CIA - The World Factbook CIA - The World Factbook

Skip to content. | Skip to navigation

 
Central Intelligence Agency
The Work of a Nation. The Center of Intelligence
The World Factbook Home
CIA - The World Factbook
Middle East :: Azerbaijan
page last updated on April 30, 2009
Flag of Azerbaijan
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Azerbaijan
Click flag or map to enlarge Opens in New Window
 
Map of Azerbaijan
Click map to enlarge Opens in New Window
Photos of Azerbaijan
 
Navigation Arrow
view 2 photos Opens in New Window
of Azerbaijan
Expand All | collapse All
Introduction ::Azerbaijan
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Azerbaijan - a nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-Muslim population - was briefly independent from 1918 to 1920; it regained its independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Despite a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost 16% of its territory and must support some 600,000 internally displaced persons as a result of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous, and the government has been accused of authoritarianism. Although the poverty rate has been reduced in recent years, the promise of widespread wealth from development of Azerbaijan's energy sector remains largely unfulfilled.
Back to Top
Geography ::Azerbaijan
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
40 30 N, 47 30 E
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 86,600 sq km
country comparison to the world: 119
land: 86,100 sq km
water: 500 sq km
note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
slightly smaller than Maine
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 2,013 km
border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (713 km)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
none (landlocked)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
dry, semiarid steppe
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, bauxite
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
arable land: 20.62%
permanent crops: 2.61%
other: 76.77% (2005)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
14,550 sq km (2003)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
30.3 cu km (1997)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 17.25 cu km/yr (5%/28%/68%)
per capita: 2,051 cu m/yr (2000)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
droughts
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
Back to Top
People ::Azerbaijan
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
8,238,672 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0-14 years: 23.9% (male 1,042,132/female 926,495)
15-64 years: 69.4% (male 2,807,717/female 2,908,221)
65 years and over: 6.7% (male 204,410/female 349,697) (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 28.2 years
male: 26.6 years
female: 30 years (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0.762% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
17.62 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
8.32 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
-1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
urban population: 52% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 1% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
at birth: 1.13 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 54.6 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 46
male: 60.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total population: 66.66 years
country comparison to the world: 158
male: 62.53 years
female: 71.34 years (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2.04 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
less than 0.2% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
7,800 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
fewer than 100 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
noun: Azerbaijani(s)
adjective: Azerbaijani
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Azeri 90.6%, Dagestani 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.9% (1999 census)
note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)
note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Azerbaijani (Azeri) 90.3%, Lezgi 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.3%, unspecified 1% (1999 census)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.8%
male: 99.5%
female: 98.2% (1999 census)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2006)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2.1% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 165
Back to Top
Government ::Azerbaijan
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
conventional short form: Azerbaijan
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
local short form: Azarbaycan
former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
republic
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
name: Baku (Baki, Baky)
geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 52 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic (muxtar respublika)
rayons: Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Astara Rayonu, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Susa Rayonu, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu
cities: Ali Bayramli Sahari, Baki Sahari, Ganca Sahari, Lankaran Sahari, Mingacevir Sahari, Naftalan Sahari, Saki Sahari, Sumqayit Sahari, Susa Sahari, Xankandi Sahari, Yevlax Sahari
autonomous republic: Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
30 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, 28 May (1918)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
adopted 12 November 1995; modified by referendum 24 August 2002
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
18 years of age; universal
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003)
head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since June 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 15 October 2008 (next to be held in October 2013); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
election results: Ilham ALIYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV 89%, Igbal AGHAZADE 2.9%, five other candidates with smaller percentages
note: several political parties boycotted the election due to unfair conditions; OSCE observers concluded that the election did not meet international standards
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 6 November 2005 (next to be held in November 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Yeni 58, Azadliq coalition 8, CSP 2, Motherland 2, other parties with single seats 9, independents 42, undetermined 4
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Supreme Court
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Azadliq (Freedom) coalition (Popular Front Party, Liberal Party, Citizens' Development Party); Azerbaijan Democratic Party or ADP [Sardar JALALOGLU]; Azerbaijan Democratic Reforms Party (ADRP) Youth Movement [Ramin HAJILI]; Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF, now split in two [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "Reform" APF party; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of "Classic" APF party]; Azerbaijan Public Forum [Eldar NAMAZOV]; Citizens' Development Party [Ali ALIYEV]; Civil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Dalga Youth Movement [Vafa JAFAROVA]; Green Party [Mais GULALIYEV and Tarana MAMMADOVA]; Hope (Umid) Party [Iqbal AGAZADE]; Ireli Youth Movement [Jeyhun OSMANLI, Roya TALIBOVA, Farhad MAMMADOV, Elnara GARIBOVA, Elnur MAMMADOV, Ziya ALIYEV]; Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shovkat HACIYEVA]; Magam Youth Movement [Emin HUSEYNOV]; Motherland Party [Fazail AGAMALI]; Musavat (Equality) [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; Musavat Party Youth Movement [Elnur MAMMADLI]; National Democratic Party or Grey Wolves (Nationalist, Pan-Turkic) [Iskender HAMIDOV]; Open Society Party [Rasul GULIYEV, in exile in the US]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or PNIA [Ayaz RUSTAMOV]; Popular Front Party Youth Movement [Seymur KHAZIYEV]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP [Araz ALIZADE and Ayaz MUTALIBOV (in exile)]; Turkish Nationalist Party [Vugar BAYTURAN]; United Azerbaijan Party [Karrar ABILOV]; United Azerbaijan National Unity Party [Hajibaba AZIMOV]; United Party [Tahir KARIMLI]; Yeni (New) Azerbaijan Party [President Ilham ALIYEV]; Yeni Azerbaijan Party Youth Movement [Ramil HASANOV]; Yox (No) Youth Movement [Ali ISMAYILOV]
note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties;
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (self-proclaimed); Karabakh Liberation Organization; Sadval, Lezgin movement; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbaijani Forces or UPAF
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
ADB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
chief of mission: Ambassador Yashar ALIYEV
chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
Consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
chief of mission: Ambassador Anne E. DERSE
embassy: 83 Azadlig Prospecti, Baku AZ1007
mailing address: American Embassy Baku, US Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050
telephone: [994] (12) 4980-335 through 337
FAX: [994] (12) 4656-671
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band
Back to Top
Economy ::Azerbaijan
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Azerbaijan's high economic growth during 2006-08 is attributable to large and growing oil exports, but the non-energy sector also featured double-digit growth in 2008, spurred by growth in the construction, banking, and real estate sectors. However, the current global economic slowdown presents some challenges for the Azerbaijani economy as oil prices have plummeted since mid-2008 and local banks face a more uncertain international financial environment. Azerbaijan's oil production declined through 1997, but has registered an increase every year since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with foreign firms, which have committed $60 billion to long-term oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in November 1997. A consortium of Western oil companies built a $4 billion pipeline from Baku to Turkey's Mediterranean port of Ceyhan which will pump 1.2 million barrels a day from a large offshore field when at full capacity. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its medium-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. Several other obstacles impede Azerbaijan's economic progress: the need for stepped up foreign investment in the non-energy sector, the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region, pervasive corruption, and potential for a sharp downturn in the construction and real estate sectors. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance, while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term prospects will depend on world oil prices, the location of new oil and gas pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's ability to manage its energy wealth to promote sustainable growth in non-energy sectors of the economy and spur employment.
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$73.65 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
$66 billion (2007)
$53.48 billion (2006)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$53.26 billion (2008 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
11.6% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
23.4% (2007 est.)
30.5% (2006 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$9,000 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
$8,100 (2007 est.)
$6,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
agriculture: 6%
industry: 62.6%
services: 31.4% (2008 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
5.782 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
agriculture: 39.3%
industry: 12.1%
services: 48.6% (2005)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0.8% official rate (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 29.5% (2001)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
36.5 (2001)
country comparison to the world: 81
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
21% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
revenues: $14.51 billion
expenditures: $15.66 billion (2008 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
5.2% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
21.6% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
8%
country comparison to the world: 51
note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key policy rate for the National Bank of Azerbaijan (31 December 2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
19.13% (31 December 2007)
country comparison to the world: 20
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$4.261 billion (31 December 2007)
country comparison to the world: 74
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$2.593 billion (31 December 2007)