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Home >>Technical Regulations>>Emission Norms
 

The automobile industry has to address the following issues at all the stages of vehicle manufacture:

  • Environmental Imperatives
  • Safety Requirements
  • Competitive Pressures and
  • Customer Expectations

There is a strong interlinking amongst all these forces of change, influencing the automobile industry. These have to be addressed consistently and strategically to ensure competitiveness.

Since pollution is caused by various sources, it requires an integrated, multidisciplinary approach. The different sources of pollution have to be addressed simultaneously in order to stall widespread damage.

  • Vehicular Technology
  • Fuel Quality
  • Inspection & Maintenance of In-Use Vehicles
  • Road and Traffic Management

While each one of the four factors mentioned above have direct environmental implications, the vehicle and fuel systems have to be addressed as a whole and jointly optimised in order to achieve significant reduction in emission.

In India, the vehicle population is growing at rate of over 5% per annum and today the vehicle population is approximately 40 million. The vehicle mix is also unique to India in that there is a very high proportion of two wheelers (76%).

The significant environmental implications of vehicles cannot be denied. The need to reduce vehicular pollution has led to emission control through regulations in conjunction with increasingly environment-friendly technologies.

It was only in 1991 that the first stage emission norms came into force for petrol vehicles and in 1992 for diesel vehicles.

From April 1995 mandatory fitment of catalytic converters in new petrol passenger cars sold in the four metros of Delhi, Calcutta, Mumbai and Chennai along with supply of Unleaded Petrol (ULP) was affected. Availability of ULP was further extended to 42 major cities and now it is available throughout the country.

The emission reduction achieved from pre-89 levels is over 85% for petrol driven and 61% for diesel vehicles from 1991 levels.

In the year 2000 passenger cars and commercial vehicles will be meeting Euro I equivalent India 2000 norms, while two wheelers will be meeting one of the tightest emission norms in the world.

Euro II equivalent Bharat Stage II norms are in force from 2001 in 4 metros of Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.

Since India embarked on a formal emission control regime only in 1991, there is a gap in comparison with technologies available in the USA or Europe. Currently, we are behind Euro norms by few years, however, a beginning has been made, and emission norms are being aligned with Euro standards and vehicular technology is being accordingly upgraded. Vehicle manufactures are also working towards bridging the gap between Euro standards and Indian emission norms.

In India we are yet to address the vehicle and fuel system as a whole. It was in 1996 that the Ministry of Environment and Forests formally notified fuel specifications. Maximum limits for critical ingredients like Benzene level in petrol have been specified only recently and a limit of 5% m/m and 3% m/m has been set for petrol in the country and metroes respectively.

In place of phase-wise upgradation of fuel specifications there appears to be a region-wise introduction of fuels of particular specifications. The high levels of pollution have necessitated eliminating leaded petrol, through out the country.

To address the high pollution in 4 metro cities 0.05% sulphur petrol & diesel has been introduced since 2000-2001. The benzene content has been further reduced to 1% in Delhi and Mumbai.

There is a need for a holistic approach so that upgradation in engine technology can be optimised for maximum environmental benefits.

Other factors influencing emission from vehicles.

It has been estimated that at any point of time, new vehicle comprise only 8% of the total vehicle population. In India currently only transport vehicles, that is, vehicles used for hire or reward are required to undergo periodic fitness certification. The large population of personalised vehicles are not yet covered by any such mandatory requirement.

In most countries that have been able to control vehicular pollution to a substantial extent, Inspection & Maintenance of all categories of vehicles have been one of the chief tools used. Developing countries in the South East Asian region, which till a few years back had severe air pollution problem have introduced an I&M system and also effective traffic management.

Inadequate and poor quality of road surface leads to increased Vehicle Operation Costs and also increased pollution. It has been estimated that improvements in roads will result in savings of about 15% of Vehicle Operation Costs.

The need for an integrated, holistic approach for controlling vehicular emission cannot be over-emphasised. More importantly, it is time now for the auto and oil industry to come together under the guidance of the Government in evolving fuel quality standards and vehicular technology to meet air quality targets.

Petrol Vehicles
Three - Wheelers
(g/km)
Year
CO
HC
HC+Nox
1991 12 - 30 8 - 12 - -
1996 6.75 - 5.40 -
2000 4.00 - 2.00 -
2005(BS II) 2.25 - 2.00 (DF =1.2)
Two - Wheelers
(g/km)
Year
CO
HC
HC+Nox
1991 12 - 30 8 - 12 - -
1996 4.50 - 3.60 -
2000 2.00 - 2.00 -
2005(BS II) 1.50 - 1.50 (DF =1.2)
Car
(g/km)
Year
CO
HC
Nox
HC+Nox
1991 14.3 - 27.1 2.0-2.9  
1996 8.68 - 12.4     3.00 - 4.36
1998* 4.34 - 6.20     1.50 - 2.18
2000 2.78     0.97
B.S II 2.2   0.5
B.S II 2.2 - 5.0   0.5 - 0.7
B.S III 2.30 0.2 0.15
B.S III 2.3 - 5.22 0.20 - 0.29 0.15 - 0.21

* For Catalytic Converter Fitted vehicles
upto 6 seaters(A) & GVW upto 2.5 tons More than 6 seaters(B) & GVW upto 3.5 tons(A)(B)

Diesel Vehicles
Diesel Vehicles (GVM Upto 3.5 Tons)
(g/km) Engine Dynamometer
Year
CO
HC
Nox
HC+Nox
PM
1992 14.0 3.5 18      
1996 11.20 2.40 14.4      
2000 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36/ 0.61 #  
B.S II 4.0 1.1 7.0   0.15 For Four Wheelers only
Or
(g/km) Chassis Dynamometer
Year
CO
HC
Nox
HC+Nox
PM
1992 17.3 - 32.6 2.7 - 3.7       Light Duty Vehicles
1996 5.0 - 9.0     2.0 - 4.0    
2000 2.72 - 6.90     0.97 - 1.70 0.14 - 0.25  
B.S II 1.0 - 1.5     0.7 - 1.2 0.08 - 0.17 For Four Wheelers only
B.S II(2005) 1.00     0.85 0.10 For 2 & 3 Wheelers, Appropriate DF
B.S III 0.64 - 0.95   0.50 -0.78 0.56 - 0.86 0.05 - 0.10
Cars
(g/km)
Chassis Dynamometer
B.S II 1.0     0.7 0.8 (A)
B.S II 1.0 - 1.5     0.7 - 1.2 0.8 - 0.17 (B)
B.S III 0.64   0.50 0.56 0.05 (A)
B.S III 0.64 - 0.95   0.50 -0.78 0.56 - 0.86 0.05 - 0.10 (B)
Diesel Vehicles (GVM > 3.5 Tons)
(g/kwh)
Year
CO
HC
Nox
HC+Nox
PM$
Smoke
(m-1) $
1992 14.0 3.5 18      
1996 11.20 2.40 14.4      
2000 4.5 1.1 8.0   0.36/ 0.36 #  
B.S II 4.0 1.1 7.0   0.15  
B.S III 2.1 0.7 5.0   0.10/0.13 0.8

# For Engines with Power exceeding 85 kw/ For engines with power upto 85 kw

* For engines having swept volume < 0.75 l per cylinder & rated power speed > 3000 rpm

$ For Diesel Vehicles Only

For CNG Vehicles HC to be replaced by NMHC NMHC = HC X (1-K/100)
K - % Methane Content in NG
For LPG Vehicles HC to be replaced by RHC RHC = 0.5 X HC

 
 
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