A Chronology of World Political History
(1851 - 1900 C.E.)

DateHistorical Event
1851.4 de Urquiza, Governor of the Argentine Province of Entre Rios, rose against de Rosas, Governor of Buenos Aires and overthrew de Rosas on .2.3 of the next year.
1851.12.2 President Louis Napoleon of France staged a self-coup and assumes dictatorial power. On .12.1 of the next year he changed his title to Emperor (called Napoleon III) and established the Second French Empire.
1852.4.1 Britain started the Second Burmese War and conquered Pegu on .12.20 of the same year. Britain thus conquered Lower Burma.
1852.10M Zhang Lexing, head of the Nian group in China, started a rebellion against the Qing Government in Anhui, China and formed the Nian Army. In 1855 the Nian Armies in various parts of China joined forces and elected Zhang Lexing as their common leader. In 1857 the Nian Army allied with the Taiping Kingdom against the Qing Government. After Zhang Lexing was killed by the Qing army in the second lunar month of 1863, Zhang Zongyu succeeded as leader.
1852.11.4 Cavour became Prime Minister of Sardinia. During his tenure he carried out the policy of unifying Italy.
1853.5.2 Anhalt-Dessau and Anhalt Kothen were united as the Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau-Kothen.
1853.4 To seize control of the Black Sea, Russia entered into the Crimean War with the Osmanli Turks. Later Britain, France and Austria also joined the war against Russia. On 1856.3.30 the belligerents signed the Treaty of Paris whereby the independence and integrity were to be guaranteed by the powers, while Russia was to cede southern Bessarabia to the Osmanli Turks and guarantee the neutralization of the Black Sea and the navigational safety of River Danube.
1854 Okukenun, Chief of the Abeokutas, founded the Abeokuta Kingdom in southwestern Nigeria.

Conflicts broke out between the USA residents in Wyoming and the Native American Sioux Tribe, which came to be known as the Sioux War.
1854.2.23 Orange River Sovereignty, the Boer colony under the British Colonial Government, declared independence and established the Orange Free State.
1854.2.31 Japan and USA signed the Treay of Kanagawa, by which Japan opened two ports to American trade and granted the most-favoured-nation treatment to USA. Japan was thus forced to abandon its isolationist policy.
1854.3 Alvarez, Governor of Guerrero under Mexico, drew up the Plan of Ayutla and rose against President de Santa Ana, who was overthrown on .8.12 of the next year.
1854.5.29 The USA colony of Maryland-in-Liberia in southeastern Liberia declared independence from USA and esablished the Independent State of Maryland-in-Liberia. On 1857.3.18 Maryland-in- Liberia was incorporated into Liberia.
1854.6.28 O'Donnell, a Spanish military officer, staged a coup, which marked the beginning of the Fourth Spanish Revolution. In 1855.1 a new liberal Constitution was ratified in Spain.
1855.6 Walker, a USA adventurer, got involved in the Nicaraguan civil war and seized the supreme power in September of the same year.
1856 In contention for Herat of Afghanistan, Britain and Persia entered into the British- Iranian War. In the next year the two countries signed the Treaty of Paris, by which Persia retreated its army from Afghanistan and recognized the latter's independence.
1856.3.4 Costa Rica started the War against Walker to resist Walker's invasion of Nicaragua. Later the Central American countries formed a coalition against Walker and overthrew Walker on .5.1 of the next year.
1856.7.14 O'Donnell became Prime Minister of Spain. When he abrogated the Constitution of 1855 in September of the same year, the Fourth Spanish Revolution failed.
1856.10.19 Upon death of King Said II of Muscat, his country was divided between his two sons: Thuwaini succeeded as King of Muscat, while Majid became ruler of the Zanzibar Island in East Africa and established the Zanzibar Regime.
1856.12.16 The Boer colony of Dutch Africa in Southern Africa established the South African Republic .
1857 Tun Ali, Vassal King of Pahang died. In the next year the Pahang Civil War broke out as a result of the disputes over the succession issue. With Ahmad Muazzam Shah ascending to the throne in 1863, the Civil War ended.

Upon death of Sultan Adam of Banjarmasin, the Dutch colonists installed Tamjidullah II as the new Sultan, which was opposed by the royal members of Banjarmasin. The Banjarmasin War thus broke out. In 1859.12 the Dutch colonists seized control of the royal court of Banjarmasin. In 1863 the Dutch colonists suppressed the resistance of the royal members of Banjarmasin.
The War of the Reform broke out between the Liberal Party (led by Juarez and the Conservative Party of Mexico. On 1858.1.19 Juarez became the Interim President in Vera Cruz. (He became the President on 1861.6.11). On ..21 of the same month the Conservative Party set up another Government in Mexico City in opposition to Juarez.
1857.5.10 The Indian Rebellion (also called Indian Mutiny) against British rule broke out in India. Bahadur Shah, the Moghul Emperor, was chosen as the leader of the rebels. Tantia Topi , a minister of the former Peshwa Regime, also rose against British rule. Nana Sahib made himself Vassal King of Peshwa and restored the Peshwa Regime.
1857.11M Britain and France invaded China and entered into the Second Opium War (also called the Arrow War) with the Qing Empire. In the fifth lunar month of 1858 the Qing Government signed the Treaties of Tianjin with Britain and France whereby the Qing Empire agreed to open more ports to foreign trade and granted the right of inland navigation to the two countries.
1858 The Dutch colonists started the Second Bone War and invaded Bone. The war ended in 1860.
1858.3.15 With the support of the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party of Venezuela, the army staged a coup and overthrew President J.D. Monagas, thus ending the "Monagas Dynasty".
1858.3.29 Britain deposed the Moghul Emperor Bahadur Shah and the Moghul Empire collapsed.
1858.4M Under the pretext of mediating in the Second Opium War, Russia forced the Qing Government to sign the Treaty of Aihun, by which Russia acquired the land to the east of Heilongjiang River (Amur River) in northeastern China.
1858.5.22 A new Constitution was promlugated in New Granada, which then became the Granadine Confederation. The states (including Cundinarmaca, Antioquia, Bolivar, Boyaca, Cauca, Magdalena, Santander and Panama) gained independent status. In 1860 a civil war broke out between the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party of the Granadine Confederation.
1858.7.20 Sardinia and France reached the Plombieres Agreement, by which they allied with each other in opposition to Austria.
1858.7M France staged the First Franco-Vietnamese War and invaded Dai Nam. On 1862.5.5 the two countries signed the First Treaty of Saigon, by which Dai Nam ceded three provinces in the south to France and opened ports to foreign trade.
1858.8.2 Britain promulgated the Government of India Act, which transferred the government of India from the East India Company to the Viceroy appointed by the British Government.
1859 Upon annihilation of Dagestan, Russia conquered Northern Caucasus and thus ended the Caucasian War.
1859.1 Being defeated by the British colonial army, Nana Sahib, the Peshwa Vassal King, fled to Nepal. Tantia Topi continued his guerilla warfare against the British in central India. After Tantia Topi was arrested in April of the same year, the Indian Rebellion finally failed.
1859.1.15 Geffrard, a Haitian military officer, staged a coup and overthrew Emperor Faustin. The republican form of government was restored in Haiti. However Haiti was torn by internal strife since then.
1859.2.20 The Liberal Party (also called the Federalists) of Venezuela rose against the Government of the Conservative Party (also called the Centralists). The Federalist War thus broke out. In 1863 the Liberals defeated the Conservatives and the war ended on .4.24.
1859.4.27 The Unification Movement arose in various parts of Italy. A popular uprising broke out in Tuscany. King Leopoldo II was expelled and replaced by a Provisional Government. On .5.10 of the same year Sardinia took over Tuscany. On .6.9 another popular uprising broke out in Parma and Duke Roberto was expelled. On ..13 Sardinia took over Modena. A popular uprising broke out in Romagna under the Roman Papal States. The rebels declared independence of Romagna from the Papal States, expelled the Austrian army and established the Romagna Regime. On ..17 Sardinia took over Parma.
1859.4.29 To unify Italy, Sardinia entered into the Austro-Sardinian War (also called the Second Italian War of Independence) with Austria. On .5.12 of the same year France joined the war against Austria.

Beginning of the construction work of the Suez Canal in Egypt. With the completion of the project on 1869.11.17, the Suez Canal was opened for navigation.
1859.5.2 The Maoris in New Zealand chose Potatau I as their King and founded the Maori Kingdom .
1859.5M The Second Opium War restarted. In the ninth lunar month of 1860, the Qing Government signed the Beijing Conventions with Britain and France whereby the clauses of the Treaties of Tianjin were reiterated. Russia also forced the Qing Government to sign another Beijing Convention by which it acquired the land to the east of River Ussuri.
1859.7.11 France and Austria secretly concluded the Villafranca Agreement, by which Austria was to retain Venetia, while Lombardy was to be ceded to France and would finally be handed over to Sardinia. The original monarchs in central Italy were to be restored and Sardinia was to give up central Italy.
1859.7.28 Farini, an Italian nationalist, reestablished the Modena Regime and made himself Dictator of the Regime. On .8.18 of the same year, Farini occupied Parma and reestablished the Parma and Piacenza Regime. Later Modena and Parma were taken over by Sardinia again on .8.21 and .9.12, respectively. In September Sardinia took over Romagna.
1859.9.17 Moreno, leader of the Ecuador Conservative Party, overthrew the de facto ruler Urvina and established his dictatorship.
1859.10.19 Brown, a USA anti-slavery activist, staged an uprising in Virginia. He was soon captured and killed.
1859.11 Spain started the Spanish Moroccan War and invaded the northern part of the Alawi Regime. On .4.26 of the next year the two countries signed the Treaty of Tetouan, by which the Alawi Regime ceded Ifni to Spain.
1859.11.10 Sardinia and Austria signed the Treaty of Zurich, by which Austria ceded Lombardy to France. On .11.30 France incorporated Lombardy into Sardinia. The Kingdom of Lombardy -Venetia was only left with the region of Venetia.
1860s An armed conflict among the secret societies and a power struggle among the ruling class of Perak broke out. The British colonists seized the opportunity to intervene in the internal affairs of Perak.
1860.3 When the British colonists occupied the lands of the Maoris, the First Taranaki War broke out. On 1861.3.18 both parties ceased fighting. Thereafter the British colonists entered into two more Taranaki War with the Maories. The three Taranaki Wars were collectively called the Second Maori War.
1860.3.18 Sardinia formally annexed Parma, Modena, Tuscany and Romagna. On ..24 of the same month, Sardinia signed the Treaty of Turin with France whereby Sardinia ceded Nice and Savoy to France.
1860.3M Warriors of the Satsuma Fief, a powerful fief in southwestern Japan, assassinated Ii Naosuke, a senior official of the Shogunate near Sakurada Gate of Edo. Since then the southwestern fiefs of Japan (headed by the Choshu and Satsuma Fiefs) started the "Sonno Joi" (= Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians) Movement in opposition to the dictatorship of the Shogunate and the invasion of the Western powers.
A rebellion broke out in Sicily. On .5.5 Garibaldi, an Italian revolutionary leader, led the Redshirts to attack Sicily and occupied the whole island on .5.27. On .9.7 of the same year, he captured Naples and overthrew Two Sicilies (Bourbon Dynasty). On .11.8 Garibaldi incorporated the Two Sicilies into Sardinia. The most territories of Italy were thus unified by Sardinia.
1860.10.1 Argentina abolished the confederation system.
1860.12.20 From this day onwards, 13 states in the southern part of USA (including South Carolina, Mississipi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, North Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee, Missouri and Kentucky) declared independence from USA. On .2.8 of the next year the southern states formed the Confederate States of America (commonly called the Southern Confederation). On .4.12 the American Civil War broke out.
1860.12M The Qing Empire set up the Zongli Yamen (Office for the Management of the Business of All Foreign Countries) and launched the Self-Strengthening Movement, which aimed to revive the power of the Empire.
1861 Geronimo and Cochise, Chiefs of the Native American Apache Tribe, rose against USA. The Apache War broke out.
1861.3.3 Russia abolished the serfdom, thus ending the history of serfdom in Europe.
Lincoln became President of USA. During his presidency he carried out policies to abolish slavery. On 1863.1.1 he issued the Emancipation Proclamation.
1861.3.10 Umar, head of the Tijaniyya Order, an Islamic sect, founded the Tukulor Amirate in West Sudan.
1861.3.17 Sardinia was renamed the Kingdom of Italy and adopted a constitutional form of government.
1861.3.18 For fear of civil disorder, President Santana of the Dominican Republic announced the reversion of his country to Spanish rule. The Dominican Republic was renamed Spanish Dominica .
1861.7.18 Mosquera, leader of the Granada Liberal Party, replaced the confederation system with the federal system and renamed the country as the United States of New Granada. On .9.20 of the same year, the country was further renamed the United States of Colombia.
1861.12.17 Britain, France and Spain jointly invaded Mexico and intervened in the Mexican civil war. In 1862.4 Britain and Spain withdrew their armies. On 1863.6.7 the French army captured Mexico City. On .7.11 they set up the Government of the Mexican Empire (commonly called the Maximiliano Empire), which was ruled by the Regency. Juarez continued to resist the invaders. On 1864.4.10 France installed Maximilian, Crown-Prince of Austria, as the Mexican Emperor (called Maximiliano).
1862.1.22 Wallachia and Moldavia were united as the Romanian Regime, which was an Osmanlu vassal state and a constitutional monarchy. Prince Alexandru XI of Wallachia as well as Prince Alexandru XVI of Moldavia changed his title to Prince of Romania (called Alexandru).
Bismarck became Prime Minister of Prussia. During his tenure he carried out the policy of unifying Germany.
1862.10.23 Upon deposition of King Othon of Greece, the Bavarian Dynasty collapsed. On .10.30 of the next year Prince George of Denmark succeeded as King of Greece (called Georgios I) and established Greece (Danish Dynasty).
1863 Britain and Ashante entered into the Sixth Ashante War.

Maharero, Chief of the Hereros, unified the various tribes and founded the Herero Kingdom in present day Namibia.

The British colonists invaded the Maoris (the Second Taranaki War) In the next year the Maoris were defeated.
1863.1.22 Outbreak of the Second Polish Insurrection. An Insurrectionist Government was established. In 1865.4 Russia crushed the Insurrection.
1863.8.6 Britain attacked the Satsuma Fief of Japan (the Anglo-Satsuma War). On .11.9 a peace was concluded between the two parties.
1863.8.11 France and Cambodia signed the Franco-Cambodian Treaty, by which Cambodia became a French protectorate.
1863.8.30 Duke Leopold IV of Anhalt-Dessau-Kothen unified the various parts of Anhalt and reestablished the Duchy of Anhalt.
1863.9.14 An anti-Spanish rebellion broke out in Spanish Dominica (the War of Restoration). The Dominican Republic was restored.
1863.11.13 Denmark ratified a new Constitution and annexed Schleswig. On 1864.2.1 Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark and the Prusso-Danish War broke out. On .10.30 the belligerents signed the Treaty of Vienna, by which Denmark abandoned Schleswig-Holstein and Saxe-Lauenburg, which became the condominium of Prussia and Austria.
1864 The Qing Empire and Russia signed a convention by which the Qing Empire ceded the territories to the east and south of Lake Balkash to Russia.

Sipopa, the former Barotse Prince, overthrew Kololo and restored the Barotse Kingdom.
1864.4.14 Spain started the First War of the Pacific and invaded Peru again. Later Peru allied with Bolivia, Chile and Ecuador and defeated the Spanish army in 1866. In 1871 Spain concluded peace with the four countries. In 1879 Spain recognized the independence of Peru.
1864.8M The Qing Government suppressed the Taiping Rebellion.
1864.9 The Edo Shogunate of Japan declared war on the Choshu Fief. The First Tokugawa-Choshu War broke out. The navies of Britain, USA, France and the Netherlands bombarded the Choshu Fief. In the next year the Choshu Fief sued for peace and the Shogunate ceased the war.
1864.9.26 Marx formed the International Workingmen's Association (commonly called the First International) and started the international communist movement. On 1876.6.15 the Association was dissolved.
1864.10 Opposing Brazil's intervention in the factional struggle of Uruguay, Paraguay declared war on Brazil and the Paraguayan War broke out. Later Argentina and Uruguay also joined the war against Paraguay. On 1865.5.1 Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay formed the Triple Alliance and so the war was also called the War of the Triple Alliance. On 1870.3.1 Paraguay was defeated and lost large proportion of its population and territories.
1864.12.28 Melgarejo, a Bolivian military officer, seized power in a coup. During his tenure he exercised dictatorial power and was called the "Barbarian Caudillo".
1865 Conflicts broke out between the Native American Ute Tribe in Utah of USA (the Ute War . In 1868 both parties concluded peace and ended the war.
1865.5.10 The USA Federal Government annihilated the Southern Confederation and the independent states were reincorporated into the USA, thus ending the American Civil War.
1865.8.14 Prussia and Austria reached the Convention of Gastein, and agreed that Holstein was to be governed by Austria, while Schleswig and Saxe-Lauenburg were to be governed by Prussia.
1866 Mirza Hussein Ali (Bahaullah), a follower of Babism, founded the Bahai Faith, which developed into a worldwide religion later.
1866.2.23 The upper class of Romania staged a coup and forced Prince Alexandru to abdicate.
1866.3 The Choshu and Satsuma Fiefs of Japan allied and launched the Anti-Shogunate Movement against the Edo Shogunate. In July of the same year the Edo Shogunate declared war on the Choshu Fief again (the Second Tokugawa-Choshu War). In October the Shogunate army was forced to retreat. Since then the power of the Shogunate declined.
1866.6.14 In contention for the German leadership, Prussia and Austria entered into the Austro- Prussian War (also called the Seven Weeks' War). On ..20 of the same month Italy joined the war against Austria (called the Third Italian War of Independence by historians). On .8.23 Austria ceded Venetia to France and the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia finally came to an end. On .8.24 Prussia and Austria signed the Treaty of Prague, by which the German Confederation was dissolved and Austria was excluded from Germany. On .9.20 Hanover, Hesse-Kassel and Nassay were incorporated into Prussia. On .10.3 Italy annexed Venetia.
1866.9M The Nian Army split into two branches: the Eastern Nian Army (led by Lai Wenguang) and the Western Nian Army (led by Zhang Zongyu). The two armies were finally annihilated by the Qing Government in the twelfth lunar month of 1867 and the sixth lunar month of 1868, respectively.
1867 France occupied the whole of Cochinchina.
Mutsuhito (Meiji Emperor) succeeded as Emperor of Japan. Allying with the powerful fiefs in southwestern Japan, he forced the Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu to hand back the power to the Emperor. On 1868.1.4 Mutsuhito abolished the position of Shogun and regained power. This marked the end of the Edo Shogunate (Meiji Restoration). On .4.6 Mutsuhito promulgated the Charter Oath which proposed reforms. This marked the beginning of the Meiji Reform.
1867.3.12 The French army was forced to retreat from Mexico. With the collapse of the Government of the Mexican Empire On .5.27 of the same year, Juarez reunified Mexico and started to carry out reforms.
1867.3.19 The Netherlands intended to sell Luxembourg to France, which stirred up widespread protests in Germany in April of the same year (the Luxembourg Crisis) The London Conference held on .5.7 decided that France shall not purchase Luxembourg, which then became a perpetual neutral state.
1867.3.29 Britain passed the British North America Act, which took effect on .7.1 of the same year. The four colonies of British North America (i.e. Canada) (Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia) united to form the Dominion of Canada, which became the first Self- governing Dominion of Britain. The King of Britain was nominally the chief of state of Canada. But in practice the functions of chief of state were performed by the Governor-General on behalf of the King. A parliamentary cabinet system was adopted under which real power was held by the Prime Minister.
1867.3.30 USA purchased Alaska from Russia. The Russian influence thus withdrew from North America.
1867.5M General Yaqub Beg of Khokand occupied Kashgar in Xinjiang of China. He made himself King (Khan) and founded the Zhedsar (= Seven Cities) Khanate.
1867.6.8 Ismail, Governor of Egypt under the Osmanli Regime, adopted the title of Vassal King (Khedive).
1867.7.1 Prussia and the north German states (including Saxe-Wittenburg, Anhalt, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Oldenburg, Hamburg, Lubeck, Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel and Bremen) united to form the North German Confederation, with King Wilhelm I of Prussia being the President of the Confederation.
1867.8.15 The second Reform Bill that relaxed the restrictions on the suffrage was passed in Britain. Such is the Second British Parliamentary Reform.
1867.12.21 Austria and Hungary signed the Compromise of 1867 and formed the real union - Austro-Hungarian Empire.
1868 Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the former Japanese Shogun, formed an alliance with the northern fiefs and rose against the Central Government. The Boshin War broke out. On .7.4 of the same year the Central Government defeated the Tokugawa Clan. On 1869.1.27 Enomoto Takeaki, an admiral of the Tokugawa Clan, seized control of Hakodate of Hokkaido and established the Ezo Regime . On .6.27 the Central Government suppressed the rebellion and ended the Boshin War.

Britain invaded Ethiopia, which then entered a period of internal disorder again.

Britain united the Fante tribes as the Fante Confederacy.

The Singer Sewing Machine Company of USA started to set up factories in Britain and became the first multinational corporation in the world.

The peasants in northern Haiti rose against the Government and formed armed forces called "Cacos" (the Cacos Rebellion).
1868.6.18 Russia and Burkhara signed the Russo-Burkharan Commerical Treaty, by which Burkhara became a Russian protectorate.
1868.6.27 J.T. Monagas, former President of Venezuela, staged the Blue Revolution and reestablished the "Monagas Dynasty".
1868.7.12 Conflicts broke out between the British colonists and the Maoris (the Third Taranaki War ). On 1869.2.2 the British colonists defeated the Maoris.
1868.9 Outbreak of the Fifth Spanish Revolution. On ..29 of the same month the revolutonaries set up the Revolutionary Government and overthrew the Bourbon Dynasty on ..30.
1868.9.12 Muhammad, Chief of the al-Thani Clan, founded the Qatar Regime in Qatar in the northern part of the Gulf Region of Arabia.
1868.9.23 The Revolutionary Committee of Puerto Rico started an anti-Spanish revolution in Lares on the Carribean island of Puerto Rico (the "Cry of Lares"). On ..24 the Republic of Puerto Rico was set up. The rebellion was crushed by the Spanish Colonial Government in the same month.
Chulalongkorn (Rama V) succeeded as King of Siam. During his reign he carried out reforms to revive the power of his country.
1868.10.10 de Cespedes, head of the Cuban Revolutionary Party, started an anti-Spanish revolution on the Carribean island of Cuba. He declared the independence of Cuba from Spain and established the Republic of Cuba (called the Republic in Arms by historians). This marked the beginning of the First Cuban War of Independence (also called the Ten Years' War). On 1878.5.28 Cuba reverted to Spanish rule.
1868.10.17 A Constitution was granted in Luxembourg, which then adopted the parliamentary cabinet system.
1869 Russia started its invasion of the Turkmen in the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea. In 1881.1 Russia conquered the Turkmen.

Britain ceded Rupert's Land, its dependency in North America, to Canada. Riel, head of the Metis (a mixed-blood group of the Natives and Europeans) in the Red River Settlement under Rupert's Land, started the Red River Rebellion and established the Red River Settlement Regime on .11.24 of the same year. On 1870.5.20 Canada suppressed the rebellion and annexed the Red River Settlement.
1869.8 The German socialists Bebel and Liebknecht founded the Social Democratic Workers' Party in Eisenach. Since then there appeared socialist parties in the Western countries.
1870s Beginning of the Second Industrial Revolution. This period saw the thriving development of the steel industry (and related industries). Electricy replaced steam as the main power source.
1870 Yusuf Ali rebelled against Majerteyn and founded the Obbia Sultanate in central Somalia.
1870.3.20 Blanco, a Venezuelan Liberal, staged a coup and overthrew the "Monagas Dynasty". During his rule Blanco carried out social reforms. But he exercised dictatorial power.
1870.4.27 Guardia Gutierrez, leader of the Costa Rican Liberal Party, seized power in a coup. During his tenure he carried out liberal reforms. Since then the political situation of Costa Rica was stablilized.
1870.7.19 To prevent the unification of Germany, France entered into the Franco-Prussian War with Prussia. On .9.1 of the same year Prussia defeated France in the Battle of Sedan. On .9.4 the September Revolution of France broke out. After the overthrow of the Second Empire, the conservatives set up the Government of National Defence. On 1871.2.17 the imperial system was formally abolished and the Third French Republic was established.
1870.9.20 The Italian army captured Rome. Pope Pius IX retreated into the Vatican City. When Rome was formally annexed into Italy on .10.17, the Roman Papal States came to an end and the unification of Italy was finally completed.
Samori ibn Lafiya Ture, Chief of the Mandinkas, started a jihad and founded the Wassulu Kingdom in present day Guinea in 1879.
1871 Mirambo-ya-Banhu, Chief of the Nyamwezis, founded the Nyamwezi Kingdom in present day western Tanzania.
1871.1 Muscat was renamed the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman.
1871.1.2 Prince Amadeus of Italy succeeded as King of Spain and established Spain (Savoy Dynasty) .
1871.1.18 The states of North German Confederation united with the southern German states of Bavaria, Wurttemberg, Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt to form the German Empire. King Wilhelm I of Prussia changed his title to Emperor (Kaiser) of Germany.
1871.3.18 The Central Committee of the National Guard in Paris initiated a workers' revolution. The revolutionaries sezied power and set up a Revolutionary Government. On ..28 of the same month the Government was reorganised as the Paris Commune and carried out revolutionary dictatorship. On .5.21 the Government army of the Third French Republic entered Paris to suppress the revolution (the Bloody Week of May). On ..29 the revolution was finally suppressed and the Paris Commune collapsed.
1871.5.10 France and Germany signed the Treaty of Frankfurt, by which France ceded Alsace and Lorraine to Germany.
1871.5M Taking advantage of the political turmoil in Xinjiang of China, Russia dispatched an army to occupy Ili, which was not recovered by the Qing Government until the first lunar month of 1881.
1871.6.5 The Western colonists installed Cakobau, Chief of the Bau Confederacy on the Fiji Islands in Oceania, as King and established the Viti Kingdom, whose Government was organised by Westerners.
1873 France started the Second Franco-Vietnamese War and invaded Tonkin of Dai Nam. The royal court of Dai Nam allied with the Black Flag Army (a militia in southern China) in opposition to the French invaders. On 1874.3.15 Dai Nam signed the Second Treaty of Saigon with France whereby France recognized the independence of Dai Nam while the dilpomacy of Dai Nam was to be under supervision.

The Netherlands started the Aceh War and invaded Aceh.

Ashante and Fante entered into the Seventh Ashante War. After Ashante annihilated the Fante Confederacy, the British colonists launched an attack against Ashante. In 1874 Ashante was defeated and the territories of the Fantes were annexed by the British colonists.
1873.2.11 The republicans of Spain overthrew the Savoy Dynasty and established the First Spanish Republic. In the same month, Carlos Maria, head of the Carlists, crowned himself King (called Carlos VII) and set up a Government in opposition to the First Republic. The Second Carlist War broke out.
1873.6.6 Germany, Austria and Russia formed the First League of the Three Emperors. Thereafter the major Western powers formed military alliances among themselves. Yet Britain continued its isolationist policy (the "Splendid Isolation").
1873.12 Russia signed the Russo-Khiva Treaty with Khiva whereby Khiva became a Russian protectorate.
1874 USA launched attack against the Native American tribes of Comanche, Kiowa, Cheyenne and Arapaho in the Southern Plains (the Red River War). In 1875.6 the tribes surrendered and were subsequently forced to migrate into the Indian Reservations.
1874.1 The Japanese opposition groups initiated the Freedom and People's Rights Movement, which pursued the adoption of a constitutionalism.
1874.1.20 Britain convened a joint meeting to settle the internal disputes among different parties of Perak and deployed a Resident to act as an advisor of Perak, which then became a British protectorate. In February of the same year, Britain forced Selangor to accept a British Resident as its advisor whereby Selangor also became a British protectorate.
1874.12 Campos, a Spanish military officer, staged the Anti-Revolutionary Coup. After the overthrow of the First Republic on ..29 of the same month, Alfonso XII became King of Spain and restored the Bourbon Dynasty. This marked the end of the Fifth Spanish Revolution.
1875 Egypt invaded Ethiopia (the Egyptian-Ethiopian War). In 1876.3 Egypt was defeated. In June the two countries concluded peace by which Egypt recognized the suzerainty of Ethiopia over the northern region.
1875.2.24 The Law on the Organisation of the Senate was passed in France. On the next day the Law on the Organisation of the Public Powers was passed. On .7.16 the Law on the Relation of the Public Powers was also passed. France had thus completed the Constitution of 1875, which established the republican form of government and the parliamentary cabinet system.
1875.5.7 Japan and Russia signed the Treaty of Kuril-Sakhalin Exchange, which provided that the Sakhalin Island (called Karafuto by the Japanese) was to belong to Russia while the Kuril Islands (called Chishima Islands by the Japanese) were to belong to Japan.
1875.11.4 Tupou I, Chief of the Tongas on the Tonga Islands of Oceania, made himself King and founded the Kingdom of Tonga. A constitutional form of government was adopted.
1876 Negri Sembilan was renamed the Kingdom of Sri Menanti.
1876.2.26 Japan forced Choson to sign the Treaty of Kanghwa, by which Japan recognized Choson as an independent state instead of a Qing vassal, while Choson was to open ports for doing trade with Japan.
1876.2.28 The Bourbon Dynasty of Spain defeated Carlos VII, who fled to France, thus ending the Second Carlist War.
1876.4 An anti-Osmanli rebellion broke out in Bulgaria and was suppressed by the Osmanli Government (Bulgarian Horrors).
1876.5.10 The New Osmanli Association seized power in a coup. On .12.19 of the same year Midhat, leader of the New Osmanli Association, became the Grand Vizier and a constitutional form of government was adopted. On .12.23 a Constitution was granted. The parliamentary system and election system were implemented.
1876.9.12 Belgium convened the International Geography Conference in Brussels and founded the International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of Central Africa, which started to intrude into the River Congo valley. Since then the Western powers stepped up their scramble for colonies and delineation of their respective spheres of interest throughout the world. The world history entered a period of the partition of the world by imperialist powers .
1876.11.18 Going into bankruptcy, the Egyptian Government was forced to appoint a British and a French financial controller to control its finance. This was called the Dual Control System by historians.
1876.11.23 Diaz, a Mexican military officer, seized power. Since then Mexico was under the prolonged dictatorial rule of Diaz.
1877 Dent, a British colonist, occupied Sabah. On .12.29 he made himself King of Sabah and founded the Kingdom of Sabah. On 1881.8.26 Britain abolished the Kingdom of Sabah and set up the British North Borneo Provisional Association Limited to govern Sabah. Sabah was then renamed the State of North Borneo, which nominally recognized Sulu as its suzerain, but in practice was a British protectorate.

Britain united its dependencies in Oceania (including Tonga Islands, Nauru Island, Fiji Island, Solomon Islands, Ellice Islands, Gilbert Island, New Hebrides Islands, Pitcairn Island, Niue Island, Cook Islands and Tokelau Islands, etc.) as the British Western Pacific Territories .
1877.1.1 Queen Victoria of Britain assumed the title of Empress of India concurrently and established the Empire of India composed of British India and the princely states.
1877.2.15 Saigo Takamori, a warrior of the Satsuma Fief of Japan, rebelled against the Central Government in Kagoshima (the Southwestern War, also called the Satsuma Rebellion). The rebellion was crushed by the Government on .9.24 of the same year.
1877.4.12 The South African Republic was dissolved. It then became a British colony and was renamed Transvaal.
1877.4.24 Russia supported the rebellion of the Slavs under the Osmanli Regime and entered into the Eighth Russo-Turkish War with the Osmanli Regime. On 1878.3.3 the two countries signed the Treay of San Stefano, by which Russia acquired great benefit in the Balkan and aroused discontent among other Western powers. On .6.13 of the same year the Berlin Congress was convened to discuss the Near East problem. Russia was forced to abandon the Treaty of San Stefano and accept a new arrangement of the political situation of the Balkan Peninsula and Osmanli Regime. On .7.13 the Treaty of Berlin was signed. The Osmanli Regime was to cede part of Caucasus to Russia and recognize the independence of Montenegro, Serbia and Romania. Bulgaria was divided into three parts: Bulgaria Proper was granted autonomy; Eastern Rumelia and Macedonia remained under Osmanli rule and Dobruja was given to Romania, who had to cede Bessarabia to Russia. Austria acquired Bosnia and Herzegovina. Britain acquired Cyprus. The First League of the Three Emperors was dissolved.
1878 Britain invaded Afghanistan again (the Second Anglo-Afghan War). On .5.26 of the next year the two countries signed the Treaty of Gandamak, by which Afghanistan became a British protectorate and its foreign policy was taken care of by India.

The British colonists attempted to annex the lands of the Xhosas and aroused resistance of the Xhosas (the Ninth Kaffir War). In 1879 Britain defeated the Xhosas and annexed their lands.
1878.9.17 Chile annexed Araucania.
1879 Rabih, a former Egyptian military officer, started a rebellion in Chad. In 1890 he established the Rabih Regime and conquered the states in Central Sudan later.

Formation of the Standard Oil Trust in USA. Since then there appeared a number of trusts (i.e. large business combinations) in USA and a situation of monopolization was taking shape. On 1890.7.2 the Sherman Anti-Trust Law was enacted to prevent the development of business monopolization.
1879.3.1 In contention for the nitrate mines in the Atacama Desert, Chile entered into the Second War of the Pacific with an alliance of Peru and Bolivia. On 1883.7.10 Chile defeated its opponents and the war was ended on .10.22.
1879.3.11 Japan annexed Ryukyu, which became the Okinawa Prefecture. The Japanese Colonial Empire started to form.
1879.7 Britain staged the Zulu War and invaded Zulu, which was defeated in the same year. On .9.1 the two countries concluded peace by which Zulu became a British protectorate.
1879.7.8 Establishment of the Bulgarian Regime, which adopted a constitutional form of government.
1879.10.7 Germany and Austria formed the Dual Alliance against Russia.
1880 Msiri, Chief of the Yekes (i.e. the Nyamwezis who had migrated to Katanga), rebelled against Lunda and founded the Garengaze Kingdom in the Congo region.

Kruger, head of the Transvaal Boers, rose against British rule, which marked the beginning of the First Boer War (also called the South African War). On 1881.8.8 Transvaal declared independence from Britain and established the Transvaal State. In 1884.8 the regime was renamed the South African Republic.
1880.1.1 Beginning of the construction work of the Panama Canal, which was not opened for navigation until 1914.8.15.
1880.9 de Brazza, a French colonist, established the colonial base of Brazzaville in present day [West] Congo. On ..11 of the same month, Stanley, a Belgian colonist, established the colonial base of Leopoldville in present day [East] Congo, in opposition to the colonists in Brazzaville. Thereafter France and Belgium scrambled for the Congo region. The started to form.
1881 Teuku Umar, a local ruler of Meuraboh under Aceh, rose against the Dutch colonists. In 1892 he surrendered to the Dutch colonist. But he rebelled again and made himself Sultan in 1896.3. On 1899.2.10 he was killed in a battle.
1881.2 Arabi, leader of the Eguptian National Popular Party, started a rebellion. On 1882.2.2 the National Popular Party formed the Nationalist Ministry and adopted a constitutional form of government, which threatened the Dual Control System. On .9.15 the British army captured Arabi and suppressed the National Popular Party. On .11.9 Britain abolished the Dual Control System and put Egypt under its sole control.
1881.3 France started the Tunisian War and invaded Tunisia. On .5.12 of the same year the two countries signed the Treaty of Bardo, by which Tunisia lost part of its sovereignty. In 1884 Tunisia became a French protectorate.
1881.6.18 Germany, Austria and Russia formed the Second League of the Three Emperors.
Muhammad Ahmad assumed the title of Mahdi (= Saviour) and started a rebellion against the British and Egyptian invaders in East Sudan, where he established the Mahdist State.
1881.10.12 Ito Hirobumi, a conservative senior official of Japan, expelled Okuma Shigenobu, a liberal senior official, from the Government.
c.1881 Muhammad Saman of Aceh initiated a rebellion against the Dutch colonists (the Tiro Rebellion) and established the Tiro Rebellious Regime, a theocratic regime. After Muhammad Saman was poisoned in 1891, the rebellion failed.
1882 Under the pretext of expelling the Black Flag Army in Dai Nam, France started the Third Franco-Vietnamese War and invaded Dai Nam. The Qing Empire dispatched an army into Dai Nam. On 1883.8.25 France compelled Dai Nam to sign the First Treaty of Hue, by which Dai Nam became a French protectorate.

With the establishment of the German Colonial Society, the German Colonial Empire started to form.

Italy founded a colony in Assab of Eritrea. The Italian Colonial Empire started to form.

The marooners of Jabacala in the state of Sao Paulo in southern Brazil founded maroon colonies and established the Jabacala Republic. When the Brazilian Government abolished slavery on 1888.5.13, the marooners ended their struggle and dissolved the Republic.
1882.5.20 Germany, Austria and Italy formed the Triple Alliance.
1882.6M Yi Ha Ung, Regent of Choson, staged a coup against the Japanese. A Qing army entered Choson and captured Yi Ha Ung. Since then a Qing army was stationed in Choson. In the seventh lunar month of the same year, Japan forced Choson to sign the Choson-Japan Treaty of Chemulpo (also called the Treaty of Incheon), which allowed a Japan army to be stationed at the Japanese legation in Choson.
1882.7.26 The Boers founded the Republic of Stellaland in present day southern Botswana. In December of the same year they founded the State of Goshen. On 1883.8.7 the two states united as the United States of Stellaland. On 1885.9.30 Britain and South Africa partitioned Stellaland: Britain obtained the western part which was then incorporated into its Bechuanaland Protectorate; South Africa obtained the eastern part.
1883.5 France started the First Madagascar War (also called the First Franco-Malagasy War) and invaded Madagascar. In 1885.12 Madagascar signed the Treaty of Tamatave with France whereby Madagascar became a French protectorate.
1883.10M France attacked the Qing army in Dai Nam. The Sino-French War broke out. In 1884.6 France compelled Dai Nam to sign the Second Treaty of Hue, which reconfirmed Dai Nam's status as a French protectorate.
1884 Luong Van Nghia started an anti-French peasant uprising in Dai Nam. After Luong Van Nghia was assassinated in 1892, Hoang Hoa Tham (originally named Truong Van Nghia) succeeded as leader of the rebels.

The Dutch colonists invaded western Borneo and attacked the Lan Fang Company, which was dissolved in 1888.
1884.10M Kim Ok Kyun, leader of the pro-Japanese Reform Party of Choson, staged a coup, which was crushed by the Qing army stationed in Choson. Japan compelled Choson to sign the Treaty of Seoul, by which Choson was to apologize and pay indemnity to Japan.
1884.11.15 On the Berlin Conference on African affairs and slavery, the Western powers partitioned the Congo region and agree upon the principle of the partition of Africa.
1885 A conflict with Venezuela arose when Britain tried to expand the boundary of British Guiana, which led to the First Venezuelan Crisis. In 1895.7 USA tried to mediate in the dispute, but led to even greater tension between the two countries. The territorial dispute was finally settled by the Permanent Court of Arbitration in 1899.10.

Germany, Britain and the Netherlands made an agreement to partition the island of New Guinea (also called the Irian Island): Germany acquired the northeastern part (called German New Guinea); Britain acquired the southeastern part (called British New Guinea; the Netherlands acquired the western part (called Dutch New Guinea).
1885.2.5 France and Belgium delineated their respective spheres of interest in the Congo region: the area to the west of the Congo River was to be under French rule (called French Congo while the area to the east was to be under Belgian rule.
1885.3 Riel, head of the Metis in the Red River Settlement, started another rebellion (the Northwest Rebellion, which was crushed in May of the next year.
1885.5M The royal Government and populace of Dai Nam staged an unsucessful uprising against the French invaders. Emperor Nguyen Phuoc Minh fled to Ha Tinh and initiated the Can Vuong (= Loyalty to the King) Movement. In the same year, the Qing Empire was defeated and signed the Sino-French Treaty with France whereby the Qing Government recognized the status of Dai Nam as a French protectorate. France thus conquered the whole of Dai Nam, which was divided into three parts: Cochinchina (the southern part) was a French colony while Annam (the central part) and Tonkin (the northern part) were French protectorates (nominally still under the rule of Dai Nam).
1885.6.5 Britain organised the protectorates in the northern and southern parts of present day Nigeria into the Niger Districts Protectorate (renamed Niger River Delta Protectorate on 1886.7.10) and the Oil Rivers Protectorate (renamed Niger Coast Protectorate on 1893.5.13).
1885.7.1 King Leopold II of Belgium assumed sovereignty of the eastern Congo region, which was originally under the administration of the International Association of the Congo, and established the Independent State of the Congo, with Leopold II being the Sovereign of the state.
1885.9.18 An anti-Osmanli rebellion broke out in Eastern Rumelia. Bulgaria proclaimed annexation of Eastern Rumelia, which aroused discontent of Serbia and intervention of the Western powers (the Bulgarian Crisis). On .11.13 of the same year the Serbo-Bulgarian War broke out between Serbia and Bulgaria. On 1886.3.3 the two countries signed the Treaty of Bucharest and agreed to maintain the status quo of the borderline.
1885.9.30 The petty Tswana states (including: Ngwato, Kgatla, Lete, Rolong, Kwena, Ngwaketse, Tlokwa and Tawana) became British protectorates. Britain assigned Ngwato to be leader of the Tswana states and divided Bechuanaland into two parts using River Molopo as the demarcation line: the part to the south of the river became the British Bechuanaland Colony while the part to the north became the Bechuanaland Protectorate.
1885.11 Britain launched the Third Burmese War. On ..29 of the same month they captured Mandalay, the caital of Burma. On 1886.1.1 Britain conquered Upper Burma and annihilated the Kingdom of Burma.
1885.12.22 Japan abrogated the traditional government system and implemented the modern cabinet system on German line. Ito Hirobumi was appointed as the Prime Minister.
1885.12.27 The Indian nationalists convened a conference in Bombay and established the Congress Party, which pursued political reforms by peaceful means.
1886 Saidi Ali, local ruler of Bambao on the Grande Comore Island of the Comoros, unified the island and founded the Sultanate of Ngazidja.
1886.5.1 The labourers in New York and Chicago in USA went on strike for an eight-hour working day. This day was the origin of the "Labour's Day".
1886.8.21 A military uprising broke out in Bulgaria. On .9.7 of the same year Russia forced Prince Aleksandur of Bulgaria to abdicate and set up a Regency Council in an attempt to put Bulgaria under its control. Austria opposed Russia, which led to the dissolution of the Second League of the Three Emperors. On 1887.8.14, Ferdinand, a German noble succeeded as Prince of Bulgaria.
1887 The Italo-Ethiopian War broke out between Italy and Ethiopia.
1887.2.12 Germany facilitated the conclusion of the First Mediterranean Agreement between Britain and Italy (later Austria and Spain also joined the Agreement), which provided for maintenance of the status quo of the Mediterranean Sea and the readjustment of the relationship between the powers. On .12.12 of the same year, Britain, Italy and Austria concluded the Second Mediterranean Agreement (also called the Near Eastern Entente), which provided for the maintenance of the status quo of the Osmanli Regime.
1887.6.18 Germany concluded the Russo-German Reinsurance Treaty secretly with Russia in an attempt to maintain peace between the two countries and the status quo of the Balkan. Yet the relation between the two countries gradually became cool.
1887.7.20 Britain proclaimed the establishment of British Somaliland Protectorate in northern Somalia. Later Italy and France also established the Italian Somalia Colony and the French Somaliland Territory in present day southern Somalia and Djibouti, respectively. Somalia was thus divided into three parts.
1887.10.17 France united Dai Nam (composed of Tonkin and Annam), Cochinchina and Cambodia as the French Indochina Union. Later Laos was also included.
1887.10M The Qing Empire signed two treaties with Portugal and recognized Macau as a Portuguese colony.
1888.2M Britain launced the First Tibetan War and invaded Tibet. In 1890.2 the Qing Government signed the Sino-British Treaty on Tibet and India with Britain whereby the borderline between Tibet and Sikkim was delineated and the Qing Government recognized the Sikkim as a British protectorate.
1888.4.15 Boulange, a French political aspirant, was elected to be a member of the Chamber of Deputies. Subsequently he initiated a campaign to amend the Constitution. On .1.27 of the next year Boulanger conspired a coup but failed. On .4.8 Boulanger fled to Belgium (the Boulanger Incident).
1889.2.11 Britain passed the Children's Charter, which is the first legislation about child abuse and child labour in the world.
1889.2.11 A Constitution was granted in Japan, which then adopted a constitutional form of government, with the executive and legislative powers being held by the Emperor.
1889.3.9 King Sahle Mariam of Shoa became Emperor of Ethiopia (called Menelik II) and reunified Ethiopia. On .5.2 of the same year Italy and Ethiopia signed the Treaty of Uccialli, by which Ethiopia ceded part of its territories in the northern region to Italy, thus ending the First Italo-Ethiopian War. By tampering with the text of the treaty, Italy in effect made Ethiopia its protectorate and renamed it Abyssinia.
1889.6.29 The parliamentarians of nine countries convened a conference in Paris and formed an international organisation for the parliaments. In 1922 the organisation was renamed the Inter-Parliamentary Union.
1889.7.14 The socialists of various countries convened a conference in Paris and established the Socialist International (commonly called the Second International).
1889.10.2 The American nations convened the First International Conference of American States (also called the Pan-American Conference) in Washingto, the capital of USA and resolved to establish an international organisation composed of the independent countries in America. On 1890.4.14 the International Union of American Republics and the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics (renamed International Bureau of the American Republics in 1901.10) were formally established.
1889.11.15 da Fonseca and Peixoto, military officers of Brazil, staged the Revolutionary Coup of Brazil. They overthrew the Second Empire and established the First Republic of Brazil .
1890.7.1 Britain and Germany signed the Treaty of Heligoland, by which they delineated their respective spheres of interest in East Africa: Uganda, Kenya (also called British East Africa) and Zanzibar were to be under British rule while Tanganyika (also called German East Africa) was to be under German rule. The island of Heligoland on the North Sea was also ceded to Germany.
1890.12.29 The USA army suppressed the last resistance of the Native American Sioux Tribe, thus ending the Sioux War.
1891.1 Montt, a military officer of Chile, started a revolt and overthrew the Government of the Liberal Party on .8.28 of the same year. In December he changed the political system. Thereafter Chile was ruled by the Congress controlled by the Conservative Party (called the Period of the Parliamentary Republic by historians).
1892.8.18 France and Russia signed the Franco-Russian Military Convention. When the Convention was ratified by both countries on 1894.1.4, the Franco-Russian Alliance was formally established.
1893 When the Abeokutas formed a united government, their independence was recognized by Britain. Abeokuta was then renamed the Egba Kingdom.

Conselheiro founded a herectic sect in Canudos in northeastern Brazil and organised anti- governmental activities. In 1896.11 he initiated a rebellion (the War of Canudos), which was suppressed by the Government on 1897.10.6.
1893.1.17 Dole, leader of the USA migrants in Hawaii, seized power in a coup and made Hawaii a USA protectorate. On 1894.7.4 Hawaii was reorganised as a republic, with Dole being the President. On 1898.8.12 USA annexed Hawaii.
1893.5 France invaded Siam. On .7.31 of the same year France imposed a blockade on Siam, which led to tension between France and Britain (the Siamese Crisis). On .10.3 France and Siam signed the Franco-Siamese Treaty, by which Siam abandoned the suzerainty over its dependent state Luang Prabang Lanchang, which then became a French protectorate. France thus acquired Laos. French Laos was divided into three parts: Upper Laos (i.e. Luang Prabang Lanchang) was a French protectorate, while Central Laos and Lower Laos were French colonies.
1893.5.20 Zelaya, leader of the Nicaraguan Liberal Party, initiated a revolution against the Government of the Conservative Party. On .7.11 of the same year the Conservative Government was overthrown. During his tenure Zelaya carried out liberal reforms.
1894.1 Chon Pong Chun and Choi Si Hyong, leader of the Tonghak Faction of Choson, initiated a peasant uprising (the Tonghak Rebellion). The Qing Empire and Japan dispatched armies to suppress the rebellion simultaneously and led to conflict between the two countries. On .4.25 of the same year the First Sino-Japanese War broke out.
1894.1.15 France conquered Dahomey, which was then renamed the Abomey Kingdom.
1894.1.23 Britain united Barotseland and the neighbouring protectorates as North Zambesia, while Matabeleland and Mashonaland were united as South Zambesia. On 1895.5.3 Britain united the two Zambesias as the Protectorate of Rhodesia, named after the colonist Rhodes. On 1900.1.29 Britain divided Rhodesia into Southern Rhodesia, Northeastern Rhodesia and Northwestern Rhodesia. On 1910.8.17 Northeastern Rhodesia and Northwestern Rhodesia were reunited as Northern Rhodesia.
1894.8 The Armenians initiated an anti-Osmanli rebellion in Sassun in western Armenia and was suppressed by the Osmanli Regime (the First Armenian Massacre).
1894.12 France started the Second Madagascar War (also called the Second Franco-Malagasy War). On .10.1 of the next year Madagascar signed the Treaty of Tananarive with France whereby France seized control of Madagascar.
1894.12.22 Dreyfus, a French military officer of Jewish origin, was falsely charged with treason and was sentenced to life imprisonment (the Dreyfus Affair). The Affair led to the emergence of and bitter struggle between two camps: the Dreyfusards initiated a campaign to rescue Dreyfus, while the Anti-Dreyfusards seized the opportunity to stir up an anti-Jewish sentiment. On 1899.9.19 Dreyfus was pardoned. On 1906.7.12 Dreyfus was finally acquitted of the charge.
1895 Italy started the Second Italo-Ethiopian War and invaded Ethiopia. In the next year Italy was defeated. By the Treaty of Addis Ababa signed between the two countries on .10.26, Italy recognized the independence of Ethiopia.

Jose Marti, leader of the Cuban Revolutionary Party, initiated another revolution against Spanish rule (the Second Cuban War of Independence). On .9.18 of the same year, Cuba declared independence again and reestablished the Republic of Cuba in Arms.
1895.3 Britain and Russia concluded an agreement to partition the Pamir region in Central Asia.
1895.4.17 The Qing Empire and Japan signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki, by which the Qing Empire recognized the independence of Choson and ceded Liaodong Peninsula, Taiwan and Penghu Islands to Japan. On ..23 of the same month, Russia, France and Germany, discontented with the immense benefit acquired by Japan, compelled Japan to give up Liaodong Peninsula (the Triple Intervention).
1895.5.25 Qiu Fengjia rose against Japanese invasion in Taiwan. He declared the independence of Taiwan and established the Democratic State of Taiwan, with Tang Jingsong being the President. On .10.21 of the same year Japan suppressed the resistance and conquered Taiwan.
1895.6.16 France united its West African colonies (including Senegal, French Guinea, Ivory Coast and French Sudan) as French West Africa. Later Niger, Mauritania, Upper Volta and Dahomey were also included.
1895.11 An anti-French rebellion broke out in Madagascar. France conquered Madagascar. On 1897.2.28 France annihilated the Kingdom of Madagascar. But the rebellion was not finally suppressed until 1904.
1896 France suppressed the Can Vuong Movement in Dai Nam.

Britain started the Eighth Ashante War and conquered Ashante, which then became a British protectorate.
1896.1.15 Britain and France concluded an agreement that delineated their respective spheres of interest in Siam, which also became a buffer state between the two countries' dependencies in Indochina.
1896.2 Greece instigated an anti-Osmanli rebellion in Crete, where the rebels demanded the annexation of Crete into Greece. In 1897 Greece entered into the First Greco-Turkish War with the Osmanli Turks. On 1898.3.20 the Western powers forced the Osmanli Turks to grant autonomy to Crete and established the Cretan State.
1896.4 The Olympic Games were restored in Greece. Later Olympic Games became an international sport event.
1896.6 The Armenians initiated another rebellion against Osmanli rule. On .8.26 of the same year, the Osmanli Government crushed the rebellion and massacred the Armenians (the Second Armenian Massacre).
1896.7.1 Britain united Pahang, Perak, Selangor and Sri Menanti as the Federated Malay States .
1896.8.26 Katipunan, a Filipino revolutionary organisation, initiated a revolution against Spanish rule, which marked the beginning of the Filipino War of Independence. On 1897.3.23 the Filipino Regime and the Revolutionary Government was established, with Aguinaldo being the Chairman of the Government. On .11.1 the revolutionaries ratified the Biac-na-Bato Constitution and established the Republic of the Philippines (commonly called the Biac-na-Bato Republic). On .12.16 the Revolutionary Government concluded peace with the Spanish Colonial Government and ceased the revolution.
1897 Sri Menanti was renamed the Kingdom of Negri Sembilan.
1897.2M The Western powers started the scramble for concessions and partition of spheres of interest in China.
1897.8 The Zionists all over the world convened the Zionist Conference in Basel and launched the Zionist movement.
1897.10.17 Japan caused Choson to be named the Taehan Empire.
1898.3 The social democratic organisations in various parts of Russia formed the Social Democratic Labour Party.
1898.4.25 In contention for colonies, USA and Spain entered into the Spanish-Cuban-American War (also called the Spanish-American War) in which Spain was defeated. By the Treaty of Paris signed between the two countries on .12.10 of the same year, Spain ceded the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico and Guam to USA. USA formally occupied Cuba.
1898.4M Emperor Zaitian of the Qing Empire appointed Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to carry out the Hundred Days' Reform. In the eighth lunar month of the same year, Dowager Empress Nalalaner staged a coup and seized power. After imprisoning Zaitian, she abolished all reform measures.
1898.6.12 Aguinaldo restarted the Filipino Revolution and declared the independence of the Philippines from Spain. On 1899.1.20 the Malolos Constitution was promulgated and the First Republic of the Philippines (commonly called the Malolos Republic) was established.
1898.6.14 Britain and France signed the Paris Convention to delineate their respective spheres of interest in West Africa. All the French possessions in West Africa were thus connected.
1898.9.2 Britain destroyed the Mahdist State and conquered East Sudan.
1898.9.19 A conflict broke out in Fashoda of East Sudan between Britain and France in contention for Northeast Africa and led to the Fashoda Crisis. On .3.21 the two countries concluded a convention by which France withdrew from the River Nile valley but obtained the region around Lake Chad as a compensation. The Fashoda Crisis was thus settled.
1899.1.19 Britain compelled Egypt to sign the Anglo-Egyptian Convention, by which East Sudan nominally became an Anglo-Egypt Condominium called Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, but in practice was solely controlled by Britain.
1899.2.4 USA invaded the Philippines and the American-Philippine War broke out. On 1901.4.1 USA conquered the Philippines, which then became a USA colony. In 1902.4 the USA finally suppressed the Filipino Revolution.
1899.5.18 26 countries held the First Hague Peace Conference in which they established the international laws of war and set up the Permanent Court of Arbitration.
1899.6.10 Germany, Britain and USA annihilated Samoa. On .12.2 of the same year the three countries reached an agreement whereby Britain was to withdraw from the Samoan Islands, which was then partitioned between Germany and USA: Germany obtained the western part (called Western Samoa while USA obtained the eastern part (called Eastern Samoa, also called American Samoa).
1899.6.30 USA conquered Cuba.
1899.7.14 The Brazilians in Acre in present day western Brazil seceded from Bolivia and established the Independent State of Acre, which led to the Acre War. On .4.25 of the next year Bolivia reconquered Acre.
1899.8 Xasan, a Somali religious leader, launched the Xasan Jihad against British rule in British Somaliland. Later he retreated to Italian Somalia. On 1905.3.3, Xasan signed a treaty with the Italian Colonial Government whereby he obtained part of Italian Somalia and founded the Noogal Regime. In 1908 Xasan entered British Somaliland again, but was defeated by the British army in 1920. Upon death of Xasan on .12.21, the Noogal Regime came to an end.
1899.9.6 USA proposed the Open Door Policy to other Western powers and requested the powers not to interfere with the other powers' interests in the treaty ports. The policy was recognized by the other powers.
1899.10.12 In contention for the interests in Southern Africa, Britain and South Africa entered into the Second Boer War. The Orange Free State allied with South Africa and joined the war. On 1902.5.31 the combatanats signed the Treaty of Vereeniging whereby the Orange Free State and South Africa lost their independence and became British colonies.
1899.10.17 The Liberal Party of Colombia rose against the Government of the National Party. The War of a Thousand Days thus broke out. On 1902.11.21 the two parties concluded peace whereby the National Party promised to grant some of the political rights to the Liberal Party.
1899.12M Zhu Hongdeng and Benming, leaders of Yihequan, a Chinese boxing group, initiated a rebellion against the Qing Government and was engaged in anti-foreign activities. In the fourth luanr month of the next year the Qing Government summoned the members of Yihequan to Beijing, where it was reorganised as Yihetuan and became a tool to resist the Western powers.
1900 Asanntewa, a chieftain of a Ashante tribe, rose against the British colonists (the Ninth Ashante War) and was suppressed by the British colonists. On .6.23 the British colonists divided Ashante into 18 petty states.

The Pan-Africans convened the First Pan-African Conference in London, which marked the beginning of the Pan-Africanist Movement.

The USA Government suppressed the revolt of the Apache Tribe, thus ending the Apache War as well as the Indian Wars.
1900.1.1 Britain reorganised its protectorates in Nigeria as the Northern Nigeria Protectorate and the Southern Nigeria Protectorate.
1900.5M The Qing Government induced Yihetuan to attack the foreign embassies in Beijing (the Boxer Uprising). The coalition army of Britain, France, Germany, Russia, USA, Italy, Austria and Japan attacked Beijing. In the seventh lunar month the coalition army captured Beijing. In the eighth lunar month the Russian army occupied northeastern China. On 1901.9.7 the Qing Empire signed the Boxer Protocol, which allowed the Western powers to station their armies at their embassies as well as the important towns along the railway between Tianjin and Shanhaiguan.

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