CYPRUS


See also GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH OF CYPRUS ROMAN CATHOLIC HIERARCHY IN CYPRUS 1848 - 1945

OSMANLI CYPRUS

OSMANLI KIBRIS UNTIL 1878

The island of Cyprus became an Osmanli possession in 1571. Originally it was a separate Elayet of the Empire, but later its administrative position was altered several times : - 1785 - 1850 : Sandjak of the Elayet of the Djeza'ir-i bahr-i Sefid - 1850 - 1854 : Once again a separate Elayet of the Empire - 1854 - 1861 : Sandjak of the Elayet of the Djeza'ir-i bahr-i Sefid - 1861 - 1868 : Independent Sandjak directly subordinated to the Osmanli central government - 1868 - 1870 : Sandjak of the Elayet of the Djeza'ir-i bahr-i Sefid - 1870 - 1876 : Independent Sandjak directly subordinated to the Osmanli central government - 1876 - 1878 : Sandjak of the Elayet of the Djeza'ir-i bahr-i Sefid (1) (1) Formally this continued under Britsih administration (see below) __________________________________________________________________________________

OSMANLI CHIEF ADMINISTRATORS

Qaimakam (subordinated to the Vali of the Djeza'ir-i bahr-i Sefid) 1847 – 1848 Ismail Adil Pasha 1848 – 184. Abdullatif Efendi Mütesarrif (subordinated to the Vali of the Djeza'ir-i bahr-i Sefid) 1849 - 1851 .... Vali 1851 Haftuz Pasha (?) 1851 - 1853 Edhem Pasha 1853 - 1854 Mehmed Serif Pasha Mütesarrif (subordinated to the Vali of the Djeza'ir-i bahr-i Sefid 1854 - 1861, 1868 - 1870 and 1876 - 1878) 1854 - 1855 Mehmed Cemal Pasha (Celaleddin) 1855 - 1856 Osman Serif Pasha 1856 - 1858 Kani Pasha 1858 - 1859 Ishaq Pasaha 1859 - 1861 Mehmed Hairullah Pasha 1862 Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha 1832 - 1913 1862 Ziya Pasha 1863 Tevfik Pasha 1863 Mehmed Halet Pasha 1... - 1879 1863 - 1864 Ismail Efendi 1864 Ali Bey 1864 Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha (2x) 1864 Ismail Effendi (2x) 1864 Taiyib Pasha 1864 - 1865 Mehmed Halet Pasha (2x) 1865 Seid Niman Taiyib 1865 - 1866 Ahmed Latif 1866 Mehmed Halet Pasha (3x) 1866 - 1867 Seid Niman Taiyib (2x) 1867 – 186. Mehmed Halet Pasha (4x) 1868 - 1871 Kücük Mehmed Said Pasha 1838 - 1914 1871 - 1872 Aziz Pasha 1872 - 1873 Mehmed Veis Pasha 1873 Essad Pasha 1... - 1876 1873 - 1874 Ibrahim Pasha 1874 Reza 1874 Mehmed Nazif 1874 - 1876 Aziz Pasha (2x) 1876 - 1877 Mehmed Veis Pasha (2x) 1877 - 1878 Ahmed Bessim Pasha

OSMANLI CYPRUS UNDER BRITISH ADMINISTRATION

In 1878, following two British-Osmanli conventions signed at Constantinople, the British occupied Cyprus and toke over the administration of the island, which remained however formally a part of the Osmanli Empire. (2) (2) Cyprus formally continued to be a Sandjak of Djeza'ir-i bahr-i Sefid until 1912 and thereafter it was an independent Sandjak until 1914. The cession was made in order to give the British the financial means to fulfil the obligations they had contracted to support the Osmanli Empire against any Russian menace. It would also only last as long as the Russians occupied some Osmanli Caucasian territories (Ardahan, Kars and Batum). Finally the British agreed to pay a yearly tribute of 92000£ - reduced to 42000£ in 1907 - to the Empire. __________________________________________________________________________________

BRITISH CHIEF ADMINISTRATORS

High Commissioners 1878 - 1879 LtGen. Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley 1833 - 1913 1879 - 1886 Col. Sir Robert Biddulph 1835 - 1918 1886 - 1892 Henry Ernest Gascoyne Bulwer 1836 - 1914 1892 - 1898 Sir Walter Joseph Sendall 1832 - 1904 1898 - 1904 Sir William Frederick Haynes Smith 1839 - 1928 1904 - 1911 Sir Charles Anthony King-Harman 1851 - 1939 1911 - 1914 Maj. Hamilton John Goold-Adams 1858 - 1920

BRITISH DEPENDENCY OF CYPRUS

In 1914, after the Osmanli Empire had entered war alongside the Germans, the British abolished the conventions of 1878 and purely and simply annexed the island, which became a Crown Colony in 1925. (2) (2) Turkey formally gave up its last claims on the island by the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923. The tribute continued to be payed until 1927. __________________________________________________________________________________

BRITISH CHIEF ADMINISTRATORS

High Commissioners 1914 - 1915 Maj. Hamilton John Goold-Adams s.a. 1915 - 1918 Maj. Sir John Eugene Clauson 1866 - 1918 1918 - 1925 Sir Malcolm Stevenson (3) 1878 - 1927 (3) Sir Malcolm Stevenson, Chief Secretary, was Administrator of the Government or acting High Commissioner from 1918 to 1920. Governors 1925 - 1926 Sir Malcolm Stevenson s.a. 1926 - 1932 Sir Ronald Storrs 1881 - 1955 1932 - 1933 Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs 1876 - 1947 1933 - 1939 Sir Herbert Richmond Palmer 1877 - 1958 1939 - 1941 William Denis Battershill 1896 - 1959 1941 - 1946 Sir (1943) Charles Campbell Woolley 1893 - 1981

GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH OF CYPRUS

Christianism was introduced in Cyprus in the first century. From the start the Cypriot Greek Orthodox Church claimed to be autocephalous, but it was only at the Council of Ephesus (431) that the situation was formalized and that the Patriarchs of Antioch had to give up all claims of supremacy. Since then the Church always remained independent, except for the period 1196 - 1571 when it was subordinated to the Latin Hierarchy established by the crusaders. note Autocephalous = Fully independent as far as the organization was concerned but in full communion with the other Orthodox Churches as far as religious matters were concerned. __________________________________________________________________________________

HEADS OF THE COMMUNITY

Archbishops of Nea Justiniana and All Cyprus (Since 1754 the Archbishops also were Ethnarchs of the Greek Orthodox community on Cyprus and as such they were responsable for the administration of religious, social, cultural and educational matters of the community and for the collecting of taxes. They ranked immediately after the five great Patriarchs) 1840 - 1849 Ioannikios 1849 - 1854 Kyrillos I 1... - 1854 1854 - 1865 Makarios I 1... - 1865 1865 - 1900 Sophronios III 1825 - 1900 1900 - 1909 vacant (4) 1909 - 1916 Kyrillos II 1844 - 1916 1916 - 1933 Kyrillos III 1859 - 1933 1933 - 1947 vacant Administrator during the vacancy 1933 - 1947 Leontios, Metropolitan of Paphos 1896 - 1947 (4) The vacancy 1900 - 1909 At the death of Sophronios there were two pretenders to the dignity of Archbishop : Kyrillos, Metropolitan of Kition and Kyrillos, Metropolitan of Keryna. As no agreement could be reached, the Synode asked the Patriarchs of Alexandria, Constantinople and Jerusalem to mediate. In 1902 they each appointed an exarch to Cyprus. On mar 15 1908 the Patriarch of Constantinople unilaterally appointed Kyrillos of Keryna as Archbishop. He was however not recognized by the British and by part of the community. Finally, on apr 02 1909 the Patriarch of Alexandria forced the election of Kyrillos of Kition, who then became Archbishop Kyrillos II and was recognized by the British.
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