IVORY COAST / CÔTE D'IVOIRE


See also ROMAN CATHOLIC HIERARCHY IN IVORY COAST 1871 - 1945 FRENCH WEST AFRICA

FRENCH SETTLEMENTS OF THE GOLD COAST 1871 - 1893

Chronology 1842 : Although there had already been some French presence on the Gold Coast (1) as early as the 17th century, real French penetration in what was to become Ivory Coast started when the French Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa erected fortified trade-posts at Assinié and at Grand Bassam and signed protectorate treaties with the Kingdoms of Nzima and Sanwi . 1859 : The settlements, before part of the Colony of Gorée and Dependencies, became directly subordinated to the Commanders of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa. 1871 : Following its defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the French government - pretending no longer having the financial means to maintain posts - surrendered them to private traders and gave up its formal presence in the region, while maintaining its protectorates and sovreignity. Arthur Verdier (1835 - 1898), the most important French trader present since 1864, now toke over of most of the posts and proclaimed himself "Gardien du Drapeau Français" (Warden of the French Flag) 1878 : The French government recognized Arthur Verdier as official French Representative or Resident on the Gold Coast. 1881 : The settlements became - only formally - part of the Superior Command of Gabon and the Gulf of Guinea Settlements. 1885 : At the request of Arthur Verdier who felt treatened by the continious indigenous wars and by growing British expansion, French governmental rule was restored. 1886 : End of direct French governmental rule : Arthur Verdier was reinstated as Resident, but now under the supervision of the Lieutenant Governor of the "Southern Rivers" (French Guinea) 1889 : French direct governmental rule was once again restored, the structure of the territory remaining however unchanged . (1) The name of "Côte d'Ivoire" was first given to the region in 1838 by the head of the French Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa Adm. Louis Édouard Bouët-Willaumez (1808 - 1871). It was however not commonly used before 1893, the ancient name "Côte d'Or" continuing to be used, especially for the coastal zone first settled by the French. ____________________________________________________________________________

CHIEF ADMINISTRATORS

Superior Commandant of the French Settlements on the Gold Coast Commandant Supérieur des Etablissements français de la Côte d'Or (subordinated to the Commandant of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa) 1869 - 1871 Jean Louis Vernet Warden of the French Flag Gardien du Drapeau français 1871 - 1878 Afthur Verdier s.a. Representative during his absences 1871 - 187. Etiènne Verdier, brother Resident Résident (since 1881 formally subordinated to the Superior Commandant of Gabon and the Gulf of Guinea Settlements) 1878 - 1885 Arthur Verdier s.a. Representatives during his absences Inspector General (Inspecteur général) 1878 - 1883 Amédée Brétignière, nephew of Arthur Verdier, visited the Gold Coast on regular occassions. When absent the Agents of Assinié and Grand Bassam, then styled Delegate Residents (Résidents délégués) assumed power 1856 - 1890 General Agent (Agent général) 1883 - 1886 Marcel Treich-Lapléne, residing permanently 1860 - 1890 Particular Commandant of the French Settlements on the Gold Coast Commandant particulier des Etablissements français de la Côte d'Or (subordinated to the Superior Commandant of Gabon and the Gulf of Guinea Settlements) 1885 - 1886 Charles Bour Résidents Résidents (subordinated to the Lieutenant Governors of the Southern Rivers) 1886 - 1889 Arthur Verdier (2x) s.a. Representative Delegate Resident (Résident délégué) 1886 - 1889 Marcel Treich-Laplène (2) s.a. 1889 - 1890 Marcel Treich-Laplène s.a. 1890 Jean Joseph Étienne Octave Péan* 1890 - 1892 Jean Henri Auguste Desailles 1892 Jules François Voisin* 1892 Eloi Bricard* 1892 - 1893 Paul Alphonse Frédéric Heckman (2) At the reinstatement of Arthur Verdier as resident three individuals claimed to be his rightfull representative : - ... Pietri, acting successor of Bour - ... Moureau, designated Delegate Resident of Verdier - Marcel Treich-Lapléne (s.a.) still Agent General The later ousted the two others and then became Delegate Resident He now initiated a period of expansion, imposing protectorates on such major inland states as Abron and Kong (both in 1888)

FRENCH COLONY OF THE IVORY COAST

In 1893 the French Gold Coast was detached from the Southern Rivers, becoming the separate Colony of the Ivory Coast, which in 1895, became a member of the Federation of French West Africa. (3) ____________________________________________________________________________

CHIEF ADMINISTRATORS

Lieutenant Governors Lieutenant Gouverneurs 1893 - 1895 Louis Gustave Binger 1856 - 1936 1895 Paul Cousturier* 1895 - 1896 Joseph Lemaire* 1896 Pierre Hubert Auguste Pascal* 1896 Eugène Bertin* 18.. - 1896 1896 Jean-Baptiste Castaing* 1896 - 1898 Louis Mouttet 1898 Adrien Jules Jean Bonhoure 1898 Jean Penel* 1898 Pierre Paul Marie Capest* 1898 ... Ribes* 1898 - 1902 Henri Charles Victor Amédée Roberdeau 1902 Albert Anatole Nebout* 1902 - 1907 Marie François Joseph Clozel 1860 - 1918 1907 - 1908 Albert Anatole Nebout* (2x) 1908 Pierre Brun* 1908 - 1916 Gabriel Louis Angoulvant 1872 - 1932 1916 - 1918 Maurice Pierre Lapalud* 1918 - 1924 Raphael Valentin Marius Antonetti 1872 - 1938 1924 - 1925 Richard Edmond Maurice Brunot* 1925 - 1930 Maurice Pierre Lapalud (2x) 1930 Joseph Jules Brévié 1880 - 1964 1930 - 1931 Jean Paul Boutonnet* 1931 - 1935 Dieudonné François Joseph Marie Reste 1879 - 1976 1935 Marie Alphonse Flotte de Pouzols* 1935 - 1936 Adolphe Deitte 1936 Julien Georges Lamy* 1936 - 1937 Gaston Charles Julien Mondon Governors Gouverneurs 1937 - 1938 Gaston Charles Julien Mondon s.a. 1938 - 1939 Louis Bressolles* 1939 - 1940 Horace Valentin Crocicchia (4) 1941 - 1942 Hubert Jules Deschamps 1900 - 1979 1942 - 1943 Georges Pierre Rey 1943 Jean François Toby 1900 - 1964 1943 - 1945 André Jean Gaston Latrille (3) From 1894 to 1898 most of Nothern Ivory Coast was part of the Mandé state founded by Almami Samori Touré (ca 1830 - 1900) French rule was only established in the whole country in 1918 after the quelling of the Dadi revolts in the western parts of the colony. (4) In 1940 governor Crocicchia was one of the first colonial officials to rally to the (Free) French National Provisional Committee.
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