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exanthema subitum  a common acute disease caused by infection with the herpesvirusRoseolovirus. It usually occurs in children under two years old, coming on suddenly and disappearing in 3 to 5 days, leaving no permanent marks. Diagnosis is difficult because the only early symptom, beyond irritability and drowsiness, is fever. There may be convulsions, and generally the fever is very high; 104°F (40°C) is not unusual. Despite the high fever, the disease is mild. As the fever decreases and the disease is apparently at an end, a rash breaks out, usually on the body, lasts for a few days or sometimes disappears within hours. After having this disease once, most children are immune from further attacks. Called also exanthem subitum and roseola infantum.

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