon end of the county. [See St Thomas's, Exeter.] Many unions in north and east Somerset may have sent paupers to licensed houses in or near Bristol, but across the Gloucesterishire border, or Bath, or further into Wiltshire on the east. (See counties map)

    In 1844 Somerset had almost as many pauper lunatics as Devon (1844 Report appendix D). The 1844 Report, appendix F shows 584 pauper lunatics and idiots chargeable to Somerset unions; 12 in county asylum/s; 160 in licensed houses; 153 in a workhouse and 259 with friends or elsewhere. All of Somerset was organised in unions, so the 572 (yes) total in appendix D, compares with the estimated total of 611 for Devon. Appendix D makes an estimate of 103 pauper lunatics not in unions, which it adds to 508 (yes) in unions to give 572 as the estimated total. Accommodation for paupers in licensed houses within Somerset is given as 73, so the majority of Somerset paupers in licensed houses were outside the county.

    Fivehead House, Taunton, Somerset
    1815: Proprietor "Mr Gillett" (presumably Joseph Gillett) who Edward Wakefield told the 1815 Select Committee "bragged of having been a keeper at Bethlem, and was sent from that hospital to Exeter Asylum, from whence he came to keep this house for himself"
    Succeded as proprietor by W.E. Gillett
    1828 Business moved to Fairwater House
    Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 p.80)

    Fairwater House, Staplegrove, near Taunton, Somerset
    Licensed House
    1830 Pigot's: William Edward Gillett Fairwater house lunatic asylum
    1.1.1844 52 patients. 6 pauper and 46 private.
    Proprietor: W.E. Gillett, surgeon
    It seems the buildings are now part of Taunton School. See Ben Grove's web site, which says: "Originally Taunton School was an asylum but later it became a small school. Founded in 1847 ... it was originally in houses in Wellington Road. The present school opened in Fairwater House in 1870"

    Somerset County Asylum for Pauper Lunatics opened 1.3.1848 at Wells. Built for 400 patients, it had 416 in 1858. Situated close to Wells.
    Architect: Scott & Moffatt. Later additions by Hine
    Corridor form
    Became Somerset and Bath Asylum about 1880 (named used by next asylum from 1897)
    Wells Mental Hospital by 1929
    Photo: "The Mental Hospital Wells December 1933" Stage performance
    Photo: "The Mental Hospital Concert Party December 1934" Violinist Joseph Hall.
    21.10.1939: Bosley family move to Mendip. Soon after "with already approximately 950 patients of its own, Park Prewett Hospital, Basingstoke, was converted into a military hospital, so all the patients (but without the staff) were evacuated to Wells. There were now 1,300 patients"
    1960s? Pantomimes: "The pantomime was held in the Hall throughout the week bordering January and February. Three nights were for patients from Mendip, Tone Vale (near Taunton), Fishponds and other hospitals including the Priory Hospital in Wells, and for the Darby and Joan clubs, Coaches came from quite a distance"
    Mendip Hospital, Bath Road, Wells, BA5 3DJ
    Closed 1991 "Now sympathetically restored" (Peter Cracknell)
    2000Memories of Mendip Hospital by Josie Bosley, published by Gerald Burton
    The website of the Friends of Mendip Hospital Cemetery contains some history

    Somerset and Bath Mental Hospital (Taunton) opened 1897
    Architect: Giles, Gough and Trollope
    Compact Arrow design.
    Until 1948 known as Tone Valley Hospital or Tone Vale Hospital
    1960s Pantomime trips to Mendip
    Tone Vale Hospital, Norton Fitzwarren, Taunton, TA4 1DB
    Now closed. The building is to be redeveloped as apartments. (Autumn 2002: reported developed)
    The website of Cotford St Luke's Residents Association has pictures . The stonework on the front of the clock tower has 1896 engraved on it.
    Durham University researched the transition from asylum to community care .

    Devon and Cornwall


    In 1844 no English County without a County Asylum had as many pauper lunatics as Devon (1844 Report appendix D) and, unlike Somerset, which had nearly as many, Devon did not have easy access to licensed houses receiving paupers. (See counties map) Devon County Asylum was constructed during the Inquiry years, but was not opened until July 1845. The 1844 Report, appendix F shows 547 pauper lunatics and idiots chargeable to Devon unions; 25 in county asylum/s; 102 in licensed houses; 145 in a workhouse and 275 with friends or elsewhere. Appendix D makes an estimate of 103 pauper lunatics not in unions, which it adds to 508 (yes) in unions to give 611 as the estimated total. (Compared with 572 for Somerset)

    1741 Devon and Exeter Hospital (Royal from 1899) established Southernhay, Exeter. (Later moved to Barrack Road Exeter EX2 5DW). "In 1795 a Mr Pitfield..left £200 in his will... to building a lunatic ward in or near the... Hospital, for the benefit of insane persons deemed curable" (Hervey, 1980, p.12)

    St Thomas's Hospital, Exeter, Devon
    The hospital appears to have served Dorset, Somerset, Devon and Cornwall
    Bowhill House purchased in 1801 for use as an asylum. Cost about £2650, including the cost of the furniture & repairs.
    Joseph Gillett as Director was recommended by John Haslam of Bethlem. Mrs Gillett was housekeeper. By 1815 Mr Gillett had established his own asylum.
    July 1817 answers enquiry about religious provision
    1823 Paupers confined to the 15/- class, wheras previously they could be in the 10/6d class, now reserved for poor non-paupers. (Hervey, 1980, p.18)
    1824 Under influx of parish applications for pauper admissions, Governors complain that the county ought to have a county asylum (Hervey, 1980, p.6)
    1830 Stoke Damerel opened
    1835 Plympton opened
    1.1.1844 48 patients. 1 pauper and 47 private.
    Superintendent: Luke Ponsford, Surgeon
    Weekly charge for paupers 15/-
    July 1845 Devon County Asylum opened. Pauper lunatics removed from St Thomas's "as the majority were incurable" Nick Hervey (1980 p.58). Nick says that before 1845, St Thomas's "took as many paupers as their finances could sustain, and as many as their parishes would support"
    Became Wonford House Hospital
    Simon Cornwall: Wonford House built: 1865. Architect: WF Cross
    In 1979: Exe Vale Hospital (Wonford Branch), Dryden Road, Wonford, Exeter, EX2 5AF
    1979: 110 beds
    Hervey, N.B. 1980 Bowhill House. St Thomas's Hospital for Lunatics. Asylum for the Four Western Counties. 1801-1869
    Simon Cornwall: Leased to a mental health trust. Not expected to close.

    The Workhouse, Stoke Damerel, Devon
    Opened 1830?
    1.1.1844 23 patients, all pauper.
    A Licensed Workhouse Asylum

    Plympton House, Plympton St Mary, Devon
    Licensed House
    Opened 1835
    A mansion and outhouses asylum
    1838: Thomas Harpur, criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Plymouth"
    1839: William Arnold, criminal lunatic, recorded "Lunatic Asylum, Plymouth"
    1844 Proprietor: R. C. Langworthy, surgeon.
    1.1.1844 83 patients. 66 pauper and 17 private.
    Admission charge for paupers: £1..1/-. Weekly charge for paupers 10/6d excluding clothes. The same as Cornwall County Asylum). Apart from St Thomas's (15/-) the only known higher charges in England were Hereford and the charges of some County Asylums for paupers from outside the county.
    Conditions in 1842-1843 and the commission's efforts to improve them
    29.12.1845 Mr Richard Langworthy authorised by the Lunacy Commission to "retain as servants two female pauper patients still insane", given they were discharged first, entirely free from restraint or control as patients and their employment would be of advantage to them and not injurious to other inmates.
    1870 Plympton House, Plympton, Devon licensed to S Langworthy (surgeon)

    Devon County Asylum opened July 1845
    Simon Cornwall: Built: 1842-1845.
    Kensington Taylor website (has picture) "Charles Fowler, the architect of Covent Garden Market", designed it on concept "of radiating wards around a central administration and service block" Peter Cracknell classifies as Radial design.
    About 1875 G. Symes Saunders was Superintendent
    Became Devon Mental Hospital by 1929 and Exe Vale Hospital (Exminster Branch) by 1973 until 1981 when it became Exminster Hospital, Exminster, near Exeter, EX6 8AB.
    1979: 784 beds
    Closed 1985
    Simon Cornwall: Sold in late 1980s, roofs stripped, appears now to be housing. web link to Kensington Taylor architect

    Exeter City Asylum opened 1886
    Became Exeter City Mental Hospital by 1929. Digby Hospital from 1949 to 1961). Exe Vale Hospital, Digby Branch (1962 to 1982/1986), then Digby Hospital, Woodwater Lane, Exeter, EX2 7EY
    1979: 301 beds

    Plymouth Borough Asylum opened 1891.
    at Ivybridge
    Became Plymouth Mental Hospital in 1918, and then Moorhaven Hospital Ivybridge, (PL21 0EX)
    map shows position on edge of moors
    Closed 1993 and developed into Moorhaven Village (housing) (external link - archive)


    Cornwall County Asylum (Bodmin)
    A County/Subscription Hospital
    It appears (below) that subscriptions for an asylum commenced before the decision to construct a county asylum
    The archives for R Rogers and Son, Solicitors in Helston (Lands End end of Cornwall) include correspondence from September 1807 to February 1808 re committal of John Cornish, resident at East Stonehouse (Plymouth, Devon), chargeable to Helston, to Exeter lunatic asylum ("seized with a down right madness in his brain")
    Administrative records from 1809. "Foundation Year: 1815" The following from Cornwall Quarter Sessions Records Order Books [reference QS/1] catalogue of Cornwall Record Office: Bodmin: 2.10.1810: Following Act to deal with maintenance of pauper and criminal lunatics, notice to be given in local newspapers that consideration to be given at next sessions at Lostwithiel on 15.1.1811 for providing a lunatic asylum. Bodmin: 8.10.1811: Four magistrates to form committee to consider the proposal. Robert Walker, clerk. To report proceedings at an adjournment of the sessions at St Austell on 26.11.1811. Lostwithiel: 14.1.1812: Resolved unanimously to establish lunatic asylum in county to provide for number of lunatics, not to exceed seventy. Also resolved "with the view of extending the benefits of such an asylum to Lunatics of a Higher Class who are not objects of the Poor Rate" to continue the voluntary contribution already in existence. Committee of nine Visiting Justices appointed to superintend building and management of the asylum. Committee of five JPs appointed to confer with committee of subscribers for benefit of "Higher Class" lunatics. Chairman requested to tell Lord Warden of the Stannaries of the court's appreciation of the fact that the Prince Regent [Duke of Cornwall, a large part of whose income came from the County] had agreed to be patron of the intended asylum.
    Opened 1820. Accommodation for 102
    Radial and Corridor form
    1.1.1844: 153 patients. 133 pauper and 20 private.
    Weekly charge for paupers: from outside Cornwall: 10/6. (Cornwall paupers: 5/6d)
    [Notice that Plympton House, in Devon, charged the same for paupers as Cornwall County charged for paupers from outside Cornwall]
    Became St Lawrence's Hospital, Westheath Avenue, Bodmin, PL31 2QT
    Autumn 2002: Reported closed, empty building fire damaged.

    Redruth Union Workhouse, Cornwall
    A Workhouse Asylum
    "Wards exclusively appropriated to lunatics" (1844 Report p.10) Visited 6.10.1843 (1844 Report p.232) 41 Insane paupers (of whom six were idiots), but also "5 others of weak intellect, and unable to take care of themselves" who had not been included in the return of lunatics made to the Clerk of the Peace in 1842. "Several of them were violent, and at times required restraint" (1844 Report pp 98 + 232)

    Wales, Welsh Border and West Midlands away from Birmingham

    Map of Wales 1929 or earlier Anglesy North Wales Asylum at Denbigh Joint Counties Asylum at Abergavenny

    In 1844 Wales and most of its immediate borders had no County Asylum - properly speaking (see Haverfordwest)

    Most of the (few) Welsh pauper lunatics in asylums were in Haverfordest (17), Vernon House (2), Cheshire County Asylum (12), and Haydock Lodge [Lancashire] (18). For others see Welsh lunatics on outdoor relief

      For central Wales: An adequate Shropshire Asylum (England) offically opened on 28.3.1845. An earlier proposal (July 1842) that Montgomery and Shropshire should share the costs had fallen through mainly because of the constraints of two languages. "Welsh patients would have been treated as one class". Agreement was eventually reached between the English and Welsh counties in April 1846. Joint provision meant an additional wing had to be built.
      Shropshire and Wenlock Borough Lunatic Asylum (1845-1846)
      Shropshire and Montgomeryshire Counties and Wenlock Borough Lunatic Asylum (1846-1851)
      Shropshire and Montgomeryshire and Wenlock Borough, Shrewsbury and Oswestry Lunatic Asylum (1851-1863)
      Lunatic Asylum for the Counties of Salop and Montgomery, and for the Borough of Much Wenlock (1864-1911)
      1881 Census: Pauper Lunatic Asylum, Bicton Heath, Shrewsbury (Shrewsbury St Julian) Shropshire. Physician Superintendent: Arthur Strange (aged 37, married)
      "In 1911 the agreement between Salop and Montgommery was dissolved. resulting in 149 Mongomershire patients being transfreed to other asylums" [Note Mid Wales] "and releasing more places for Salopians." -- The history continues below --

      For north Wales: In 1844 an asylum was about to be erected for Denbigh and Flint. A North Wales (5 counties) County Asylum was opened 14.11.1848, at Denbigh, for Flint, Denbigh, Merioneth, Caenarvon and Anglesea. [27.10.1848 Archives XD2/22589: Letter: Richard A. Poole, Caernarfon to Lord Newborough, refers to an account sent by the clerk of the North Wales Lunatic Asylum at Denbigh. It will open on November 14, to receive 80 patients. It has not been decided when the full number of patients will be received. This will probably depend on the payments of the remaining quota from the contributory counties.]
      Corridor form
      22.7.1873 Archives XQA/G/170 Letter from Mr Robinson (Clerk to the visitors, the North Wales Counties Lunatic Asylum) to Mr T. Poole, Esq., Clerk of the Peace, Caernarfon, stating that the rate of payment, for Pauper Patients will be increased from 8/2d to 8/9d per week.
      1881 Census: North Wales Counties Lunatic Asylum, Denbigh, Denbigh, Wales. The Medical Superintendent, William Williams (aged 35, unmarried) was being visited by his cousins, Hermina Eleanor (aged 13) and Elizabeth Maude (aged 11) Williams on census night.
      1900 Archives X/POOLE/825 Circular letter from the Clerk of Caernarfonshire County Council re the proposals for an Act for the dissolution of a Joint Counties Union for the North Wales Counties Lunatic Asylum
      1.1.1914 Archives ZQS/H.1914/9 List of Pauper Lunatics in the North Wales Counties Lunatic Asylum, Denbigh. Attached: Note from the Asylum's Clerk with tables showing the number of patients. Attached: Table showing the Quota of Patients for Denbigh, Flint, Anglesey, Caernarfon and Merioneth [Meirionnydd], also the number of Patients belonging to each county resident in the Asylum.
      1914 Hilary Archives ZQS/H.1914/34 Report of the representatives appointed by the County Council to attend a conference, convened by the Committee of Visitors of the North Wales Counties Lunatic Asylum at Denbigh on the steps to be taken to administer the Mental Deficiency Act, 1913.
      1925: The Branch Secretary of the Denbigh branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was Mr T. Hughes, who lived at 1 Brynnffynon Terrace, Denbigh
      1.1.1927: 1,078 patients of whom all but 126 were Rate Aided. 541 were men, 537 women. In 1926 the proportion of recoveries to admissions was 40.2%. The proportion of deaths to the asylum population was 7.8%
      December 1927 Name given as the North Wales Counties Mental Hospital on a patient's death certiicate
      By 1948 the North Wales Hospital for Nervous and Mental Disorders.
      1974 Article by M.R. Olsen "Founding of the Hospital for the Insane Poor, Denbigh" in Denbighshire Historical Society Transactions volume 23 (1974), pages 193-217.
      From about 1981) the North Wales Hospital, Denbigh, LL16 5SS. (LL16 5SR locates site) map
      Closed 1995
      Autumn 2002 information: "architecturally superb remains standing although neglected whilst its fate is undecided". External link
      Visit Denbighweb. CLick Buildings/PLaces for pictures of the asylum.
      North Wales Hospital Historical Society
      Hospital records are at Gwynedd Archives, Caernarfon Record Office Archon Code : 219. (website)

      For south east Wales: A joint Monmouth, Hereford (England), Brecon and Radnor County Asylum was opened in 1.12.1851 at Abergavenny, Monmouthshire. This was the Joint Counties Lunatic Asylum from 1851 to 1897
      1881 Census: Joint Counties Lunatic Asylum, Abergavenny, Monmouth, Wales. Medical Superintendent not recorded. Assistant Medical Officers: James Glendinning, (unmarried, aged 34, born Scotland) and William F. Nelis (unmarried, aged 34, born Victoria, Australia). The census gives the full names of patients in this asylum, not just initials as is usual with asylums.
      just Monmouthshire Lunatic Asylum from 1897.
      1901 Census William F. Nelis M.D.(Durham), L.R.C.P.(Edin.), County Lunatic Asylum, Old Monmouth Road
      It was Monmouthshire Mental Hospital from 1916 to 1923. Pen-Y-Val Hospital until 1950, and then Pen-Y-Fal Hospital, Old Monmouthshire Road, Abergavenny, NP7 5YY
      County Asylums website

      Newport Borough Mental Hospital opened in 1906. Developed from Newport Union Workhouse (which became St. Woolo's Hospital - See Peter Higginbotham's site). It became St Cadoc's Hospital, Caerleon, Newport, Monmouthshire, NP6 1XQ
      Compact Arrow
      Architect: Alfred J. Wood FRIBA, of London
      photograph during construction on Caerleon.net
      1934 John's Directory of Caerleon on Caerleon.net "NEWPORT ASYLUM. - Accommodation is provided for 368, with administrative offices sufficient for 500 patients. Dr. Magnus Mackay, resident medical officer; and Mr. J. Bass, clerk"
      1949/1950 Christmas Party photograph on Caerleon.net
      1971: 462 beds
      31.12.1977: 402 beds
      Hospital website
      County Asylums website
      [Help from Terry Williams 19.10.2006]

      In 1903 a Mid Wales Counties Mental Hospital opened at Brecon (also called Brecon and Radnor Asylum). ["Talgarth, Brecon and Radnor Asylum was opened around 1900 (1901 over the door) It closed about April 2000." (geomancer - asylums forum)]
      Compact Arrow design.
      Now Mid Wales Hospital, Talgarth, Brecon, LD3 ODS.
      31.12.1977: 422 beds
      1979 Listed under Powys Health Authority. The only mental illness hospital. Powys appears to be the old Brecknock, Radnor and Montgomery
      "A small welsh county asylum". Considered surplus to requirements about 1994, put on the market in 1997 and sold in 1999, It was considered as a Prison or for Asylum Seekers, but rejected for both. Owned by PRYA, various businesses are located there. The picture was taken by Nigel Roberts. (map) - (multimap). Powys Tourist Board has a map

      For south west Wales: In 1847 a union of Glamorgan, Carmathen and Pembroke was contemplated. This opened as The United Lunatic Asylum for Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan and Pembroke. [However, it does not seem to have opened by 1858, and may only have opened in the 1860s.]
      Corridor form - Too large for Conolly's ideal
      1865: Carmarthen, Cardigan and Pembroke County Asylum
      Jonathan Marsden, Vicar of Llanllwch (SA31 3HB) from 1869 to 1922 was chaplain to the "Joint Counties Asylum".
      by 1929: Joint Counties Mental Hospital
      1881 Census: Joint Counties Asylum, Carmarthen, Carmarthen St Peter, Carmarthen, Wales. Medical Superintendent: George Jonathan Hearder (age 41, married)
      1948: became St David's Hospital, Jobs Well Road, Carmarthen (Caerfyrddin) SA31 3HB. map. It had 940 beds in 1971.
      Was expected to close in 2003, but in Autumn 2002 reported to be already closed, but standing empty.

      Glamorgan County Asylum
      Opened at Angleton, Bridgend, 4.11.1864 (Renamed Glanrhyd by or in 1948)
      1881 Census: Glamorgan County Lunatic Asylum, Near Bridgend, Newcastle Higher, Glamorgan, Wales. Henry Turnbull Pringle (married, aged 40) was the Physician Superintendent. His wife doe not appear to have been at home on census night and a nurse was caring for his one year old son.
      1887 An additional hospital, Parc Gwyllt opened nearby. (renamed Parc by or in 1948) map (Angleton can be seen on the west border of the map)
      Known as Angelton and Parc Gwyllt from 1887 to 1922
      Known as Glamorgan County Mental Hospital from 1922 to 1948
      1901 There is an entry for Glamorgan County Lunatic Asylum, Higher Coyty in the 1901 Census
      1905 civil parish of Bridgend formed out of portions of the parishes of Newcastle and Coity.
      1911 Encyclopedia Britannica: Bridgend (Welsh name Penybont-ar-Ogwr) is a market town straddling the river Ogwr. 1901 population of urban district: 6,062. "Just outside the town at Angelton and Parc Gwyllt are the Glamorgan county lunatic asylums."
      1934 Penyfai, a new hospital for admissions, opened on the Glanrhyd site
      1948: Glanrhyd and Parc and Penyfai became Morgannwg Hospital
      In 1979, Morgannwg Hospital consisted of Glanrhyd Hospital (416 beds) and Penyfai (161 beds), both at Bridgend, CF31 4LN, Mid Glamorgan, and Parc Hospital (845 beds), Bridgend, CF35 6AP
      Parc and Penyfai are closed. Glanrhyd Hospital is active (website)

      Cardiff City Mental Hospital, opened 1908.
      Compact Arrow design.
      (Welsh Metropolitan War Hospital from 1915 to 1919). (Whitchurch Emergency Hospital 1939 - 1945) Cardiff City Mental Hospital (1945 - 1948), Whitchurch Hospital 1948. Whitchurch, Cardiff, CF4 7XB

      Swansea Borough Cefn Coed opened 1932. Peter Cracknell suggests the last Compact Arrow design.

      In 1858 Haverfordwest had a borough asylum with 34 patients and Vernon House contained 183 pauper patients.

    Vernon House, Britten (or Briton) Ferry. Near Swansea, Glamorgan, South Wales
    Licensed House
    AN A mansion and outhouses asylum
    Opened 1843 (1844 Report p.200) 1.1.1844: 3 patients. 2 pauper and 1 private. In 1858 209 patients. 183 pauper and 26 private.
    1859 national comparisons
    1870: 120 patients, 54 of them paupers (Parry-Jones Table 6)
    1881 Census: "Asylum", Briton Ferry, Glamorgan, Wales. Charles Pegge (aged 47, married) Surgeon and Asylum Proprieter.

    Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire, South Wales
    Made a "County Asylum" under a local Act in 1822
    Formerly a small gaol for the criminals of the town. No addition or alteration was made to the building when it was taken over for the confinment of pauper lunatics. The corporation contracted with a private individual to supply all food and other necessities and employed a husband and wife at £20 a year as the asylum staff.

    From Lewis' Topographical Dictionary of Wales (1833), reproduced on the Genuki site

    "The borough gaol and house of correction, a modern building situated on St. Thomas' Green, in the upper part of the town, is now, by a recent act of parliament, devoted to a lunatic asylum, as well for Pembrokeshire as for Haverfordwest; and by the same act the common gaol and house of correction for Pembrokeshire, to the purposes of which the remains of the ancient castle have been assigned, are appropriated for the reception of prisoners both for Pembrokeshire and Haverfordwest: the buildings are well calculated for the classification of prisoners, and comprise eight wards; two work-rooms, one for males and one for females; eight day-rooms and eight airing-yards, in one of which is a tread-mill."

    1844 Pigot directory on Genuki site had George Amson , Keeper and George Millard, Surgeon, at Lunatic Asylum, St Thomas' Green
    1844 Report: Superintendent: G. Hampson. 1.1.1844 17 patients. All pauper.

    In 1858 there was a borough asylum
    Today, a "former lunatic asylum" has been identified.

    Mental Handicap Hospitals in Wales

    Ely Hospital, Cowbridge Road, Cardiff. Established by Cardiff Poor Law Union in grounds of Ely Lodge Children's Homes in 1903. An asylum for mental patients that later specialised in mental handicap.

    Hospital Scandal - Bopcris Closed 1996. Address was Ely Hospital, Cowbridge Road West, Cardiff, CF5 5XE.

    Hensol Hospital, near Pontyclun, South Glamorgan.
    Still active. (website)

    Llanfrechfa Grange. Llanfrechfa, near Cwmbran, Gwent, NP4 2YN
    Opened 1948
    Still active

    Gwynedd Health Authority (North West Wales) 1979:

    Bryn-y-Neuadd Hospital, Llanfairfechan, Gwynedd, LL33 0HH
    A house, built about 1667, was demolished in 1858 and rebuilt in 1858.
    St Andrew's Hospital, Northampton owned the house from about 1900 to the early nineteen sixties, and provided care for middle class residents with mental health problems. The house was demolished in August 1967 and the site used to construct the last National Health Service mental handicap hospital to be built - (see 1971 change of policy). It opened in 1971. People were moved into the hospital from Oakwood Park, near Conway, and Garth Anghard near Dolgellau. Bryn-y-Neuadd has villa style accommodation in wooded grounds. There were 233 patients on 31.12.1971, and it carried on growing. But resettlement from the hospital began almost as soon as it opened, as, in the 1970s, adults with low dependency moved into the community. There were 350 beds on 31.12.1977. By the mid 1980s all children, except one, were found successful placements in the community. But on 30.9.1989 there were still 208 people living there long-term. 102 still lived there in January 2001. They came, originally, from a wide area: Ynys Mon, Gwynedd, Conwy, Denbighshire, Flintshire and Wrexham will all be involved in finding them new homes by 2005/2006.
    access to consultation document

    Garth Angharad Hospital, Dolgellau, Gwynedd, LL40 1YF
    43 beds on 31.12.1977.

    Llwyn View Hospital, Dolgellau, Gwynedd, LL40 1YF
    68 beds on 31.12.1977.

    See Historic Herefordshire Online: "Infirmary and Lunatic Asylum, Old General Hospital, Nelson Street, Parish Hereford NGR SO 5135 3937" map link to present Nelson Street . Infirmary foundation stone laid 1.3.1781, opened August 1783. "William Parker of Hereford was architect and builder. The building had three storeys with two ground floor wings, plus cellars and attics. Built on land donated by Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford, it cost 4,803, and could accommodate 55 patients."

    Hereford Lunatic Asylum
    Licensed House at one time a Hospital.
    Founded 1797 under the auspices of the governors of Hereford Infirmary (founded 1776) with funds raised by voluntary contributions. Fund to set up asylum was begun in 1777, but took until 1792 to collect enough money to begin work. A two-storey building, in the grounds of the Infirmary, designed by John Nash and built by Mr Knight. The resident superintendents suite of rooms was at the front of the building. 20 patients could be accommodated.
    In 1802 licensed to a physician and surgeon who were to run it jointly as a private house. The building was still owned by the infirmary's governors. It was extended in 1838.
    History to 1839
    1839 Select Committee of the House of Commons Hereford Lunatic Asylum
    Proprietor (1844) J. Gililand (Surgeon).
    1.1.1844 35 patients. 28 pauper and 7 private.
    Weekly charge for paupers: 10/- to 12/- excluding clothes. [Highest recorded for a private pauper house at this time. See Plympton House, Devon]
    Following the 1845 County Asylums Act, it was decided that the counties of Herefordshire, Monmouthshire, Breconshire and Radnorshire, plus the city of Hereford, would form a union to build a joint asylum at Abergavenny. This opened 1.12.1851 "and the last patient was discharged from the Hereford asylum in January 1853, and it was demolished soon after".

    Millard's, Whitechurch, Ross, Herefordshire
    Licensed House
    1.1.1844 18 patients. 9 pauper and 9 private.
    Later Portland House
    1859 national comparisons

    From 1851, Hereford county shared the joint Monmouth, Hereford, Brecon and Radnor County Asylum at Abergavenny By 1864, Abergavenny was overcrowded, and Hereford city and Herefordshire decided to build their own asylum.
    The Builder 21.3.1868 Competition for Hereford Lunatic Asylum (work began in 1868)
    Hereford County and City Lunatic Asylum Burghill, three miles north of Hereford [HR7 4QN] opened in 1871
    see Historic Hereford Online
    Architect: R. Griffiths of Stafford.
    Corridor form - Small enough for Conolly's ideal
    1875: The fourth annual report of the committee of visitors of the Hereford City and County Asylum at Burghill, near Hereford Printed at the "Hereford Times" offices, 1876, 50 pages. Consists of a list of committee members, the report of the committee of visitors (Archer Clive, chairman), report of the Commissioners in Lunacy (Charles Palmer Phillips, John D. Cleaton), report of the medical superintendent (T. Algernon Chapman), the report of the chaplain (C.H. Bulmer), statistical tables and financial statements (Wellcome Library catalogue)
    1881 Census: Thomas A. Chapman, Medical Superintendent (married), living with his mother and sisters. [I have not found the asylum. They are living in a separate house]
    1900 Extension by Giles, Gough and Trollope
    In 1901 census: Hereford County and City Asylum. Note ecclesiastical parish is St Mary.
    St Mary's Asylum
    1.1.1927: 509 patients of whom all but 33 were Rate Aided. 206 were men, 303 women. In 1926 the proportion of recoveries to admissions was 33.3%. The proportion of deaths to the asylum population was 5.7%
    31.12.1960 "Burghill" 655 beds. Expected to reduce to 231 by 1975
    Became St Mary's Hospital, Burghill, near Hereford, HR7 4QN
    31.12.1977: 327 beds
    Closed 1994
    Herefordshire MIND and Logaston Press published a book of the memories of ex patients and staff in 1995, entitled, "Boots on! Out! Reflections on life at St. Mary's Hospital." The interviews cover a period of more than forty years.
    See external link Public Health in Herefordshire in the 19th Century
    Archives believed to be in Hereford Record Office

    Holme Lacey Hospital
    Holme Lacey, near Hereford
    Two archives in Hereford Record Office:
    1934: architectural plans
    1950-1975: staff registers, Burghill and Holme Lacy Hospital House committee minutes
    31.12.1960 106 beds. Expected to close before 1975
    about 1978 100 amenity (section 4) beds for mental illness

    Mental Handicap Hospitals in Herefordshire

    Ross on Wye What was the Ross Union Workhouse (Peter Higginbotham's site) is recorded as a subnormality hospital (1960) with beds for geriatric patients as well (1977)
    31.13.1960: Alton Street: 127 beds
    31.12.1977: Dean Hill Hospital: 112 beds "Mental Handicap and Geriatric"
    1997 Building demolished to make room for Ross Community Hospital. (Ross Town Walk)

    House of Industry, Kingsland, Shrewsbury, Shropshire
    History on
    Peter Higginbotham's website
    "The local workhouse (House of Industry) for Shrewsbury was situated in Kingsland and is now the main building of Shrewsbury School. Kingsland Lunatic Asylum was attached to the workhouse in the early 1830s and was possibly paid for by individual subscription" Rosie Barnes 1998 p.1
    A Licensed Workhouse Asylum
    1.1.1844 90 patients. 79 pauper and 11 private. Sometimes received Welsh paupers (1844 Welsh Report p.5)
    1850 Kingsland Asylum, Shrewsbury, one of three licensed house outside London named as especially defective in the Lunacy Commission's Report. The whole establishment was considered unsuitable for the reception of lunatics. The gutters, privies and airing-courst were dirty and offensive, the drainage deficient, the walls damp and the clothing and bedding filthy and inadequate. The other two houses named were Fisherton House and Belle Vue House in Wiltshire. . (Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 p.255)

    House of Industry, Morda, Oswestry, Shropshire
    History on
    Peter Higginbotham's website
    A Licensed Workhouse Asylum
    1.1.1844 15 patients. 13 pauper and 2 private.

    "The Diary of a Country Gentleman: Sir Baldwin Leighton, Bt (1805-71)" by Vincent J. Walsh in Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological and Historical Society Volume 59 part 2, contains information about the formation of the Shropshire, Wenlock and Montgomery County Asylum, drawn on by Rosie Barnes 1998:

    Shropsire Archives catalogues "Asylum Visiting Justices Committee" - "Minute and Report Books" 1838-1846

    January 1841 Shropshire Quarter Sessions formed a committee to provide a pauper lunatic asylum. Baldwin Leighton, a member of the committee, was a magistrate for both Shropshire and Montgomery. He was influential in selecting the site at Shelton, on the road west from Shrewsbury (Diary 5.1.1841 and 3.4.1841). In August and September 1841 he visited asylums throughout the country. In July 1842, Leighton told Shrewsbury Quarter Sessions that Montgomery was willing to share costs. "Initially, the motion failed primarily because of language difficulties between English speaking staff and Welsh speaking patients ~ 'Welsh patients would have been treated as one class'. (Rosie Barnes 1998 p.3)

    Shropshire County Asylum opened in March 1845, becoming Shropshire and Montgomery County Asylum in 1846. It was the first county asylum provided for part of Wales and continued as a jount English/Welsh asylum until 1911. Its history from 1845 to 1911 is outlined above.

    From 1851-1863, the addition of Shrewsbury and Oswestry was made to the county asylum's title. The county asylum, was a joint institution of which the Counties of Shropshire and Montgomeryshire and the Borough of Wenlock were owners and formed the management committee, while Shrewsbury and Oswestry had the use of it on payment of a capitation rent. (Annotation in Shropshire Archives)

    Shropshire and Borough of Wenlock Lunatic Asylum (1911 to 1921)
    In 1911 - 765 patients were resident - 332 male and 433 female which included 28 private class, and 7 criminals. (Rosie Barnes 1998 p.13)
    Salop Mental Hospital (1921-1948)
    Copthorne and Shelton Emergency Hospital (1940-1941)
    Shelton Hospital (1948-)
    26.2.1968 Fire kills 24 patients. (external BBC link) Rosie Barnes 1998 (pages 47-48): The fire on Beech Ward brought the highest hospital death toll in Britain for 14 years: 24 dead and 11 seriously injured. The evidence suggests that the fire began with a lighted cigarette smouldering in a chair for some time before igniting it. Patients were not killed by the flames, but by toxic fumes.. Beech Ward was a locked (closed) ward. Due to overcrowding, beds were 'top to tail' along the window wall. All the patients sleeping in those beds died of asphyxia and carbon monoxide poisoning. The fire was reported in local and national newspapers, on radio and television, and as far away as America. As a result, many of the fire procedures in hospitals throughout the country were evaluated and updated.
    September 1975 Retirement of the last Medical Superintendent. Dr Littlejohn
    The hospital is now the Royal Shrewsbury Hospital (Shelton), Bicton Heath, Shelton.

    1998 Shelton Past and Present by Rosie Morris published by Shropshire's Community and Mental Health Services NHS Trust. 56 pages, with maps, plans and portraits. Clicking on the picture will take you to a collection of the pictures

    "Shelton Hospital is still up and running but plans are for it to close and have a new unit built by 2011" (email from Rosie Morris, May 2006)


    Birmingham and West Midlands

    Birmingham (Parish) Workhouse

    A Workhouse Asylum
    "Wards exclusively appropriated to lunatics (1844 Report p.10) Visited 29.9.1843 (1844 Report p.234)

    "there were seventy-one insane persons, subject to insanity in various forms; several of them being epileptics, liable, after their paroxysms of epilepsy, to fits of raving madness, during which they were usually excessively violent, and some of them under great excitement, and furiously maniacal." (1844 Report p.98)

    Birmingham Lunatic Asylum opened in Lodge Road, Winson Green, in 1852. A new workhouse was opened 9.3.1852 at the junction of Dudley Road and Western Road, Winson Green. This appears to be just south of the asylum site on Lodge Road. The Birmingham Workhouse Infirmary (1889-1920) became Dudley Road Hospital, B18 7QH. See Peter Higginbotham's site. The following passage from a local history with pictures relates the construction of the prison, asylum, workhouse and infirmary:

    "The land around Winson Green was unsuitable for agricultural use and was deemed a favourable location for the public institutions that a developing city required. In the early 19th century Birmingham was having to send its prisoners to the County Gaol at Warwick. In 1844 the council resolved to build a gaol within the borough. Mayor Thomas Philips laid a foundation stone at Winson Green on October 29th 1845 but the prison took four years to complete. Built on the Pentonville model, Winson Green Prison cost some £60,000. The first inmate was interned on October 17th 1849. The gaol was followed by the Borough Lunatic Asylum which opened the following year. Construction had started in 1847 to the designs of D.R.Hill who was also the architect for the prison. The Corporation resolved to erect the Birmingham Union Workhouse next to the gaol and asylum. Designed by John Jones Bateman, the building was opened on March 29th 1852. Bateman worked on a number of Birmingham Gothic buildings, notably the Unitarian Church of the Messiah in Broad Street. By the mid-1880's much of the workhouse was given over to sick wards and in 1890 a dedicated infirmary had to be constructed to meet the needs of the sick. The concentration of public buildings inevitably led to the urbanisation of the local area. This was compounded by the arrival first of the canal and later the railway. "

    Duddeston Hall, near Birmingham, Warwickshire
    Licensed House
    opened 1835 for 18 paupers (closed 1865) "formerly the villa of a banker, in the suburbs of Birmingham" . Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 pp 58 + 176 + 190
    Number of patients admitted 1835-1841 (seven years): 353. Outcome of treatment: discharged cured 112; discharged improved 24; discharged not cured 83; died 56; remaining under treatment 78.
    This from an handbill advertisement issued by the proprietors which also contrasts with Hanwell: for last three months of 1841, average patients in Hanwell 992 of whom four were discharged cured and two improved. Duddeston Hall, same period, average patients 88 of whom seven were discharged cured and two improved Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 p.205 (Handbill: Warwickshire County Record Office, QA.24/a/I/5)
    1842: Licensed for 99 patients. Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 (pp 40-43) suggests this was to avoid the requirement for a resident medical officer
    About 1842 Rules and Regulations for the Male and Female Keepers and Servants, at Duddeston Hall Lunatic Asylum (Warwickshire County Records Office, Quarter Sessions lunacy records), reproduced Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 pp 190-192) 1.1.1844 80 patients. 60 pauper and 20 private. Weekly charge for paupers 10/- including clothes.
    Proprietor (1844) Messrs Lewis.
    A mansion and outhouses asylum. "established and carried on" in connection with
    Birmingham Workhouse which sent unmanageable patients and took them back when tolerably tranquil. (1844 Report p.42)
    1867 Became St Anne's School, Devon Street - external link to www.heartlandshistory.co.uk, where it is explained that there were two Dudeston Halls. The asylum was not the Vaux Hall one

    Haugh House, Packwood, Warwickshire
    Licensed House
    1844 Proprietor Mrs M. Gibbs
    1.1.1844 4 patients. 1 pauper and 3 private.
    Weekly charge for paupers: not stated.

    Warwickshire County Asylum opened 30.6.1852, had 334 patients in 1858.
    Hospital database says "founded 1846", which I take to be the year a committee was appointed to plan the asylum under the 1845 County Asylums Act
    1881 Census: "Lunatic Asylum" Hatton, Hatton, Warwick. Head: William Henry Parsey, Physician, aged 60, born Chelsea, Middlesex. Married to Julia, aged 58, born Pinner, Middlesex. Daughter, Julia Mary Parsey, unmarried, aged 27, born in Hatton.
    It became Warwick County Mental Hospital in 1930 and Central Hospital, Hatton, Warwick, CV35 7EE about 1948.
    1994: 95 patients
    See Rossbret information and photographs. The hospital is closed and has been redeveloped as expensive residential accommodation.
    2003 use: "Luxury housing"
    Archive catalogues: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5

    Birmingham Asylums Try Birmingham City Archives for records

    Winson Green Asylum, Birmingham,
    See County Asylums website
    Opened in 1850. The foundation stone was laid by Robert Martineau, the Mayor of Birmingham, on 29.9.1847. It was built on the same area as the prison and workhouse
    The asylum was called Birmingham City Asylum by 1902 and Birmingham City Mental Hospital by 1929. It became All Saint's Hospital, Lodge Road, Winson Green, Birmingham, B18 58D. [The postcode is not now used, but "All Saints House, 280 Lodge Road, Hockley, Birmingham" has the postcode B18 5SB
    All Saints Hospital had 721 beds in 1979
    Closed 12.4.2000. A listed building. It is now used by the prison authorities.
    2003 use: "Prison"
    Rossbret Asylums Website had photographs (lost?)
    The records are in Birmingham City Archives

    Rubery Hill Lunatic Asylum
    County Asylums website which says "founded 1876"
    Opened 4.1.1882 as the second Birmingham Asylum.
    Cock Hill Lane, Rednal, nr. Rubery Hill, Birmingham, Warwickshire
    Architects: William Martin & John Henry Chamberlain. Layout: Pavilion Plan
    It is shown on a 1904 map as City of Birmingham Lunatic Asylum (Rubery Hill)
    Maps were on the Rossbret Asylums Website - but now seem to be lost)
    It became Rubery Hill Hospital, Bristol Road South, Birmingham, B45 9BB
    See Joan Hughes' 1965 and 1967
    It had 638 beds in 1979
    John Connolly Hospital, with 105 beds, was the same address.
    Closed 1993
    The records are in Birmingham City Archives

    Hollymoor Lunatic Asylum
    See County Asylums website
    Construction of Hollymoor Hospital, Rubery,which says it was built after 1900, largely completed by 1904 and officially opened on 6.5.1905 Date closed: Location: Tessalls Lane, Northfield, nr. Longbridge, Birmingham, Warwickshire Architect: William Martin & Martin Layout: Compact Arrow City of Birmingham Lunatic Asylum (Hollymoor) is shown on a 1904 map (See Rossbret Asylums Website). It is just to the east of Rubery Hill. It may have opened in 1905, but there are administrative records from 1899. Hollymoor served as an annex to Rubery Hill and was linked to Rubery Hill in research ("Northfield experiments") and "specialised treatment". By 1949 it was a distinct hospital from Rubery Hill. (Hospital database)
    Became: Hollymoor Hospital, Tessal Lane, Northfield, Birmingham, B31 5EX.
    In 1959 it had 511 beds. The patient numbers fell slowly to 490 by 1984, and then rapidly to 139 by 1994.
    31.3.1994: 185 patients
    Closed July 1994 (Other source says 1995)
    2003 use: "Theatre, community centre"
    The records are in Birmingham City Archives
    There is a book: The History of Hollymoor Hospital
    The Rubery Hill and Hollymoor Hospital site has been redeveloped as a Business Park.

    Northfield Military Psychiatric Hospital, Birmingham. Opened about 1917. Closed about 1919.

    Highcroft Hospital (Mental Illness) Erdington, Birmingham B23 6AX or B23 7JA is the former Aston Union Workhouse and Infirmary. In 1911, most Aston parishes became part of Birmingham Union. The buildings were developed into a mental hospital under the National Health Service.
    1979: 853 beds
    "The former workhouse buildings are scheduled for refurbishment but are currently derelict and inaccessible"
    Peter Higginbotham
    By 2000, "the large imposing building was closed and Mental Health services administered by the newly formed North Birmingham Mental Health NHS Trust. New purpose built units have been provided to take health care forward and the Grade II listed Highcroft Hall is to be sold and converted into residential accommodation" Rossbret Workhouse Website

    Mental Handicap Hospitals in Birmingham Area

    St Margaret's and Daisy Bank Avenue
    1971: 1,404 beds

    Monyhull and Agatha Stacey House
    Monyhull Hall Road, Birmingham, B30 3QB
    1908 Monyhull Colony opened
    Dispersed form.
    1948? Became Monyhull Hospital?
    1971: 777 beds
    1979: 590 patients
    Closed 1998?

    1971: 706 beds

    Stallington and Bagnall
    Blythe Bridge, Near Leek, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire, ST11 9QL.
    1928: Opened. Patients transferred from The Cloughs
    1971: 661 beds
    1979: 482 patients
    Patients were transferred from Loppington House when that closed
    1997: Closure

    Lea Castle
    1971: 658 beds

    Coleshill Hall and Over Whiteacre House
    1971: 409 beds

    1971: 229 beds

    1971: 237 beds

    Droitwich Lunatic Asylum, Worcestershire
    Opened 1791
    Licensed House
    On 1815 list
    Place: Droitwich. Name: Ricketts
    1819: 102 patients. The only provincial house with over 100.
    1825: 112 patients. Laverstock the only other provincial house with over 100.
    1828: Resident medical officer required by law in houses with over 100 patients
    Proprietors (1844) Messrs Ricketts and Hastings, surgeons.
    1.1.1844: 80 patients. 54 pauper and 26 private.
    Weekly charge for paupers: 9/- including clothes.
    1870: Droitwich Asylum. Proprietor: F.I. Bennet (surgeon)
    "Don't you think a short visit to Droitwich would do you good, Ellin?" cried Tod, which was our Worcestershire fashion of recommending people to the lunatic asylum. (Mrs Henry Wood, 1814-1887, from her short story A Mystery
    I have not been able to find in the 1881 Census

    Worcestershire County Asylum, for 200 patients, opened 11.8.1852 at Powick
    It had 365 patients in 1858.
    1873: Edward Marriott Cooke assistant medical officer
    about 1878 Edward Elgar appointed bandmaster of the attendants' orchestra. (Powerful Medicine by James Bartel)
    1881 Census: Worcester Pauper Lunatic Asylum, Powick, Worcester, England: Frederick Hurst Craddock, Superintendant, unmarried surgeon aged 30 (BA Oxford MRCS England), born Lindley Grange, Leicester. Richard Atkinson, Assistant Medical Officer, unmarried surgeon aged 32 (BA Cambridge MRCS England), born Carlisle, Cumberland, England, Eliza Giddings, Matron, unmarried, aged 61, born St Peters, Guernsey, Channel Islands
    1881 Census:: James Sherlock, aged 53, born Ireland, Physician & Surgeon, living with his wife Emily Sherlock, aged 52, born Newport, Isle of Wight, Hampshire, and unmarried daughter, Emily E.A. Sherlock, aged 21, born Powick and a cook and other domestic servant in Doctors House, Powick, Worcester.
    In 1881 Edward Marriott Cooke became Superintendent following the death of Dr Sherlock
    1881 Census: Charles Hubert Bond, aged ten, living with his father, the chaplain to the asylum
    In 1881, Edward W. Elgar, professor of violin, was living as a lodger in Chestnut Walk, Claines, Worcester
    Later known as Powick Hospital. Now closed.
    2003 use: "Luxury housing"

    The history by Robert Ashworth has been taken offline but a partial archive exists.

    Barnsley Hall
    Stourbridge Road Bromsgrove B61 0EU
    Foundation year: 1903
    Compact Arrow form
    By 1929 Worcestershire Mental Hospital
    "In 1929 the hospital had a nominal capacity of 638, and employed 50 male and 54 female attendants to oversee a daily average of 703 patients. The average weekly cost per patients was 21s, recovered from the 22s 7d charged per week, paid quarterly in advance. Private patients were charged 35s per week, also paid quartery in advance. By the time the hospital closed in 1996 the number of beds had shrunk to 45." (Hospital database)
    1948 reference Barnsley Hall Mental Hospital
    1949 Barnsley Hall Hospital for Nervous and Mental Diseases
    1966 Barnsley Hall Hospital, Bromsgrove
    Closed 1996

    East Midlands and Lincolnshire

    Northampton General Lunatic Asylum
    A Hospital
    Opened 1.8.1838
    Robert Vernon Smith, a Metropolitan Commissioner in Lunacy, was MP for Northamton Borough. The Lancet for 14.9.1844 states Dr [T.O.] Prichard "has been six years at the head of the asylum". His title by 1841 was "physician superintendent"
    1840 The statutes and rules of the Northampton General Lunatic Asylum 20 pages.
    1.1.1844 231 patients. 181 pauper and 50 private.
    26.6.1844 A new patient, Mrs Lindsay, wife of John Lindsay of Coates, was found dead. A post-mortem by Mr Marshall, the house surgeon, revealed a ruptured ileum. Surprise was expressed that a serious state of inflammation, leading to rupture, could have existed without Mrs Lindsay noticing, but The Lancet commented "A lunatic will sometimes be attacked with the most severe malady without its existence being manifested by any of the ordinary symptoms. The action of the brain is too much disturbed for it to appreciate morbid phenomena." There were charges that Dr Prichard had been negligent in not attending Mrs Lindsay. He was ill, but the illness was not severe; and there were allegations (which The Lancet dismissed) that his illness was due to intoxication. The committee of Governors criticised Dr Prichard. "It appears, from what was stated at the meeting, that Dr Prichard is rather a self-willed man, and that he has, in more instances than one, incurred the displeasure of the committee". On the motion of Sir George Robinson, the committee adopted a resolution recommending the appointment of "some medical visitor or visitors , who shall have authority independent of the superintendent of the asylum, to inquire into the practice of the said superintendent, and the general treatment of patients, and report from time to time thereupon to the committee of management".
    Home of John Clare for many years

    "In the 1860s the Hospital had problems with the mix between private and pauper patients, and the number of the latter declined, with the last ones leaving for a new county asylum in 1876. This change led to the title of the Northampton General Lunatic Asylum for the Middle and Upper classes being adopted. The asylum was renamed St Andrew's Hospital in 1887"

    1860 George S. Robinson chairman and William Smyth, vice chairman of the Committee of Management. Edwin Wing medical superintendent. Halford R. Burdett chaplain. Report contained an engraving of the cottage for the reception of lady patients (with conservatory attached)
    1864: John Clare died
    1866: Joseph Bayley medical superintendent.
    1869: Visited by W. G. Campbell and John D. Cleaton
    1870: Visited by R. W. S. Lutwidge and John D. Cleaton
    1871: Visited by W. G. Campbell and James Wilkes

    The report of Saint Andrew's Hospital for Mental Diseases, at Northampton, for the middle and upper classes from 1.1.1901 to 31.12.1901. Medical superintendent: Joseph Bayley. Chaplain: John Cunningham. Chairman of Committee of Management: C. Smyth. Visiting Lunacy Commissioners: G. Harold Urmson, E. Marriott Cooke and F. Needham. Includes photographs of Bryn-y-Neuadd, the hospital's seaside house at Llanfairfechan, Wales
    1.1.1903 to 31.12.1903 report. Visiting commissioners the same except F. A. Inderwick instead of Cooke.

    "After the Second World War St Andrew's sought for exemption from the National Health Service, and was one of four Registered Hospitals allowed to function outside the NHS, maintaining the charitable status it still enjoys today."

    St Andrew's Hospital, Billing Road, Northampton, NN1 5DG
    weblink to its own history site

    Northampton County Lunatic Asylum
    Opened 1876
    Was at Berrywood
    Later Northampton Mental Hospital
    Then St Crispin Hospital, Duston, Northampton, NN5 6UH
    Autumn 2002: Reported closed but empty. "Berry Wood Asylum later became St Crispins Hospital which is now a huge yet mainly derelict series of buildings in the Duston area of Northampton." Bookseller's notice Autumn 2002. (map)
    Northampton Asylum Conservation Area

    Leicestershire County Asylum (Leicester)
    Leicestershire and Rutland Asylum
    A County/Subscription Hospital
    Succeeded the Leicester Lunatic Asylum, which was opened in 1794 in the grounds of Leicester Infirmary (Founded 1771). Thomas Arnold (1742-1816) was joint physician. He was also the owner of a private asylum in Leicester

    "In 1794 a Lunatic Asylum was added to the Infirmary, 14 patients being received at first and more later on. Each patient made a small money payment. This department continued in existence until 1837, when the County Asylum was built and the patients removed there, a sum of £1,558 being paid over with them." (1907 p.102)
    The new County Asylum opened 10.5.1837, its costs partly defrayed by the sale of "Old Institutions", buildings etc.
    From 1837 to 1909 at: Victoria Road (now University Road) Leicester.
    Link to map showing position in what is now the University
    First accommodation for 104: 52 of each sex
    1.1.1844 131 patients. 104 pauper and 27 private.
    October 1869 J C Compston, M.D. appointed Assistant Medical Officer to Leicestershire and Rutlandshire Lunatic Asylum, Leicester
    1881 Census: The Superintendent (William H. Higgins) had his own house (now College House, Leicester University) with a cook and a groom [External link to College House History]
    1907: "The Leicestershire and Rutland asylum, or, as it is commonly called, the 'County Asylum', is situated on the Victoria Road, adjacent to the Victoria Park. It was erected in 1837. It is, however, far too small to meet the requirements of the district, and a new Asylum, standing on an estate of 184 acres, and designed to receive 912 patients, is now in course of erection at Narborough.

    In its early days, the borough mental cases were also treated there, but their great increase led to the opening, in 1867, of an Asylum for their special benefit. This is known as The Leicester Borough Asylum, and is situated near the village of Humberstone. It can accommodate 868 patients. Though lunacy in Leicester is considerably below the average, yet 621 of the patients belong to the parish of Leicester, as against 152 in 1869, so much has the town grown." (p.103)

    From A Guide to Leicester and District. Prepared for the British Association for the Advancement of Science 1907 Meeting. Under the direction of the Publictions Sub-Committee. published by Edward Shardlow, St. Martin's, Leicester.

    Leicestershire County Mental Hospital
    Replaced the Victoria Road (University Road) asylum. It was "built astride the parish boundaries of Narborough and Enderby, two villages about eight miles from the centre of the city of Leicester. (Andrew Crowther)
    "In 1908, the patients were moved to a new asylum in Narborough"
    "Pick, Everard, Keay and Gimson, civil engineers, Leicester - Many notable local undertakings and buildings have been engineered and designed by the firm during its long history. The Leicestershire and Rutland Lunatic Asylum at Narborough (Carlton Hayes Hospital), The Leicester Technical and Art Schools (Leicester Polytechnic), and the former County Council offices (Grey Friars) are worthy of mention"
    "In 1914 the name of the new asylum at Narborough was modernised to become the Leicestershire and Rutland Mental Hospital"
    In 1939 the name "was changed again to Carlton Hayes Hospital. The hospital continued to be administered by the two County Councils and the Charity until it became part of the National Health Service in 1948."
    Carlton Hayes Hospital, Forest Road, Narborough, Leicester, LE9 5ES. Also known as "CHH".
    1971: Average of 786 available beds. 701 patients.
    Woodlands Day Hospital, for people with mainly neurotic disorders, was attached.
    1994: 249 patients in Carlton Hayes
    Carlton Hayes "due to close down" on 1.3.1996 "as a result of the policy of caring for mental patients in the community. Patients will begin to leave in Autumn 1995 and the site is gradually being taken over by the Alliance and Leicester Building Society.
    Carlton Hayes Hospital closed in 1996.
    Now the Alliance & Leicester plc. Registered Office: Carlton Park, Narborough Leicester LE19 0AL. (information from Lynn Barnes, following earlier information from Andrew Crowther)

    Leicester Union Workhouse
    A Workhouse Asylum
    "Wards exclusively appropriated to lunatics" (1844 Report p.10) Visited 6.10.1843 (1844 Report.p.233) (read about it)

    Leicester Borough Lunatic Asylum opened in 1869, just outside the village of Humberstone. (Now part of Leicester: (map) - (another map)
    1881 Census: Superintendent: John Edward Montague Finch (appointed October 1869)
    Became Leicester City Mental Hospital
    It became Towers Hospital in 1948 Gipsy Lane, Leicester, LE5 OTD.
    1971: Average of 746 available beds. 662 patients.
    Closing 2002?

    "Special Schools The Leicester Education Authority was the first in the country, in 1892, to provide special instruction for backward and weak-minded children. Under this provision, the education of the eye and hand is made an instrument to lead up to a small amount of book- learning, with the result that the children are made brighter, happier, and more useful. The special school for mentally defective children occupies a part of the buildings of the elementary school in Willow Street. At this school, the most defective cases (about 40 in number) are taken in hand. In addition special, or 'Standard O', classes are held at two of the elementary schools fro cases of a less severe type than those in Willow Street. After a period of treatment in these classes, the children sometimes succeed in overcoming their backwardness, and are able to take their place in the normal school. Children who are deaf mutes are educated at a special school in Short Street, where there are about 30 scholars on the registers. The method of instruction is the 'pure oral'." (1907 pp 106-107)

    Mental Handicap Hospitals in Leicestershire 1979

    Leicester Frith Frith Hospital Glenfrith
    Opened 1914
    402 beds in 1979
    Groby Street, Leicester, LE3 9QF (map)

    Glengate Hospital, Desford, Leicester, LE9 9JJ
    56 beds in 1979

    Mountsorrel Hospital, 240 Leicester Road, Mountsorrel
    91 beds in 1979

    Stretton Hall Hospital, Oadby, Leicester, LE2 4RP
    157 beds in 1979

    Kibworth Hall Hospital, Kibworth
    38 beds in 1979

    Stoneygate Hospital, 58 Stoneygate Road, Leicester, LE2 2BN
    22 beds in 1979

    The Billesdon Hostel, Uppingham Road, Billesdon, Leicester, LE7 9FL
    18 beds in 1979

    Montrose Court, Thurmaston Lane, Leicester, LE5 0TG
    24 beds in 1979

    The Willis family's high class madhouses were in South Lincolnshire
    John Conolly was born 27.5.1794 in Market Rasen, Lincolnshire, but went to school in Yorkshire from the age of six. His family moved to Yorkshire before he was 13.

    Lincoln County Hospital, founded 1769, was in Drury Lane, Lincoln from 1777 to 1878. Edward Parker Charlesworth (1783 to 1853) was a Physician to from 1808 "Before working at the County Hospital, Charlesworth had worked with Doctor Harrison at Horncastle, who ran a private madhouse" (Judy McLoughlin) citing Melton 1969 p.6. He became visiting physician to the lunatic asylum in 1820.

    Lincoln Lunatic Asylum
    A Hospital
    Union Road, Lincoln
    originated by a bequest (1803) of £100 by Paul Parnell, surgeon. (White)
    Architect: Richard Ingleman
    Administrative records from 1817
    instituted 4.11.1819
    25.3.1820 "opened for the reception of patients". Or
    Opened 20.4.1820 with accommodation for 50 patients
    Edward Parker Charlesworth visiting physician from 1820. He worked for the reduction of mechanical restraint.
    Thomas Fisher was Director (resident medical officer - house surgeon) for 10.5 years. He was succeeded by Henry Marston - Samuel Hadwen - Robert Gardiner Hill - William Smith - William Graham - Francis Delavel Walsh and Arthur P. Russell (a physician)
    2.5.1828 Lincoln petitions the House of Lords to be exempt from the provisions of the Madhouse Bill
    13.10.1828 Letter from Charlesworth to the Board urging improvements:

    "That the flagrant abuses lately brought to light before Parliament such as foul offensive unventilated apartments, personal uncleanliness and neglect, brutal means of restraint, harsh and unfeeling demeanour in the attendants and above all improper association in convalescence be effectively prevented without a full and free inspection by Governors and strangers officially introduced. Lincoln Lunatic Asylum is a public institution and not a private establishment.

    Every instrument of restraint without exception used in this Asylum be ticketed and hung up in a place distinctly appropriated for each in some easily accessible place when not in use." (quoted by Judy McLoughlin)

    1829: 72 patients. Death of a patient in consequence of being strapped to the bed in a straight-waistcoat during the night. Rule established that an attendant must remain in the room whenever restraint was used at night. This, in itself, led to a reduction in the use of restraint as it no longer saved staff time.
    28.3.1831 Seventh Annual Report mentioned a "new director" who D.H. Tuke (1882, p.529) identifies as Mr Henry Marston

    1834 to 1838: abolition of mechanical restraint.
    Early 1834? Samuel Hadwen succeeded Henry Marston
    In August 1834 it was reported that no patient had been in mechanical restraint of any kind for many successive days.
    Robert Gardiner Hill was born Louth, Lincolnshire, 26.2.1811. Whilst medical officer at Lincoln General Dispensary he was persuaded by Dr Charlesworth to apply to be resident medical officer at the asylum. He started in July 1835.
    8.7.1835 Governor's Memorandum Book: "Resolved - That this Board, in acknowledging the services of Mr Hadwen during the period of fifteen months that he held the situation of house surgeon of this institution, feel called upon to express their high approbation of the very small proportion of instances of restraint which have occurred amongst the patients under his care." (Quoted Tuke, D.H. 1882, p.529-530)
    1837: 130 patients. In the 1837 Report it was reported that Robert Gardiner Hill thought it possible to manage an asylum without "any instruments of restraint whatsoever" and had conducted the male side with only one instance of restraint for sixteen months.
    21.6.1838 Lecture on Total abolition of personal restraint in the treatment of the insane given by Robert Gardiner Hill to mechanics institute. (Published 1839)
    May 1839 John Conolly visited Lincoln Asylum. "conversations and correspondence with Dr Charlesworth and Mr Gardiner Hill... strongly inclined me to believe that mechanical restraints might be safely and advantageously abolished in an asylum of any size."
    See timeline
    1840 Robert Gardiner Hill retired to private practice after controversy over non-restraint. He received private patients in his home, Eastgate House, Lincoln, had an interest in Shillingthorpe House, near Stamford, Lincolnshire and was joint owner of some London houses
    William Smith resident medical officer.
    1841 Census: 25 staff, 101 patients (male 55, female 46). 90 born in Lincolnshire. The 1841 and 1861 census has the name of the Lincoln Asylum patients. The 1851 census has names of staff, but only initials of patients, their 'condition' (married, unmarried), rank, profession or occupation, where born, and whether they were blind, deaf or dumb. (Judy McLoughlin)
    1842 Report: Robert Gardiner Hill chairman. William Smith House Surgeon.
    7.1.1842 William Smith reported that Lincoln was also experimenting with abolishing seclusion (solitary confinement) and had not used it since 14.9.1841
    William Graham
    resident medical officer
    27.12.1843 Inquest opened at the asylum on "the body of Maria Hull, a pauper, of Caistor, who had been found dead in bed in the morning". No cause being evident, a postmortem examination was reported to an adjourned inquest on 1.1.1844. "Exhaustion", which had been rumoured, was ruled out because she was "remarkably fat". The organs revealed no defects, so "a general verdict of found dead" was returned. The inquest was held by "Mr Hitchins" and, like the others recorded below, reported in the Lincoln, Rutland and Stamford Mercury on a Friday. Details from Anne Cole
    1.1.1844 103 patients. 73 pauper and 30 private.
    Monday 15.4.1844 "... inquest... on the body of a patient named John Parkinson Footitt, of Butterwick, who had been for some time out of health, and who whilst putting on his trousers on Sunday morning fell down and died without a sigh or groan. Verdict, died from nervous exhaustion".
    Boston Union (Lincolnshire) minutes. Many people from this Union were sent to Haydock Lodge:
    28.9.1844. It was unanimously agreed that subject to the approval of the Poor Law Commissioners the whole of the paupers now in Lincoln Asylum chargeable to parishes in this Union be removed therefrom to the establishment kept by Mr Mott at Haydock Lodge near Manchester and the clerk was ordered to communicate this resolution to the Poor Law Commissioners and also to Mr Mott. [Page 348]
    9.11.1844. Resolved and ordered that Thursday next be fixed for removal of the several lunatic paupers mentioned in the following list from Lincoln asylum to the Haydock Lodge establishment. That the clerk do write to the Secretary at the Lincoln asylum and to Mr Mott informing them thereof and do arrange with Mr Coupland to go over to Lincoln and thence to Haydock Lodge to superintend the removal and do prepare the necessary forms and papers for re-admission of the patients. [Page 356 and 357]
    Name - Age - Parish
    Desforges Edward Sibsey
    Parsons Henry 52 Boston
    Burkitt Robert 34 Boston
    [Later stated that Burkitt remained at Lincoln]
    Bradshaw James 64 Boston
    Dulston Thomas 54 Boston
    Parker Samuel 38 Boston
    Rogerson William Skirbeck
    Turner Mary 24 Kirton
    Bettison Mary Ann Leverton
    Warsap Ann 44 Boston.
    [See also names of paupers from minutes:]
    Stamford Union, South Lincolnshire, minutes:
    2.7.1845 Case of Jacob Freer. Jacob Freer, an inmate of the workhouse belonging to Wansford was also reported to be insane. He was examined by the Board and made some very incoherent statements.
    Both the above cases were fully discussed, and as notice had been given that no more patients could be received at Northampton, it was ordered that Jane Stanton and Jacob Freer be sent to Mr Mott's asylum at Haydock Lodge near Warrington under the care of Mr Simpson, the medical officer, and Mrs Clarke, one of the nurses at the workhouse. [page 82]

    16.7.1845 Mr Charles Simpson, medical officer, reported that he had accompanied Jacob Freer to Haydock Lodge and had carefully inspected the establishment, but from defective ventilation etc he could not recommend any other patients to be sent there at present.

    He produced an account of his expences as under:
    For Jacob Freer £2
    His own expenses £4..3/-
    Sub-total: £6..3/-
    Loss of time; 2 days at 2 guineas: £4..4/-
    Total: £10..7/-
    A check was drawn for the £10..7/- and ordered to be charged as under:
    To the parish of Wansford £6..3/-
    To Establishment £4..4/-
    [Page 88]

    There are many more examples in the minute books. St John's Pauper Asylum at Bracebridge near Lincoln was opened in 1852 at which time most of the pauper lunatics were sent there from other asylums. I also notice you mention Peckham. This asylum was also used by some of the Lincolnshire Workhouses, as was Camberwell, Hull refuge and others.

    The Lincolnshire Family History Society has published four books, so far, of all entries from PLU minutes where paupers are mentioned by name, and transcribing continues.

    Lincolnshire FHS Publications Manager

    16.10.1845 James Hitchins of Lincoln, appointed as coroner for the City of Lincoln in 1836 and the County of Lincoln in 1838, appointed Edward Farr Broadbent of Lincoln, surgeon, to act as his deputy. [The inquests at the asylum, recorded here are all under Mr Hitchins]
    In November 1845, William Graham complained about the treatment of a Lincoln patient at Haydock Lodge.
    Early March 1847 Inquest on the body of William Barton, who died after a fit of epilepsy.
    Monday 19.4.1847 Inquest on the body of William Cheetham. "Verdict, apoplexy. The jury requested that it might be represented to the authorities of the Asylum that they wished for arrangements to be made so that in future they might be enabled to take their view unobserved by the patients".
    Monday 17.5.1847 Inquest on the body of Thomas Richardson. "He had been an inmate for 14 years. Verdict, died from congestion of the lungs".
    Thursday 10.6.1847 Inquest "on the body of Ann Gates, who had been found dead in bed the same morning. She had been very violent on the previous evening".
    13.8.1847 John Cottingham became a patient. The asylum surgeon at this time was Francis Delavel (Deleral?) Walsh, who was still House Surgeon in 1870.
    19.8.1847 John Cottingham complained of the attendant Smith.
    20.8.1847 John Cottingham complained that Smith had broken his ribs. Francis Walsh examined him "and found that he had not any ribs broken...Deceased had subsequently an attack of dysentery, from which he recovered; and since his recovery he had been subject to daily emaciation and exhaustion, which the witness attributed to his maniacal restlessness".
    Tuesday 5.10.1847 Death of John Cottingham. On postmortem, Francis Walsh found John Cottingham to have "four ribs broken, adhesion of the pleura, aneurism of the aorta, and a brittle state of the bones. From the appearance of the ribs, they must have been broken a short time before death". Before the postmortem, Francis Walsh "entered in his book that the death of the deceased was from maniacal exhaustion, and he retained the same opinion since the post mortem examinations"
    1851 Census: 25 staff, 127 patients (male 60, female 67). 65 born in Lincolnshire. (Judy McLoughlin)
    1852 The new County Asylum at Bracebridge being opened, the pauper patients left and the number of private patients was seldom more than 60 in the 1850s
    31.1.1853 Lengthy entry in the hospital Case Book by
    Edward Parker Charlesworth as visiting physician. He saw every patient. It was his last visit. He died on 21.2.1853. (Judy McLoughlin)
    14.3.1853 Death of Edward Ffrench Bromhead (external peerage link)
    12.7.1854 John Conolly unveiled a statute to Dr Charlesworth.
    1857 Approximate date of extracts from White Directory on the Rossbret Asylums Websit
    1861 Census: 25 staff, 78 patients (male 36, female 42). 53 born in Lincolnshire. (Judy McLoughlin)
    Francis Deleral (Delavel?) Walsh (born about 1811), the House Surgeon, was still in charge in 1870, but had retired by 1881.
    1881 Census: Lunatic Asylum, Lincoln. Arthur P. Russell: "Super (Head)" unmarried, aged 27, born Lancashire, Physician. Graduate of Edinburgh University and Member of College of Physicians (Hospital). Susan M. Munro, Matron, unmarried, aged 40, born Scotland. "Matron of Lunatic Asylum (Hospital)". James Marshall, unmarried, aged 26, born Wadsworth, Surrey. Head Attendant...
    1889 Kelly's Directory: The "Lawn" Lunatic Asylum is at Lincoln. The original building was opened 25.8.1817; the present hospital, erected in 1870, is a spacious building, 260 feet long, with a nobel front and portico of the Ionic order: the average number of resident patients in 1887 was 66- 31 males and 33 females; the total number under treatment being 83... George Mitchinson MKQCP Ireland and William O'Neill MD, physicians; Thomas Sympson LRCP Edinburgh C. Brook, surgeons; Arthur Pickston Russell MB resident medical superintended; Richard Hall secretary; Coningsby C. Sibthorp treasurer; Richard C. Carline and George Vickers auditors; Miss Munro, matron
    1905-1921 Lincoln Lunatic Hospital
    1926: Known as The Lawn.. "present hospital.. 26 feet long with a noble front and portico of the Ionic order" (Kelly's Directory)
    1948 The Lawn became a National Health Service hospital
    1969 Beatrice Louise Melton: One hundred and fifty years at the Lawn a 24 page history.
    31.12.1977: 129 beds
    Closed 1985
    Smith. L.D, 1995 "The Great Experiment: The Place of Lincoln in the History of Psychiatry", Lincolnshire History and Archaeology, Volume 30 1995, pages 55-62
    Can you afford to marry there?
    Take a pleasant walk for free

    Lincolnshire County Asylum, Bracebridge Heath, was opened 9.8.1852. The land for it was purchased in 1846. It had 300 patients in 1858 and was enlarged in 1859, 1866, 1881, 1902, 1917 and 1928. It was built in the "Italian style".
    Architect: Hamilton and Thomas Percy - Close to Conolly's ideal
    1881 Census: Physician: Edward Palmer, aged 64
    1889 Kelly's Directory: The County Lunatic Asylum is situated at Bracebridge, near Lincoln, on an eminence, on the high road to Sleaford; it is a plain building, erected in 1852, in the Italian style, and had room for 250 patients, but has since that date been considerably enlarged, and will no hold upwards of 680 patients: The ground belonging to and occupied by the asylum consists of 120 acres, cultivated chiefly by the spade husbandry of the inmates. The sewage is disposed of by irrigation over ten acres of land about a mile from the asylum, quite inoffensively and profitably. The recreation grounds, which are tastefully laid out, with flower beds, shrubs and trees, occupy about six acres. A chapel was erected in 1869 to seat 450: there is also a cemetery of one acre on the estate, with a mortuary chapel. The Viscount Oxenbridge, chairman to the committee of visitors; Robert Toynbee, Lincoln, clerk to the visitors; Alexander H. Melville, treasurer; John Wilford Marsh, medical superintendent; George Parsons Torrey BA, LKQCP Ireland, assistant medical officer; Rev Charles Christopher Ellison MA chaplain; George Kirkup, steward and clerk to the asylum; Miss E. Sollit, housekeeper; Robert Runacres, head male attendant; Mrs Sophia Peek, head nurse.
    In 1926, "Bracebridge Mental Hospital" on the "high road to Sleaford" had an "estate of 160 acres, cultivated chiefly by spade husbandry of the inmates". (Kellys Directory of Lincolnshire, 1926, page 107) (See also extracts from (1857?) White Directory on the Rossbret Asylums Websit
    Became St John's Hospital, London Road, Bracebridge Heath in 1961.
    31.12.1977: 944 beds
    Simon Cornwall: Closed in 1990, appears redeveloped by housing.
    Grid reference for Lincoln County Lunatic Asylum on 1889/1890 Ordnace Survey map is 498179,367657. The same grid reference on a modern map shows no sign of St John's Hospital. (same area on multimap)

    Kesteven County Asylum, Lincolnshire was erected between 1899 and 1902.
    Became Rauceby Mental Hospital, Rauceby, Sleaford [NG34 8PP] in 1934.
    31.12.1977: 509 beds
    Urbex (Simon Cornwall) map and photograph index and the virtual asylum
    English Heritage: Rauceby, Lincs, built 1899-1902 as the pauper asylum for the county of Lincolnshire

    Mental Handicap Hospitals in Lincolnshire 1975

    Bourne Institution
    Opened 1910
    Became St Peter's Hospital, St Peter's Road, Bourne, Lincolnshire
    31.12.1977: 129 beds

    Fleet Hospital, Fleet Road, Holbeach, PE12 7AY
    Founded 1820? [I think this must be 1910]
    31.12.1977: 190 beds
    Closed 1991

    Caistor Hospital, Kelsey Road, Caistor, Lincoln
    Administrative records from 1930 to 1990
    31.12.1977: 202 beds
    External Link: Caistor Hospital: From House of Industry to Caistor Hospital 1802 - 1990

    Harmston Hall Hospital, Harmston, Lincoln
    Administrative records from 1930
    31.12.1977: 380 beds

    Picture the Past has pictures and historical information for both counties and their county towns. - Counties map - Thoroton Society of Nottingham (History)

    Nottingham General Hospital, (now Park Row, Nottingham, NG1 6HA) opened in 1782 (external link). It had a rule that no lunatics were to be admitted. Dr John Storer, the first physician at the hospital, chaired a commissioning committee to establish an asylum. (Dave Ogden)

    The General Lunatic Asylum for the Town and County of Nottingham
    Nottinghamshire County Asylum
    Sneinton, near Nottingham
    (map link to Sneinton) (upmystreet) (multimap)
    A County/Subscription Hospital
    [A Sarah Rutherford case study]

    Architect: Richard Ingleman Early form, later adapted to corridor. Located on Carlton Road in Sneinton. Replaced on closure by Saxondale (1902). (Peter Cracknell)

    "If the Sneinton Asylum, Nottingham was the institution at the top of Dakeyne Street, off Carlton Road, then its buildings survived until the 1960s, though not for mental health purposes. In the late 1950s and 1960s the building was used by the Oliver Hind Boys Brigade Company. I remember being told that in the basement the building still had its padded cells! I think the site was demolished in the mid-1960s after a new Oliver Hind Club had been constructed by the Boys Brigade." (Tim Watkinson 2.1.2004)

    Dave Ogden:: "it is still possible to see part of the original wall near Sneinton Market."

    Administration archives go back to 1803 but the list of donations in the sixth annual report starts in 1789. Substantial donations were made in 1791 and 1792.

    Jeremy Waters visited Nottinghamshire Archives to examine the original records of this asylum, the references for which are:-
    SO/HO/1/1/1: Meetings minutes with related copy letters, reports, financial statements etc concerning purchase of land and establishment of Lunatic Asylum, 1803-1810
    SO/HO/1/2/1-2 Visiting Governor's meetings minutes, 1810-1845
    SO/HO/1/3/1-2 House Committee meetings minutes, 1811-1836
    SO/HO/1/9/1 Medical Superintendent's case books, giving details of diagnoses and treatment, 1824-1829
    SO/HO/1/31 Ledger of lunatic asylum, 1812-1824
    and DD 177/1
    This is Jeremy's summary of the asylum's establishment:

    The asylum was first mooted in about 1803 by a group of doctors at the Nottingham General Hospital, which was prevented by its own constitution from admitting the insane. A committee was set up to further the objective, and the Minute Books stem from this date to about 1840. Originally the intention was to serve just the City, but by the time they had raised the funds, found the land [purchased in July 1808], designed the building, etc, they had joined forces with the County of Nottinghamshire on a larger building to house some 60 patients. The building had a formal opening on Thursday 10.10.1811, although not yet fully furnished, and the first patient was admitted in February 1812.

    Sarah Rutherford says the "group of subscribers, who had been contemplating the erection of a charitable asylum for the previous 20 years" joined the project in 1808, when the ground had been bought

    1809: Dr Edward Fox of Brislington House consulted. He advised privacy and so a screen of trees was planted.

    Patients were divided into three classes:- First, persons of a superior class and opulent means who should contribute in accordance with their pecuniary ability, but not less than £10 per week; second, persons in limited circumstances who desire no aid from any parochial fund, who shall be charged for maintenance and medical attendance according to their means, but not less than 18/- per week; and thirdly, persons being paupers sent to the Asylum by the Justices of the Peace pursuant to Acts of Parliament, for whom their parish pays 18/- per week. The criminally insane were not accepted, nor were those deemed incurable.

    1810 Richard Ingleman, architect, Southwell, Nottinghamshire provided A specification... of the work to be executed... in constructing a General Lunatic Asylum, near Nottingham... according to the intentions of the Committee of the Justices of the Peace, for the county of Nottingham, and the committee of the voluntary subscribers. On page one an Advertisement to builders: the plans and specifications, will, on the 3rd day of April, be lodged with Mr Thompson, at the General Hospital, for inspection.

    31.5.1810 Foundation stone laid

    In 1810 Sneinton was a village about a mile outside of Nottingham town and high on a ridge overlooking the valley of the River Trent.
    A County/Subscription Hospital

    1811 The articles of union... between the Justices of the Peace, for the County of Nottingham [and for].. the County of the Town of Nottingham; and the subscribers to a voluntary institution... together with the by-laws, rules, orders, and regulations... published Newark, printed by S. and J. Ridge. Seventeen page introductory address to the public [by Doctor John Storer] Articles of Union, pp 3-23; By-laws, pp 25- 75; Instructions for those who make application for the admission of patients, pp 77-9; List of the officers [six pages]; Benefactors.[ten pages]

    Original asylum opened for about 60 patients, at a cost of £19,819 and called The General Lunatic Asylum for the Town and County of Nottingham.

    In May 1811, the management committee of Visiting Governors advertised in the papers published in Nottingham, Lincoln and Stamford, and in The Times, for

    "a Director to execute the duties of Apothecary, Secretary and Principal Superintendent and also a Matron to regulate the female department in the Institution."
    An Emergency General Meeting of the Visiting Governors on the 4.9.1811 elected Mr Thomas Morris, aged 40, Surgeon and Apothecary of Grove Place, Hammersmith, to the post at a salary of £100 a year and furnished apartments within the building, board and washing, and his wife Mrs Ann Morris as Matron at a salary of £30 a year.

    In Trade Directories, Thomas Morris was shown as House Director and Secretary and his wife as Matron from about 1812 to 1827. Their life is being researched by Jeremy Waters. The Morris's previous home was Great Baddow, Essex. We would like to know what Thomas and Ann Morris did in Essex and Hammersmith that qualified them for this post]

    The establishment was reckoned to have cost to October 1811 £19,820 to erect. This exceeded original estimates, and included £964 for extra earth and rock digging and cutting in the sub-basement, the yards, the courts and the foundations, and £1,755 for the purchase of the land, planting trees and setting down hurdles. (Sarah Rutherford)

    10.10.1811 First patients admitted (One source)
    Thursday 10.10.1811: formal opening although not yet fully furnished. (Jeremy Waters).

    Jeremy Waters:. There were, at that time, similar institutions only [not quite correct] in York, Manchester, Liverpool and Exeter, and Mr Morris was immediately sent to visit the York establishment where he "acquired much useful information." He took up residence in the Institution on 30.11.1811, where he remained until 1832.

    1812 is usually given as the opening date. There may have been a formal opening on Wednesday 12.2.1812.

    Dave Ogden quotes the following extract from a letter written by Rev. Orton, Vicar of Keyworth, 30.9.1812:-

    "Gentlemen, it is a painful task for me to enumerate the evil qualities of anyone but the conduct of Mr George Simpson has been so very inconsistent when at liberty that it is a fortunate circumstance that there are such places of safety for such outrageous characters similiar to your asylum. He has been under the care of Dr Arnold of Leicester for nearly 18 years though his friends every two years give him a trial of his liberty. At those times whenever an opportunity occurs he could not refrain from getting inebriated and in these fits he has attempted the lives of both his sisters and demolished their windows, selling his clothes from off his back and returning to his home forlorn and naked. That if he can be returned under your care it is certainly a charity to this man and a relief to the apprehensions and anxiety of his friends."

    1818: Purchase of additional land

    1825: Physician: Dr Charles Pennington. Surgeon Mr Henry Oldknow. House Director and Secretary: Thomas Morris. Matron: Mrs Ann Morris

    1.1.1844 177 patients. 125 pauper and 52 private.
    Superintendent: T. Powell, surgeon
    Private patients were moved to The Coppice Hospital, Nottingham in 1855 and the asylum became the County and Borough of Nottingham Lunatic Asylum [ A.D.M. Douglas says The Coppice was opened in 1855 and all private patients moved there in 1873]
    1873: All private patients removed [to the Coppice] from Sneinton (A.D.M. Douglas)
    1880: The asylum only served the county, and city patients were moved to the new asylum at Mapperley Top.
    July 1869: H C Gill, MRCS.E and LSA, from Bethlem, became Assistant Medical Officer, but moved in October to the same post at the North Riding Asylum. He was replaced by Joseph Hume Smith, M.B.
    About 1871 to 1880:
    Dr Alexander McCook Weir was Assistant Medical Officer (If any one has further information about, please mail me)
    1881 census: Superintendent: William Phillimore (Widower) born 1821. The census gives the full names of patients in this asylum, not just initials as is usual with asylums. Alfred Aplin (Physician, unmarried, aged 26, born Exeter) Assistant Medical Officer.
    1884 William Phillimore shown as superintendent on annual report
    1885 Alfred Aplin shown as superintendent on annual report
    1895: Alfred Aplin, Physician and Superintendent
    Rev. W. H. C. Malton, Chaplain
    F. Gell, Clerk See Rossbret
    "In the early 1900s the asylum was superseded by the new asylum at Saxondale, and was closed and demolished. The grounds were reused as King Edward Park." (Sarah Rutherford)

    Saxondale Hospital, Radcliffe on Trent, Nottinghamshire, NG12 2JN was built to replace Sneinton Asylum. (map link to Saxondale) The foundation stone was laid on 25.7.1899. The new building was two stories high, cost £147,000 and had accommodation for 452 patients (226 of each sex). The 130 acres surrounding the hospital cost £6,800. It was officially opened 24.7.1902 by Lady Elinor Denison. (Dave Ogden and A.D.M. Douglas)
    Architect: EP Hooley
    1913: Extensions made for 148 patients, which cost £29.833
    1932: Two further blocks erected, each to accommodate 50 female patients
    1939: F.A. (born 1887) died in Saxondale Hospital, after spending most of his adult life in Basford County Institution, Nottingham - Register codes
    1953 Supplied milk and food by Balderton - about here open doors
    1955 Two further villas built, one to accommodate 36 females and the other 36 males (A.D.M. Douglas)
    9.1.1974 A.D.M. Douglas, Chairman, Medical Staff Advisory Committee, advised me (letter) "we have the original records of the first county mental hospital, Sneinton Asylum, and it would be fair to assume that we have most of the available material from the period 1810 to 1850 although the early clinical notes, unfortunately are missing... At the moment these very valuable records are in the hands of the bookbinders." A.D.M. Douglas did not know of any published material specifically on the history of the asylum. He sent me a two paragraph synopsis of its history.
    Closed in 1987, partly demolished, new housing stands around. (Simon Cornwall)
    County Asylum website

    Coppice Hospital
    This hospital is not listed in the 1844 Report, which suggests that the Hospital Database statement that it was founded in 1789 refers to The General Lunatic Asylum for the Town and County of Nottingham, which took pauper and private patients until the 1850s.
    Lunatic Hospital, Coppice New Road, Nottingham St Mary, Nottingham, England. [The Coppice was a Nottingham source for timber. Coppice Road was constructed through it in 1837. Later, it was renamed Ransom Road.
    Ransom Road, Mapperley, Nottingham, NG3 5HL
    1855 The Coppice Hospital opened according to A.D.M. Douglas (Also see))
    Simon Cornwall says: Built: 1857-1859
    Architect: Thomas Chambers Hine
    1873: All private patients removed [to the Coppice] from Sneinton
    1881 census: Medical Superintendent: William B. Tate, MD. married, aged 54. The census gives the full names of patients in this asylum, not just initials as is usual with asylums.
    1895: See Rossbret
    A voluntary hospital that became part of the National Health Service
    1979: 116 beds (58 "amenity" (private) beds)
    Closed in 1986, converted to flats (Simon Cornwall)

    John Foster's site about some Nottingham "villages" has pages for Sneinton and Mapperley. The Mapperley page has a history of the hospital

    Nottingham City Asylum was opened (unfinished) on 3.8.1880.
    Simon Cornwall: Built: 1875-1880 Architect: George Thomas Hine. Corridor form
    "Occupying 125 acres. It had its own farm, bakery and butcher, along with a church and recreation hall. It was designed by local architect George Thomas Hine, son of TC Hine, the designer of the Coppice Hospital. Previously, both Town and County patients were accommodated at Sneinton"
    (1881 Census data on Sue Kaye's site)
    Male annexe and large hall/chapel added in 1887 - now converted to flats. (Peter Cracknell)
    "In 1889 a new wing was added ,but only 12 months later was found to be already overcrowded ,with only 44 patients. In 1896, drawings were produced for further extensions to the wings and a further two storeys were added to the Male Epileptic Dormitory. The female wing was to have electricity installed. In order to persuade the Asylum Committee to consider electric lighting throughout the hospital, Hine encouraged them to visit the Dorsetshire County Asylum in 1900, part of which he had designed. Here, they were surprised that none of the doors were locked, noting that this would hardly be safe at Mapperley. In fact, the locked door practice remained until the arrival of Dr Duncan Macmillan, the medical supervisor from 1942-1966. He was famed for his policy of unlocking the wards to create an open hospital." John Foster's site
    It became Nottingham City Mental Hospital about 1927 and, later, Mapperley Hospital, Porchester Road, Nottingham, NG3 6AA. (map to postcode).
    Two printed schedules issued by the Board of Control are attached to the inside front cover of a medical register for Mapperley Hospital dating 1931-1947:
  • Schedule of Causes and Associated Factors of Insanity.
  • Schedule of Forms of Insanity
    Duncan Macmillan, medical supervisor from 1942 to 1966, unlocked the doors, establishing an open-door policy. Under the National Health Service, he pushed for equal resources with hospitals for physical illnesses and pioneered community care. See Timeline. The hospital closed for mental illness in December 1994. The site has now been developed.
    Original block in use by NHS as Duncan Macmillan House (Peter Cracknell)
    External link archive
    Archives are mainly in Nottinghamshire Archives

    St Francis Unit, City Hospital
    Previously St Francis Hospital
    Hucknall Road Sherwood Nottingham NG5 1PE
    Geriatric and Mental Health

  • Basford Workhouse

    Peter Higginbotham's site

    Mental Handicap Hospitals in Nottinghamshire 1979

    Balderton Hospital, Newark-on-Trent, Nottinghamshire.
    Balderton Hall (built 1840) was bought by Nottinghamshire County Council for conversion to a hospital in (or soon after) 1930. Building started in 1936 but was suspended, and the Hall used to house officers based at nearby Balderton airfield during the second world war.

    "Part of the Balderton mental colony - begun by Nottinghamshire County Council and abandoned in 1942 - will be completed 'in the near future,' said Sir Basil Gibson, chairman of Sheffield Regional Hospital, on Monday. The whole scheme is for 986 beds. The colony was built at a cost of £250,000. It is a self contained community, with its own farm, which at present supplies Saxondale Hospital with food and milk." (Newark Advertiser 14.1.1953)
    The post- war economic situation and difficulties connected with transfer to Sheffield Regional Health Board meant the first (male) patients were not admitted until October 1957. The hospital was officially opened by Enoch Powell, the Minister of Health, in April 1961.
    380 beds on 31.12.1977
    "One was always aware that the admin' building had at one time been a very special grand house, with intricate ornate covings and lovely thick heavy doors.A stark contrast to the bare 'H' block design of the older ward buildings which some dared to say was the patients' 'home'". (Polly Roughan, who trained there as a nurse 1979-1983. Polly provides the following notes on the plan shown on the online map.)
    At the top end of the hospital grounds on the left hand side - one building is shown. This is the area where the 'H' block type buildings were. There were three along this side Camdale, Bedale and Ainsdale. On the right hand side there was at least one more 'Moorfield'. My memory tells me there may have been another one. There was then the Nursing School and staff houses. In the center there were Laundry buildings, the Kitchens / Staff canteen / Club and to the left of these were the day care buildings.There was also a small farm.
    Not all the wards are on this plan. There were three newer bungalow type buildings plus a hospital block with another ward attatched. These were the childrens/'mental handicap' wards and were situated in the lower grounds near to the admin block. These were Plumfield, Dovedale, Rosefield and Springfield. Also the Mortuary, known as 'Rose cottage' is not shown.Moving up there were two detatched houses situated next to each other 1) Independent living (preparation for hospital closure and 2) Autistic unit.
    Balderton closed 1993 with plans for housing on the site
    map link to the site at NG24 3JR
    External link to history of Balderton House

    Ransom Hospital, Rainworth, Mansfield
    60 beds on 31.12.1977


    The main buildings of Rampton were built in 1910 as England's second Criminal Lunatic Asylum. It became known as The Broadmoor of the North. However, the 1913 Mental Deficiency Act required state institutions for defectives "of dangerous and violent propensities, whether offenders or not". These institutions were to be run by the Board of Control, which took over Rampton for the purpose in 1920.
    1920: Rampton State Institution
    In 1932, Dr William Rees Thomas, "previously medical superintendent, Rampton State Institution" was appointed commissioner at the Board of Control
    In 1940 Dr George W. Mackay resigned as commissioner at the Board of Control to become medical superintendent of Rampton State Institution
    1946 National Health Service Act section 49(4) moved the ownership of Rampton and Moss Side to the Ministry of Health but left their management with the Board of Control.
    1948? Rampton Hospital
    1957: See Percy Report
    1959 Mental Health Act sections 97-98: Broadmoor, Rampton and Moss Side became Special Hospitals under the Ministry of Health.
    HSH Rampton Hospital
    Flemming Drive, Woodbeck, Retford, Nottinghamshire, DN22 0PD
    400 Patients. Planning/Building an extra high-security wing for 70 more.
    freedom campaign prison list

    Derby and Derbyshire north east midlands

    Green Hill House, Derby
    A history of Derby says it was in Green Lane. The name "Green Hill Terrace, Green Lane" (street listing) suggests the association is correct.
    Proprietor (1844) Brigstocke, M.D.
    1.1.1844 28 patients. 19 pauper and 9 private. Weekly charge for paupers 9/- excluding clothes.
    A mansion and outhouses asylum
    Visits by Metropolitan and County Visitors

    Derbyshire County Asylum
    Work started in 1849 on Derbyshire Pauper Lunatic Asylum. Designed by Henry Duesbury. Opened 21.8.1851 with 300 beds in 12 wards and had patients coming from all over Derbyshire to be treated. "Its building had a profound effect on the people of Mickleover and provided much work for the local population" (Derby online about Mickleover). See also map  
    1851 to 1893 registers and case books in Derbyshire Records Office
    Corridor form - Close to Conolly's ideal
    July 1872: E Maguire Courtenay, AB, MB, TCD. late Clinical Assistant West Riding Asylum to be Assistant Medical Officer Derby County Asylum
    October 1873: S F Conolly, LRCP.Ed., MRCS appointed Assistant Medical Officer to the Derbyshire Lunatic Asylum, Mickleover, vice Courtenay, appointed to Limerick Ireland.
    1881 Census: Medical superintendent: James Murray Lindsay, aged 47
    Became Pastures Hospital, Mickleover, Derbyshire
    Now (1989?) closed. The building has now been turned into expensive accommodation units.
    Date of final closure 1994: County Asylums website
    2003 use: "Luxury housing"

    Kingsway Hospital, Kingsway, Derbyshire, DE22 3LZ   (map)
    Kingsway Hospital (formerly Derby Borough Asylum), Mickleover: records 1888 - 20th cent (D5874) (national archive)
    1979: 535 beds

    Mental Handicap Hospital

    Aston Hall Hospital, Aston on Trent, Derbyshire, DE7 2AL. Addresses given as Shardlow Road and Weston Road. Postcode as DE72 2AL (map)
    A Col W. Winterbottom bought Aston Hall in 1889 and much enlarged in 1907. He died in 1928 when the Hall was bought by Nottingham Corporation. (Aston on Trent)
    1930 Opened as a home for people with learning difficulties (then mental defect)
    1979 478 beds
    Listed in Hospital Database as closed 1993, but internet sources show it as currently being closed.


    Staffordshire County Asylum (Stafford)

    A County/Subscription Hospital
    Rossbret pictures - Asylums - Stafford Asylum
    Opened 1.10.1818
    Architect: Joseph Potter. Early form, later adapted to corridor.
    Accommodation for 120, but only 65 patients in 1820
    Superintendent 1841 to 1855: James Wilkes
    Reported in 1842 that an improved system of warming and ventilation had been introduced. Previously, dysentery had been prevalent, but no cases had occurred since. (1844 Report p.17)
    1.1.1844 245 patients. 183 pauper and 62 private.
    1851 Subscribers' representative Thomas Salt
    1854 Coton Hill opened
    1864 Burntwood opened
    1879 Extended
    1881 Census: The County Lunatic Asylum, Hopton and Coton, Stafford. William Thompson Pater (unmarried, aged 46, surgeon) Superintendent
    1884 Extended
    1898 Cheddleton opened
    1898 Weston Hall rented as an annexe
    Stafford Mental Hospital by 1929 to about 1948
    Became St George's Hospital, Corporation Street, Stafford, ST16 3AG
    1994: 147 patients
    Something closed in 1995 (but something still has a website)
    Steve Pick's undated website for something that is closed
    website for something that is open

    Sandfield, Lichfield, Staffordshire
    Licensed House
    1.1.1844: 36 patients. 32 pauper and 4 private.

    The Coton Hill Institution for the Insane at Stafford
    for Private Patients of the Middle and Upper Classes
    A Registered Hospital
    Opened 1854,
    1854 officers moved to Coton Hill from the Military Luntic Asylum at Yarmouth
    1881 Census: John Dale Hewson, MD Superintendent
    Coton Hill Theatre "In 1890 a theatre and recreation room was erected, where concerts and dramatic performances are frequently given." This picture is from a brochure, probably dating from the 1930s, sent by Jim Foley
    1896: (see Rossbret - Kelly's Directory 1896)
    Coton Hill Institution
    Robert William Hewson, Superintendent.
    Rev. James Henry Theodosius, Chaplain.
    John Jackson, Clerk and Steward.
    Miss Ada Bailey, Ladies' Matron.
    1930s See brochure

    The Postgraduate Medical Centre Library at Staffordshire General Hospital is in the converted Chapel of Coton Hill. Coton Hill remained until 1976 when, apart from the chapel and the lodges, it was demolished and the new District General Hospital was built on the site.

    Stafford County Asylum (Burntwood)
    Opened 20.12.1864
    (see Rossbret)
    Rossbret pictures - Asylums - Burntwood Asylum
    1881 Census: Burntwood County Lunatic Asylum Burntwood Edial & Woodhouses, Stafford. Medical Superintendent: James Beveridge Spence (married, aged 31)
    Burntwood Mental Hospital by 1929 to about 1948 - Although it was still known both as Burntwood Mental Hospital and as Stafford County Asylum in 1940.
    St Matthews Mental Hospital from 1948 to about 1955
    St Matthew's Hospital, Burntwood, Walsall, WS7 9ES
    Closed 1995

    Cheddleton County Asylum
    Near Leek, Staffordshire
    Designed and built between 1893 and 1897 by
    Giles, Gough, and Trollope "leaders in the design of lunatic asylums". (English Heritage link). The water tower is "the highest structure in Staffordshire Moorlands". (map)
    Opened 1898?
    Peter Cracknell describes as Compact Arrow design.
    Rossbret pictures - Asylums - Cheddleton Asylum
    Became Staffordshire Mental Hospital in 1948
    St Edward's Mental Hospital, then St Edward's Hospital, Cheadle Road, Cheddleton, Near Leek, ST13 7ER or ST13 7EB
    1979: 908 patients
    Memoirs is a collection of four books (Repetition, Resistance', Reminiscence and Recollection) based on this hospital, with photographs and writings of Sharon Kivland, maps and drawings by patients and references to the rules and regulations which apply to staff. (August 2001)
    There is also a book: The History of St Edward's Hospital
    There was a Nursing History Museum in Ward 4   (other museums)
    Autumn 2002: empty for a year
    development plans to "combine refurbishment and new-build homes, offering a selection of executive detached homes, mews style properties, apartments and townhouses in a beautiful woodland setting." (Redrow developers)

    Weston Hall

    Weston Hall is about four miles from Stafford near the River Trent on the approaches to the village of Weston. Until 1947/1946 it was owned by the Earl of Shrewsbury of nearby Ingestre Hall.
    The Earl of Shrewsbury and Stafford Council agreed to the use of Weston Hall as a Pauper Lunatic Asylum for two years from 24.6.1898 at 150 pounds per year payable half-yearly. The agreement also included the land adjoining comprising 2 acres and 3 rood and 35 perches. In 1905 a further lease was agreed for a period of seven years from 28.3.1904.
    Kelly's 1908 Directory of Birmingham, Staffordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire, states that Weston Hall is temporarily rented by the Committee of Visitors of the Staffordshire Lunatic Asylum (branch) that it will hold 45 female patients and that Miss Fanny Dukes is the nurse in charge.
    1911? Ceased being an asylum?
    1947/1948 The parents of Kevin Godwin bought Weston Hall from the Earl of Shrewsbury.
    "My father told me the Hall had once been a mental hospital and that when he bought it all the doors had double locks meaning the key had to be turned twice to open or lock a door. One or two locks required the key to be turned backwards in the locks to confuse any inmates who might get hold of a key." (Kevin Godwin)

    Cheshire and Lancashire

    Cheshire County Asylum (Chester)
    Opened August
    1829. See Rossbret site for some history
    Cheshire County Lunatic Asylum 1829 to 1855
    Originally built for 96, 10 private of each sex and 38 pauper of each sex. To each a separate sleeping room.
    Superintendent 1844 J. Leet. Surgeon.
    1.1.1844 155 patients. 146 pauper and 9 private. In 1844 most paupers were sharing a room. "The sleeping rooms in the pauper galleries are 10 feet by 8 feet and from 11 feet 3 inches to 12 feet in height, and two beds are now, for the most part, placed in each room, providing present accommodation for 152"   1844? 11% of patients epileptic
    Weekly charge for paupers: from outside Cheshire: 10/- (Cheshire paupers: 4/1d, not including clothes).
    (1844 Report) Contained 12 Welsh paupers on 23.7.1844 (1844 Welsh Report pp 5-6 and 47)
    Cheshire Lunatic Asylum 1855 to 1870
    Cheshire County Lunatic Asylum 1870 to 1921
    1881 census: may be Chester County Lunatic Asylum, Chester St Mary On Hill,
    Sometimes known as West Cheshire County Asylum
    About 1918, an Annexe built
    County Mental Hospital 1921 to 1948
    Upton Mental Hospital 1948 to about 1955
    Deva Hospital about 1955 to about 1965 [About 1970 suggested by another source. Local people still know the hospital as "The Deva" in 2002]
    In the 1950s Moston Hospital (Upton-by-Chester, CH2 4AA), an ex- military hospital about two miles away, was used for patients from the Wirral area. Its buildings were "wooden military style"
    West Cheshire Hospital about 1965 to 1984
    About 1972, a Maternity Unit was opened on what had been part of the hospital farm. This was the first stage of the development of the extensive grounds into a group of hospitals in a park.
    About 1976 a Psychiatric Unit was added to the Clatterbridge (General) Hospital Bebington, Wirral, L49 5PE, and took the acute patients from Moston. Others went to West Cheshire or were found homes in the community.
    The 1979 Hospital Year Book lists: West Cheshire Hospital as "Long-stay psychiatric and geriatric" with 997 beds; West Cheshire Hospital Maternity Wing, with 141 beds, at the same address, and Moston Hospital, 272 beds as "Mental Illness". Moston Hospital was demolished not long after it was vacated, and reverted back to army use.
    About 1983 a new District General Hospital opened in the grounds of the West Cheshire, called the Countess of Chester Hospital. The whole site was renamed The Countess of Chester Health Park, but the mental health unit retained the name West Cheshire Hospital and was managed by a different health trust: The Wirral and West Cheshire NHS Trust
    The original 1829 Chester Asylum Building was converted into Health Authority and Ambulance headquarters around 1990. "A handsome brick structure, with noble centre & wings". "superb, and listed". The other admin block on the mental health site is now trust headquarters for the newly formed Wirral, and South Cheshire Partnership NHS Trust. The mental health services (acute wards, cafe, staff dining room recreation hall, admin offices etc) are now in the Annexe. It provides the acute in-patient facility for the districts of Chester and Ellesmere Port, as well as some wards for the functional elderly mentally ill. A new mental health unit is to be built on the site of the former staff home and social club
    1994: 179 patients
    [Some addresses: Countess of Chester Hospital, Liverpool Road, Chester, CH1 2BA. Countess of Chester NHS Trust, Countess of Chester Health Park, Liverpool Road, CH2 1UL]
    [My main source for much of this history has been Nigel Roberts who worked as a psychiatric nurse at West Cheshire Hospital from 1973 to 1984. For his photographs see "Northern Asylums" on Gordon Tozer's site].
    There is a book: Insane but not daft - Opening the door on Chester's Mental Hospital Semi fictional story of a male nurse at Chester in the 1960s. Written much later.

    Cheshire County Asylum (Macclesfield)
    Opened 1871
    Corridor form
    1881 Census: Principle Officer: Dr John H. Davidson, unmarried, aged 50. The asylum appears to be next to the workhouse. The address is Chester County Lunatic Asylum, Upton in Macclesfield, Cheshire, England.
    Known as Cheshire County Mental Hospital from about 1920
    Parkside County Mental Hospital (1948 reference)
    Then Parkside Hospital, Victoria Road, Macclesfield, SK10 3JF.
    Autumn 2002: Reported closed but empty "the County Lunatic Asylum (Parkside) at Upton Macclesfield is now the Parkside Hospital, also on the east of the site, where the Macclesfield Union Workhouse was, is Macclesfield General Hospital. It's very confusing as there was also a County Lunatic Asylum at Upton Chester, which is now the Countess of Chester Hospital (Stan Mapstone) [A fever hospital is shown as part of the workhouse on an 1882 map]

    From 1732 to 1922 the poor law in Liverpool was administered by the parish. A Liverpool Select Vestry was established in 1821. See The 19th Century Poor Law in Liverpool and its Hinterland: Towards the Origins of the Workhouse Infirmary by Mike Royden. Also Peter Higginbotham's site

    1743 Opening of Liverpool Infirmary. Port Cities website has history 18th/19th/20th centuries, including Lunatic Asylum. 1779 Liverpool Infirmary Library founded (Later became Liverpool Medical Institution)

    Liverpool Lunatic Asylum
    A Hospital
    Opened 1792.
    See University of Liverpool's history of foundation by James Currie
    The asylum was built in the gardens adjoining the Liverpool Infirmary. It had 80 beds. The first Keeper and Matron were brought from St. Luke's Hospital London. The first Governor was Mr John Davies.
    Superintendent 1844 G. Tyrell. 1.1.1844 73 patients. 36 pauper and 37 private. Weekly charge for paupers: 12/- including clothes Sometimes received Welsh paupers (at 12/- a week) (1844 Welsh Report pp 5-6).
    Closed about 1889 to make room for new building of the Liverpool Royal Infirmary.

    See also Maghull


    Manchester Lunatic Asylum
    not receiving paupers in 1844
    Opened 1766
    Hospital Database says at an "unknown location" from 1763 to about 1850. However, a common picture (see below) suggests it was the same site as the Infirmary, which was in Manchester Picadilly from its foundation in 1752 to 1909
    Much of the following detail is from the Wellcome Library catalogue
    1792: An Extract from a sermon preached in the Collegiate Church of Manchester, March 4, 1792, before the governors of the Infirmary, Dispensary, Lunatic, Hospital and Asylum, for the benefit of those charities by C. Bayley. 10 pages
    1804: A letter to the trustees of the Manchester Infirmary, Dispensary, Lunatic Hospital, & Asylum by James Jackson. Manchester: R. & W. Dean. 48 pages.
    Plate 53 in W. H. Pyne, et al, Lancashire Illustrated London, 1831. 1 print: line engraving with etching. Lettering: "The Infirmary, Dispensary, & Lunatic Asylum, Manchester. To the President, the Right Hon. the Earl of Stamford and Warrington and officers, this plate is respectfully inscribed by the publishers". Line engraving by James Hey Davies after Samuel Austin.
    Report of the state of the Manchester Royal Infirmary Dispensary, Lunatic Hospital and Asylum Two volumes: 24.6.1837-24.6.1838 and 24.6.1839-24.6.1840
    1.1.1844: 36 private patients
    In 1849 Manchester Infirmary was bounded by Piccadilly, George Street Parker Street and Portland Street
    From about 1850: the Lunatic Hospital at what is now 100 Wilmslow Road, Cheadle SK8 3DG.
    June 1851: Report of the Manchester Royal Lunatic Hospital, situate in the township of Stockport Etchells near Cheadle, Cheshire : this institution is in connexion with the Manchester Royal Infirmary Consists of the report of the general committee (Salis Schwabe, Treasurer) including reports of the Commissioners of Lunacy (S. Gaskell, J.W. Mylne, W.G. Campbell, T. Turner), report of the medical officers (R.F. Ainsworth, F. Renaud, Thomas Dickson) and an engraving of the south east front of the asylum
    Second annual report of the Manchester Royal Lunatic Hospital, situate near Cheadle, Cheshire, for the year from June 25th 1851 to June 24th 1852. Salis Schwabe, chairman. Medical Superintendent: Thomas Dickson.
    1852/1853: Canon Clifton (R.C. Clifton) Treasurer. R.C. Clifton later (1857/1858) shown as chairman of the Committee of Management.
    Late 1858 Henry Maudsley became superintendent and remained for three years. He recommended George Mould as his successor.
    1861 Census Henry Maudsley, unmarried, aged 26, born Giggleswick, Physician shown as Superintendent of the Hospital. Completion of records may be defective. For example, instead of listing patients, there is a table of "female patients" showing number in each age range: 15:1 - 20:3 - 25:3: 30:6 - 35:6: 40:3 - 45:3 - 50:3 - 55:2 - 60:0 - 65:2 - 75:2. [Total is 34]
    1870: G. W. Mould (surgeon) was superintendent of "Manchester Royal Lunatic Hospital, Cheadle".
    George Mould President of the Medico-Psychological Association
    1871 Census George W. Mould, aged 35, born Sudbury, Derbyshire, "Medical Superintendent and Landowner". Caroline Mould, wife, aged 40. Children: Gilbert E. Mould (4), Mabel R. Mould (3), Phillip G. Mould, (1)
    1881 Census: "Manchester Royal Lunatic Asylum" Census Place Stockport Etchells, Cheshire, England. Caroline Mould Wife aged 50 born Whitton, Suffolk. Occupation Lady. [Caroline died 1882 aged "52"] Mabel Rebecca Mould, Daughter aged 13 born Stockport Etchells, Cheshire, Scholar. Philip George Mould Son aged 11 born Southport, Lancashire, Scholar
    1888: Marriage of Mabel Rebecca Mould to Charles Tilbury Street
    1891 Census Cheadle Royal Asylum: George William Mould, Medical Superintendent. Walter Scowcroft (36) and Arthur J. Barnard (30), his assistants.
    1901 Census Cheadle Royal Asylum and St Annes Hospital: Walter Scowcroft (36) "Deputy Medical Superintendent". John Sutcliffe (47) and Philip J. Mould (31), his assistants.
    Manchester Royal Mental Hospital (by 1929 - 1947)
    Cheadle Royal Mental Hospital (1949 reference)
    Now Cheadle Royal Hospital
    1967 Cheadle Royal Hospital A Bicentenary History by Nesta Roberts published by John Sherratt and Son Ltd of Altrincham. Ten introductory pages, 189 pages and 24 plates, including 4 in colour.
    External link to Affinity Healthcare website
    [Nigel Roberts' photograph see "Northern Asylums" on Gordon Tozer's site]. English Heritage: Cheadle Royal, Manchester, built 1847-1849 as a private asylum for the middle and upper classes

    Manchester Workhouse History on Peter Higginbotham's site
    1844: A Workhouse Asylum
    "Wards exclusively appropriated to lunatics" (1844 Report p.10)
    1848 map on Peter Higginbotham's site shows "Lunatic asylum" as part of the New Bridge Street workhouse
    As Peter points out, the 1848 Ordnance Survey map also shows a workhouse at Harperhey, with an unidentified lunatic asylum next to it
    1852 Workhouse master becomes private asylum owner

    Lancashire County Asylum (Lancaster)

    Opened 28.7.1816 - 4th County Asylum built in England. Accommodation for about 160 patients
    Architect: Thomas Standen
    Peter Cracknell classifies it as Corridor form, although the logic of his analysis might suggest Early form, later adapted to corridor.
    Simon Cornwall: says 1840 Architect unknown: which suggests some re-building or new building.
    Superintendent 1844: Samuel Gaskell. Surgeon (Became a Lunacy Commissioner).
    1.1.1844: 611 patients. All pauper.   1844? 10.3% of patients epileptic
    Weekly charge for paupers:: 6/- including clothes. Sometimes received Welsh paupers. The charge for them was 10/6 a week (1844 Welsh Report pp 5-6).
    House Surgeon from about 1850: John Davies Cleaton
    1881 Census: County Lunatic Asylum Lancaster, Lancaster Moor, Lancaster, Lancashire. Assistant medical officers (both physicians): James Cunningham Russell, aged 37, and Alexander Hanbrison, aged 32. Matron: Charlotte Stacey, aged 37 and Assistant Matron: Ann Smith, aged 48 (all unmarried).
    Picture of County Asylum Lancaster (no date) on Rossbret site (archive)
    Peter Cracknell: Extended 1882 by A.V. Kershaw (architect). Peter Cracknell: Ridge Lea annexe opened in the 1920s.
    Lancaster County Mental Hospital by 1929. Then (from 1948?):
    Lancaster Moor Hospital, Quernmore Road, Lancaster, LA1 3JR
    (map, showing closeness to prison)
    Autumn 2002: reported closed and due for development in spring 2003. "A very well preserved site. Neo Gothic style architecture" (Nigel Roberts 1.12.2002) [Nigel Roberts' photograph see "Northern Asylums" on Gordon Tozer's site].

    "half the site is now executive housing/flats, although the large neo-gothic buildings across the road remain standing, and are in good condition. Ridge Lea Hospital, which is just across a road behind the main buildings of Lancaster Moor... is essentially a small asylum as it was built around 1920's as an annexe for the Moor Hospital." (Nigel Roberts 28.11.2002)

    Moor Hospital site in Gregson's Photo Gallery of Lancaster has pictures of what is going and what is staying dated Summer 2000
    See British Academy aerial photograph with part demolition Lucy says this is "of the buildings which were adapted the main building is still there in the top right corner of the picture"
    Lancaster Moor Hospital, UK, 17 June, 2004 "The hospital closed in about 2000. Whilst the premises to the south-west of Quernmore Road have been partially demolished and redeveloped as a housing estate, the main building, built as a psychiatric hospital in 1882, remains"
    2.1.2005 email from Louise Wade in Rootsweb archives

    "I was wondering whether you were aware that Lancaster had two asylums, though of rather different types. The Moor Hospital was the county asylum for the mentally ill, but on the other side of town, the Royal Albert Hospital opened in 1870 as the 'Royal Albert Asylum for Idiots and Imbeciles of the Northern Counties'". (Email from Neil Thomason 26.6.2006)

    Haydock Lodge, Winwick, near Warrington
    Licensed House
    A mansion and outhouses asylum
    Grid reference: SJ580980 (358027,398076). To the west of Lodge Lane, just south of what became Haydock Race Course. (1849 map)   (modern map)   (multi-map)

    Situated at a junction of the new railway system that allowed patients to be sent from most parts of the country. A speculation of Charles Mott (ex-poor law officer) and George Coode (Assistant Secretary to the Poor Law Commissioners). George Coode's relationship with the project was a secret.

    mental health

    mental health

    Licensed 17.1.1844
    Table of patients in Haydock Lodge, from January 1844
    Summer 1848: 380 patients. Proprietor C.F. Jenkins (surgeon)
    1.1.1851: 402 patients (359 pauper). Proprietor "Miss Coode and Eli Lawrence Sup."
    closed in 1851
    re-opened in 1852 by Mr John Sutton, formerly master of the Manchester Workhouse.
    1.1.1853: 32 patients, all private
    1.1.1855: 89 patients (53 pauper)
    1870: 250 patients (170 pauper)
    In 1872 it was burnt down but rebuilt immediately afterwards.
    1881: 215 patients (122 pauper)
    Records exist to 1969. It closed about 1970

    Tuesday 10.2.1846: A special meeting of the Lunacy Commission to receive a deputation, headed by Brotherton, the Salford MP, putting the case for two new asylums: one near Manchester and the other near Liverpool.
    Two new Lancashire County Asylums (the 2nd and 3rd) opened at Rainhill and Prestwich on 1.1.1851.

    Rainhill is between Liverpool and Warrington, so this asylum presumably served Liverpool.
    Known as County Lunatic Asylum, Rainhill,
    Corridor form
    About 1853 to April 1858: Superintendent John Davies Cleaton
    It had 400 patients in 1858.
    1881 Census: Physician head: Thomas Lawes Rogers
    Annexe (Asylum Annexe, Eccleston, Prescot?) built 1881 to 1887 (opened). Enlarged to take 200 patients in 1898. Annexe demolished 1900.
    1900 Total patients: 2,029
    Became County Mental Hospital, Rainhill.
    1936 Total patients: 3,000
    Became Rainhill Hospital, Rainhill Road, Prescot, L35 4PQ.
    1979 Total patients: 1,768
    Now closed and replaced by a Business Park
    See The Colonnade which is all about Rainhill. There are many interesting photographs on this site, including a selection by Nigel Roberts

    Prestwich is just north of Manchester.
    "The land chosen for the Hospital is in an area first known as Prestwich Wood in 1652. The land was owned by Thomas Compton until his death in 1776, when Nathaniel Milne bought the land, which then came into the possession of his son, Oswald in 1847. The Hospital was opened in 1851 to accomodate 500 patients, and originally built to face West with the main entrance on Clifton Road".
    It had 510 patients in 1858.
    "In 1863 it was extended to accommodate afurther 560 patients"
    1881 Census: Medical officers were Herbert Rd Octavius Sankey, Henry George Murray and Benjamin Russell Baker (all surgeons)
    1884 "the Annex was built. The Annex was built to house 1,100 patients and was served by bus due to it's distance from the main Hospital Site."
    "By 1903 the site could handle 3,135 patients from Salford,Manchester and South Lancashire, of which 50 per cent recovered and 6.57 per cent died."
    It has been known as Prestwich Asylum and Prestwich Hospital (1949 to 1994). It is now the Mental Health Services of Salford, Bury New Road, Prestwich, M25 7BL. (map)
    Prestwich Asylum link (archive)

    A fourth Lancashire asylum, at Preston, was opened in 1873. This became Whittingham Hospital, Preston, PR3 2JH. (map)
    Too large for Conolly's ideal
    April 1872 J. Holland, FRCS.E. appointed Medical Superintendent of the Lancashire Lunatic Asylum, Whittingham near Preston
    1881 Census: Lancaster County Lunatic Asylum, Whittingham, Near Preston, Lancashire. Physician: John Augustus Wallis aged 35
    See 1972 Whittingham Hospital Report - Bopcris
    Autumn 2002:

    "it is half and half of a site. The St Mary's site has been demolished, although the St Luke's site is still standing and empty. Estates buildings are still in use, as well as a single storey unit for Huntingdon's patients. Market garden also on site. A new multi million pound 150 bed MSU is also on site. A few cottages in the grounds are also being upgraded for move on accommodation for the MSU. Superb church in the grounds, and the social club - the heart of any asylum - is still going strong." (Nigel Roberts 1.12.2002)
    Urbex (Simon Cornwall) photographs
    The new Whittingham Hospital Website

    Lancashire Asylums Board

    "The Lancashire Asylums Board was established in 1891, by the county council and all fifteen of the county boroughs. Ten years later the Lancashire Inebriates Acts Board was established, but the County Borough of Oldham did not participate. The Inebriates Acts Board built a reformatory at Brockhall (in the Ribble Valley, but its function gradually changed and by 1920 it was a certified institution for mental defectives. 1925 saw the dissolution of the Inebriates Acts Board and the Asylums Board became the Lancashire Mental Hospitals Board." (Bob Hayes 20.12.2003 Bob has now added a page to his website with fuller details).

    Winwick Hospital, Winwick, near Warrington (postcode was WA2 8RN) appears to have become a County Lunatic Asylum in 1897. Comparing information from Rossbret and the Hospital Database:
    Winwick Hall was a boys school in the 18th century, and became an Asylum in 1897. It was known as Winwick Hall from 1897 to 1915.
    Dual Pavilion?
    In 1910: Attendants formed National Union of Asylum Workers. Used as the Lord Derby War Hospital from 1915 to 1920. Then Lancashire County Mental Hospital, Winwick. Also known at some time as Winwick Asylum.
    Winwick Hospital closed in March 1997 after celebrating its hundredth birthday. (external weblink). The hospital was demolished. Its "tower" was to have been preserved, but was also demolished. The Winwick Tower was a famous landmark, and could be seen from the Thelwall Viaduct coming north on the M6 (Nigel Roberts)
    Patients came from Liverpool, Southport and Formby, as well as the Warrington district. The 1986 Guiness Book of Records has it as the largest hospital of any kind in England, with 1,352 staffed beds. Previously it had been Europe's largest mental institution, with more than 2,000 patients.
    Records are held at both Cheshire and Lancashire record offices, with Cheshire holding details of plans of the building

    Maghull, Liverpool

    "In 1780 a new Maghull Manor was built near the site of the original, this handsome building still stands preserved in the tranquil grounds of the epileptic colony" (external link)

    "When it was founded in 1888, the Home for Epileptics, Maghull was the first such specialist care centre in England... ParkHaven Trust is situated in extensive grounds... within walking distance of... Maghull, a bustling suburb of Liverpool" (external link)   (map)

    The following is based on Ashworth History (external link) (map)

    Moss Side
    Built in the 1830's by the Merchant Harrison family. Sold in 1872 (when Thomas Harrison died) to the Liverpool Select Vestry
    First used as a convalescent home for children from the Liverpool workhouses
    1878 plans being prepared to turn it into accommodation for 60 men and 120 women of "the epileptic harmless lunatic type", but these were not finalised until about 1908
    About 1908 , plans for a new 300-patient hospital. Building began in 1911
    July 1914 the whole estate (a large country house, two farms and a large unfinished hospital) sold to the Board of Control.
    Used as a Military Hospital: the Military Red Cross Hospital, Moss Side, treating shell shock. 12.7.1914 "received 20 shell-shocked patients - the first of 3,500 to be treated there during and after the war." 1920 closed as a military hospital, but requisitioned by the Ministry of Pensions, it continued to treat soldiers.
    Not clear when it became a high security hospital for mentally deficiency, but the Butler Report paragraph 2.2 suggests "provided in 1930s ", and the 1934 Report of the Board of Control has Moss Side State Institution listed (see Bob Hayes site
    1946 National Health Service Act section 49(4) moved the ownership of Rampton and Moss Side to the Ministry of Health but left their management with the Board of Control.
    Ashworth History (above): "Moss Side, along with its sister institutions of Broadmoor, Rampton and Carstairs [Scotland], became hospitals in July 1948 with the creation of the National Health Service" [This is not correct respecting "Broadmoor Institution"]
    1957: See Percy Report
    1959 Mental Health Act sections 97-98: Broadmoor, Rampton and Moss Side became Special Hospitals under the Ministry of Health.

    Park Lane Hospital
    Started in the 1970s because of overcrowding at Broadmoor. Therefore, mainly concerned with mental illness, not mental handicap. 1974 opened in two former Moss Side wards with the administration offices in portakabins.
    50 acres of farm land, part of the original Moss Hill estate, and to the north of the hospital, were used for building the new, Park Lane Hospital. Building began in 1976 and was fully completed in 1984

    Ashworth Hospital (Moss Side and Park Lane combined)
    Parkbourn, Liverpool, L31 1HW

    19.2.1990 Ashworth Hospital formed by administratively uniting the two hospitals on the site. The former Moss Side Hospital became known as Ashworth South and Ashworth East and Park Lane Hospital became Ashworth North

    freedom campaign prison list:

    HSH Ashworth East, School Lane, Parkbourn, Maghull, Liverpool L31 1HW. Formerly called Moss Side (opened about 1920). 9 wards. Catchment: North England, Wales, West Midlands and North West London.

    HSH Ashworth North, School Lane, Parkbourn, Maghull, Liverpool L31 1HW. Formerly called Park Lane. (opened in stages 1974AD-1984AD) 17 wards. Originally built to relieve overcrowding at Broadmoor. Catchment: North England, Wales, West Midlands and North West London.

    HSH Ashworth South (opened 1933, closed 1995) Formerly part of Moss Side, the original hospital at Ashworth, which comprised what is now Ashworth South and Ashworth East. Plans (1999) to build a prison there. HSH Moss Side and HSH Park Lane merged in 1990 as HSH Ashworth.

    Mental Handicap Hospitals in Lancashire

    Calderstones Hospital
    Mitton Road, Whalley, Clitheroe, BB7 9PE
    Opened 1915: by Lancashire Asylums Board, but used during world war one as Queen Mary's Military Hospital
    Dual Pavilion
    1921 Calderstones Certified Institution for Mental Defectives
    Or Whalley Asylum (Mental Defectives)
    Calderstones Hospital (by 1929 - 1993) In 1971 it had an average of 1,710 beds available and 1,631 resident patients.
    Calderstones Reunited puts people who have worked there, or have connections, in contact with one another. (Now back on line)
    Calderstones NHS Trust
    Calderstone News (no date a pdf file) contains history and pictures

    Brockhall Hospital (See Lancashire Asylums Board) was approximately two miles from Calderstones Hospital in the Ribble Valley. It opened as The Lancashire Inebriate Reformatory in 1904. It became Brockhall Hospital for Mental Defectives in 1915, Brockhall Hospital for the Mentally Subnormal in 1959, and Brockhall Hospital for Mentally Handicapped People in 1974. In 1971 it had an average of 1,844 beds available and 1,800 resident patients. Steve Wright worked there as a nurse from 1981 until 1985. During that time there where still children at Brockhall and approximately 1000 people lived there in total. It became Brockhall Hospital for People with Learning Disabilities in 1991, but closed in 1992. The land was bought by Gerald Shimon Hitman of Newcastle upon Tyne who erected a stone in the patients' cemetery as a memorial. Jeff Jones, whose brother was a patient, has created a website about the hospital and its cemetery. (other cemeteries)

    Northern Counties Asylum for Idiots at Lancaster opened 1868
    See Rossbret website
    Royal Albert Asylum for Idiots and Imbeciles of the Northern Counties (1896 reference)
    Royal Albert Asylum (? - ?)
    Royal Albert Institution (by 1929 - 1948)
    Ceased being a voluntary institution in 1948 when it became part of the National Health Service.
    Royal Albert Hospital, Ashton Road, Lancaster LA1 5AJ
    Together with Deep Cutting Hostel, Ashton Road, the Royal Albert Hospital had 1001 beds on 31.12.1977
    Planned closure March 1996. Original building (listed) to be converted into a school for Moslem girls and other parts of the site to be used for private housing. (Lancashire Evening Telegraph, Thursday 8.2.1996
    Photograph and some information

    Epileptic Colony in Lancashire

    Old Langho which was literally signposted as the "epileptic colony". was approximately one mile from Brockhall Hospital and I think closed in about 1979. (Steve Wright). Langho Colony, near Blackburn, opened in 1905, was the first to be established by a local authority: Manchester. In 1962 it had 454 adult patients, 225 men and 229 women. (Jones and Tillotson pp 6-7)

    Cumberland and Westmoreland

    1846 Cumberland magistrates contracted for the care of all their pauper lunatics at Dunston Lodge
    1846 or 1847 Westmoreland magistrates entered into a similar contract.
    Such contracts (under section 29 of the 1845 County Asylums Act) had to be approved by the Home Secretary and could only last for five years.

    Cumberland and Westmoreland Asylum near Carlisle was being erected in 1858.
    1862 (Simon Cornwall: Built: Peter Cracknell: Opened)
    Architect: Thomas Worthington
    Corridor form - Close to Conolly's ideal?
    1868 map Cumberland and Westmoreland Lunatic Asylum is shown at coordinates 343369,553908, at "Garlands". [2000: Garlands Hospital, Carlisle, Cumbria, CA1 3SX at the same coordinates]
    1925: Nurse dismissed from "Garlands Mental Hospital"
    Garlands Hospital has now closed. For some reason it is not listed in the Hospital Database.
    Closed 1997, looks partially demolished (Simon Cornwall).

    Move north to Scotland



    Yorkshire: near York

    map of York with arrow pointing to Bootham (York Asylum). The East and North Riding and York Yorkshire County Asylum was opened at nearby Clifton in 1847. Friends Retreat is at Fulford in south (though not as far south as Fulford on this map). Grove House was at Acomb. Dunnington and Gate Helmsley are to the east.

    York Asylum
    A Hospital.
    7.8.1772: Advertisement York Courant about "the deplorable situation of many poor lunatics in the county" was followed by an appeal for funds 27.8.1772
    Opened 1777
    Originally designed for fifty four patients
    Known as York Lunatic Asylum from 1777 to 1904
    Alexander Hunter (1729-1809), MD Edinburgh, FRS was instrumental in founding and its first physician. He was consulted about Leicester Asylum and Liverpool Lunatic Asylum.
    1790 Hannah Mills sent to the asylum. At the request of her relatives, Quakers in York attempted to visit her, but were refused. Hannah later died. The Quakers founded the Retreat
    1809? Dr Hunter succeeded by Dr Best
    1810 Benjamin Rush advised his son to visit Catherine Cape and Alexander Hunter.
    1813 Godfrey Higgins, magistrate, sent William Vickers to the asylum. Later, he visited Vickers at the request of Mrs Vickers and found him filthy, sick and verminous, with lash marks on his back. Unable to obtain a satisfactory explanation from Dr Best, Higgins published a statement, with extracts from the letters, in the York Herald on 27.11.1813. Higgins and local Quakers made themselves Governors of the asylum. A fire on 26.12.1814 killed four patients and prevented effective investigation of the asylum.
    10.1.1814 A letter in the York Herald, from Godfrey Higgins said he was satisfied with conditions at the asylum, but, in March, Higgins was again complaining and an acrimonious dispute followed in the paper.
    The House of Lords recorded a petition against the Madhouses Bill from the Governors of York Asylum on 18.7.1814, and one in favour from Godfrey Higgins on 26.7.1814
    August 1814 Dr Best resigned and the asylum staff were dismissed.

    Catherine Cappe (1743-1821), the wife of a York dissenting minister, organised teams of lady visitors for the female wards of York County Hospital and the York Asylum. The visiting began at the hospital in 1814 and at the asylum in 1815. The lady visitors were appointed by the Board of Governors for three month periods:

    "They have a book, in which they note down any abuses... shown from time to time to the gentlemen's committee. Their observations, in the lunatic Asylum, extend to the apparel and cleanliness of the female patients as well as to their humane treatment and the decorous demeanour of the nurses and keepers" (On the Desirableness and Utility of Ladies Visiting the Female Wards of Hospitals and Lunatic Asylums by Catherine Cappe. 15 pages. York 1817.

    1815: 103 patients
    1818 County Asylum opened, but this is not considered to have significantly reduced the number of pauper lunatics in York Asylum.
    1823 Matthew Allen was apothecary and superintendant of the Lunatic Asylum, Bootham
    1.1.1844: 157 patients. 52 pauper and 105 private.
    1847 Asylum for the North and East Riding opened. A contract between the county authorities and York Corporation provided that it should also serve York, and pauper patients were removed from York Asylum to the new asylum. For several years, York Asylum only served private patients.
    1858-1874 Frederick Needham was Medical Superintendent
    early 1860s Asylum for the North and East Riding full. Contract made by York Corporation with York Asylum to accomodate pauper lunatics in newly built separate wings. This arrangement continued until 1906.
    1881 Census York Lunatic Hospital, Bootham, York (York St Giles In Suburbs). Ella Amanda Gill, 36 year old wife of surgeon, was looking after her three children. Thomas Kirsopp, Surgeon M.R.C.S. L.S.A., aged 24, was a visitor.
    1904 Became Bootham Park Hospital, Bootham, York, YO3 7BY. Private and Voluntary hospital until 1948. Then NHS.
    1906 York City Asylum opened and paupers removed from Bootham Park.
    History in Anne Digby, From York Lunatic Asylum to Bootham Park Hospital (University of York, Borthwick Paper no 69, 1986), and another to be included in a guide to hospital records at Borthwick Institute by K Webb (in progress 1999)
    "a very attractive building (inside as well as out)" Now the administrative centre for York Health Services Trust, as well as providing in and out patient care for people with mental illness.
    Main archives are at York University, Borthwick Institute of Historical Research: Bootham Park Hospital . Use Access to Archives to find extensive records

    "Friend's", in Friend's Retreat relates to the Religious Society of Friends or Quakers mental health
    Friend's Retreat, York is listed as an asylum receiving paupers in 1844, but none are recorded:
    1.1.1844: 98 patients. All private.
    Its address (2002) is The Retreat, 107 Heslington Road, York, YO10 5BN (map)

    "Thee has had many wonderful children of thy brain dear William, but this one is surely like to be an idiot" Esther Tuke to her pig-headed husband who wanted to build a refuge for lunatic Quakers

    The Retreat, a project of William Tuke (born 24.3.1732, died 6.12.1822) a Quaker tea and coffee merchant, was approved by Quarterly Meeting in March 1792 and admitted its first patients in June 1796. Timothy Maude, a retired Quaker doctor with no psychiatric knowledge, was the fist superintendent, but he died within three months of appointment and William Tuke, himself, took over as superintendent until 1797, and continued as secretary, treasurer and general supervisor until he went blind in 1822.

    Katherine Allen (later Mrs Jepson) came from Cleve Hill as matron in charge of the female side and the following year George Jepson was appointed superintendent of the male side.

    1798 Visit of Delarive

    William Tuke's eldest son, Henry Tuke (born 24.11.1755, died York 11.8.1814) became a minister of the Society of Friends about 1780, and was concerned about the abolition of slavery, promoting the British and Foreign Bible Society, and the internal discipline of the Society of Friends, a concern continued by his son Samuel.

    Samuel Tuke (born York 31.7.1784, died York 14.10.1857) took his grandfather William's place as unofficial supervisor and general counsellor to The Retreat in 1822. In 1804 Samuel had corresponded with Dr Thomas Hancock on the influence of joy in mental disorder. In 1809 he resolved to collect all information possible on insanity and in 1811 articles by him On the State of the Insane Poor and On the Treatment of those labouring under Insanity, drawn from the Experience of the Retreat were published in William Allen's magazine the Philanthropist. At the same time he began work, at his father's request, on a book, the Description of the Retreat, which was published in 1813. William and Samuel Tuke both became involved with a magistrate, Godfrey Higgins, in a controversy over the government and methods of the York Asylum, and bought their way onto the Board of Governors of that asylum in December 1813. These controversies were amongst the issues before the Select Committee of the House of Commons on Madhouses, appointed in April 1814.

    At the request of the Visiting Magistrates who were planning the West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum, Samuel Tuke prepared in 1815: Practical Hints on the Construction and Economy of Pauper Lunatic Asylums: including instructions to the architects who offered plans for Wakefield Asylum, and a sketch of the most approved design.

    1817 Friend's Asylum, Philadelphia opened in imitation of the Retreat America

    1881 Census: The Friends Retreat Lunatic Asylum, Gate Fulford, York. William Banks, aged 65, assistant medical officer

    Gate Helmsley, near York, North Riding (Helmsley is sometimes spelt Helmsey in the 1844 Report)
    Licensed House
    1.1.1844 71 patients. 41 pauper and 30 private
    Proprietor 1844: James Martin
    "in its interior, commodious and well adapted for an asylum, having been built expressly for the purpose. The yards, however, are extremely gloomy and confined" (1844 Report p.43)
    Gate Helmsley Retreat
    1859 55 patients. 28 pauper
    1859 national comparisons

    Dunnington, near York, East Riding (spelt Hunington at one point in the 1844 Report)
    Licensed House
    1.1.1844 35 patients. 28 pauper and 7 private.
    1859 44 patients. 19 pauper
    1859 national comparisons
    1870 Dunnington House, near York Licensed to R H Hornby

    Grove House, Acomb, near York, West Riding
    Sometimes called Grove Hall
    Licensed House
    1.1.1844 26 patients. 14 pauper and 12 private.
    1859 23 patients. 7 pauper
    1859 national comparisons
    1870 Grove House, Acomb, nr York licensed to Mr Robert Pearson
    1881 Census: Grove House, Acomb, York. Private Asylum (Hospital). Proprietor: Jane E. Cooney, unmarried aged 44, born Bulmer, York, her widowed aunt, Mary Pearson, aged 70, born Sigston, York "Retired Private Asylum" in the household. Patients name in full. (male and female. probably none paupers)

    Heworth, near York, West Riding
    Licensed House
    1.1.1844 26 patients. 13 pauper and 13 private.

    York City Asylum opened 1906,
    Architect: A Creer
    Became York City Mental Hospital in 1927. Naburn Emergency Medical Services Hospital (1940-1948) was built in huts in its grounds. After being a military hospital it was a prisoner of war hospital. The City Mental Hospital became Naburn Hospital in 1948. Fulford Hospital and the Maternity Hospital evolved from the military hospital. The Maternity Hospital succeeded Acomb Maternity Hospital. Fulford had a mixed use, including geriatric, and temporary psychiatric from 1976 to 1983. Naburn Hospital was closed 1988. Address was Naburn Lane, York, YO1 4RJ "A short history of the hospital to be included in forthcoming guide to hospital records at the Borthwick Institute (in progress 1999) by K Webb"
    Closed 1988, demolished 1988 (Simon Cornwall)

    West Riding of Yorkshire

    Wakefield Union Workouse
    external link

    West Riding County Asylum (Wakefield) (see maps)

    There are Minutes and Reports of the Visiting Justices of the West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum from 1814 to 1889 in West Yorkshire Archives, Wakefield.

    Opened 23.11.1818
    Architect: Watson & Pritchett of York. Early form, later adapted to corridor?. Described as H Form at the time
    Superintendent and matron 1818 to 1831: William and Mrs Ellis - Previously at Hull, afterwards went to Hanwell.
    Superintendent and matron 1831 to 1853: Dr C.C. Corsellis and Mrs Corsellis
    1834: The Hanwell Lunatic Asylum by Harriet Martineua describes the Ellis regime
    1.1.1844 433 patients. All pauper.   1844? 9% of patients epileptic
    Director 1853 to 1858: Dr John Septimus Alderson MD, previously Medical Superintendent of York Asylum.
    Matron 1853 to 1867: Mrs Zillah Paige
    Temporary assistant 1857: Mr Henry Maudsley (born 1835, died 1918). This was Maudsley's first asylum post. He moved on to Brentwood and Cheadle and later took over Lawn House.
    Director 1858 to 1866 John Davies Cleaton, previously superintendent of Rainhill, Lancashire, afterwards a Lunacy Commissioner.
    Director 1866 to 1876: Dr James Crichton-Browne MD (born 1840, died 1938), who once wrote "Education is no doubt essential, but feeding comes before education and breeding before that". Previously assistant medical officer at the Devon, Derby and Warwick county asylums and superintendent of Newcastle City. He lectured at the Leeds School of Medicine and founded and edited the annual West Riding Lunatic Asylum Medical Reports. "These reports, which were the first of their kind in this country", contain contributions from J.Hughlings Jackson, T.C.Allbutt and T.L.Brunton. He was co-editor of Brain from 1878 to 1885. (external link about his period at Wakefield) - (archive) In 1876 he was appointed a Lord Chancellor's Lunacy Visitor
    1872 South Yorkshire Asylum opened
    Director 1876 to 1884: Dr Herbert C. Major MD, previously Assistant Medical Officer since 1872. Developed histological research.
    1881 Census: "West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum" Stanley Cum Wrenthorpe, York, England. Herbert C. Major, Medical Director (Physician), unmarried aged 31, living with E. E. Major, his sister (unmarried) aged 40. Both born St. Helens, Jersey, Channel Islands
    Director 1884 to 1910: Dr William Bevan Lewis LRCP, MRCS, previously Assistant Medical Officer since 1876. Devoted to histological research.
    1888 Menston opened
    1891 Census: staff list
    1904: Murrays Handbook Yorkshire p.502:

    "The Prison at the bottom of Westgate, is one of the largest in the kingdom. It is conducted on the radiating principle, the wards converging to a common centre; 2000 prisoners can be accommodated. The West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum, on the Stanley-road, is a vast building, with large grounds and a good modern church. The Cattle Market in the Ings, first held in 1765, has weekly a larger show of beasts and sheep than any other market out of London." [map showing prison and asylum (hospitals)]

    2.6.1904 Storthes Hall opened

    Director 1910 to 1933: Professor Joseph Shaw Bolton DSC, MD, FRCP, author (1928) of The Evolution of a Mental Hospital - Wakefield 1818-1928
    1925 Became West Riding Mental Hospital
    1948: Became Stanley Royd Hospital
    About 1948 a report on Wakefield was made by a medical officer to the new Leeds Regional Hospital Board. It describes conditions which C. Ham says were confined mainly to Stanley Royd, Menston and Storthes Hall, the three hospitals controlled (before 1948) by the "powerful" West Riding Mental Hospitals Board:

    "The old gaol-like buildings at Wakefield are gloomy and depressing and the galleries where many patients aimlessly spend so much of their time are deficient in natural lighting. The accommodation can best be described as austerely pre-Dickensian, falling far short of usually acceptable standards, and ... there is still created in the mind of the observer an undeniable impression of miserable discomfort and overcrowding which cannot long be tolerated under enlightened administration"

    A. Lawrence Ashworth AHA was Secretary to the hospital from 1961 to 1973 (although, I believe he worked there from about 1953). In 1975 he published Stanley Royd Hospital, Wakefield, One Hundred and Fifty Years, A History. In 1979 (and 1991) he was curator of the Stephen G. Beaumont Museum, at the hospital, which included a scale model of the original asylum, made by Mr Ashworth using the original plans and drawings, a padded cell, and much archival material.

    Stanley Royd Hospital closed 1995. A housing development occupies the site, but preserves the buildings. The hospital address in 1991 was Stanley Royd Hospital, Aberford Road, Wakefield, West Yorkshire, WF1 4DQ

  • Frank Poskett's Stanley in Bygone Days is about the history of the village (including the asylum)
  • Asylum - Memories of a Local Institution, by Roger Grainger (1996), priced £6.99, published by Eastmoor Press, is available by writing to the author at 7 Park Grove, Horbury, Wakefield WF4 6EE. (external link)

    "The Stephen Beaumont Museum of Mental Health was in the Stanley Royd Hospital at Aberford Rd. When the hospital closed in 1995, the museum was moved to Fieldhead Hospital in Ouchthorpe Lane (external link to map). The museum depicts the story of the Asylum and contains restraining equipment, a padded cell, and medical and surgical equipment documents. (The treatment record books are in the County Record Office.) There is also a scale model of the original 1818 building and photographs dating from 1862."   other museums

    Pinderfields General Hospital, Stanley Royd and Fieldhead (mental handicap) hospitals all appear to be part of the same complex of hospitals: (see map). Clicking on the addresses for each will link to its map:
    Fieldhead Hospital, Ouchthorpe Lane, Wakefield, WF1 3SP;
    Pinderfields Hospitals, Rowan House, Aberford Road, Wakefield, WF1 4EE;
    Stanley Royd Hospital, Aberford Road, Wakefield, WF1 4DQ

    Sheffield Workhouse
    A Workhouse Asylum
    "Wards exclusively appropriated to lunatics" (1844 Report p.10)

    South Yorkshire Asylum
    Built: 1869-1872 Opened 1872,
    Architect: Bernard Hartley
    Corridor form
    April 1872 S. Mitchell M.D. Medical Superintendent and formerly Assistant Medical Officer at the West Riding Asylum Wakefield has been appointed Medical Superintendent of the South Yorkshire Asylum Wadsley, Sheffield.
    Became West Riding Asylum, Wadsley from 1890, West Riding Mental Hospital, Wadsley from 1930, Middlewood Hospital, Middlewood Road, Sheffield (S6 ITP) from 1948. Possibly always known as Wadsley by local people. (map)
    1,189 staffed beds 31.12.1975
    Closed 1999
    Mostly demolished, some wards, chapel and clock tower remain. (Simon Cornwall)

    The Royal Hallamshire Hospital opened in Glossop Road, Sheffield in 1978 (external link). At one time, the University of Sheffield maintained a department of psychiatry here. (See "Asylum")

    Mental Health Services in Sheffield are now delivered by something called the Sheffield Care Trust . (Its website)

    Menston County Asylum, Ilkley (South Wharfdale) (LS29 6AU) (map)   (multi-map)
    Architect: Vickers Edwards
    Built: 1884-1888. Opened 8.10.1888 to provide for the northern end of the county.
    Peter Cracknell describes it as probably the best example of the Broad Arrow form.
    1888 plan published in Royal Institution of British Architects (Simon Cornwall's website)
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Nation Asylum Workers Union at Menston was Mr George Vernon, "West Riding Mental Hospital, Menston, near Leeds, Yorkshire"
    1.1.1927: 1,807 "insane" of whom all but 199 were Rate Aided. 873 were men, 934 women. In 1926 the proportion of recoveries to admissions was 34.7%. The proportion of deaths to the asylum population was 9.5%.
    Became Highroyds Hospital in 1963.
    1963 Start of nurses story
    continued on Refractory Ward
    Derek Hutchinson's story (Part of Guardian article)
    1,152 staffed beds 31.12.1975
    Autumn 2002 reported due for closure
    Closing 2003. Maybe February. Site for sale. (Simon Cornwall)
    The final tour
    Patients from last five wards to be transferred to the Mount Hospital, Clarendon Road, Leeds, on 25.2.2003
    English Heritage: High Royds, West Yorkshire, built 1884-88 as the pauper asylum for the West Riding of Yorkshire
    Records in West Riding Archives.   Hospital Records Database

    Linton House Adolescent Unit, LS29 6AG (operating in 1986/1987) and the Kanner Unit (for children), both at High Royds Hospital, have been replaced by Little Woodhouse Hall (CAMHS), 18 Clarendon Road, Leeds, LS2 9NT

    Storthes Hall Asylum, near Farnley Tyas, Huddersfield,
    Fourth West Riding Pauper Lunatic Aslum
    Opened 2.6.1904 to cover the western end of the county.
    Peter Cracknell: For Patients from Dewsbury, Huddersfield, Halifax and Saddleworth districts.
    Architect: J.Vickers-Edwards
    Compact Arrow design.
    1,416 staffed beds 31.12.1975
    Autumn 2002: due for closure
    Peter Cracknell: Now part converted to Halls of Residence for Huddersfield University.
    There is a book: Storthes Hall Remembered

    "Scalebor Park Hospital was built on the site of the old Scalebor Hall by West Riding County Council at a cost of £126,000 for 210 paying patients, 105 of each sex. The property covered 120 acres. It is currently being partly demolished and the remaining building and land will be re-developed for housing." (website)

    Scalebor Park, Moor Lane Burley-In-Wharfedale LS29 7AJ. A private asylum was opened in 1902. (Simon Cornwall says Built: 1895 Architect: Unknown) The name was Scalebor Park Mental Hospital (by 1929).

    "The old hospital had lovely honey coloured stone and from various upstairs wards you looked out onto the moor... It had an insect room which had carvings in the wooden panels. When Scalebor first opened there was the idea of curing General Paralysis of the Insane by injecting patients with malaria and a small unit was built for this purpose". (Andrew Richardson)

    It became part of the National Health Service in 1948.The name was Scalebor Park (by 1948) and Scalebor Park Hospital from about 1974 to 1995.

    "The hospital was situated in amazing countryside between Burley and Ilkley moors. It was at the top of the village on the road leading up to the moor just across the road from the railway station. High Royds was about three miles away or one stop on the train.

    There were originally eight wards, but a new building with four wards was added in the 1960s or 1970s. In the early 1980s two bungalow type units for older people (65+) were added. (Andrew Richardson)"

    Became Moor Lane Centre, Burley-In-Wharfedale.
    Closed 1995, currently being demolished. (Simon Cornwall)

    Highlands Adolescent Unit was nearby in its own grounds. It probably opened in the 1970s. "Residents were normally 10 boys and 10 girls from ages 10 to 16 years old. A normal stay was around 6 months. The unit was run by a Dr Ian Berg and a staff of therapists with one head nurse, each resident had 2 therapists (shared between about 5 residents)." (Mike Holdron)

    Lynfield Mount Hospital Daisy Hill Lane, Bradford, BD9
    Built in 1910 as Daisy Hill Workhouse - a new Bradford workhouse.
    See Peter Higginbotham's site. Became a NHS Hospital in 1948.

    Yorkshire: Hull area

    William Ellis (1780-1839), a surgeon in general practice in Hull, published in 1815 A letter to Thomas Thompson Esq., MP; containing considerations on the necessity of proper places being provided by the Legislature for the reception of all insane persons (published Hull)

    Hull and East Riding Refuge, East Riding (Listed as Hull Retreat on page 212 of the 1844 Report.
    Licensed House
    Founded by Dr John Septimus Alderson in 1814. Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 pp 78-79) Known as Sculcoates Refuge from 1814-1840. Address: Cannon Street, Sculcoates near Ancaby Road, East Yorkshire.
    1842: Licensed for 99 patients. Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 (pp 40-43) suggests this was to avoid the requirement for a resident medical officer
    Proprietor (1844) Richard Casson (Surgeon)
    1.1.1844: 106 patients. 93 pauper and 13 private.
    Weekly charge for paupers: 8/- excluding clothes.
    In 1847 the Hull JPs were negotiating to buy this as an asylum for the borough. They also proposed to buy more land. (1847 Report (B) p.44) It became Hull Borough Asylum on 1.6.1849. (Address Londesborough Street, Hull - This building closed 1882?
    1883: New building: Architect: Smith & Broderick Hull City and County Asylum, Hull City Mental Asylum, finally De La Pole Hospital, Willerby, Hull, HU10 6ED.
    Closed 1997, new road building current, looks intact. (Simon Cornwall)

    Hull Workhouse
    Made a "County Asylum" under a local Act in 1823 or 1824
    In 1844 the Commission had only just found out that this was an asylum. (1844 Report p.210) They give no other information about it.

    Southcoates, Hull, East Riding (Sumercoates on page 242 of the 1844 Report)
    Licensed House
    1.1.1844 6 patients. 2 pauper and 4 private.

    Hessle, near Hull, East Riding (Sometimes spelt Heple in the 1844 Report)
    Licensed House
    1.1.1844 9 patients. 6 pauper and 3 private.

    Moor Cottage, Parish of Nunkeeling, near Brandsburton, (or near Beverley) East Riding
    Licensed House
    Proprietor (1844) Jos Beall. The 1844 Report on page 213 says it had 9 private and 1 pauper patient on 1.1.1844. In the Return of 3.2.1842 it is shown with 29 patients (pauper and private). In 1844 (p.242) it is shown as licensed for 20 paupers - so perhaps the 1 on p.213 in 1844 is a miss-print for 11 or 21.
    Weekly charge for paupers: not stated.

    "if someone became insane before 1847, when the asylum for the North and East Riding (and York) was opened, where would the authorities have placed him or her, assuming he or she was a pauper?" (Janet Whitfield).

    North Riding pauper lunatics and idiots before 1847

    In August 1843, 153 lunatics and idiots were recorded.

    13 were in a county lunatic asylum - not stated which, but possibly Wakefield
    47 were in a licensed house/s. Most of these would have been in Gate Helmsley (north of York)
    35 in workhouses
    57 with their friends or elsewhere

    East Riding pauper lunatics and idiots before 1847

    In August 1843, 183 lunatics and idiots were recorded.

    33 were in a county lunatic asylum - not stated which, but presumably Hull Workhouse
    52 were in a licensed houses. Houses in East Riding were licensed for more than 52 paupers. (1844 Report p.212). With the number of paupers they were licensed for in 1842, they were: Nunkeeling (20), Hessle, near Hull (24); Hull Refuge (96); Southcoates, near Hull (3); Dunnington, near York (30)
    55 in workhouses
    43 with their friends or elsewhere

    East and North Riding and York Yorkshire County Asylum, opened on 7.4.1847. Located at Willerby.
    Architect: Scott & Moffatt. At some time extended by George Fowler-Jones
    Corridor form
    It had 472 patients in 1858. It became the North Riding County Asylum in 1865.
    1881 Census: North Riding of Yorkshire Pauper Lunatic Asylum, Clifton in York, York.
    From 1948: Clifton Hospital, Shipton Road, York, YO3 6RD. Closed 1994 sold to property developers 1995, looks partially demolished (Simon Cornwall). (map)

    East Riding Asylum opened in 1871.
    Architect: Charles Henry Howell
    1881 Census
    It became Broadgate Hospital, Walkington, Beverley, HU17 8RN
    Demolished 1991 (demolition website)

    Middlesbrough Borough Asylum
    [A Sarah Rutherford case study]
    National Grid Reference NZ 508 179
    Built 1893-1898
    Architects: Charles Henry Howell and A. J. Wood - Compact Arrow
    Landscape: Designer Robert Lloyd
    Nigel Roberts has plans of Middlesbrough Asylum that were produced as a supplement to a Commissioners in Lunacy report of July 1896. Plans for Winwick and Bexley were produced in the same supplement, which, given they opened shortly afterwards, suggests the same for Middlesbrough.
    Become St Luke's Hospital, Middlesbrough.
    Closed 2000?, new road being cleared to side of side, otherwise intact. (Simon Cornwall)

    Botton village: (external weblink) Danby Whitby North Yorkshire YO21 2NJ (Camphill Village Trust Limited) (map)

    Northumberland and Durham

    Durham licensed houses

    County Durham was the third largest centre of the trade in pauper lunacy after London and Wiltshire. In licensed houses in 1843 there were 103 pauper lunatics chargeable to parishes in Durham Unions, but there were 239 paupers in the County's five licensed houses - which were licensed to receive 297. (1844 Report Tables) Some, presumably, came from parishes not in Unions. Many must have been received from other counties and, possibly, from Scotland. All the Durham pauper houses apart from West Auckland were in or near Gateshead. The same five houses had been the Durham houses since at least 1836 (Return 3.12.1842).

    Bensham, near Gateshead, Durham
    Licensed House
    Open 1799 to 1868
    "Bensham Asylum.. was one of three private asylums in Gateshead to claim 'the benefits of the clean air and healthy situation of the suburbs'. Bensham Asylum expanded rapidly and the majority of pauper lunatic patients were sent there from 1836 in addition to private patients. The asylum appears to have closed between 1865 and 1868, when patients were transferred to Dunston Asylum. Part of the building still stands in Sidney Grove." (Gateshead Bensham Guide)
    Proprietors (1844) F. Glenton and P. Glenton (Surgeon)
    1.1.1844: 67 patients. 50 pauper and 17 private.
    Weekly charge for paupers: 8/- including clothes.
    1854: 160 patients, of whom 139 were paupers
    1855 or later contract to receive Newcastle pauper lunatics.
    1857 Durham pauper patients removed to Bath Lane
    1859: 95 patients, of whom 73 were paupers
    1859 national comparisons
    1859 On the prevention and treatment of mental disorders published by George Robinson, MD (1821-1875) the owner of Bensham Asylum.
    1864: Newcastle's contracts with Bensham, Gateshead Fell and the Durham County Asylum expired. The "now disused" licensed house at Bensham was rented for Newcastle's pauper lunatics until the Newcastle Borough Asylum opened in 1869.
    (Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 p.62)
    1870 Newcastle-upon-Tyne (County Asylum) listed at Bensham near Gateshead. F. Sutton (surgeon) the medical superintendent.
    1870 Robinson's book in America
    1875 Death of George Robinson, aged 55

    Wreckenton, near Gateshead (in parish of), Durham
    Wrekenton Lunatic Asylum (1851 advertisement)
    Open 1825 to 1855
    1825: Established by "Mrs Gowland and her late husband"
    Licensed House
    Proprietor (1844) Jacob Gowland 1.1.1844 36 patients. 5 pauper and 41 private. Weekly charge for paupers 7/- to 8/- including clothes.
    Gowlands' house at Wreckenton and the Eales' house at West Auckland seem to have been no more than fairly ordinary large houses. (See quotations from 1844 Report)
    1851: Proprietress: Mrs Gowland
    Superintendent of the male department: Mr John Gowland
    Superintendent of the female department: Mrs Fleck
    (advertisement reproduced Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 p.110)
    Closed by 1858

    Jonathan Martin was moved from West Auckland to a lunatic asylum in Gateshead sometime between 1817 and 1820. He escaped from Gateshead on 17.6.1820 and, again, on 1.7.1820. Remaining at large, he continued his mission as a Methodist preacher until 1.2.1829 when he set fire to York Minster. After trial (in York Castle) he was confined in St Luke's, London. (DNB)

    Gateshead Fell, in parish of Gateshead, Durham
    Licensed House
    Open 1817 to 1860
    About 1843? escaped epileptic killed wife and daughter
    Proprietor (1844) S. Kent.
    1.1.1844 86 patients. 80 pauper and 6 private. Weekly charge for paupers 8/- including clothes.
    1855 or later contract to receive Newcastle pauper lunatics.
    1859: 94 patients, of whom 88 were paupers
    1859 national comparisons
    1862 map shows Gateshead High Fell Lunatic Asylum on Sourmilk Hill, near Sheriff Hill House.

    Dunston Lodge, Whickham, Durham
    Also described as "near Gateshead"
    Shown on 1862 map as "Dunston Lodge (Lunatic Asylum), just to the west of the village of Dunston.
    Licensed House
    Opened 1831. Purpose built as an asylum
    Proprietor (1844) J.E. Wilkinson.
    (Probably John Etridge Wilkinson, whose son married Isabella Gustard Garbutt, daughter of Cornelius Garbutt and brother to another Cornelius Garbutt and a William Garbutt - see below)
    27.8.1839 Birth of William Garbutt (Christened Gateshead 9.10.1839) to Winifred and Cornelius Garbutt
    1.1.1844 100 patients. 77 pauper and 23 private. Weekly charge for paupers 8/- including clothes.
    1846/1847 By contract with the Cumberland and Westmoreland magistrates, Dunston Lodge became, in effect, the temporary County Asylum for those counties.
    1847 Report of the Cumberland Lunatic Asylum at Dunston Lodge, Gateshead-on-Tyne, for ... 1847 Gateshead (England). Cumberland Lunatic Asylum Publisher: Edinburgh : Neill & Co., pr., 1847 24 pages; 21 cm. Copy in the rare books collection of Cambridge University Library. The only report of the asylum in the COPAC catalogue.
    In 1851, a male pauper bit the arm of J.E. Wilkinson. He was placed in a straight jacket, then flogged and secluded. Later, his two upper incisor teeth were removed by the medical attendant. An inquiry was held by the Visiting Magistrates of Cumberland and Westmoreland and then taken up by the Lunacy Commission. J.E. Wilkinson was found guilty "of the most flagrant cruelty" and the renewal of his license prohibited by the Commission.
    1853: License transferred to Mr Cornelius Garbutt (born 1806, died 1865)
    (Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 p.247)
    1858: 151 patients. 119 pauper and 32 private
    1859 national comparisons
    1865 Cornelius Garbutt's son, William, took over management of the asylum. William Garbutt was proprietor of Dunston Lodge Lunatic Asylum from 1865 to 1900. J.E. Wilkinson was his daughter's father-in-law
    16.5.1866 Jane Thornton Garbutt, daughter of Mary Elizabeth and William Garbutt, christened Whickham, Durham. Jane was the second of their eleven children (4 sons and 7 daughters). The three oldest daughters all married young doctors employed by William Garbutt as Medical Superintendents. One son and six grandchildren became doctors.
    1870 The licensee was "W. Garbutt", who had just become sole licensee (Rossbret site)
    About July 1871: T O Wood, LRCP.Edinburgh, MRCS.Edinburgh, the Medical Superintendent of Dunston Lodge Asylum, was appointed Lecturer on Psychological Medicine in the Newcastle College, Durham University, in place of Dr Hugh Grainger Stewart, the Medical Superintendent of the Newcastle Borough Asylum, who had died. (Rossbret site)
    June 1874: George C. Harrington, aged 50, hanged himself in Dunston Lodge Asylum. (Chester Ward Coroner)
    1881 Census: Dunston West Lodge and Lunatic Asylum, Dunston Lane, Whickham, Durham. William Garbutt, aged 41, born Gateshead "Insane Asylum Proprietor Forms Attached A/79 B/5 C/17" living with his wife, Mary Elizabeth Garbutt, aged 39, born Wooler, Northumberland, and daughter, Jane Thornton Garbutt, aged 14, born Dunston, Scholar. William Marshall Taylor Medical Superintendent: unmarried, aged 26, born Newcastle On Tyne, Surgeon M.D. Edinburgh - M.R.O. England
    1884 A Day in a Private Lunatic Asylum by George Herring, London/Newcastle. Originally published as a series of articles in the Tyneside Echo, this is a very favourable account by a journalist who got himself "admitted" as a "new inmate" for a day. There were 44 inmates at the time of his visit. The "chief male attendant" was John McDougall. The "matron" was Miss Mary Wilson, and the medical superintendent was still Dr Taylor. The medical visitors were Dr Hume and Dr Embleton of Newcastle. Geoffrey Allen's grandmother (see below) appears as a toddler.
    1894 Whellan's Directory of Durham, 1894, pages 1239-1240: "Dunston Lodge Private Asylum was established in 1830 and has been in the hands of the family of the present proprietor for many years. The grounds are extensive and a farm of 100 acres surrounds the house, which occupies a pleasant situation west of the village. The recoveries have been much above the average. Lord Ravensworth is chairman of the visiting committee"
    March quarter 1901 Death of William Garbutt aged 76 recorded in the Gateshead district. Dunston Lodge Asylum does not appear in the 1901 census.
    [Some family information on the Wilkinsons and Garbutts provided by Ann Adams. A substantial part of the history (not all entered yet) has been provided by Geoffrey Allen, whose grandmother (1882-1954) was the youngest daughter of William Garbutt]

    1817 Jonathan Martin (1783-1838), extremist Methodist preacher from Northumberland, attempted to shoot a Church of England Bishop in Durham Cathedral. "arrested and tried... he was reported to be insane, and was confined in lunatic asylums in West Auckland and Gateshead succesively." (DNB)

    West Auckland, Durham Licensed House
    Proprietors (1844) J. Eales and sister.
    1.1.1844 35 patients. 27 pauper and 8 private.
    Weekly charge for paupers: 6/- to 7/- excluding clothes.
    The Eales' house at West Auckland and the Gowlands' house at Wreckenton seem to have been no more than fairly ordinary large houses. (See quotations from 1844 Report)
    Closed by 1847

    Durham County Asylum was built but "not yet open" in 1858.
    Foundation year: 1858
    Architect: Joseph Howison. Peter Cracknell classifies it as Corridor form.
    Became Winterton Hospital, Sedgefield, Stockton on Tees, TS21 3EJ map   multi-map
    External link on the organ
    Durham records include this:

    Dr Smith

    Photograph of Dr Smith from Jack Turton's collection

    "The first medical superintendent, Dr Smith, was appointed in June 1857, at first on a temporary basis. Some county patients were transferred from Bensham Asylum, Gateshead, to temporary accommodation in Bath Lane. By January 1858 Dr Smith had received 131 patients, of whom 19 had been discharged. In April 1858 he requested that some patients should be moved to the new asylum as soon as possible as the Bath Lane Asylum was overflowing. They could help, he thought, in putting in seeds and preparing the grounds. Between twelve and twenty could be accommodated in the steward's house which was then complete, and more patients could be transferred when other rooms were ready. Building work continued during the summer, while patients were being moved in, and was complete by the autumn. By October 1859 there were 237 patients (131 male and 120 female); 72 of these had been admitted since June, including 44 from Newcastle. The committee reported 'The admission of so many patients at once has caused a difficulty as to the furniture and clothes which are in great measure made in the asylum and which therefore are not at present supplied sufficiently'"

    1881 Census At No 3 Asylum Cottages, John Nichel and his family
    1889 Extended by William Crozier (Architect)
    3.11.1893 Death of Jack Nichol "for eighteen years chief attendant" - (external link to story)
    The Rossbret site has a history that appears to date from 1920, and includes staff in 1920. There is a link from there to Durham Record Office web site which has more history.
    Listed as closed 1996, but (Autumn 2002) reported to be in very partial use.
    "The decision to close Winterton was made around 1990 and the vast majority of patients and staff were gone by 1998. Demolition started in 2000" But "a part of Winterton is still in operation today" (Jack Turton)
    1998 Behind the Wall: The life and times of Winterton Hospital by Adam Lamb and Jack Turton
    12.4.2003 Transcription of inscriptions in Winterton Asylum Cemetery
    July 2002. Sedgefield Community Hospital, Sedgefield, TS21 3EZ opened on part of the site.

    From the website of Redcar and Cleveland MIND (Good Mind Guide) you can download a pdf photo journal (holistic history) that includes this text: "The following is a photographic record of a journey taken during February 2004 in the North East of England. Cherry Knowle Hospital, on the outskirts of Sunderland, is still in use as a mental health facility with the old wards and church abandoned as a brooding backdrop. Winterton Hospital in Sedgefield Co. Durham is no more. All that remains is the church, the chapel and some of the original estate's housing. Set apart in the local cemetery is a memorial to remind us of of the many people who lived at the hospital and who were never given a funeral or grave."

    Winterton Hospital archives at Durham County Record Office

    External link to index of A Short History of Gateshead (1998)
    Gateshead became a County Borough in 1889
    Gateshead Borough Asylum
    At Stannington
    Built: 1912 Opened 1913
    George Thomas Hine & Carter Pegg
    Compact Arrow
    Became Gateshead County Borough Mental Hospital in 1920
    St Mary's Hospital from 1948
    Stannington, NE61 6AA
    Closed 1995. Planning submitted 1999, refused. Site still looks intact. (Simon Cornwall)
    English Heritage: St Mary's Stannington, Northumberland, built 1910-1914 as the pauper asylum for Gateshead

    From A Short History of Gateshead. (Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council 1998):

    "St Mary's Hospital at Stannington serves the town's present needs for a mental hospital. Previously, mentally ill patients were catered for at private asylums situated at Wrekenton (1825-55), Sheriff Hill (1817-60) and Bensham (1799-1868). Part of the latter building can still be seen on Sidney Grove.

    Gateshead Council sent patients to an asylum owned by Durham County Council from 1856 but this agreement was ended in 1912. An estate was bought at Stannington for £9,221 and the hospital was opened in 1914."

    Sunderland Borough History
    1888: Sunderland became a county borough
    Sunderland Borough Asylum
    At Ryhope
    Conceived about 1891? Architect:
    George Thomas Hine
    Compact Arrow
    Became Sunderland Mental Hospital?
    Became Cherry Knowle Hospital, Ryhope, Sunderland, SR2 0NB?
    January 2004 Photographic Journal
    (map)   (multimap)

    Mental Handicap Hospitals Newcastle (later Northern)

    Prudhoe and Monckton
    Dispersed form.
    1,559 beds on 31.12.1971
    beds in 1979

    680 beds on 31.12.1971
    beds in 1979

    Northgate and District
    680 beds on 31.12.1971
    beds in 1979

    Dovenby Hall
    400 beds on 31.12.1971
    beds in 1979

    Earles House
    370 beds on 31.12.1971
    beds in 1979



    Newcastle Lunatic Asylum
    Proprietors (1844) N. Smith, M.D. and D. McIntosh M.D. 1.1.1844 80 patients. 59 pauper and 21 private.
    Opened 1767 as a Subscription Hospital for patients from Newcastle, Northumberland and Durham. It soon after became a private house in which Newcastle Corporation maintained a financial interest. When the proprietor died in 1824 the Corporation took possession, spent £4,390 on re-construction and installed a medical superintendent as proprietor. It accommodated the City's pauper lunatics until 1855. Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 pp 61-62)
    St John's Poor House, in Bath Lane, was "adjoining the Lunatic Asylum" in 1831.

    "in 1827. At the Newcastle-upon-Tyne Lunatic Asylum, which received up to eighty patients who were largely paupers, the staff comprised the superintendent, three male keepers and five 'matrons', who were assisted by convalescent women patients. However, at Belle Grove Retreat, Newcastle, which accommodated no more than eight or nine patients of each sex, the staff comprised three experienced male keepers, a matron, four female servants and a housekeeper" Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 pp 61-62)

    Belle Grove Retreat opened 18.10.1766 as St Luke's Asylum. It closed between 1855 and 1865. It was for private patients only. The house it occupied is now called "Whiteknights". (external link)

    In 1865, James Crichton Browne was appointed medical superintendent at Newcastle-upon-Tyne City Asylum, where he lectured on mental disease at the Newcastle College of Science. In 1866 he became medical director of the West Riding Asylum at Wakefield and gave a similar course of lectures at the Leeds School of Medicine.

    The archives for Newcastle Borough Asylum (opened 1869) include Administrative records including lists of visitors and their reports 1833-1845 and registers of insane persons 1829-1845 refs HO/SN, MD/NC

    Northumberland Asylum, at East Cottingwood, was being erected in 1858
    Built: 1853- 1859
    Architect: Henry Welch and T. Robson
    Landscape designer Unknown
    National Grid Reference NZ 202 870
    Classical-style building with airing court walls sunk as ha-has flanking the main entrance. (Sarah Rutherford)
    Records 1859-1994 of St George's Hospital (formerly Northumberland County Lunatic Asylum), Morpeth, Northumberland, in Northumberland Record Office.
    Closed 1999? (Simon Cornwall)

    Newcastle Borough Lunatic Asylum, Jubilee Road, Gosforth, [NE3 3XT] opened in 1869.
    Architects: WL Moffat (1864), JW Dyson (1892)
    It became St Nicholas Hospital in 1948.
    St Nicholas's, Coxlodge, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, Tyne And Wear
    Closed 1996?, appears demolished. (Simon Cornwall)

    "In 1863 a Special Committee of the Justices of the Borough of Newcastle upon Tyne was set up under the provisions of the 1853 Pauper Lunatics Act to consider what provision should be made for the pauper lunatics of the Borough. The Committee decided that Newcastle should build a new asylum and a site was purchased at Coxlodge. The Newcastle Borough Lunatic Asylum, Jubilee Road, Gosforth opened in 1869. The Asylum was supervised by the magistrates until 1871 when Newcastle City Council took over this responsibility. From 1915 - 1920 the hospital was turned into a military hospital and the mental patients were dispersed to other institutions. In 1948 the hospital came under the control of the newly created National Health Service" (Hospital Database)

    Berwick on Tweed
    See Rootsweb

    Move north to Scotland


    © Andrew Roberts and all the contributors 2001 - Click on the name to see all the things you can do with it.

    Amongst the many sources for the information on this page are the individuals who have sent me information over the internet. I have attempted to credit this where I use it. Credited or not, I am grateful for all the information users send. Thank you.

    Peter Cracknell Has recently (summer 2004) composed a comprehensive analysis of asylum forms and an interrelated database of asylums. I am devising ways of incorporating his work into the asylum index. The analysis was first pubished on the Asylums Forum. Peter sent me the database directly.

    Christine Lawes, of Leatherhead, Surrey, previously worked at The Manor, Horton and St Ebbas. She now (August 2005) works at Harperbury

    Dave Ogden has a special interest in Saxondale Hospital (Nottinghamshire) Bracebridge (Lincolnshire).

    Nigel Roberts (no relation, as far as we know) has an extensive collection of photographs, postcards and other material respecting asylums, and a broad personal knowledge of several as a psychiatric nurse for many years. He has shared this generously with me and with other asylum sites - We all owe him.

    Architects: I have taken the names of architects from Simon Cornwall's list, from Peter Cracknell's data and from Sarah Rutherford's thesis. Dates for architects often found in the Incorporated Church Building Society's database

    The Lunacy Commission employed consulting architects. To avoid embarrassment it employed more than one so that a consultant did not have to comment on the plans for an asylum for which he had unsuccessfully competed. Information below about the initial consulting architects is based mostly on Nicholas Hervey's 1987 thesis.

    William Alderson Quaker architect William Alderson (died about 1835). He designed Stoke Newington Quaker Meeting House and Hanwell Pauper Lunatic Asylum

    Isidore Canevale Architect of the Narrenturm in Vienna. Born in Vincennes, France, in 1730. In 1776 he became court architect under Emperor Joseph 2nd of the Austro- Hungarian Empire. He died in Vienna, 2.11.1786.

    Henry Duesbury Borough Architect of Derby from 1841 to about 1854. Designed the Derby Guildhall (1842) as well as the Derbyshire County Lunatic Asylum. (Wikipedia)

    Harvey Lonsdale Elmes 1814-1847 Asylums he designed include Rainhill
    Mr Elmes was appointed consulting architect to the Lunacy Commission in 1846
    In 1841 Post Office Directory Architects:
    Marked thus + are surveyors:
    +Elmes, Harvey L. 11 Park Street, Westminster
    +Elmes, J. 9 St Brides Avenue, Fleet Street

    William C Clifford Smith London County Council chief engineer. Full name given by Simon Cornwall. Clifford Smith (David Cochrane's name) wrote Notes of a Visit to Continental and British Asylums

    John Giles (died) 1900 may have been part of John Giles and Biven who built Highgate Infirmary (1869). Asylums this firm designed include Leavesden and Caterham (Both opened October 1870). He became partner with Albert Edward Gough 1842/3 - 1908 in Giles and Gough [active 1879]. Asylums the firm designed include Chartham 1875 and Coney Hill (1884). The firm of Giles, Gough and Trollope designed Cheddleton (1893-1897), Tone Vale (1897), and an extension to Hereford County Asylum (1900). A firm of G. Gough and Trollope of Craven-street, Charing Cross designed the Bethnal Green Infirmary in 1900.

    Thomas Chambers Hine (1813-1899) Born London. Moved to Nottingham in 1848 where he designed the Nottingham Corn Exchange (1849-1850) and other private and public buildings, including The Coppice Hospital (1855?) - external links: papers (MS 575) - 1881 Census

    George Thomas Hine (1841-1916). Son of above. Born Nottingham. See Nottingham Heritage Newsletter 18.6.2003 and Simon Cornwall on asylum architects - In partnership with his father from 1867 to 1890, when his father retired. He then moved to London. In 1897 he was appointed Consulting Architect to the Commissioners in Lunacy. In 1901 he lived in the parish of St George, Hanover Square.

    "In 1887, after winning the competition for the enormous new LCC (London County Council) at Claybury, Essex, he established his practise in London. Hine specialized in asylum architecture, and his paper to the RIBA in 1901 still provides a valuable review of asylum design and planning. This was strengthened by his experience as Consulting Architect to the Commissioners in Lunacy - a post which he held from 1897. He was a frequent entrant for asylum competitions, winning his first, for Nottingham Asylum in 1875. During the 1880s and 1890s he entered ten asylum competitions - winning five - and was assessor for four others. He designed and saw completed four major LCC asylums housing over 2000 patients each (Claybury, Bexley, Horton and Long Grove), and his prolific output included new county asylums for Hertfordshire, Lincolnshire, Surrey, East Sussex and Worcestershire, as well as extensive additions to many others. His concentration on this one building type reflected his own perception of asylum architecture as an "almost distinct profession in itself"." (external link)
    The asylums he designed include Mapperley (1880) - Dorset (1890?) - Claybury (1893) - Horton (1894) - Bexley (1898) - Hill End (1899) - Rauceby (1899-1902) - Long Grove (1903-1907) - Hellingly (1901-1903) - Netherne (1909) - Park Prewett (1910- 1921) - Gateshead (1912- 1913) - Barnsley Hall, Bromsgrove - Isle of Wight ??) - Belfast -

    Charles Henry Howell (1824-1905). See Simon Cornwall on asylum architects - Based at Guildford, Surrey. The asylums he designed include Brookwood (1862-1867) (He was County Surveyor for Surrey) - East Riding at Beverley (1868-1871) - Moulsford, near Wallingford (1868-1870) and Cane Hill (Surrey) (1883: Simon Cornwall says that by this time "Howell was the principle asylum architect in England and an advisor for the Commission of Lunacy". At Cane Hill he used a radiating pattern for the pavillion blocks) - and Middlesbrough (1893-1898). He and his family lived at 39 Gloucester Place, London in 1881. "Between 1886 and 1897, Howell was assessor for no less than seven large asylum competitions, and there was some professional disquiet that Giles, Gough & Trollope or GT Hine always seemed to receive the first two premiums - with the result that any new ideas on asylum design were being stultified" (external link)

    Richard Ingleman 1777-1838 Active Southwell, Nottinghamshire. Believed to be the architect who assisted Rev John Becher in the design of Southwell Parish Workhouse. The son of Francis Ingleman. The asylums Richard designed include Nottingham 1810-1812 Lincoln (1819-1820) and Warneford (1821-1826)

    Henry Edward Kendall 1776-1875 external link Father of following. Great Grandfather of Charlotte Mew. I do not think he designed any asylums.

    Henry Edward Kendall 1805-1885: See 1881 Census 34 Burlington Road. Another source says address Bloomsbury: 33 Brunswick Square. Architect of Essex County Asylum (Opened 1853) Sussex Asylum Haywards Heath (1850s) and the second Dorset County Asylum (1864)

    Edward Lapidge (son of Samuel Lapidge), born 1779, died 1860. London architect. Designed several churches. (An?) Architect of Surrey County Asylum. Nick Hervey says Mr Lapidge, "one of the designers of Surrey County Asylum", suggested the idea of a permanent architect to the Lunacy Commission in October 1845, through his friend Sir A Morison. (External links to: Twickenham museum - waterways engineers - Kingston Bridge - much more about - St Mary the Virgin, Wandsworth - same, a listed building

    William Moseley Born about 1799. Died 1880. Surveyor to the Middlesex Justices. He was succeeded by Frederick Hyde Pownall. William Moseley designed the 1837/1838 extensions to Hanwell and is said to have been an architect of Surrey County Asylum.
    Mr Moseley was appointed consulting architect to the Lunacy Commission in 1846
    In 1841 Post Office Directory Architects:
    Moseley Andrew 21 Lincolns Inn Fields
    Moseley Wm 53 Great Ormond Street

    Richard Makilwaine Phipson (born about 1827 - died 1884) Architect of the Norwich Borough Asylum 1868 and Norfolk County Asylum Annexe 1878 [Firm: Morgan (George) & Phipson (Richard Makilwaine), Architects, Strand, 3 Dane's Inn, London. Also at Ipswich] He was living in Surrey Street, Norwich St Stephen, in 1881

    Frederick Hyde Pownall 1832-1907. Active in London. (See biography on the web site of St Peters, London Docks. He succeeded William Moseley as Surveyor to the Middlesex Justices and became County Surveyor of Middlesex in 1888. He designed Banstead Asylum (1877). He also designed alterations and additions to Clerkenwell Sessions House in 1860 and a rebuilding of Coldbath Fields Prison.

    Scott (George Gilbert) & Moffatt (William B) Architects 20 Spring Gardens, Trafalgar Square, London

    George Gilbert Scott 1811-1878
    William Bonython Moffat 1812-1887
    Mr Moffat was appointed consulting architect to the Lunacy Commission in 1845
    Asylums the firm designed include Clifton 1847 and Somerset County Asylum 1848. William Moffat designed Royal Earlswood 1855

    Francis Stone 1770-1835. Norfolk county surveyor: Architect of Norfolk County Asylum (1811-1814)

    Wyatt (Thomas Henry) & Brandon (David) Architects
    77 Great Russell Street, Russell Square, Bloomsbury, London
    In 1841 Post Office Directory Architects:
    Wyatt and Brandon, 75 Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury

    A.J. Wood

    Landscape: Landscape information from Sarah Rutherford

    Citation suggestion


    My referencing suggestion for any part of the Asylums Index is a bibliography entry:

    Asylums Index 2001 - Index of Lunatic Asylums and Mental Hospitals <http://www.mdx.ac.uk/www/study/4_13_TA.htm>
    Middlesex University web, London.

    and references in your text to

    (Asylums Index 2001: name of place, asylum or hospital)
    For example:

    (Asylums Index 2001: Runwell)

    See ABC Referencing for general advice.

    Contents page

    The Asylums Index began as a table in a book about the 19th century Lunacy Commission - Click on the book icon to read the book.

  • mental health
timeline Click for:



    Alpha Cottages

    Althorpe House

    All Saints Hospital, Birmingham

    Alton Street




    asylum architecture


    Aston Hall

    Audley House



    Bailbrook House

    Balderton Hospital

    Balmes House


    Barming Heath

    Barnsley Hall

    Barnwood House

    Bay Cottage


    Bath Workhouse

    Baume's House

    Beaufort House



    Belle Vue, Devizes

    Belle Vue House, Ipswich




    Bethel Hospital, Norwich


    Bethnal Green


    Bicton Heath

    Birmingham Workhouse

    Birmingham City Asylum

    Blacklands House


    Bootham Park


    Botley's Park Hospital

    Bowhill House


    Brandenburgh House






    Brislington House





    Brooke House








    Cane Hill



    Carlton Hayes



    Cell Barnes

    Central Hospital

    chancery lunatics






    Chelsham Mental Hospital

    Cherry Knowle


    Chiswick House

    Church Street, Chelsea

    City of London Asylum, Stone

    Clapham Retreat



    Cleve Hill

    Colney Hatch

    Coney Hill

    Coppice Hospital


    Coton Hill

    Countess of Chester

    county asylums

    Cowper House

    criminal lunatics

    Croydon Mental Hospital


    Darenth Park

    Dartmouth House

    De La Pole Hospital

    Dean Hill Hospital


    Denham Park


    Derwentwater House

    Deva Hospital





    Droitwich Lunatic Asylum

    Duddeston Hall

    Dudley Villa, Brixton


    Dunston Lodge


    Earls Court House

    Eastgate House

    Eastern Hospital

    East Midlands

    East Riding

    Effra Hall, Brixton


    Elm Grove House, Hanwell




    Ewell Epileptic Colony


    Exe Vale (three hospitals)


    Eye workhouse

    Fairfield Hospital

    Fairford Asylum

    Fair Mile

    Fairwater House


    Fenstanton House

    Fiddington House

    Finche's (West of England)

    Finche's (West London)

    Fisher House

    Fisherton House



    Fonthill Gifford



    Frimley Lodge




    Gate Helmsley


    Gateshead Fell



    Glenside Hospital Museum


    Gloucester House




    Great Fosters

    Green Hill House

    Grove House, Acomb

    Grove House/Grove Hall, Bow

    Grove House, Stoke Newington

    Grove Park

    Grove Place

    Grove Road, Bristol


    Guy's Hospital Lunatic Ward

    Hackney 20th century

    Hackney madhouses 1815

    Hackney madhouses




    Hanover Cottages


    Harefield Park



    Hatton Asylum

    Haugh House


    Haydock Lodge


    Haywards Heath




    Hendon House

    Hereford Lunatic Asylum






    Hill End

    Hilsea Asylum


    Holly House

    Hollywood House

    Hook Norton

    Hope House, Brock Green

    Hope House, Hammersmith

    Horton Hospital

    Horton Road Hospital



    Hoxton House

    Hull Borough Asylum

    Hull Refuge

    Hull Workhouse


    Ida Darwin


    Inverness Lodge


    Irish's, Surrey

    Isle of Wight

    Jane Holmes, Winchmore Hill

    John Connolly Hospital

    John Thompson Jackson

    Kensington Gore

    Kensington House



    Kingsdown House

    Kingsland Workhouse

    Knowle Hosital

    Lainston House

    Lamb Cottage

    Lampton House


    Lancashire Asylums Board

    Lancaster Moor

    Langho Colony

    Laverstock House

    Lawn, Lincoln

    Lawn House, Hanwell

    Lea Pale House




    Leicester Workhouse

    licensed houses





    Liverpool Lunatic Asylum


    London Clinics

    London County Council

    London House

    London Retreat

    Long Grove

    Lynfield Mount

    mad houses

    Mad House Farm

    Maghull (Liverpool)


    Maldon Lane

    Malling Place

    Manchester Lunatic Asylum

    Manchester Workhouse

    Manor Cottage

    Manor House

    The Manor Epsom

    map of England and Wales - maps of the Hoxton madhouses - map of Wales

    Mapperley Hospital, Nottingham

    Market Lavington

    Martha Mugnall's, Hanwell

    Mary Bradbury's

    Mary Douglas, Ealing

    Mary Flemming, Fulham


    Melina Place




    Metropolitan Asylums Board




    Middlesex 1889

    Middlesex 1939

    Middlewood Hospital


    Mid Wales







    Moor Cottage

    Moor Croft House


    Moss Side




    Munster House, Fulham



    Newcastle Lunatic Asylum




    Normand House


    Northampton Lunatic Asylum

    North Riding


    Northumberland House, Stoke Newington

    North Wales

    Norwich Infirmary




    Otto House



    Oswestry Workhouse

    Parc (Parc Gwyllt)

    ParkHaven Trust

    Park Lane

    Park Prewett


    Pastures Hospital


    pauper lunatics



    Pembroke House

    Pembroke Square



    Peterborough House

    Plaistow, Essex

    Plympton (near Plymouth






    Princess Royal





    Ransom Hospital


    Rebecca Law, Brompton

    Redruth Workhouse

    Red House

    The Retreat, Chelsea

    The Retreat, York



    Roffey Park


    Ross on Wye

    Royal Albert

    Royal Earlswood

    Royal Shropshire

    Rubery Hill






    Scalebor Park

    Sculcoates Refuge



    Sheffield Workhouse





    Shropshire (see also Wales)

    Shropshire Asylum

    Sidney House

    single lunatics

    Sleaford House




    South East England

    South West England

    South Yorkshire

    Southall Park






    Stanley Royd

    St Augustine's

    St Andrew's, Norfolk

    St Andrew's, Northampton

    St Cadoc's

    St Clement's, Bow

    St Clement's, Ipswich

    St Columba's, Sligo

    St Crispin, Northampton

    St David's

    St Ebbas

    St. Edward's

    St Francis

    St Lawrence's

    St Luke's, London

    St Marylebone

    St Mary's Gateshead

    St Mary's Hereford

    St Peter's, Bristol

    St Thomas's Hospital

    Stilwell Houses

    Stone House Hospital

    Stoke Damerel Workhouse

    Storthes Hall

    Stoke near Guildford





    Surrey House


    Sussex House

    Sutherland's Houses







    Tone Vale



    Turlington's, Chelsea (1763)

    Turnham Green

    Twickenham House

    Twyver Unit

    Upton in Macclesfield

    Upton Mental Hospital

    Vernon House






    Warburton's, Bethnal Green

    Warburton's, Hoxton


    Warlingham Park Hospital




    Warwickshire County Asylum

    Warwick House


    West Auckland

    West Cheshire

    West End Hospital....

    West Ham

    Western House

    West Malling

    West Midlands



    Weston Hall

    West Park

    West Riding

    Whalley Asylum



    White House


    Whitmore House

    William Moyes, Lower Tooting

    Willis houses





    Winson Green




    Wood End, Hayes

    workhouse asylums



    Wyke House



    York Asylum


    Yorkshire: East Riding

    Yorkshire: North Riding

    Have you tried the ABC Study Guide? try the ABC Study Guide
    or ABC Study Links?
    Click the spider for general weblinks about asylums and hospitals Social history weblinks
    Some asylums and areas have their own websites:

    Some have museums

    Hospital Records

    I am adding links to archives. Patient records are closed for 100 years, but access for relatives may be possible under the 1990 Access to Health Records Act


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