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1842 : Although there had already been some French presence on the Gold Coast
(1) as early as the 17th century, real French penetration in what was
to become Ivory Coast started when the French Naval Division of the
Western Coasts of Africa erected fortified trade-posts at Assinié and
at Grand Bassam and signed protectorate treaties with the Kingdoms of
Nzima and Sanwi .
1859 : The settlements, before part of the Colony of Gorée and Dependencies,
became directly subordinated to the Commanders of the Naval Division
of the Western Coasts of Africa.
1871 : Following its defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the French government
- pretending no longer having the financial means to maintain posts -
surrendered them to private traders and gave up its formal presence in
the region, while maintaining its protectorates and sovreignity.
Arthur Verdier (1835 - 1898), the most important French trader present
since 1864, now toke over of most of the posts and proclaimed himself
"Gardien du Drapeau Français" (Warden of the French Flag)
1878 : The French government recognized Arthur Verdier as official French
Representative or Resident on the Gold Coast.
1881 : The settlements became - only formally - part of the Superior Command
of Gabon and the Gulf of Guinea Settlements.
1885 : At the request of Arthur Verdier who felt treatened by the continious
indigenous wars and by growing British expansion, French governmental
rule was restored.
1886 : End of direct French governmental rule : Arthur Verdier was reinstated
as Resident, but now under the supervision of the Lieutenant Governor
of the "Southern Rivers" (French Guinea)
1889 : French direct governmental rule was once again restored, the structure
of the territory remaining however unchanged .
(1) The name of "Côte d'Ivoire" was first given to the region in 1838 by
the head of the French Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa
Adm. Louis Édouard Bouët-Willaumez (1808 - 1871).
It was however not commonly used before 1893, the ancient name "Côte
d'Or" continuing to be used, especially for the coastal zone first
settled by the French.
Superior Commandant of the French Settlements on the Gold Coast
Commandant Supérieur des Etablissements français de la Côte d'Or
(subordinated to the Commandant of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts
1869 - 1871 Jean Louis Vernet
Warden of the French Flag
Gardien du Drapeau français
1871 - 1878 Afthur Verdier s.a.
Representative during his absences
1871 - 187. Etiènne Verdier, brother
(since 1881 formally subordinated to the Superior Commandant of Gabon and the
Gulf of Guinea Settlements)
1878 - 1885 Arthur Verdier s.a.
Representatives during his absences
1878 - 1883 Amédée Brétignière, nephew of
Arthur Verdier, visited the Gold
Coast on regular occassions.
When absent the Agents of Assinié
and Grand Bassam, then styled
Delegate Residents (Résidents
délégués) assumed power 1856 - 1890
1883 - 1886 Marcel Treich-Lapléne, residing
permanently 1860 - 1890
Particular Commandant of the French Settlements on the Gold Coast
Commandant particulier des Etablissements français de la Côte d'Or
(subordinated to the Superior Commandant of Gabon and the Gulf of Guinea
1885 - 1886 Charles Bour
(subordinated to the Lieutenant Governors of the Southern Rivers)
1886 - 1889 Arthur Verdier (2x) s.a.
1886 - 1889 Marcel Treich-Laplène (2) s.a.
1889 - 1890 Marcel Treich-Laplène s.a.
1890 Jean Joseph Étienne Octave Péan*
1890 - 1892 Jean Henri Auguste Desailles
1892 Jules François Voisin*
1892 Eloi Bricard*
1892 - 1893 Paul Alphonse Frédéric Heckman
(2) At the reinstatement of Arthur Verdier as resident three individuals
claimed to be his rightfull representative :
- ... Pietri, acting successor of Bour
- ... Moureau, designated Delegate Resident of Verdier
- Marcel Treich-Lapléne (s.a.) still Agent General
The later ousted the two others and then became Delegate Resident
He now initiated a period of expansion, imposing protectorates on
such major inland states as Abron and Kong (both in 1888)
FRENCH COLONY OF THE IVORY COAST
In 1893 the French Gold Coast was detached from the Southern Rivers, becoming
the separate Colony of the Ivory Coast, which in 1895, became a member of the
Federation of French West Africa. (3)
1893 - 1895 Louis Gustave Binger 1856 - 1936
1895 Paul Cousturier*
1895 - 1896 Joseph Lemaire*
1896 Pierre Hubert Auguste Pascal*
1896 Eugène Bertin* 18.. - 1896
1896 Jean-Baptiste Castaing*
1896 - 1898 Louis Mouttet
1898 Adrien Jules Jean Bonhoure
1898 Jean Penel*
1898 Pierre Paul Marie Capest*
1898 ... Ribes*
1898 - 1902 Henri Charles Victor Amédée Roberdeau
1902 Albert Anatole Nebout*
1902 - 1907 Marie François Joseph Clozel 1860 - 1918
1907 - 1908 Albert Anatole Nebout* (2x)
1908 Pierre Brun*
1908 - 1916 Gabriel Louis Angoulvant 1872 - 1932
1916 - 1918 Maurice Pierre Lapalud*
1918 - 1924 Raphael Valentin Marius Antonetti 1872 - 1938
1924 - 1925 Richard Edmond Maurice Brunot*
1925 - 1930 Maurice Pierre Lapalud (2x)
1930 Joseph Jules Brévié 1880 - 1964
1930 - 1931 Jean Paul Boutonnet*
1931 - 1935 Dieudonné François Joseph Marie Reste 1879 - 1976
1935 Marie Alphonse Flotte de Pouzols*
1935 - 1936 Adolphe Deitte
1936 Julien Georges Lamy*
1936 - 1937 Gaston Charles Julien Mondon
1937 - 1938 Gaston Charles Julien Mondon s.a.
1938 - 1939 Louis Bressolles*
1939 - 1940 Horace Valentin Crocicchia (4)
1941 - 1942 Hubert Jules Deschamps 1900 - 1979
1942 - 1943 Georges Pierre Rey
1943 Jean François Toby 1900 - 1964
1943 - 1945 André Jean Gaston Latrille
(3) From 1894 to 1898 most of Nothern Ivory Coast was part of the Mandé
state founded by Almami Samori Touré (ca 1830 - 1900)
French rule was only established in the whole country in 1918 after
the quelling of the Dadi revolts in the western parts of the colony.
(4) In 1940 governor Crocicchia was one of the first colonial officials
to rally to the (Free) French National Provisional Committee.