(Until 1912 the name Albania was commonly used to designate all territories of the Osmanli Empire inhabited by ethnic Albanians and not only the region of present-day Albania) Osmanli conquest of the Albanian tribes and principalities started in 1384 when the principality of Durrės was forced to pay tribute. In the course of the following years expansion - stopped for some time in the 15th century by Gjergj Kastriota Skėnderbeg (1403 - 1468) - continued and by 1506 the region was considered as pacified. (1) The conquered territory was divided into several sandjaks, at first part of the Elayet Rumeli, but later regrouped into four new Elayet/Vilayet : - Ishkodra (Alb.: Shkodėr) - Yanya (Alb.: Janinė) - Kosova - Monastir (1) Albanian resistance continued however, nearly uninterrupted. Most of the revolts however were no more than local risings. But on several occasions governments claiming to rule all Albanian territories were established : - In 1878 several Albanian political groups united into the Albanian League (or League of Prizren/Lidhja Shqiptarė - Lidhja e Prizendit) to prevent the cession of Albanian territory to the neighbouring states and to claim the establishment of one autonomous Albanian Vilayet incorporating the four pre-existing ones. As the Osmanli government made no concessions the League proclaimed a provisional government, which toke over the administration of all Albanian territories (but actually only of present day Kosovo) in 1880. Leaders of the League of Prizren President of the Constituent Assembly of the League 1878 Abdyl Bej Frashėri 1839 - 1892 Prsesidents of the General Council of the League (possibly incomplete) 1878 - 1879 Abdyl Bej Frashėri s.a. 1879 - 1880 M. Tetova 1880 - 1881 Omer Arta Provisional Government President of the Provisional Government 1880 - 1881 Omer Ymer Bej Prizreni Plenipotentiary for Foreign Affairs 1880 - 1881 Abdyl Bej Frashėri s.a. Plenipotentiary for Defence 1880 - 1881 Sulejman Bej Vokshi Plenipotentiary for Finances 1880 - 1881 Rexhep Bej Gjavoka The movement was terminated by the Osmanli government in 1881 - In 1910 some Albanian and Italian volunteers headed by Terenc Toēi (1880 - 1...) and Ricciotti Garibaldi (1847 - 1924 son of Giuseppe Garibaldi) rallied parts of the northern Mirditė and Malėsi tribes, established a Provisional Government and proclaimed an independent Albanian state (1911). (no records of the members of this government seem to exist) The revolt was immediately quelled by the Osmanli.

ALBANIA 1912 - 1914

In 1912, as a result of a new revolt - headed by Hasan Bej Prishtani (1873 - 1933) - most Albanian territories were liberated and the Osmanli government now agreed to grant the Albanians some kind of autonomy (Agreement of Skopje). Before this could be put into effect the region was however invaded by troops of the Balkan alliance. It was in this context that Albanian delegates gathering at Vlorė, proclaimed the independence of the country and established a Provisional Government to rule it. (2) (2) The Provisional Government claimed to rule all territories inhabited by ethnic Albanians. Actually it initially only controlled Vlorė and the southern regions of present-day Albania, the other territories being either under foreign military occupation (Greek, Serbian, ...) or either ruled by local lords : - In Central Albania, Esat Pashė (1863 - 1920) of the powerfull local Toptani clan ruled independently until apr 1913 when he was made Minister of the Interior in the Provisional Government. In oct 1913 he however broke with the Provisional Government and proclaimed his own government, the Central Albanian Senate (Pleqėsia e Shqipėrisė sė Mesme) (His authority in the region was however contested by Ded Coku of the Malėsi and by Aqit Pashė Biēaku (18.. - 1926), delegate of the provisional government in Elbasan) - In Northern Albania the powerfull Malėsi and Mirditė tribes acted independently of the Provisional Governemnt until dec 1913 when one their principal leaders, Prenk Bibė Doda Pashė (18.. - 1920) of the Mirditė became Vice President of the Provisional Government. (See also here for more information on the Malėsi and Mirditė 1871 - 1945) Also in the North, the city of Shkodėr, which was firstly ruled by Esat Pashė and then by the Montenegrins later was placed under the authority of an International Military Commission. Chairman of the International Military Commission 1913 - 1914 Vice Adm. Sir Cecil Burney (U.K.) 1858 - 1926 __________________________________________________________________________________


Chairman of the National Convention 1912 Ismail Qemal Bej Vlorė, before external delegate of the insurgents 1844 - 1919 Chairman of the Provisional Government and acting Head of State 1912 - 1914 Ismail Qemal Bej Vlorė s.a. _________________________________________________________________________________


Prime Minister 1912 - 1914 Ismail Qemal Bej Vlorė as Head of the Provisional Government s.a. Ministers of Foreign Affairs 1912 - 1913 Ismail Qemal Bej Vlorė* s.a. 1913 - 1914 Myfit Bej Libohova 1876 - 1927 Minister of War 1912 - 1914 Mehmet Rushedi Pashė Dėrralla Ministers of the Interior 1912 - 1913 Myfit Bej Libohova s.a. 1913 Esat Pashė Toptani s.a. 1913 - 1914 ... Minister of Justice 1912 - 1914 Petro Roga 1850 - 1945 Minister of Finances 1912 - 1914 Abdy Bej Toptani 1864 - 1942



(period known as the "xenocraty" (foreign rule) in Albanian historiography) (from now only concerned with the evolution of the State Albania) In 1913 a Conference of Ambassadors (3) held in London accepted the idea of an independent Albanian state and the country was proclaimed a Principality under the protection of the six Great Powers. (4) (3) Members of the Conference of Ambassadors : U.K. : Sir Edward Grey, British Secretary of State of Foreign Affairs (Chairman) 1862 - 1933 Austria- Hungary : Albert Graf Mensdorff-Pouilly-Dietrichstein, Ambassador to the U.K. since 1904 1861 - 1945 France : Paul Pierre Cambon, Ambassador to the U.K. since 1898 1843 - 1924 Germany : Fürst Karl Max von Lichnowsky, Ambassador to the U.K. since 1912 1860 - 1928 Italy : Guglielmo Marchese Imperiali dei Principi di Francavilla, Ambassador to the U.K. since 1910. 1858 - Russia : Alexander (Konstantinovich) Graf Benckendorff, Ambassador to the U.K. since 1910 1846 - 1917 (4) The frontiers of the new state were not those the Albanians expected as the state did not include all of the four Vilayets but only : - nearly the whole Vilayet of Ishkodra - some frontier regions of the Ipek and Prizrin Sandjaks of the Vilayet of Kosova - the Sandjak Elbasan, parts of the Sandjaks Dibre (Alb.: Dibrė) and Goriēe (Alb.: Korēė) of the Vilayet of Monastir - the Sandjak Berat, parts of the Sandjaks Delvine (Alb.: Delvire) and Yanya of the Vilayet of Yanya. The major claimed region remaining outside the new state was Kosova (Serb.: Kosovo) which became part of Serbia (See also here for the situation in Southern Albania in this period) __________________________________________________________________________________


International Control Commission The International Control Commission (I.C.C.) was formed in oct 1913 to act as the representative of the six Powers. It formally assumed control over the country from jan 1914 to mar 1914 when the Prince arrived. It - formally at least - once again briefly assumed power in sep 1914 after the departure of the Prince, this time without Albanian or German delegates. 1913 - 1914 -Léon Krajewski (France) -Harry Harling Lamb (U.K.) 1857 - 1948 -... Leoni (Italy) -Myfit Bej Libohova (Albania) s.a. -... Petrayev (Russia) -... Petrovic (Austria -Hungary) -... Winckel (Germany) Central (Albanian) Adminstration The Central (Albanian) Administration was set up by the I.C.C. to replace all indigenous administrations and to administer the country until the formation of a princely government. 1914 -Fezji Bej Alizoti, Chairman -Petro Poga, Director of Justice s.a. -Jorji Ēako, Director of Finance -Luigi Gurakuqi 1879 - 1925 -Lef Nosi 1... - 1945 __________________________________________________________________________________


Prince The style of "Prince" - imposed by the Great Powers - was only used : - outside Albania, by the other countries - by the Albanians in their diplomatic relations with the other countries. In the country itself the style of "Mbret" (an ill-defined rank to the outer world, derived from "Imperator" and more or less having the signification of "King") was used. This for two reasons : - the style of "Prince" (Alb.: Prinz, Princ, Prinq or Prenk) was already used by important local lords, such as the Kapedans of the Mirditė. - neighbouring Crna Gora, not much larger or important than Albania, was ruled by a King. In this context using the style "Prince" would have ment to the Albanians that their supreme ruler only enjoyed a rank equal to that of the local lords and - what was even more unthinkable to them - that he also enjoyed a rank lower than the rulers of Crna Gora ... House of Wied 1914 Wilhelm (Wilhelm Friedrich Heinrich), Fürst zu Wied, imposed by the Great Powers, left the country after the outbreak of a peasant revolt, without abdicating 1876 - 1945 __________________________________________________________________________________


Prime Minister 1914 Turhan Pashė Permėti 1839 - 1927 Ministers of Foreign Affairs 1914 Turhan Pashė Permėti s.a. 1914 Prenk Bibė Doda Pashė s.a. 1914 Mehmet Bej Konica 1881 - Ministers of War 1914 Esat Pashė Toptani s.a. 1914 Myfit Bej Libohova* s.a. Ministers of the Interior 1914 Esat Pashė Toptani s.a. 1914 Aqif Pashė Biēaku s.a. Minister of Justice 1914 Myfit Bej Libohova s.a. Ministers of Finances 1914 Gaqi Adhamidhi 1914 Filip Noga

ALBANIA 1914 - 1920

After the departure of the Prince the insurgents assumed power. They couldn't however prevent neither a fragmentation of the country nor its total occupation by foreign troops fighting each other as a result of the outbreak of WWI (in 1914 : Greek and Italian, in 1915 : Montenegrin and Serbian, in 1916 : Austro- Hungarian, Bulgarian and French). In 1916 all national governments ceased to exist and the country was actually divided into three military occupation zones : - Austro-Hungarian (Central and Northern Albania) - French (Eastern Albania) - Italian (Southern Albania) __________________________________________________________________________________


General Council of the Albanian Senate The General Council of the Albanian Senate was established by the insurgents and formally ruled all of Albania. 1914 - 1915 Mustafa Ndroqi (Chairman) Musa Qazim Effendi Qamil Haxhifera, military commander Xhenabi Adili Qamil Xhaneta "Haxhi Qamili", leader of the revolt 1... - 1915 Haxhi Demiri Ramadan Gjinali This government soon lost all importance, some of its members recognizing the authority of Esat Pashė. What remained of it was terminated in jun 1915 by Esat Pashė and the Serbs. Provisional Albanian Government (5) The Provisional Albanian Government was set up by Esat Pashė, supported by the Serbs, in 1914 President of the Provisional Albanian Government 1914 - 1916 Esat Pashė Toptani s.a. Minister of War 1914 - 1916 Jusuf Bej Dibra Minister of the Interior 1914 - 1916 Shahin Bej Dhino Minister of Justice 1914 - 1916 Salih Toro Ministers of Finances 1914 - 191. Nexhat Ēomo-Libohova 1... - 191. 191. - 1916 Naxhi Jusuf Banga The Provisional Albanian Government was terminated by the Austro-Hungarians in jan 1916 Chairman of the Albanian Senate The Albanian Senate was set up in 1915 in Eastern Albania by the Bulgarian troops operating in the region. Its main - if not only - function was to give some kind of legal support to the claim of the Bulgarian Prince Kirill (1895 - 1945) to the throne of Albania. 1915 - 1916 Hasan Basri Bej Dukagjini This government was terminated by the Austro-Hungarians in 1916. (5) This government was contested, not only by the Mirditė in the North, but also by Amet Bej Zogolli (1895 - 1961), Head of the Mat Clan who proclaimed himself (feb 1916) Head of the Initiative Committtee of the Provisional National Assembly at Durrės, working for the return of Prince Wilhelm zu Wied. This movement was terminated by the Austro-Hungarians. After his expulsion Esat Pashė formed a Government in Exile that was supported by France. It was composed of two ministers : Esat Pashė himself and Pal Terka (1... - 1...) as Minister of Foreign Affairs. This main task of this government seems to have been the recrutement of Albanian volunteers for the French army in the Orient. After the end of the war this government seems to have continued to exist until the death of Esat Pashė. In Albania itself his supporters did some attempts to seize power, even after his death : - 1920 : Esatist coup at Shijak : Fuat Bej Toptani (1... - 1...) declared the legal government Delvina deposed. Before he could form his own government, the movement was however suppresed. - 1921 : Participation in the formation of the Mirditė Republic. - 1922 : Combined Esatist and Malėsi revolt following an attempt of the government to disarm the tribes. One of the Esatist leaders, Elez Isufi (1... - 1...) briefly occupied the capital. __________________________________________________________________________________


Austro-Hungarian intervention in Albania started in jan 1916. Austro-Hungarian Military Commanders in Albania The Austro-Hungarian troops operating in Albania were part of the 19th Army Corps - which was also in occupation of Serbia - until 1918, when a separate Albanian Command was established. Commander of the Army Group Albania Befehlshaber der Armeegruppe Albanien 1918 Gen. Karl Freiherr von Pflanzer-Baltin 1855 - 1925 Head of the Civil Administration 1916 - 1918 August Ritter von Kral 1869 - In 1918 the Austro-Hungarian zone was taken over by the French and Italians. __________________________________________________________________________________


(very incomplete - all information on this subject will be very welcomed) French occupation of Eastern Albania started in jun 1916. At first limited to the Korēė region, it was later extended to also include the Pogradec region (1917). (6) (6) At the moment of the French arrival Korēė region was controlled by Albanian partizans (ēeta) fighting Greek advance. They rallied to the French after an agreement granting the region fargoing autonomy had been reached with the French commander. The so established Autonomous Kaza of Korēa - also sometimes styled Albanian Republic of Korēa (Republika Shqipėtare Korēė) - formally would last until 1918, actual autonomy having however already been abolished in 1917. Commanders of the Albanian Military Frontier Regions Commandants des Confins Militairs albanais (subordinated to the Army of the Orient) 191. - 1919 ... 1919 - 1920 Col. ... Cretin ... (?) Administrators of the Territory of Korēa French Military Administrators 1916 - 1918 Col. ... Descoins 1918 - 1920 the Commanders of the Albanian Military Frontier Regions Chairmen of the Albanian Administrative Council (7) 1916 - 191. ... 191. - 191. Qani Dishnica 191. - 1920 ... Administrators of the Territory of Pogradec French Military Administrators 1917 - 1920 ... Chairmen of the Albanian Administrative Council 1917 - 1920 ... French occupation - which since the end of the war also included the town of Shkodėr(8) - lasted until 1920 when all territories were returned to the new Albanian administration. (7) Themistokli Germinji (1... - 1917) who is sometimes listed as such, seems not to have been the administrative head of the autonomous Korēa region. He was the leader of one of the ceta units that rallied to the French and later became commander of the Albanian gendarmery (8) French Commander in Shkodėr 1918 - 1920 Gen. ... Bardi de Fourtou (also commander of the Allied forces in Crna Gora) __________________________________________________________________________________


Italian occupation of Albania started in oct 1914 when naval troops occupied the small island of Sazan (It.: Sasona). This was followed by the occupation of the town of Vlorė (It.: Valona) in dec 1914 and by the gradual occupation of Southern Albania in 1915 - 1917. Finally, in 1918, most of the former Austro-Hungarian zone also became part of the Italian zone.
(9) Although the Italians formally proclaimed Albanian independence in 1917 (the so- called Proclamation of Gjirokastėr) military rule actually continued until 1919 when an agreement was reached with the Albanian Provisional Government established in 1918 (see below). (10) (9) A first attempt to occupy Durrės as a base in Central Albania in 1915 - 1916 failed Commanders of the Expeditionary Force in Durrės Commandanti delle Forze di Occupatione di Durazzo 1915 - 1916 Gen. ... Guerrini 1916 Gen. Giacinto Ferrero (10) According to this agreement Italian occupied Albania was divided into two zones : - the Valona zone (the city and the surrounding territory) which remained under direct Italian rule - the rest of the country governed by the provisional government under the protection and temporary military occupation of Italy and enjoying some internal autonomy. ITALIAN ADMINISTRATORS Commanders of the Italian Forces in Albania Commander of the Occupation Corps of Valona Commandante del Corpo d'Occupatione di Valona 1914 - 1915 Gen. Emanuele Mosca Commanders of the Italian Special Corps in Albania Commandanti del Corpo Speciale italiano in Albania 1915 - 1916 Gen. Emilio Bertotti 1916 Gen. Settimio Piacentini Commanders of the Occupation Forces in Albania Commandanti delle Truppe d'Occupazione d'Albania 1916 Gen. ... Bandini 1916 - 1917 Gen. Giacinto Ferrero s.a. Commander of the XVI Army Corps in Albania Commandante del XVI Corpo d'Armata in Albania 1917 - 1919 Gen. Giacinto Ferrero s.a. Commander of the Troops in Albania Commandante delle Truppe in Albania 1919 - 1920 Gen. Settimio Piacentini (11) s.a. Secretary for Civil Affairs in Albania (Secretario per gli Affari Civili d'Albania) 1916 - 191. Ugo Capialbi (11) Before, from 1918 to 1919 Supreme Commander of the Italian Forces in the Balkans (Commandante Superiore delle Forze Italiane in Balcania), overall commander of the forces in Albania (under Ferrero), Corfu and South Serbia. From 1918 to 1920 the commanders in Albania also were in charge of the Italian troops in Crna Gora/Montenegro. High Commissioners Alto Commissari (office established after the agreement of 1919 mentioned above to supervise the Albanian Provisional Government) 1919 - 1920 ... 1920 ... Castoldi (12) (12) After the outbreak of the Albanian revolt in 1920 (see below) he was replaced by a Minister Plenipotentiary, Nobile Gaetano dei Conti Manzoni, (1... - 1...) who negociated the Italian retreat from Albania. ALBANIAN ADMINISTRATORS In 1918 a Provisional Government was established at Durrės by delegates from all over Albania, to defend Albanian interests during the peace conferences. At first it was only more or less tolerated by the Italians, but following the agreement of 1919 mentioned above they recognized it as the legal government of the protected zone of the country. Prime Minister 1918 - 1920 Turhan Pashė Permėti (2x) Minister of Foreign Affairs 1918 - 1920 Mehmet Bej Konica (2x) Minister of the Interior 1918 - 1920 Mehdi Bej Frashėri 1874 - 1963 Minister of Justice 1918 - 1920 Petro Poga (2x) Minister of Finances 1918 - 1920 Fejzi Bej Alizoti s.a.

ALBANIA 1920 - 1925

Chronology 1920 - 1921 1920 Jan 28 : A Congress of opponants to the Government of Durrės - considered as too pro-Italian since the agreement of 1919 - gathering at Lushnjė (Chairman : Aqif Pashė Biēaku s.a.) proclaimed a countergovernment. Jan 29 : The Lushnjė government declared the Durrės Government deposed. In the course of the following weeks the territories under control of the Durrės government were gradually taken over by the Lushnjė government. Jan 30 : A High Council was established by the Lushnjė government to act as supreme authority in the absence of Prince Wilhelm zu Wied. Feb 11 : The Lushnjė government moved to Tiranė, which now became the capital of liberated Albania. Feb 21 : Durrės and the last territories controlled by the Durrės government were occupied by the Tiranė government. Mar 13 : The French returned Shkodėr to Albania. May 26 : The French returned the eastern occupied zones to Albania. May 29 : Formation of a Committee for National Defence (demanding the return of the Vlorė region to Albania) in the Italian zone (Chairman : Osman Haxhiu (1... - 1...)). As Italy refused all concessions the committee started a revolt on jun 05 -> start of the Albanian-Italian War. Aug 22 : Agreement of Tiranė : after their defeat in the battle of Vlorė the Italians agreed to recognize the total independence of Albania and to withdraw all their forces from Albania. (done by sep 03) (13) Dec 17 : Albania was admitted to the League of Nations : first international recognition of restored Albanian independence 1921 Jul 17 : Proclamation of an independent Mirditė republic in Northern Albania (until nov 20) Nov 09 : The Great Powers confirmed the independence of Albania, more or less within its frontiers of 1913. (13) All that remained of the Italian presence in Albania was the small island of Sasano. The island, which formally only was a concession granted by Albania and not an annexed Italian territory, was used as naval and radio base. _________________________________________________________________________________


High Council Kėshill i Naltė Formally the Prince of Wied still was Head of State. Until his possible return supreme authority was vested in a High Council of four members representing the four major religions. 1920 - 1925 -Aqif Pashė Biēaku (Bektashi) (30 jan 1920 - 12 dec 1921, when deposed) s.a. -Dom Luigi Bumēi, Bishop of Lezhė (Cath.) (30 jan 1920 - 12 dec 1921, when deposed) 1872 - -Mihal Turtulli (Orth.) (30 jan 1920 - 24 dec 1921 when he resigned) -Abdy Bej Toptani (Sunnit.) (30 jan 1920 - 24 dec 1921 when he resigned) s.a. -Ndoc Pistulli (Cath.) (22 dec 1921 - 3 oct 1922 when he resigned) -Omer Pashė Vrioni (Bektashi) (22 dec 1921 - 3 oct 1922 when he resigned) -Sotir Peēi (Orth.) (since 24 dec 1921 - sole member acting for the whole Council june 1924 - dec 1924, then left the country but remained formally member of the Council until 31 jan 1925) 1873 - 1932 -Refik Bej Toptani (Sunnit.) (since 24 dec 1921 - left the country in june 1924 but remained formally member of the Council - returned and sole member acting for the whole Council dec 1924 - 31 jan 1925) -Xhafer Bej Ypi (Bektashi) (since oct 1922 - left the country in june 1924 but remained formally member of the council until 31 jan 1925) 1880 - 1940 -Gijon Ēoba (Cath.) (oct 1922 - 24 may 1924, when he resigned) __________________________________________________________________________________


(DG)= member of the "Democratic Government" Democratic Government - also Democratic Bourgeois and Democratic Popular - was the name given in Albanian historiography to the government that lasted from jun to dec 1924 and introduced the first important social reforms. It was the result of a general revolt (jun 1924) whose leaders were : Regional Leaders 1924 (Jun) -Rexhep Shala, Military Commander of Shkodėr, Leader in Northern Albania -Kasėm Qafėzezi, Military Commander of Pėrmeti, Leader in Southern Albania Provisional Government Committee at Vlorė (formed by the union of the insurgent groups - came to power on jun 10) 1924 (Jun) -Theofan "Fan" Sterian Noli, Chairman, in charge of Foreign Affairs 1882 - 1965 -Sulejman Bej Delvina, in charge of Internal Affairs 1882 - 1932 -Mustafa Tragjasi, in charge of Finance -Kostaq Paftali Prime Ministers 1920 Suleiman Bej Delvina s.a. 1920 - 1921 Iljaz Bej Vrioni 18.. - 1932 1921 Pandeli Evangjeli 1859 - 194. 1921 Qazim Koculi 1921 Hasan Bej Prishtina s.a. 1921 Idhomene Kosturi* 1873 - 1943 1921 - 1922 Xhafer Bej Ypi s.a. 1922 - 1924 Amet Bej Zogolli s.a. 1924 Shefqet Bej Vėrlaci 1... - 194. 1924 Iljaz Bej Vrioni (2x) 1924 Fan S. Noli (DG), expelled s.a. 1924 - 1925 Iljaz Bej Vrioni (3x) 1925 Amet Bej Zogu, styled Savior of the Nation (Shpėtimtar i Kombit) for ending the "Democatic Government" (14) (14) After his expulsion Fan Noli founded a National Revolutionary Committee (Komiteti Nacional Revolutionar - KONARE) to fight the Zogu regime. It gradually split into different factions and lost all importance after 1930. Many of its members would later form the nucleus of the Albanian Communist Party. Ministers of Foreign Affairs 1920 Mehmet Bej Konica (3x) 1920 - 1921 Iljaz Bej Vrioni s.a. 1921 Pandeli Evangjeli s.a. 1921 Fan S. Noli s.a. 1921 Xhafer Bej Villa* 1889 - 1938 1921 - 1922 Fan S. Noli (2x) 1922 Xhafer Bej Ypi* s.a. 1922 - 1924 Pandeli Evangjeli (2x) 1924 Iljaz Bej Vrioni (2x) 1924 Sulejman Bej Delvina (DG) s.a. 1924 - 1925 Iljaz Bej Vrioni (3x) 1925 Bishop Gjergi Koleci (permanently represented by Myfit Bej Libohova - s.a.) Ministers of War 1920 none 1920 Ali Riza Kolonja 1920 - 1921 Salahudin Bej Shkoza 1921 Jusuf Gjinali 1921 Zija Dibra 1921 Shefik Kosturi* 1921 - 1923 Ismail Haki Bej Tatzari 1923 - 1924 Mustafa Aranitasi 1924 Kasėm Qafėzeri (DG) s.a. 1924 - 1925 Mustafa Aranitasi (2x) 1925 Amet Bej Zogu s.a. Ministers of the Interior 1920 Amet Bej Zogolli s.a. 1920 - 1921 Xhafer Bej Ypi* s.a. 1921 Sulejman Bej Delvina s.a. 1921 Bajram Fevziu 1921 Luigj Gurakuqi s.a. 1921 Rauf Fico* 1881 - 1921 - 1923 Amet Bej Zogolli (2x) 1923 - 1924 Sefji Vllamasi 1924 Shefqet Bej Vėrlaci s.a. 1924 Abdurrahman Bej Dibra 1885 - 1924 Rexhep Shala (DG) s.a. 1924 - 1925 Abdurrahman Bej Dibra (2x) 1925 Amet Bej Zogu (3x) Ministers of Justice 1920 Hoxha Kadriu Prishtina s.a. 1920 - 1921 Xhafer Bej Ypi s.a. 1921 Dhimitėr Kacimbra 1921 Koēo Tasi 1921 Hoxha Kadriu Prishtina (2x) 1921 Qerim Ēelo* 1921 - 1923 Hysen Bej Vrioni 1923 - 1924 Milto Tutulani 1... - 1933 1924 Myfit Bej Libohova s.a. 1924 Benedikt Blinishti 1924 Stavro Vinjau (DG) 1924 - 1925 Benedikt Blinishti (2x) 1925 Myfit Bej Libohova* (2x) Ministers of Finances 1920 Ndoc Ēoba 1920 - 1921 Tef Curani 1921 Amet Dakli 1921 Sulejman Bej Starova* 1921 - 1924 Kolė Thaēi (15) 1886 - 1924 Myfit Bej Libohova* s.a. 1924 Luigi Gurakuqi s.a. 1924 Myfit Bej Libohova (2x) 1924 Luigi Gurakuqi (DG) (2x) 1924 - 1925 Myfit Bej Libohova (3x) (15) Financial advisor appointed by the League of Nations after the granting of financial help to Albania : 1923 - 1924 Jan D. Hunger (Netherlands), expelled by the Albanian government.


In 1925 Albania was proclaimed a Republic. __________________________________________________________________________________


President 1925 - 1928 Amet Bej Zogu s.a. Inspectors General of the Gendarmerie (16) 1925 - 1926 Col. Walter F. Stirling (UK) 1926 - 1928 GenMaj. Sir Jocelyn Percy (UK) (16) As a consequence of the participation of the military in the revolt of jun 1924, the Ministry of War was abolished and the army was reduced in size and partly replaced by a more reliable gendarmery, supervised by foreign officers directly dependent of the President. This situation remained largely unchanged after 1928 except that a military department was now also created. __________________________________________________________________________________


Head of the Government 1925 - 1928 The President Ministers of Justice (acting as Chief Ministers or Spokesmen of the Government) 1925 Petro Boga (3x) 1925 - 1926 Milto Tutulani (2x) 1926 - 1927 Sif Kedhi 1927 Petro Poga (4x) 1927 - 1928 Iljaz Bej Vrioni* s.a. 1928 Hiqmet Bej Delvina Ministers of Foreign Affairs 1925 Myfit Bej Libohova (2x) 1925 - 1927 Hysen Bej Vrioni s.a. 1927 - 1928 Iljaz Bej Vrioni (4x) Ministers of the Interior 1925 Kostaq Kota 1889 - 194. 1925 Cen Bej Kryziu 1925 - 1927 Musa Juka* 1927 - 1928 Abdurrahman Bej Dibra (3x) 1928 Kostaq Kota (2x) Ministers of Finances 1925 Myfit Bej Libohova s.a. 1925 - 1927 Sulejman Bej Stavora (2x) 1927 Fejzi Bej Alizoti (2x) 1927 - 1928 Sulejman Bej Stavora (3x) 1928 Milto Tutulani s.a.



In 1928 Albania was proclaimed a Kingdom. __________________________________________________________________________________


King Mbret Full style : King of the Albanians Mbret i Shqiptarėvet (The original proclamation by the Constituent Assembly seems to have used the French "Roi", which was however immediately translated into the traditional "Mbret" (s.a.) so that this style now officially became equal to "King") 1928 - 1946 Zog I Skėnderbeg III, left the country without abdicating at the Italian invasion in 1939, formally deposed in 1946 (17) s.a. Inspectors General of the Military Department 1928 - 1933 Gen. Alberto Pariani (It.) 1873 - 1966 1933 - 1934 Gen. Riccardo Balocco (It.) 1883 - 1934 - 1939 Cmdt. Qemal Komani* (Alb.) Inspector General of the Gendarmerie 1928 - 1939 GenMaj. Sir Jocelyn Percy (UK) s.a. (17) Instead of using his first name "Amet" like all European monarchs did, the new King opted to use his family name Zog (the particle u was dropped as the name was used in relation to a title) He did so to amplify the purely Albanian origin of the new monarchy and to rally his Christian subjects, "Amet" sounding both to too Osmanli and too Islamic. As to the name Skėnderbeg III, it was added to emphasise the national continuity since the Middle Ages. It was hardly used in foreign relations. __________________________________________________________________________________


Prime Ministers 1928 - 1930 Kostaq Kota s.a. 1930 - 1935 Pandeli Evangjeli (2x) 1935 - 1936 Mehdi Bej Frashėri s.a. 1936 - 1939 Kostaq Kota (2x) Ministers of Foreign Affairs 1928 - 1929 Iljaz Bej Vrioni s.a. 1929 Milto Tutulani* s.a. 1929 - 1931 Rauf Fico s.a. 1931 - 1933 Hysen Bej Vrioni (2x) 1933 - 1935 Xhafer Bej Villa (2x) 1935 - 1936 Fuat Aslam 1936 - 1939 Eqrem Bej Libohova Ministers of the Interior 1928 - 1930 Kostaq Kota s.a. 1930 - 1931 Rauf Fico* (2x) 1931 - 1935 Musa Juka (2x) 1935 - 1936 Eqrem Toto 1936 - 1939 Musa Juka (3x) Ministers of Justice 1928 - 1930 Hiqmet Bej Delvina s.a. 1930 - 1931 Vasil Avrami 1931 - 1933 Milto Tutulani (3x) 1933 - 1935 Vasil Avrami (2x) 1935 - 1936 Mehdi Bej Frashėri* s.a. 1936 - 1938 Thoma Orollogaj 1888 - 1938 - 1939 Faik Shatku 1896 - Ministers of Finances 1928 - 1930 Milto Tutulani s.a. 1930 - 1931 Kolė Thaēi (2x) 1931 - 1933 Lame Kareco 1933 - 1935 Abdurarahman Bej Dibra s.a. 1935 - 1936 Rrok Geraj 1936 - 1939 Kolė Thaēi (3x)


In 1939 Italian troops occupied the Kingdom of Albania. (18) A constituent assembly soon afterwards voted for a personal union with Italy but although Albania kept some of its own institutions it actually became an Italian dependency. From 1940 to 1941 parts of Southern Albania were occupied by Greek troops. In 1941 parts of Yugoslavia inhabited by etnic Albanians were annexed to the Kingdom, while at the same time some parts of Greece were put under Albanian administration, without being formally annexed. (18) The Italian occupation in 1939 actually was the last act of a drame that started in 1926 when Albania and Italy signed the "Treaty of Alliance and Security" of Tiranė, the first of a serial of treaties that would actually reduce the country to an Italian Protectorate. As a result, by 1938 Italy actually controlled : - the Albanian army which was fully dependent of Italian supplies and was stuffed with Italian instructors. - the international transportations : Italy held the monopoly of air transport and of most of the sea transport. It controlled the airport of Tiranė and the Harbour of Durrės. - nearly the whole Albanian economy and finances : The Albanian National Bank - founded in 1925 with Italian capital and with its seat in Rome - was fully under Italian supervision, the Ministries of Economy and Finance had Italian advisors, the export and distribution of tobacco were an Italian monopoly while Italian companies held concessions for nearly all other materials. Finally the Albanian Catholic Church (with its schools and cultural institutions) also partly was under Italian control. Italian Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary to Albania (since the Treaty of 1926) 1926 - 1927 Pompeo Barone Aloisi 1875 - 1949 1927 - 1930 Ugo Sola 1930 - 1932 Antonio Marchese Meli-Lupi Di Soragna 1885 - 1971 1932 - 1934 Armando Odatino Koch 1934 - 1936 Mario Barone Indelli 1936 - 1939 Noblie Francesco Jacomoni Di San Savino 1894 - __________________________________________________________________________________


Commander of the Italian Overseas Expeditionary Corps - Tirana Commandante del Corpo di Spedizione Oltre Mare - Tirana (OMT) (in charge of the conquest of Albania) 1939 Gen. Alfredo Guzzoni 1877 - 1965 King Mbret Full Style : King of Albania Mbret i Shqipėrisė 1939 - 1943 The King of Italy, abdicated Italian Minister in charge of Albanian Affairs 1939 - 1943 The Minister of Foreign Affairs Under Secretaries of State for Albanian Affairs Sottosegretari di Stato per gli Affari Albanesi 1939 - 1941 Zenone Benini 1941 - 194. Alberto Corrias 194. - 1943 Piero Parini Royal Lieutenants General Luogotenenti Generali del Re 1939 - 1943 Noblie Francesco Jacomoni Di San Savino s.a. 1943 Gen. Alberto Pariani s.a. Commanders of the Italian Forces in Albania After the union the commanders of the Italian forces in Albania - since 1941 Commanders of the 9th Army - only had purely military tasks, most notably the struggle against the resistance. (19) 1939 Gen. Alfredo Guzzoni s.a. 1939 - 1940 Gen. Carlo Geloso 1879 - 1940 Gen. Sebastiano Visconti Prasca 1883 - 1940 Gen. Ubaldo Soddu 1889 - 1949 1940 - 1941 Gen. Ugo Cavallero 1880 - 1943 1941 - 1943 ... 1943 Gen. Lorenzo Dalmazzo 1886 - (19) They also were in command of the forces in Crna Gora/Montenegro. In 1943 they became subordinated to the Army Group East Command. __________________________________________________________________________________


Provisinal Administrative Committee 1939 -Xhafer Bej Ypi (Chairman and Pelnipotentiary for Justice) s.a. -Mihal Sherko (Plenipotentiary for Foreign Affairs) -Zef Kadarja (Plenipotentiary for the Interior) -Kosta Marku (Plenipotentiary for Finance) Prime Ministers 1939 - 1941 Shefqet Bej Vėrlaci (2x) 1941 - 1943 Mustafa Merlika-Kruja 1887 - 1958 1943 Eqrem Bej Libohova s.a. 1943 Maliq Bej Bushati 1943 Eqrem Bej Libohova (2x) Minister for Foreign Affairs 1939 Xhemil Bej Dino 1939 : Ministry abolished and tasks taken over by the Italian Ministry for Foreign Affiars. Until 1941 Tef Mbotida (1... - 1...) charged with the liquidation of the Ministry. Ministers of the Interior 1939 Maliq Bej Bushati s.a. 1939 - 1943 Mustafa Merlika-Kruja s.a 1943 Eqrem Bej Libohova* s.a. 1943 Mark Gjonmarkaj 1943 Kol Bibė Mirakaj Ministers of Justice 1939 - 1940 Xhafer Bej Ypi (2x) 1940 - 1941 ... 1941 - 1943 Hasan Dosti 1943 Andon Kosmaēi 1943 Xhafer Hurshiti* 1943 Andon Kosmaēi (2x) Ministers of Finances 1939 - 1940 Fejzi Bej Alizoti (3x) 1940 - 194. Qemal Bej Vrioni 1943 Lovo Musani 1943 Kostaq Marku s.a. 1943 Andon Beēa __________________________________________________________________________________


An Albanian Fascist Party (Partia Fascist Shqipėrisė - PFSH) was founded in 1939 as part of the Italian PNF In 1943 it was granted some autonomy and renamed Guard of Great Albania. Ministers Secretaries of the Partia Fascist Shqipėrisė 1939 - 1941 Tefik Mborja 1941 - 1943 Jup Kazazi 1943 Kol Bib Mirakaj Ministers Secretaries of the Guard of Great Albania 1943 Maliq Bej Bushati* s.a. 1943 Eqrem Bej Libohova s.a.


After the Italian surrender in 1943, Albania was occupied by German forces. Its independence was restored, German troops remaining however "temporarily" in occupation, formally to protect Albania against a possible allied attack. __________________________________________________________________________________


DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATIVES Consul General Generalkonsul 1941 - 1944 Martin Schliep Representative of the Special Plenipotentiary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the South East Vertreter des Sonderbevolmächtigten des Auswärtiges Amtes für den Südosten 1943 - 1944 Karl Gstöttenbauer MILITARY, POLICE AND SS COMMANDERS Commanders of the 21th Mountain Army Corps (20) Befehlshaber des XXI Gebirgs-Armeekorps (in charge of the conquest of Albania and of its occupation until dec 1943, subordinated to the Commander of the 2nd Armored Army) 1943 Gen. Paul Bader 1883 - 1971 1943 - 1944 Gen. Gustav Fehn 1892 - 1945 German Plenipotentiary General in Albania Deutscher Bevollmachtigter General in Albanien (in charge of the occupation forces since dec 1943, subordinated to the Militärbefehlshaber Südost) 1943 - 1944 Gen. Theodor Geib 1885 - 1945 (20) Part of the Corps remained present in Albania after dec 1943, like the 297th Infanterie Division. In jun 1944 the commander of this Division, Gen. Otto Gullmann (1887 - 1963) toke command of the German occupation forces in Albania in succession to Geib. Higher SS and Police Leader Albania Höherer SS und Polizeiführer Albanien (HSSPF) (Responsible for internal security, the war against the resistance and the "final solution") 1944 SS-Brigadeführer Josef Fitzhum 1896 - 1945 __________________________________________________________________________________


Chairman of the Executive Council of the National Committee 1943 Ibrahim Bej Biēaku Provisional Executive Committee of Albania 1943 -Bedri Pajana (Chairman) -Mihal Zalari -Xhafer Deva -Mehdi Bej Frashėri s.a. -Eqrem Telhaj High Regency Council Like in 1920-1925 the High Council consisted of representatives of the four major religions. 1943 - 1944 -Mehdi Bej Frashėri (Bektashi) Chairman) s.a. -Andon Arapi (Cath.) -Fuat Bej Dibra Zembraku (Sunnit.) 1... - 1944 -Lef Nosi (Orth.) __________________________________________________________________________________


Prime Ministers 1943 - 1944 Rexhep Bej Mitrovica 1887 - 1967 1944 Fiqri Bej Dine 1... - 1960 1944 Ibrahim Bej Biēaku s.a. Ministers of Foreign Affairs 1943 - 1944 Mehmet Konica 1944 Eqrem Bej Vlora 1944 Ibrahim Bej Biēaku s.a. Ministers of the Interior 1943 - 1944 Xhafer Deva 1944 Fiqri Bej Dine* s.a. 1944 Ibrahim Bej Biēaku* s.a. Ministers of Justice 1943 - 1944 Rrok Kolaj 1944 Eqrem Bej Vlora 1944 Rrok Kolaj (2x) Ministers of Finances 1943 - 1944 Sokrat Dodbiba 1944 Rrok Geraj (2x) 1944 Edhem Cara


Resistance against foreign occupation started as early as 1940. In 1942 most groups (ēeta) united into the National Liberation Front, which however soon became communist dominated and was reorganized as the Antifascist Council of National Liberation in 1944. (21) In 1944 the Germans were expelled and the Antifascist Council assumed power, the country however formally remaining a Kingdom. (21) The major movements outside the N.L.F. were : - Balli Kombetar , founded in 1942 by republican anticommunists and headed by Midhat Bej Frashėri (1882 - 1949) - Legaliteti, founded in 1943 by royalists who left the N.L.F. and headed by Abbaz Kuppi (189. - ....) Both Balli Kombetar and Legaliteti now opposed the communist dominated F.N.L. not hesistating to collaborate with the occupying powers. By the end of the war they still controlled parts of Northern Albania more or less in cooperation with the tribes. Their resistance would go on until the 1950ties. __________________________________________________________________________________


Chairman of the General Council of the National Liberation Front 1942 - 1944 ... Chairman of the Presidium of Antifascist Council of National Liberation 1944 Omer Nishani 1887 - 1954 Chairman of the Antifascist Committee of National Liberation and Plenipotentiary for War and Defence (The Antifascist Committee acted as a kind of Government) 1944 Enver Hoxha 1908 - 1985 Plenipotentiary for the Interior 1944 Haxhi Lleshi 1913 - 1998 Plenipotentiary for Justice 1944 Manol Konomi Plenipotentiary for Finances 1944 Ramadan Ēitaku ____________________________________________________________________________


Chairman of the Presidium of Antifascist Council of National Liberation 1944 - 1946 Omer Nishani s.a. _____________________________________________________________________________


Chairman of the Council of Ministers 1944 - 1954 Enver Hoxha s.a. Minister of Foreign Affairs 1944 - 1946 Omer Nishani s.a. Minister of Defence 1944 - 1953 Enver Hoxha s.a. Minister of the Interior 1944 - 1946 Haxhi Lleshi s.a. Minister of Justice 1944 - 1951 Manol Konomi s.a. Minister of Finance 1944 - 1948 Ramadan Ēitaku s.a. _____________________________________________________________________________


The Albanian Communist Party was founded in 1941 by the merger of different pre- existing leftist groups. It soon became the leading force of the resistance and of the state. Central Committee 1941 - 1943 (22) 1941 - 1943 -Ramadan Ēitaku s.a. -Enver Hoxha s.a. -Tuk Jakova -Gjin Marku -Qemal Stafa -Koēi Xoxe (22) This is the formal list as presented by Hoxha himself in 1981. There however exist other lists showing some minor differences. As to the position of Enver Hoxha in the period 1941 - 1943, this is unclear : apparently he first only was in charge of party finances and then gradually became the de facto leader of the party. Secretary General 1943 - 1954 Enver Hoxha s.a. Politburo (established mar 22 1943) Full members from mar 1943 1943 - 1985 Enver Hoxha s.a. 1943 - 1948 Koēi Xoxe s.a. 1943 - 1947 Nako Spiru 1943 Ymer Dishnica (until aug 1943) 1943 Gjin Marku (until oct 1943) s.a. 1943 - 1944 Liri Gega (until nov 1944) 1943 - 1944 Ramadan Ēitaku (until nov 1944) s.a. Full members from nov 1944 1944 - 1948 Bedri Spahiu 1944 - 1946 Sejfulla Malėskova 1944 - 1948 Pandi Kristo No alternate members
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