The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2009)
R

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RAGONESI, Francesco
(1850-1931)

Birth. December 21, 1850, Bagnaia, diocese of Viterbo, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Viterbo, Viterbo; Pio-Roman Seminary, Rome, 1869; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome (doctorates in philosophy, theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, (no information found). In the diocese of Viterbo, pastoral work; for twenty-five years professor of history and Sacred Scripture in its seminary; canon theologian and later canon archdeacon of its cathedral chapter; vicar capitular; vicar general, 1885-1904. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 12, 1889. Apostolic delegate and extraordinary envoy to Colombia, September 7, 1904; during his delegation, he favored the opening of the Panama Canal in that country.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Mira, September 16, 1904. Consecrated, September 25, 1904, chapel of Collegio Pio-Latinoamericano, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State, assisted by Antonio Maria Grasselli, O.F.M.Conv., bishop of Viterbo, and by Domenico Rinaldini, bishop of Montefiascone. Nuncio in Spain, with faculties of legate a latere, February 9, 1913 until 1921.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 7, 1921; received the red hat and the title of S. Marcello, June 16, 1921. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal representative to the Eucharistic Congress of the Upper Lazio, Italy, May 1924. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, March 9, 1926.

Death. September 14, 1931, in the mother-house of the Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Poggio a Caiano, Pistoia, where he had gone to recover his health. Buried, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. Later, his remains were transferred to the chapel of Liceo Scientifico Cardinal Ragonesi, Viterbo, and deposited in an urn.

Bibliography. Restrepo Posada, Jose. "Galería de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia," Revista de la Academia Colombiana de la Historia Eclesiástica, V (January-June, 1970), 221-224.

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RAIMONDI, Luigi
(1912-1975)

Birth. October 25, 1912, Acque-Luserto, diocese of Acqui, Italy. Son of Giovanni Raimondi and Maria Giacchero.

Education. Seminary of Acqui, Acqui; Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome; Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 6, 1936, Acqui, by Lorenzo Del Ponte, bishop of Acqui. Further studies, 1936-1938. Secretary of nunciature in Guatemala, 1938-1942. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 3, 1939. Auditor of the apostolic delegation in the United States of America, 1942-1949. Counselor and chargé d'affaires of the internunciature in India, 1949-1953. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 5, 1951. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1953.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tarso and appointed nuncio in Haiti and apostolic delegate to the British and the French West Indies, December 24, 1953. Consecrated, January 31, 1954, basilica of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D., secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Giuseppe Del'Olmo, bishop of Acqui. Apostolic delegate in Mexico, December 15, 1956. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Apostolic delegate in the United States of America, June 30, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Biagio e Carlo ai Catinari, March 5, 1973. Prefect of the S.C. for the Causes of the Saints, March 21, 1973. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974.

Death. June 24, 1975, after suffering a severe heart attack in his apartment in Vatican City . Buried in his family's tomb in Acqui Terme.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 437.

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RAKOTOMALALA, Jérôme
(1914-1975)

Birth. July 15, 1914, Sainte-Marie, apostolic vicariate of Tananarive, Madagascar.

Education. Regional Seminary of Ambotaraka, Madagascar.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 31, 1943. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of Tananarive, 1943-1946. Faculty member of the Regional Seminary of Ambotaraka, director of Saint Peter Canisius School, and vicar general of Tananarive, 1946-1960.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Tananarive, April 4, 1960. Consecrated, May 8, 1960, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Napoléon-Alexandre La Brie, titular bishop of Ilta, national director of the Pontifical Missionary Work of Canada, French sector, and by Fulton John Sheen, titular bishop of Cesariana, auxiliary of New York, national director of the Pontifical Missionary Work of the United States of America. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Paul Zougrana, M.Afr., archbishop of Ouagadougou; Bernard Yago, archbishop of Abidjan; and Peter Poreku Dery, bishop of Wa. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Consolatrice a Casalbertone, April 30, 1969. He was the first cardinal from Madagascar.

Death. November 1, 1975, Tananarive. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Tananarive.

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RANUZZI DE' BIANCHI, Vittorio Amedeo
(1857-1927)

Birth. July 14, 1857, Bologna, Italy, of a noble family. Received the sacrament of confirmation in 1865.

Education. Seminary of Bologna, Bologna; Theological College of Bologna (doctorate in theology, July 1882). Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, April 1886.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 14, 1880, Bologna. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of Bologna, faculty member of its seminary; spiritual director, 1894-1899. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Bologna, 1885. Primicerius of its cathedral canon chapter, 1892. Counselor of the nunciature in France, September 13, 1899. Domestic prelate, 1899.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Loreto and Recanati, June 22, 1903. Consecrated, July 12, 1903, chapel of the Nobili Oblate in Tor de' Specchi, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Respighi, vicar general of Rome, assisted by Giuseppe Constantini, titular archbishop of Patrasso, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Rafael Merry del Val, titular archbishop of Nicea, provisional secretary of the S.C. Consistorial. Promoted to titular archbishop of Tiro, November 27, 1911. Master of the Papal Chamber, November 30, 1911. Papal Majordome, September 7, 1914.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the title of S. Prisca, December 7, 1916. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI.

Death. February 16, 1927, Rome. Buried, tomb of his family in the Carthusian cemetery, Bologna.

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RATTI, Achille
(1857-1939)

Birth. May 31, 1857, Desio, archdiocese of Milan, Italy. Son of Francesco Ratti and Teresa Galli. Baptized on June 1, 1857, he received the name Ambrogio Damiano Achille.

Education. Minor Seminary of S. Pietro Martire, Seveso, 1867; Seminary of Milan, Monza; Theological Seminary of Milan, Milan; Lombard Seminary, Rome; La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in theology) Ambrosian Library, Milan; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in canon law); Pontifical Roman Academy of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Rome (doctorate in philosophy).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1879, Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1879-1882. Returned to Milan in 1882 and was, simultaneously, professor of theology at the Seminary of S. Pietro Martire, and of sacred eloquence and Hebrew at the Theological Seminary of Milan. Staff member of the Ambrosian Library, 1888-1907; prefect, 1907-1911. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 6, 1907. Pro-prefect of the Vatican Library, February 20, 1912; prefect, August 20, 1914. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, September 14, 1914. Protonotary apostolic supra numerum, October 28, 1914. Apostolic visitor to Poland and Lithuania, April 25, 1918. Nuncio in Poland, June 6, 1919.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Lepanto (1), July 3, 1919. Consecrated, October 28, 1919, cathedral of Warsaw, by Aleksander Kakowski, archbishop of Warsaw, assisted by Józef Sebastian Pelczar, bishop of Przemyśl of the Latins, and by Stanisław Kazimierz Zdzitowiecki, bishop of Włocławek. Transferred to the titular see of Adana, April 29, 1921.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 13, 1921; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, June 16, 1921. Transferred to metropolitan see of Milan, June 13, 1921. Participated in the conclave of 1922 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected, February 6, 1922; took the name Pius XI. Crowned, February 12, 1922, Vatican, by Cardinal Gaetano Bisleti, protodeacon of S. Agata in Suburra. He created seventy six cardinals in seventeen consistories.

Death. February 10, 1939, Vatican City. Buried on February 14, 1939 in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Bibliography. Anderson, Robin. Between two wars. The Story of Pope Pius XI (Achille Ratti) 1922-1939. Chicago : Franciscan Herald, 1977; Aradi, Zsolt. Pius XI. The pope and the man. New York : Hanover House, 1958; Chiron, Yves. Pie XI : 1857-1939. Paris : Perrin, 2004; Chiron, Yves. Pie IX, pape moderne. Bitche : Clovis, 1995; Confalonieri, Carlo. Pio XI visto da vicino. Nuova ed. Cinisello Balsamo : Edizioni Paoline, 1993. (Grande biografie ; 2); Falconi, Carlo. The Popes in the twentieth century, from Pius X to John XXIII. Boston : Little, Brown, 1968, ©1967. Translation of I papi del ventesimo secolo. Translated from the Italian by Muriel Grindrod ; Fattorini, Emma. Pio XI, Hitler e Mussolini. La solitudine di un Papa. Turin : Einaudi, 2007; Hughes, Philip. Pope Pius the Eleventh. London : Sheed & Ward, 1938; Margiotta Broglio, Francesco. "Pio XI." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 617-632.

Links. Photograph and arms; biography, in German; portrait and biography, in Italian; photographs and biographical data, in Italian; his episcopal lineage, in English; portrait, arms and biographical information, in English; his portrait; his photograph; portrait with the papal tiara; close-up photograph; his monument by Pietro Canonica, Lateran Palace, Rome; and commemorative postal stamp, Vatican City.

(1) This see is also called Naupactus.

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RATZINGER, Joseph
(1927-

Birth. April 16, 1927, Holy Saturday, at 4:15 a.m., Marktl, diocese of Passau, Germany. Son of Joseph Ratzinger, who was a member of the rural police, and Maria Peintner; before marrying she worked as a cook in several hotels. His grand uncle Georg Ratzinger was a priest and member of the Reichstag, as the German Parliament was called then. He was baptized with the name Joseph Alois on that same day at 8: 30 a.m., in the parish of Saint Oswald in Marktl, by Fr. Josef Stangl (1), vicar of Marktl. He received first communion in March 1936 and the sacrament of confirmation on June 9, 1937 in Traunstein from Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber, archbishop of München und Freising. He speaks eight languages among them his native German, English, French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish. He is an accomplished pianist. He has a brother, Georg, who is a priest; and a sister, Maria, who died in 1991. His middle name is also listed as Aloysius.

Education. Superior School of Philosophy, Freising; University of München, München (doctorate in theology; thesis: "People and house of God in the doctrine on the church of St. Augustin" under the direction of Gottlieb Söhngen, professor of fundamental theology; habilitation for teaching thesis: "Offenbarungsverständnis und Geschichtstheologie Bonaventuras"). Received the subdiaconate, Saturday October 28, 1950, Freising, from Johannes Baptist Neuhäusler, titular bishop of Calidone, auxiliary of München und Freising; and the diaconate the following day in the same place and from the same bishop.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1951, cathedral of Sts. Mary and Corbinian, Freising, by Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber, archbishop of München und Freising; his brother Georg and 42 other priests were ordained in the same ceremony. Further studies, 1951-1952. Faculty member at the Superior School of Philosophy and Theology, Freising, 1952-1959. Faculty member at the University of Bonn, 1959-1963. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965, as an expert. Faculty member at the University of Münster, 1963-1969. Faculty member at the University of Tübingen, 1966-1969. Faculty member at the University of Ratisbon, 1969-1977; its vice-president, 1969-1977. Member of the International Theological Commission, Vatican City, 1969-1977.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of München und Freising, March 24, 1977. Consecrated, May 28, 1977, cathedral of München, by Josef Stangl, bishop of Würzburg, assisted by Rudolf Graber, bishop of Regensburg, and by Ernst Tewes, C.O., titular bishop of Villamagna in Proconsulari, auxiliary of München und Freising.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 27, 1977; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Consolatrice al Tiburtino, June 27, 1977. Attended the IV Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25-26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Special papal envoy to the 3rd National Marian Congress, Guayaquil, Ecuador, September 16 to 24, 1978. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the V Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; its relator general; member of its general secretariat, 1980-1983. Prefect of the S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith, president of the Pontifical Biblical Commission, and president of the International Theological Commission, November 25, 1981 to April 2, 2005. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 15, 1982. Attended the VI Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; its president delegate; member of its general secretariat, 1983-1986. Attended the II Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; member of its general secretariat until 1987. Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; member of its general secretariat, 1987-1990. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; member of its general secretariat, 1990-1994. Attended the Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Elected associé étranger of the Académie des sciences morales et politiques, a part of the Institut de France, January 13, 1992. Named bishop of title of suburbicarian see of Velletri-Segni, April 5, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the IX Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. In 1997, the city of Marktl am Inn, place of his birth, granted him the title of "Illustrious Citizen", on his 70th birthday; he unveiled a commemorative plaque in the facade of the house where he was born; he visited the city as pope on September 11, 2006, during his apostolic trip to Germany. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Special Assembly for Asia of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998. Vice-dean of College of Cardinals, November 9, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Special papal envoy to the 12th centenary celebrations of the creation of the diocese of Paderborn, Germany, January 3, 1999. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; the X Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the jubilar celebrations in the diocese of Regensburg, Germany, October 6, 2002. Dean of the College of Cardinals and bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, proper of the dean, retaining the title of the suburbicarian see of Velletri-Segni, November 30, 2002. Papal legate to the celebrations of the 750th anniversary of the canonization of St. Stanislaus, bishop and martyr, Kraków, Poland, May 11, 2003. Papal representative to the funeral of Cardinal Franz König March 27, 2004, Vienna, Austria. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on April 19, 2005; took the name Benedict XVI. The ceremony to mark the beginning of his pontificate took place on April 24, 2005, at 10 a.m. Cardinal Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez, protodeacon of S. Saba, bestowed the pallium; and Cardinal Angelo Sodano, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Albano, the ring of the fisherman. Celebrated mass and took possession of the patriarchal Lateran basilica on May 7, 2005. He has celebrated two consistories for the creation of thirty eight cardinals.

Bibliography. Allen, John L. Cardinal Ratzinger : the Vatican's enforcer of the faith. New York : Continuum, 2000; Allen, John L. Pope Benedict XVI : a biography of Joseph Ratzinger. New York ; London : Continuum, 2005; Allen, John L. The rise of Benedict XVI : the inside story of how the Pope was elected and where he will take the Catholic Church. New York : Doubleday, 2005; Bardazzi, Marco. In the vinyard of the Lord. The life, faith, and teachings of Joseph Ratzinger, Pope Benedict XVI. New York : Rizzoli, 2005; From Pope John Paul II to Benedict XVI : an inside look at the end of an era, the beginning of a new one, and the future of the church. Edited by Mary Ann Walsh ; with reporting by Catholic News Service. Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2005; De Carli, Giuseppe. Benedictus. Servus servorum Dei. Gorle Velar in coedizione; Roma : Rai-ERI ;Elledici, 2008; González-Balado, José Luis. Benedicto XVI, un Papa convincente. Madrid : Editorial San Pablo, 2006; Let God's light shine forth. The spiritual vision of Pope Benedict XVI. Edited and with and introduction by Robert Moynihan. New York; London ; Toronto ; Sydney; Auckland : Doubleday, 2005; Mansfield, Stephen. Pope Benedict XVI : his life and mission. New York : J.P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2005; Pursell, Brennan. Benedict of Bavaria : an intimate portrait of the Pope and his homeland.North Haven, Conn. : Circle Press, 2008; Ratzinger, Joseph. Milestones. Memoirs: 1927-1977. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1998; Rose, Michael S. Benedict XVI : the man who was Ratzinger. Dallas, Tex. : Spence Pub. Co., 2005; Tornielli, Andrea. Ratzinger custode della fede. Casale Monferrato : Piemme, 2002; Villagrasa, Jesús. Joseph Ratzinger. Personas e ideas de una vida. Preface by Josef Clemens. México : El Arca, 2006.

Links. Photograph, arms and biographical information, in English; and his episcopal lineage, in English.

(1) He was not the bishop who consecrated him in 1977, only his namesake.

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RAZAFIMAHATRATRA, S.J., Victor
(1921-1993)

Birth. September 8, 1921, Ambanitsilena-Ranomasina, archdiocese of Fianarantsoa, Madagascar.

Education. Major Seminary of Fianarantsoa, Fianarantsoa. Joined the Society of Jesus, September 19, 1945. Jesuit Schools of Saint Joseph and Saint Francis Xavier, Fianarantsoa; Theological Faculty, Brussels, Belgium; Catechetical Center "Lumen Gentium", Brussels.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 28, 1956. Further studies, 1956-1960. Rector, Minor Seminary of Fianarantsoa, 1960-1963. Solemn profession in the Society of Jesus, February 2, 1963. Superior of the Jesuit Residence, Amboistra, 1963-1969. Rector, Major Seminary and Institute of Superior Studies, Fianarantsoa, 1969-1971.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Farafangana, January 16, 1971. Consecrated, April 18, 1971, Fianarantsoa, by Gilbert Ramanantoanina, S.J., archbishop of Fianarantsoa, assisted by Albert Joseph Tsiahoana, archbishop of Diego Suarez, and by Pierre Zévaco, C.M., bishop of Fort-Dauphin. President of the Episcopal Conference of Madagascar, 1974-. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Tananarive, April 10, 1976.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, May 24, 1976. Attended the IV Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the V Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the VI Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the II Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 6, 1985. The name of the see was changed to Antananarivo, October 28, 1989.

Death. October 6, 1993, Antananarivo. Buried (no information found).

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RAZAFINDRATANDRA, Armand Gaétan
(1925-

Birth. August 7, 1925, Ambohimalaza, apostolic vicariate of Tananarive, Madagascar. Son of Paul Razafindratandra, son of the governor of Tananarive, and Joséphine Rasoanoro.

Education. Primary and secondary studies at the parish school of Faravohitra, at the school of the Christian Brothers of Andohalo, at the Minor Seminary, Ambohipo and at St. Michael Schhol, of the Jesuit fathers; Major Seminary, Ambatoroka (philosophy and theology); Institute of Catechetical Pastoral, Catholic Institute, Paris; Institute of Social Studies, Catholic Institute, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 27, 1954, Tananarive, by Victor Sartre, S.J., titular bishop of Vaga, apostolic vicar of Tananarive. Further studies, Paris, 1954-1956. From 1956 to 1978, pastoral work; director of catechesis; spiritual director of public and private non-confessional schools; director of the National Catechetical Center; rector, Minor Seminary of Faliarivo; spiritual director, Major Seminary of Amabatoroka.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mahajanga, April 27, 1978. Consecrated, July 2, 1978, by Cardinal Victor Razafimahatratra, S.J., archbishop of Tananarive, assisted by Albert Joseph Tsiahoana, archbishop of Diego Suárez, and by François Vòllaro, O.SS.T., bishop of Ambatondrazaka. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Antananarivo, February 3, 1994. Attended the Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Africa, April 10 to May 8, 1994; member of the Council of the General Secretariat of the Special Assembly for Africa. Apostolic administrator sede vacante et ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis of Miarinavo, July, 1994 until February 14, 1998.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, November 26, 1994. Special papal envoy to the closing celebrations of the first centennial of the evangelization of the diocese of Antsirabé, Madagascar, September 17 to 19, 1999. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old on August 7, 2005. The pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, December 7, 2005. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World".

Link. His arms.

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RE, Giovanni Battista
(1934-

Birth. January 30, 1934, Borno, diocese of Brescia, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Brescia, Brescia; while studying in Rome, he resided at Pontifical Collegio Lombardo; Pontifical Gregorian University (doctorate in canon law); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy (Vatican school of diplomacy); besides his native Italian, he also speaks English and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 3, 1957, at 7 a.m., church of S. Cristo, Brescia, by Giacinto Tredici, bishop of Brescia. Further studies, Rome, 1957-1960. In Brescia, 1960-1961, faculty member of its seminary and pastoral work. Further studies, Rome, 1962-1963. Joined the Vatican diplomatic service, July 1, 1963. Secretary of the nunciature in Panamá, 1963-1967. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, January 7, 1964 (title changed to chaplain of His Holiness when the Curia was reformed in 1967). Secretary of the nuncitature in Iran, 1967-1971. Recalled to the Vatican and promoted to auditor of nunciature, 2nd class, worked at the Secretariat of State and secretary to Giovanni Benelli, titular archbishop of Tusuro, substitute of Secretariat of State (1971-1977). Auditor, 1st class, 1974. Counselor of nunciature, 1976. Assessor of the Secretariat of State, December 1, 1979.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Vescovio and appointed secretary of the Congregation for Bishops, October 9, 1987. Consecrated, November 7, 1987, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Bruno Foresti, archbishop-bishop of Brescia. Named substitute of the Secretariat of State, section of General Affairs, December 12, 1989. Named prefect of the Congregation for Bishops and president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, September 16, 2000.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, February 21, 2001. Attended X Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30-October 27, 2001; president delegate. Promoted to the order of bishops and assigned the title of the suburbicarian see of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto, October 1, 2002. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 750th anniversary of the consecration of the patriarchal basilica of St. Francis in Assisi, Italy, May 23, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed as prefect of the Congregation for Bishops and president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, April 21, 2005. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebration of the 9th centennial of the dedication of the cathedral of Parma, Italy, December 4, 2006. Named one of the three presidents of the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place in Aparecida, Brazil, from May 13 to 31, 2007. Attended the XII Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World".

Links. Research on his heraldry, in Italian; and his arms.

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REIG Y CASANOVA, Enrique
(1858-1927)

Birth. January 20, 1858, Valencia, Spain. Of a family from the town of Agullent, Valencia.

Education. Studied "bachillerato" at the Institue of Xátiva; entered the Seminary of Valencia for his ecclesiastical studies; he left the seminary shortly before receiving the priestly ordination; he got married and practiced as a lawyer; when his wife died of cholera in 1885, he decided to become a priest.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1886, Almería, by bishop José María Orberá, bishop of Almería. In the diocese of Almería, professor of history at its seminary for a short time. Chancellor and vicar general of the diocese of Mallorca until 1900. He passed to the archdiocese of Toledo in 1900; professor of sociology at its seminary; archdeacon of the cathedral chapter, 1903; founder of "La revista parroquial" and director of "La paz social"; assesor of the Catholic labor unions; rector of "Academia Universitaria Católica"; professor of religion and sociology at "Escuela Superior de Magisterio"; moderator of "Unisn Apostslica". Protonotary apostolic, March 22, 1903. Auditor of Sacred Rota of Madrid, 1904.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Barcelona, March 28, 1914. Consecrated, November 8, 1914, basilica of La Milagros, Madrid, by Francesco Ragonesi, titular archbishop of Mira, nuncio in Spain, assisted by José María Salvador y Barrera, bishop of Madrid, and by Jaime Cardona y Tur, titular bishop of Sion, pro-general military vicar. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Valencia, April 22, 1920.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1922. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo, December 14, 1922. Received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, May 25, 1923. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Toledo, June 15, 1926.

Death. August 25, 1927, at 2 a.m., after a long and painful illness, Toledo (1). Exposed in the chapel of the archiepiscopal palace of Toledo. Buried in the Capilla del Sagrario in the metropolitan cathedral of Toledo.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1929. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1929, p. 62; Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 76; Olmos Canalda, Elías. Los prelados valentinos. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto Jerónimo Zurita, 1949; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 80 and 386.

Link. Portrait and biography, in Spanish.

(1) This is according to his biography in Spanish, linked above, and all the printed sources cited except "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1929, p. 62, which says that he died on August 20, 1927.

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RENARD, Alexandre-Charles
(1906-1983)

Birth. June 7, 1906, Avelin, diocese of Lille, France. His father was a university professor.

Education. Seminary of Lille, Lille; Catholic University, Lille.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 12, 1931, Lille. Further studies, 1931-1933. Faculty member of Marcq College, Baraeul, 1933-1936. Faculty member of the Minor Seminary of Haubourdin, 1936-1938. Faculty member of the Catholic University of Lille, 1938-1943. Pastoral work in the diocese of Lille, 1938-1947; Director of Works, Lille, 1947-1953.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Versailles, August 19, 1953. Consecrated, October 19, 1953, cathedral of Lille, by Cardinal Achille Liènart, bishop of Lille, assisted by Stanislas Courbe, titular bishop of Castoria, auxiliary of Paris, and by Alfred Ancel, titular bishop of Mirina, auxiliary of Lyon. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lyon, May 28, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Francesco da Paola ai Monti, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, June 29, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Opted for the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, May 24, 1976. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the V Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, October 29, 1981.

Death. October 8, 1983, Paris. Buried in the metropolitan and primatial cathedral of Saint-Jean Baptiste of Lyon.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 463-464.

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REVOLLO BRAVO, Mario
(1919-1995)

Birth. June 19, 1919, Genoa, Italy, where his father was Colombian consul in that city. He was the third of the six children of Enrique Revollo del Castillo and Soledad Bravo Arbélaez.

Education. Minor Seminary of Bogotá, Bogotá (bachillerato; Major Seminary of Bogotá, Bogotá, 1936-1938 (philosophy); went to Rome to study; resided in the Pontifical Collegio Pio Latinoamericano, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1939-1943 (theology); Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome (licenciate in Sacred Scriptures).

Priesthood. Ordained, October 31, 1943, Gesú church, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Bogotá. Further studies, Rome, 1943-1948. In Bogotá, chaplain to Catholic schools, 1948-1967; faculty member of the Major Seminary, 1948-1960 and 1963-1964; pastoral work, 1967-1970; archdiocesan secretary of Education and Catechesis, 1965; pastoral work and archbishop's representative to the regional council of SENA, 1970-1973; director of the journal El Catolicismo, 1949-1966; press director for the 39th International Eucharistic Congress and papal visit to Bogotá, August 1968.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tinisa di Numidia and appointed auxiliary of Bogotá, November 13, 1973. Consecrated, December 2, 1973, Bogotá, by Cardinal Aníbal Muñoz Duque, archbishop of Bogotá, assisted by Alfredo Rubio Diaz, archbishop of Nueva Pamplona, and by Pablo Correa León, bishop emeritus of Cúcuta. Vicar general for pastoral work, 1973-1978. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Nueva Pamplona, February 28, 1978. President of the Episcopal Conference of Colombia, 1978-1984. Attended the III General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; V Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; VI Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Bogotá, June 25, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, June 28, 1988. Attended the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Bogotá, December 27, 1994.

Death. November 3, 1995, Bogotá. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Bogotá.

Link. Archbishops of Bogotá, in Spanish.

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RIBEIRO, António
(1928-1998)

Birth. May 21, 1928, Gandarela de Basto, archdiocese of Braga, Portugal. Son of José Ribeiro and Ana Gonçalves.

Education. Seminary of Braga, Braga; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Theological Faculty, Innsbruck; Theological Faculty, Münich, Germany

Priesthood. Ordained, July 5, 1953, Braga. Further studies, 1953-1959. Faculty member of the Seminary of Braga, 1959-1964. Faculty member of the Superior Institute of Social and Political Sciences, 1964-1966. Faculty member and director of the Superior Institute of Catholic Culture, 1965-1966. Associate chaplain, and later chaplain of the Catholic University League, 1966-1967. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Braga, l966-1967.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tigillava and appointed auxiliary of Braga, July 3, 1967. Consecrated, September 17, 1967, Braga, by Cardinal Manuel Gonçalves Cerejeira, patriarch of Lisbon, assisted by Francisco Maria da Silva, archbishop of Braga, and by António de Castro Xavier Monteiro, titular archbishop of Mitilene, auxiliary of Lisbon. Named auxiliary bishop of Lisbon, June 6, 1969. Promoted to the patriarchate of Lisbon, May 10, 1971. Attended the II Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Military vicar of Portugal, January 24, 1972.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Antonio da Padova in Via Merulana, March 5, 1973. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the IV Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; one of its three presidents delegate. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the V Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the VII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the 5th centennial celebration of the evangelization of Angola, Luanda, October 22 to 27, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Special papal envoy to the 5th centennial celebration of the Treaty of Tordesillas, Setúbal, Portugal, September 5, 1994.

Death. March 24, 1998, from advanced stages of cancer, Lisbon. Buried in the tomb of the patriarchs in the church of São Vicente de Fora, Lisbon.

Bibliography. Santos, José António. António Ribeiro, Patriarca de Lisboa. Lisboa : Editorial Notícias, 1996. (Diario de notícias textos & documentos).

Link. Brief biography, in Portuguese, in Os Cardeais Portugueses - Nota Histórica.

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RIBERI, Antonio
(1897-1967)

Birth. June 15, 1897, Montecarlo, Monaco.

Education. Seminary of Cuneo, Cuneo, Italy; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome. Institute of Social Sciences, Bergamo.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1922, Rome. Further studies, 1922-1925. Attaché and secretary of the nunciature in Bolivia, 1925-1930. Honorary chamberlain of His Holiness, May 1, 1925. Counselor of the nunciature in Ireland, 1930-1934.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Dara, August 13, 1934. Consecrated, October 28, 1934, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Fumasoni Biondi, prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of Faith, assisted by Giuseppe Pizzardo, titular archbishop of Nicea, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Carlo Salotti, titular archbishop of Filippopoli di Tracia, secretary of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith. Appointed apostolic delegate to the African Missions dependent of the S.C. for the Propagation of Faith, with residence in Mombasa, East Africa, November 4, 1934. Charged with the assistance service of the Holy See to the prisoners of the war and the wounded soldiers during the Second World War, Rome, 1939-1946. Nuncio in China, July 6, 1946. Expelled by the Communist regime, 1951; nuncio in Formosa. Nuncio in Ireland, February 19, 1959. Nuncio in Spain, April 28, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Girolamo della Carità, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, July 25, 1967.

Death. Saturday December 16, 1967, of a pulmonary edema, while conversing with some friends at the Institute of the Legionnaires of Christ, Rome, where he resided. Buried in the tomb of his family in Limone-Piemonte.

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RICHAUD, Paul-Marie
(1887-1968)

Birth. April 16, 1887, Versailles, France. Of an old Versaillese family, originally from the Dauphiné, on his father's side. His baptismal name was Paul-Marie-André.

Education. Initial studies at the Eudist School of Saint Jean, Varsailles; Faculty of Law, Paris (licentiate in law); entered the Major Seminary of Versailles, Versailles, October 1909; sent to Rome to further studies; while in Rome, he satayed at the French Seminary and studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University and Collège Angelique; obtained a doctorate in philosophy in 1915.

Early life. Entered the Paris Faculty of Law and obtained a licentiate; during this period, he was president of Cercle d'Etude Saint-Benoît, which was the origin of the Action Catholique des Jeunes Française. Under the direction of Charles Gibirer, bishop of Versailles, he joined the Oeuvres Sociales and the Oeuvres de Presse. Departamental secretary of the Societé Saint-Vincent-de-Paul. He was the first conferencist of the Oeuvre des Conférences Populaires, organized by the bishop of Versailles.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 28, 1913, Versailles, by Charles Gibier, bishop of Versailles. Further studies, 1913-1915. Vicar of the parish of Notre-Dame, Versailles, 1915-1924; there he was in charge of Patronage desOeuvres de Lycéens and founded Cercle Saint-Thomas d'Aquin; toward the end of the First World War, he was mobilized by the French Army as a nurse. Chaplain of Lycée Hoche, Versailles. During these years, he published several articles in Bulletin Thomiste, Revue des Jeunes and Vie Spirituelle. He established the first Scout troops in Versailles. In 1928, he became director of Oeuvres de Jeunes Gens; he founded the first section of Jeune Ouevriers Catholiques. Vicar general of Versailles and vice-assistant general of the French Catholic Action, 1931-1933.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Irenopoli di Isauria and appointed auxiliary of Versailles, December 19, 1933. Consecrated, January 25, 1934, cathedral of Versailles, by Benjamin-Octave Roland-Gosselin, bishop of Versailles, assisted by Pierre Gerlier, bishop of Tarbes, and by Georges Louis, bishop of Périgueux. Transferred to see of Laval, July 27, 1938. Promoted to metropolitan see of Bordeaux, February 10, 1950; took possession of the see on March 20, 1950; entered the archdiocese on the following March 25.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, December 18, 1958. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Bordeaux, May 25, 1966. On September 4, 1966, he confirmed his spiritual testament, written on January 23, 1955 (1)

Death. Monday February 5, 1968, at 2 p.m., after a serious chirurgical operation, Bordeaux (2). The obsequies took place in the metropolitan cathedral of Bordeaux on Friday February 9, at 10 a.m. presided by Archbishop Marius Maziers of Bordeaux; Cardinals Joseph-Charles Lefèbvre, archbishop of Bourges; Joseph-Marie Martin, archbishop of Rouen; and Alexandre-Charles Renard, archbishop of Lyon, were present; Paolo Bertoli, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, nuncio in France, represented the pope; Pau-Pierre Philippe, O.P., titular archbishop of Eracleopoli Maggiore, secretary of the S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith, represented the Roman Curia; also present were M. Fouchet, minister of the Interior, a friend of the late cardinal; M. Chaban-Delmas, mayor of Bourdeaux, president of the National Aseembly and numerous other dignataries. Buried, temporarily, in the grotto under the chapel of Saint-Sacrement, in the metropolitan cathedral of Bordeaux (3). On February 5, 1969, the first anniversary of his death, his body was transferred definitively to the chapel of Notre-Dame de la Nef, in that cathedral, according to his will (4).

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973.Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 465-466; Laroza, Olivier. Le Cardinal Paul Richaud, archevêque de Bordeaux (1887-1968). Préface de Mgr. M. Maziers, archevêque de Bordeaux. Impriméerie Daniel Duberga, 1969.

Link. His episcopal lineage, in English.

(1) Tex of his spiritual testament, taken from Laroza, Le Cardinal Paul Richaud, archevêque de Bordeaux (1887-1968), p. 122-124:

Bordeaux, le 23 janvier 1955
   J'entends mourir, quoi qu'il m'arrive et quoi qu'on puisse dire, dans la foi de l'Église catholique romaine, en pleine et entière soumission envers le Pape et en pleine et fraternelle union avec tous les évêques catholiques.
   Je déclare réprouver tout ce qui, dans mes écrits ou mes paroles, a pu être contraire à cette foi et à cette soumission, sans que je le veuille. Je regrette et rétracte toutes paroles que j'aurais pu prononcer ou écrire et qui auraient constitué un manque de respect, une médisance ou une calomnie à l'égard de mes supérieurs ou de mes collègues dans l'épiscopat.
   Je supplie que l'on me pardonne tout le tort et toute la peine que j'aurais causés aux uns et aux autres. J'offre pour eux, d'avance, toutes les souffrances que je pourrai endurer, ainsi que pour tous ceux que j'aurais pu scandaliser ou porter au mal.
   Je supplie que l'on prie beaucoup et longtemps pour moi. Car je suis écrasé à la pensée de tous les péchés que j'ai commis, de toutes les négligences dont je me suis rendu coupable. Ma vie aurait dû être bien plus féconde et bien plus édifiante !
   Je pardonne de tout coeur et sans la moindre réticence à ceux qui auraient pu me causer quelque peine.
   J'offre ma vie, mes souffrances, ma mort "pour mes péchés, pour mon diocèse, pour l'Église et pour la France ". Ce fut mon acte d'offrande perpétuel. Je les offre spéciale-ment pour mes prêtres que j'ai tant aireés et je demande très humblement pardon à ceux que j'aurais pu froisser ou contrarier.
   Je leur recommande un attachement indéfectible et délicat au Saint-Siège. Jamais je ne remercierai trop Dieu de la grâce incomparable de la formation romaine.
   Je recommande à mes prêtres l'assiduité dans l'étude des sciences sacrées, la pratique quotidienne de l'oraison mentale. Si je n'ai pas fait assez de bien et si j'ai eu tant de mouvements d'humeur, c'est parce que, dans ma vie, je n'ai pas fait assez oraison. Avec tout mon coeur, je leur recommande la dévotion ` la Sainte Vierge. C'est ma tendresse pour Marie et ma confiance dans le Coeur Sacré de Jésus qui m'auront sauvé, si Dieu veut bien me faire miséricorde.
   A mes prêtres et ` mes diocisains, je demande d'être apôtres, de correspondre aux directives de la hiérarchie en ce qui concerne l'Action Catholique, de vivre davantage suivant l'Évangile et, pour cela de pratiquer davantage le détachement. Je mourrai avec le regret de n'avoir pas été et de n'avoir pas eu le courage d'être pauvre.
   En ce moment, devant tous, je m'humilie profondément pour tout ce qu'il y a eu d'orgueilleux, de vaniteux, d'igoiste dans mes actes et mes sentiments.
   Je voudrais mourir dans l'amour le plus pur, en murmurant les mots: "Jésus ! Marie !" "

+ Paul RICHAUD Archevêque de Bordeaux
Evêque de Bazas


Texte confirmé le 4 septembre 1966.
+ Paul Card. RICHAUD.

(2) Upon learning the news of the death of Cardinal Richaud, Pope Paul VI sent the following telegram to Marius Marziers, archbishop of Bordeaux:
Apprenant avec une vive peine la mort de notre cher fils le Cardinal Paul-Marie Richaud, nous élevons de tout coeur nos prières vers Dieu pour le repos de l'âme de cet éminent pasteur qui a servi l'Eglise avec un courageux dévouement et nous vous envoyons, ainsi qu'aux prêtres et fidèles de l'archidiocèse de Bordeaux, notre paternelle bénédiction apostolique. PAULUS P.P. VI

(3) This is the text of the inscription, written on a parchment, that was place in a glass tube, sealed with the arms of the cardinal, and deposited in his casket, taken from Laroza, Le Cardinal Paul Richaud, archevêque de Bordeaux (1887-1968), p. 108-109:

PAULUS-MARIA-ALEXANDER RICHAUD
S.R.E.-PRESBYTER CARDINALIS
TITULI SS. CYRIACI ET JULITTAE ARCHIEPISCOPUS BURDIGALENSIS
EPISCOPUS VASATENSIS
AQUITANIAE PRIMAS VIR
S. SEDI ADDICTISSIMUS
DOCTRINAM
GREGI SIBI CREDITO
VERBO ET SCRIPTIS
INDEFESSO STUDIO
TRADIDIT
EpISCOPATUS BURDIGALENSIS XVIII LABENTE ANNO
LXXX ANNOS NATUS
OBDORMIVIT IN DOMINO
DIE V MENSIS FEBRUARI
ANNO D. MCMLXVIII


(4)This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Laroza, Le Cardinal Paul Richaud, archevêque de Bordeaux (1887-1968), p. 112-113

ICI REPOSE
LE CARDINAL PAUL RICHAUD
(1887-1868)
nE A VERSAILLES. PRETRE EN 1913
EVEQUE AUXILIAIRE EN 1934
EVEQUE DE LAVAL EN 1938
ARCHEVEQUE DE BORDEAUX EN 1950
PASTEUR ET DOCTEUR
IL MAINTINT ET FIT GRANDIR
SON EGLISE DANS LA FOI
EN COMMUNION AVEC
LE SIEGE APOSTOLIQUE
IL FUT UN GRAND APOTRE
DE LA JUSTICE SOCIALE,
DE LA CHARITE ET DE LA PAIX
*
* *
LE 5 FEVRIER 1968
IL RESPONDIT AVEC CONFIANCE
A L'APPEL DU SEIGNEUR
QU'IL SAVAIT PROCHE

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RIGALI, Justin Francis
(1935-

Birth. April 19, 1935, Los Angeles, United States of America. He is the youngest of the seven children of Henry A. Rigali and Frances Irene White. One of his sisters is a nun, and a brother is a Jesuit priest. Baptized in the parish of the Holy Cross, Los Angeles.

Education. Studied philosophy and theology at the archdiocesan seminaries of Los Angeles: Los Angeles College, Los Angeles; Our Lady Queen of Angels Seminary, San Fernando; St. John's College and St. John's Seminary, Camarillo; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1961-1964 (doctorate in canon law, June 1964); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, 1964-1955 (obtained a diploma, 1966). Besides his native English, speaks correctly French, Italian and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 25, 1961, Los Angeles, by Cardinal James Francis McIntyre. Associate pastor, Ascension parish, Los Angeles; associate pastor, Saint Raymond parish, Downey. Further studies, Rome, 1961-1964. Assistant priest at the patriarchal Vatican basilica during the first two sessions of the II Vatican Council, 1962 and 1963. Associate pastor, St. Madeleine's parish, Pomona, archdiocese of Los Angeles, summer of 1964. Started service at the English language section of the Vatican secretariat of State, November 25, 1964. Secretary of nunciature in Madagascar and apostolic delegation for the Islands of the Indian Ocean, La Reunion and Mauritius, September 1966 to February 1970. Chaplain of His Holiness, July 11, 1967. Returned to Rome, February 11, 1970, and was appointed director of the English-language Section of the Secretariat of State. He also became the English-language translator for Pope Paul VI, whom he accompanied on his trip to Iran, Dhaka (then East Pakistan, now Bangladesh), the Philippines, Australia, Samoa, American Samoa, Indonesia, Hong Kong, and Sri Lanka (then Ceylon). Chaplain to the cloistered Carmelite nuns of the Monastery of Saint Joseph in Rome for several years. Faculty member, Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, 1972-1973. Counselor of nunciature, July 1, 1979. He accompanied Pope John Paul II on several of his international trips, including the ones to the United States of America in 1979 and 1987. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, April 19, 1980. Member of the Order of the Knights of Malta, October 25, 1984.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Bolsena and appointed president of Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, June 8, 1985. Consecrated, September 14, 1985, cathedral of Albano, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Achille Silvestrini, titular archbishop of Novaliciana, secretary of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church. Member of the Order of the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, October 13, 1986. Secretary of Congregation for Bishops, December 21, 1989. Secretary of College of Cardinals, January 2, 1990. Pastoral work in several Roman parishes and seminaries. Transferred to metropolitan see of St. Louis, United States of America, January 25, 1994. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Attended the X Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Philadelphia, July 15, 2003.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Prisca, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in English; and his arms.

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RIGHI-LAMBERTINI, Egano
(1906-2000)

Birth. February 22, 1906, Casalecchio di Reno, archdiocese of Bologna, Italy.

Education. Pontifical Regional Seminary of Bologna, Bologna; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1929, Bologna. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of Bologna, 1929-1936. Further studies, 1936-1939, Rome. Joined the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1939. Auditor, nunciature in Italy, 1939-1949. Auditor and counselor, nunciature in France, 1949-1954. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 10, 1954. Chargé d'affaires, nunciatures in Costa Rica and Venezuela; and in the apostolic delegation in Great Britain, 1954-1957. Apostolic delegate in Korea, December 28, 1957.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Doclea and appointed nuncio in Lebanon, July 9, 1960. Consecrated, October 28, 1960, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Diego Venini, titular archbishop of Adana, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Benigno Carrara, bishop of Imola. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Dino Staffa, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, secretary of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities; and Pericle Felici, titular archbishop of Samosata, secretary general of the Second Vatican Council. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Nuncio in Chile, December 9, 1963. Nuncio in Italy, July 8, 1967. Nuncio in France, April 23, 1969. Special envoy, with functions of permanent observer, to the Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France, 1974-1979. Awarded the title of Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor of France.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giovanni Bosco in Via Tuscolana, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Meeting of Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, February 22, 1986. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Maria in Via, November 26, 1990.

Death. October 4, 2000, Rome. Buried in his family's chapel in Casalecchio di Reno, Bologna.

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RINALDINI, Aristide
(1844-1920)

Birth. February 5, 1844, Montefalco, archdiocese of Spoleto, Italy.

Education. Seminary of the Vatican, Rome, 1860-1862; Almo Collegio Capranica, Rome, 1862-1868; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in philosophy and licentiate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 6, 1868, Rome. Secretary of nunciature in Portugal, 1868-1872. Secretary of nunciature in Belgium, 1872-1880; chargé d'affaires, 1880-1885; auditor, 1887. Remained in Belgium as a "private agent" after the liberal cabinet of Frère Orban broke diplomatic relations with the Holy See and Nuncio Serafino Vannutelli left for Rome; chargé d'affaires when relations were resumed. Protonotary apostolic ad instar participantium. Internuncio in Holland, August 26 (1), 1887 to 1893. Internuncio in Luxembourg, January 1891. Substitute of Secretariat of State, May 31 (2), 1893 to 1896.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Eraclea di Europa, August 14, 1896. Named nuncio in Belgium, August 18 (3), 1896. Consecrated, August 30, 1896, church of S. Agostino, Rome, by Cardinal Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of State, assisted by Guglielmo Pifferi, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan, and by Vincenzo Veneri, bishop of Amelia and cousin of Archbishop Rinaldini. In the same ceremony was consecrated Sebastiano Martinelli, O.E.S.A., titular archbishop of Efeso, apostolic delegate in the United States of America. Named nuncio in Spain, December 28 (4), 1899. Named papal legate for the baptism of the Prince of Asturias, April 6, 1907; the ceremony took place on May 18, 1907.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 15, 1907; received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio, December 19, 1907. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 2, 1912 until May 25, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.

Death. February 10 (5), 1920, Rome. Buried, chapel of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1921, p. 66; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 685; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, pp. 33, 65, 169, 185 and 239; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1919, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1920, p. 102; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 9 and 24; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 302.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 302; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 685, says that he was named on January 11, 1887; De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 185, says that he was named on August 11, 1887.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 302; De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, pp. 33 and 169, says that he was named on May 30, 1893.
(3) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 302; De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 65; and Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 685, say that he was named on August 14, 1896.
(4) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 302; De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 239, says that he was named on November 7, 1899.
(5) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 302; and Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 9; this latter source on p. 24 says that he died on February 11, 1920; "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, p. 66; and De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 33, say that he died on January 10, 1920.

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RITTER, Joseph Elmer
(1892-1967)

Birth. July 20, 1892, New Albany, diocese of Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America. Son of Nicholas Ritter and Bertha Luette.

Education. Saint Meinrad's Seminary, Saint Meinrad, Indiana.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 30, 1917, Saint Meinrad, by Joseph Chartrand, bishop of Indianapolis. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Indianapolis, 1917-1933.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ippo and appointed auxiliary of Indianapolis, February 3, 1933. Consecrated, March 28, 1933, Indianapolis, by Joseph Chartrand, bishop of Indianapolis, assisted by Alphonse John Smith, bishop of Nashville, and by Emmanuel Boleslaus Ledvina, bishop of Corpus Chirsti. Vicar general of Indianapolis, February 5, 1933. Transferred to the see of Indianapolis, March 24, 1934. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Indianapolis when the diocese was elevated to archdiocese, November 11, 1944. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Saint Louis, July 20, 1946. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, October 5, 1956.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1961; received the red hat and the title of SS. Redentore e S. Alfonso in via Merulana, January 19, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. June 10, 1967, Saint Louis. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Saint Louis.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 252.

Link. His photograph and biographical data, in English.

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RIVERA CARRERA, Norberto
(1942-

Birth. June 6, 1942, La Purísima,Tepehuanes, archdiocese of Durango, México. Son of Ramón Rivera Cháidez and Soledad Carrera. He has a sister who is a nun.

Education. Conciliar Seminary of Durango, Durango; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 3, 1966, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI. From 1967 to 1985, in Durango, pastoral work in Río Grande, Zacatecas; faculty member, Seminary of Durango for 18 years and prefect of discipline; founder and ecclesiastical assistant of the movement "Jornadas de Vida Cristiana"; diocesan assistant of "Movimiento Familiar Cristiano" and of Youth Catholic Action; member and coordinator of the presbyteral council; secretary of the archdiocesan pastoral commission; director of social communications; cathedral canon lector; faculty member, Pontifical Mexican University, México City, 1982-1985; executive secretary of pastoral care for the family, Episcopal Commission for Lay Apostolate, 1983-1985.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tehuacán, November 5, 1985. Consecrated, December 21, 1985, Minor Seminary of Tehuacán, by Antonio López Aviña, archbishop of Durango, assisted by Adolfo Suárez Rivera, archbishop of Monterrey, and by Rosendo Huesca Pacheco, archbishop of Puebla; another twenty three bishops also participated in the ceremony. Apostolic visitor for the diocesan and religious seminaries of Mexico. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of México, June 13, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Francesco d'Assisi a Ripa Grande, February 21, 1998. Attended the X Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Spanish; and his arms.

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ROBERTI, Francesco
(1889-1977)

Birth. July 7, 1889, Pergola, diocese of Pesaro, Italy. Son of Terenzio Roberi and Giuseppina Profili. He was baptized on the same day of his birth.

Education. Pre-Seminary of Pesaro, Pesaro, 1899; received the ecclesiastical tonsure on December 26, 1901; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome, April 24, 1902-1913; returned to Pergola to receive the priestly ordination; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome (doctorates in philosophy, theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law); Royal University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 3, 1913, Pergola. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, Tor di Mezzavia d'Albano and Torretta Massimi. Vice-rector of the Pontifical Minor Roman Seminary, 1915-1916; rector, 1916-1929. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 2, 1917. Professor of canon law at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", February 1, 1918-1938. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 23, 1922. Advocate of the Sacred Roman Rota and the Holy Office, 1927-1931. Referendary prelate of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, March 17, 1928; voting prelate, November 27, 1930. Founder and director of the journal Apollinaris, organ of the Faculty of Canon Law, 1928. Undersecretary of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities, April 24, 1931. He was one of the organizers and contributors of the 4th International Juridical Congress for the commemoration of the 7th centennial of the decretali of Pope Gregory IX and the 14th centennial of the codice Giustinianeo, celebrated in Rome on November 12 to 17, 1934; the congress gathered the leading international specialist in canon and Roman law. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, June 5, 1936. Dean of the Pontifical Institute "Utriusque Iuris", 1937-1943. Official of the Roman vicariate. Secretary of the S.C. of the Council, March 9, 1946. Legal consultor of the Secretariat of State, October 6, 1952.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, December 18, 1958. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, November 14, 1959.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Colonnata, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Augustin Bea, S.J., Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Francesco Morano and Alfredo Ottaviani. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, June 26, 1967. Resigned the prefecture, March 24, 1969; named prefect emeritus, March 26, 1969. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971.

Death. July 16, 1977, Rome. Buried in his family's plot in Pergola.

Bibliography. Palazzini, Pietro. "Card. Francesco Roberti." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, pp. 222-224; Palazzini, Pietro. "Commemorazione del cardinale Francesco Roberti." Apollinaris, LI (1978), 5-15.

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RODRÍGUEZ MARADIAGA, S.D.B., Óscar Andrés
(1942-

Birth. December 29, 1942, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Third of the four children of Andrés Rodríguez Palacios and Raquel Maradiaga; the other siblings were Jorge, Hortensia and Mario. His paternal grandfather, Jesús María Rodríguez Orellana, was minister of education.

Education. Salesian "Instituto San Miguel", Tegucigalpa, 1949-1960 (elementary and secondary studies); joined the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco); sent to El Salvador to initiated his Salesian formation; solemn profession, May 3, 1961; Institute "Don Rua", San Salvador, El Salvador (doctorate in philosophy); Pontifical Salesian Athenaeum, Rome (doctorate in theology); Alphonsian Academy of Moral Theology (incorporated into the faculty of the Pontifical Lateran University in 1960), Rome (doctorate in moral theology); University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (diploma in clinical psychology and psychotherapy); Conservatory of San Salvador, El Salvador (piano); studied harmony and musical composition in Guatemala and Newton, N.J., United States of America. Besides his native Spanish, he also speaks English, French, Italian, German and Portuguese.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 28, 1970, Guatemala, by Girolamo Prigione, titular archbishop of Lauriaco, nuncio in Guatemala and El Salvador. Professor of sacred music for 13 years; professor of chemistry, Salesian school "Don Bosco", Guatemala, 1971-1972; professor of moral theology and ecclesiology, Salesian Theological Institute, Guatemala, 1971-1975; secretary of the Theological Faculty of the University "Francisco Marroquín", Guatemala, 1974-1976; rector of the Salesian Philosophical Institute, Guatemala, 1975-1978.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Pudenziana and appointed auxiliary of Tegucigalpa, October 28, 1978. Consecrated, December 8, 1978, Tegucigalpa, by Gabriel Montalvo, titular archbishop of Celene, nuncio in Honduras, assisted by Hector Enrique Santos Hernández, S.D.B., archbishop of Tegucigalpa, and by Miguel Obando Bravo, S.D.B., archbishop of Managua. Named apostolic administrator of the diocese of Santa Rosa de Copán, 1981-1984. Attended the VI Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the VII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; by papal appointment. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; by papal appointment. Attended the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Promoted to metropolitan see of Tegucigalpa, January 8, 1993. Apostolic Administrator of the diocese of San Pedro Sula, 1993-1995. Secretary general of the Episcopal Council of Latin America (CELAM), 1987-1991; president, 1995-1999. Attended the IX Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. President of the Episcopal Conference of Honduras, 1997-. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; president of the commission for information. Awarded a doctorate ad honorem in political science by the University of Studies "Carlo Bo", Urbino, Italy, January 16, 2001; elected member of the Twelfth Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, October 22, 2008.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria della Speranza, February 21, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. On June 5, 2007, he was elected president of Caritas Internationalis by the Confederation members at their 18th General Assembly in Vatican City; he took possession of the post on June 9, 2007. On January 24, 2008, he received the 2007 "Honorary Award" in appreciation of his life work from the Viktor Frankl Foundation of the City of Vienna for the Advancement of Meaning-Oriented Humanistic Psychotherapy, Vienna, Austria. The board of the foundation had convened on November 28, 2007 to confer the prizes and scholarships for 2007. Attended the XII Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; by papal appointment. He is the first cardinal from Honduras.

Bibliography. Romeo, Enzo. L'Oscar color porpora : il cardinale Rodríguez Maradiaga, voce dell'America Latina. Milano : Ancora, 2006. (Frontiere; Variation: Frontiere (Milan, Italy)).

Link. His arms.

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ROEY, Jozef-Ernest van
(1874-1961)

Birth. January 13, 1874, Vorsselaer, archdiocese of Mechelen, Belgium. Eldest of the five children of Stanislas van Roey and Anna-Maria Bartholomeus; the other siblings were Bernadette, Louis, Véronique, and Stephanie, who became a nun. He was baptized the same day of his birth in the parish church of Vorsselaer.

Education. Jesuit school, Vorsselaer; Saint-Joseph School, Herentals, 1885-1892; Seminary of Mechelen, Mechelen, September 1892-1894 (philosophy); Major Seminary of Mechelen, Mechelen, 1894-1897 (theology); University of Louvain, Faculty of Theology, 1897-1901 (obtained a doctorate in theology and the habilitation, 1903).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 18, 1897, Mechelen, by Cardinal Pierre-Lambert Goossens, archbishop of Mechelen. Further studies, 1897-1901. Faculty member of "Collège Americaine," 1901-1905. Faculty member of the University of Louvain, 1905-1907; he became a friend of Dom Columba Marmion, O.S.B., future blessed. Honorary canon of the metropolitan chapter of Mechelen, May 19, 1907; vicar general, September 30, 1907 to 1925. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 2, 1909. Secretary of the provincial council, 1920. Participated in the "Conversations of Mechelen", 1921-1926 (1). Secretary of the diocesan synod, 1924. Protonotary apostolic, February 11, 1925.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Mechelen, March 12, 1926. Consecrated, Sunday April 25, 1926, metropolitan cathedral of Mechelen, by Clemente Micara, titular archbishop of Apamea, nuncio in Belgium, assisted by Gustave-Joseph Waffelaert, bishop of Brugge, and by Gaston-Antoine Rasneur, bishop of Tournai.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 20, 1927; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, June 23, 1927. Papal legate to the centennial celebration of the University of Louvain, June 24, 1927. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Cardinal protoprete, March 29, 1958. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. On July 2, 1959, in Brussels, he celebrated the marriage of Prince Albert, future King Albert II of the Belgians and Princess Paola Margherita Consiglia Ruffo di Calabria. On December 15, 1960, at the collegiate church of Saints-Michele-et-Gudule, Brussels, he celebrated the marriage of King Baudouin I of Belgians and Doña Fabiola de Mora y Aragón.

Death. Sunday August 6, 1961, at 6:05 a.m., Mechelen; the day before at noon, Auxiliary Bishop Leo-Jozef Suenens had administered him the last rites and the holy communion. His body lay in state for three days in the archiepiscopal palace of Mechelen. The funeral took place on August 10 in the metropolitan cathedral of Saint-Romabut of Mechelen; Honoré van Waeyembergh, auxiliary bishop of Mechelen and rector magnifique of the University of Louvain, delivered the homily; King Leopold and Queen Elizabeth of Belgium attended the ceremony together with the prime minister, the ministers of state, all the bishops of Belgium and several who had come from other countries such as Cardinals Francis Joseph Spellman of New York and Bernardus Johannes Alfrink of Utrecht. Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Mechelen, next to the vault of Cardinal Engelbert Sterckx, whom he recognized as the second founder of the archdiocese, as he had explicitly requested (2).

Bibliography. Le jubilé sacerdotal de Son Éminence le Cardinal van Roey, archevêque de Malines = Het priesterjubileum van Zijne Eminentie Kardinaal van Roey, aartsbisschop van Mechelen. [S.l. : s.n.], (Nova et Vetera), 1947; Kempeneers, Joseph Marie Léonard. Le Cardinal Van Roey en son temps. 1874-1961. Trente-cinq années d'épiscopat. Préface de Léon-Joseph Cardinal Suenens. Bruxelles : OEuvres pontificales missionnaires ; Gembloux : J. Duculot, 1971. (Bibliotheca Ephemeridum theologicarum Lovaniensium, 30); Leclef, Edmond François Xavier Antoine Marie Joseph. Le Cardinal van Roey et l'occupation allemande en Belgique. Bruxelles : A. Goemaere, 1945. Responsibility: actes et documents publiés par le chanoine Leclef; Plavsic, Wladimir S. Le Cardinal Van Roey. Bruxelles : Labor, 1974. (Collection Humanisme).

(1) A series of conversations between prominent Roman Catholic and Anglican figures. The conversations were held between 1921 and 1926 in Malines, Belgium, under the presidency of Cardinal Desiré-Joseph Mercier, archbishop of that city, at the instigation of Charles Lindley Wood, second viscount Halifax. Wood published the results in 1928 and 1930. All the conversations after the first took place with the knowledge of the pope and the archbishop of Canterbury. A wide range of agreements was reached on papal primacy of honor, real presence, eucharistic sacrifice, episcopacy, etc., which foreshadow the current discussions of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC). The conversations were held in in the archiepiscopal palace of Malines in 1921, 1923, 1925 and 1926, and besides Msgr. van Roey, for the Catholic Church, also took part Ferdinand Étienne Portal, president of the Mission; Hyppolite Hemmer; Msgr. Pierre-Henri Batiffol; and for the Anglican Church, Walter Howard Frere, R.C.; Charles Gore, bishop; and Benjamin Kidd.
(2) This is the text of the inscription below his bust in the metropolitan cathedral of Mechelen, unveiled on August 6, 1971:

D. O. M.
PIAE MEMORIAE
JOSEPHI ERNESTI S. R. E. CARDINALIS
VAN ROEY
ARCHIEPISCOPI MECHLINIENSIS
GREGEM PER TRIGINTA QUINQUE ANNOS REXIT
IN NOMINE DOMINI
SAPEINTIA AEQUITATE PRUDENTIA
AD INFORMANDUM SCIENTIA AC PIETATE CLERUM
ASSIDUE STUDIT
CHRISTIFIDELIUM ET CIVIUM JURA
INTREPIDUS AB INIURIIS VINDICAVIT
S. SEDI DEVOTISSIMUS
CONSILIO ATQUE AUCTORITATE
CUM IN PATRIA TUM TOTA ECCLESIA CLARUIT
OBIIT 6 AUG. 1961 ANNO AETATIS SUAE 87
PIE LECTOR PRO EODEM PRECARE

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RONCALLI, Angelo Giuseppe
(1881-1963)

Birth. Friday November 25, 1881, at 10:15 a.m., Sotto il Monte, diocese of Bergamo, Italy. Son of Giovanni Battista Roncalli and Marianna Mazzola. His brothers and sisters were: Maria Caterina, Teresa, Ancilla, Zaverio, Maria Elisa, Assunta Casilda, Alfredo, Giovanni Francesco, Enrica, Giuseppe Luigi and Luigi. He was baptized on the day of his birth, as it was the custom, in the church of S. Maria di Brusicco by Fr. Francesco Rebuzzini; his great-uncle Zaverio Roncalli was his godfather. He received the first communion in 1888 in Sotto il Monte; and confirmation on February 13, 1889 in Cavico from Gaetano Camillo Guindani, bishop of Bergamo.

Education. Minor Seminary of Bergamo, Bergamo, 1892-1895; Major Seminary of Bergamo, Bergamo, 1895-1900 (until his second year of theology); received the clerical habit and the tonsure, June 24, 1895; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome, January 4, 1901 (doctorate in theology, July 13, 1904). Received the minor orders of porter and lector, July 3, 1898; the minor orders of exorcist and acolyte, June 25, 1899; the subdiaconate, April 11, 1903, patriarchal Lateran basilica, from Cardinal Pietro Respighi, vicar of Rome; and the diaconate, December 18, 1903, in the same basilica from the same cardinal. Began his military service in the 73rd Infantry, Lombardy Brigade, at Bergamo, in the Umberto I Barracks, November 30, 1901; promoted to corporal, May 31, 1902; promoted to sergeant, November 30, 1902; returned to his studies in Rome, December 1902; prefect of young students of theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 10, 1904, church of Santa Maria in Monte Santo, piazza del Popolo, Rome, by Giuseppe Ceppetelli, titular patriarch of Constantinople, vicegerent of Rome. Secretary to the bishop of Bergamo, 1905-1914. Named professor of church history at the Seminary of Bergamo, October 1906. Secretary of the 32nd diocesan synod of Bergamo, April 26 to 28, 1910. Military chaplain in the First World War, May 24, 1915 to December 10, 1918. Spiritual director of the Seminary of Bergamo, 1918-1921. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Bergamo, 1921. Staff member of the S.C. for Propagation of the Faith, 1921-1925. President of the Central Council of the Propagation of the Faith in Italy, January 18, 1921. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 7, 1921. Named professor of patrology at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, November 1924.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Areopoli, March 3, 1925. Consecrated, March 19, 1925, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Tacci, secretary of the S.C. of the Oriental Church, assisted by Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, titular archbishop of Seleucia di Isauria, secretary of the S.C. for Propagation of Faith, and by Giuseppe Palica, titular archbishop of Filippi, vicegerent of Rome. Appointed apostolic visitor in Bulgaria, March 19, 1925; apostolic delegate, October 16, 1931. Transferred to titular see of Mesembria, November 30, 1934. Apostolic delegate and apostolic vicar in Turkey, and apostolic delegate ad interim in Greece, January 12, 1935. Nuncio in France, December 22, 1944.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Prisca, October 29, 1953. Promoted to the patriarchate of Venice, January 15, 1953. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Beïrut, Lebanon, September 30, 1954. Participated in the conclave of 1958 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected, October 28, 1958; took name John XXIII (1). Crowned, November 4, 1958 by Cardinal Nicola Canali, protodeacon of S. Nicola in Carcere. Created fifty five cardinals in five consistories. Three of them were reserved in pectore and their names were never published, therefore, their promotion did not take effect.

Death. June 3, 1963, at the end of the mass celebrated by Cardinal Luigi Traglia, vicar of Rome, in St. Peter's square, Vatican City. Buried on June 6, 1963, in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Beatification. The process of beatification was started by Pope Paul VI on November 18, 1965, during the last session of the II Vatican Council together with the cause of Pope Pius XII. Beatified on September 3, 2000 in St. Peter's Square, by Pope John Paul II. His body was transferred to the altar of the chapel of S. Girolamo in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on June 3, 2001.

Bibliography. Breig, Joseph A. The story of Pope John XXIII. St. Paul : Summit Press, 1959. Elliot, Lawrence. I Will Be Called John. A biography of Pope John XXIII. New York : Reader's Digest, 1973; Giovannetti, Albert. We have a pope. A portrait of His Holiness John XXIII. Translated from the Italian by John Chapin. Westminster : Newman, 1959; Groppi, Ugo ; Lombardi, Julius S. Above all a shepherd. Pope John XXIII. New York : P.J. Kenedy & Sons, 1959; Hatch, Alden. A man named John. The life of Pope John XXIII. Illustrated with Drawings by Allene Gaty Hatch. New York : Hawthorne Books, 1963; Hebblethwaite, Peter. Pope John XXIII, shepherd of the modern world. Garden City, N.J.; New York: Doubleday, 1985; Javierre, José María. Juan XXIII : reto para hoy. 2a. ed. Salamanca : Editorial Sígueme, 2002, ©2000. (El rostro de los santos ; 25); John XXIII. Journal of a soul. Translated by Dorothy White. New York : McGraw-Hill, 1965. Other title: Giornale dell' anima; Johnson, Paul. Pope John XXIII. Boston : Little, Brown, 1974; Lazzarini, Andrea. Pope John XXIII. A life of the new pope. New York : Herder and Herder, 1959; Mission to France 1944-1953. Edited by Don Loris Capovilla. Translated by Dorothy White. New York : McGraw-Hill, 1966; Paul VI. John XXIII. Pope Paul on his predecessor and a documentation by the Editors of 'Herder Correspondence'. New York : Herder and Herder, 1965; Pepper, Curtis Bill. An artist and the pope. Based upon the personal recollections of Giacomo Manzà. Illustrations by Manzà. New York : Grosset & Dunlap, 1968; Perrotta, Paul C. Pope John XXIII. His life and character. New York : Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1959; Roncalli, Marco. Giovanni XXIII. Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli. Una vita nella storia. Milano : EditoreMondadori, 2006. (Le scie); Spina, Tony. The making of the pope. Additional text by Dawson Taylor. With a foreword by John LaFarge, S.J. New York : A.S. Barnes and Company, 1962; Traniello, Francesco. "Giovanni XXIII, beato." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 646-657; Treece, Patricia. Meet John XXIII: joyful pope and father to all. Cincinnati, OH : Servant Books, 2008. Contents: Beginnings -- Formation in Rome -- A priest of Bergamo -- Drama, deaths, and a World War I chaplaincy -- Teacher and guide -- At home in Rome -- Bulgarian exile -- Turkey and Greece -- Walking World War II's tightrope -- The Paris years -- Shepherd of Venice -- Return to Rome -- A fatherly Holy Father -- The Council -- Of world rulers and God's humble servant -- Go in peace; Trevor, Meriol. Pope John. Garden City : Doubleday, 1967.

Links. His photograph, arms, documents and biography, in several languages; his chronology, in Italian; his episcopal lineage, in English; portrait, arms and biographical information, in English; pictures and biography, in Italian; and research on his heraldry, in Italian.

(1) There had been an antipope by the same name, John XXIII (1410-1415), Baldassare Cossa, who was deposed by the Council of Constance on May 29, 1415. He made his submission to Martin V, who absolved him and named him cardinal bishop of Frascati on June 23, 1419. Died on December 22, 1419.

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ROQUES, Clément-Émile
(1880-1964)

Birth. December 8, 1880, Graulhet, archdiocese of Albi, France.

Education. Seminary of Albi, Albi; Catholic Institute, Toulouse.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 2, 1904, Rodez. Faculty member, administrator, prefect of studies, and superior of the Seminary of Barral, Castres, 1904-1929.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Montauban, April 15, 1929. Consecrated, June 24, 1929, metropolitan cathedral of Albi, by Pierre-Celestin Cézerac, archbishop of Albi, assisted by Jules-Géraud Saliège, archbishop of Toulouse, and by Charles Challiol, bishop of Rodez. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Aix, December 24, 1934. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Rennes, May 11, 1940.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Balbina, February 22, 1946. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Nantes, June 6, 1947; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Rennes, June 22, 1956. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the first two sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1963. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. September 4, 1964, Rennes. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Rennes.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 473-474.

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ROSALES Y RAS, Julio
(1906-1983)

Birth. September 18, 1906, Calbayog, Philippines. Son of Basilio Rosales y Cinco and Agueda Ras y Sison.

Education. Seminary of Calbayog, Calbayog.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 2, 1929, Calbayog. Pastoral work in the diocese of Calboyog, 1929-1946.

Episcopate. Elected first bishop of Tagbilaran, June 29, 1946. Consecrated, September 21, 1946, Palo, by Guglielmo Piani, titular archbishop of Nicosia, apostolic delegate in the Philippines, assisted by Manuel Mascariñas y Morgia, bishop of Caceres, and by Miguel Acebedo, bishop of Calbayog. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cebu, December 17, 1949. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Episcopal Conference of Philippines.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Sacro Cuore di Gesù a Vitinia, April 30, 1969. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, August 24, 1982.

Death. June 2, 1983, Cebu. Buried, metropolitan cathedral, Cebu.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles. "Philippine episcopology (III)." Boletín Eclesiástico de Filipinas, LXV, 716-717 (July-August 1989), 575; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 451.

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ROSSI, Agnelo
(1913-1995)

Birth. May 4, 1913, Joaquim Egidio, diocese of Campinas, Brazil. Son of Vicente Rossi, commander of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, and Vitória Colombo. He had one brother, Miguel.

Education. Initial studies, Valinhos; Diocesan Minor Seminary of Santa Maria, Campinas (philosophy); left for Rome, October 15, 1933; for five months resided at Pontifical Collegio Pio Latino-Americano; on April 4, 1934, he was one of the thirty-three founding students of the Pontifical Collegio Pio Brasileiro; he was student number 01; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 27, 1937, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Secretary to the bishop of Campinas, 1937-1938. Faculty member of the Central Seminary of São Paulo, 1938-1942. From 1943-1956, in Campinas, vice-rector of the faculty of economic science; director of La Tribuna; vice-rector of the University of Campinas; and canon of the cathedral chapter, 1943-1956.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Barra do Pirai, March 5, 1956. Consecrated, April 15, 1956 by Paulo de Tarso Campos, bishop of Campinas, assisted by Vicente Marchetti Zioni, titular bishop of Lauzado, auxiliary of São Paulo, and by Helder Pessoa Câmara, titular bishop of Salde, auxiliary of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Ribeirão Preto, September 6, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Episcopal Conference of Brazil, 1963-1970. Transferred to the metropolitan see of São Paulo, November 1, 1964.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Gran Madre di Dio, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. President-delegate of the First Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; member of the board of the General Secretariat of the World Synod of Bishops, 1969-1971. Prefect of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, October 22, 1970 until April 9, 1984. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the II Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the III Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 24, 1976 until June 27, 1977. Attended the IV Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Confirmed as prefect of the S.C. for Evangelization of Peoples by Pope John Paul II, November 3, 1978. Attended the III General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 8, 1979. Special papal envoy to the International Missionary Congress, Manila, Philippines, December 2 to 6, 1979. Attended the V Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Participated in the II Plenary Meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 23 to 26, 1982. Special papal envoy to the II Latin American Missionary Congress, Tlaxcala, México, May 16 to 21, 1983. Attended the VI Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, April 8, 1984 until December 6, 1989. Named cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, June 25, 1984; the name of the suburbicarian see was changed to Sabina-Poggio Mirteto on September 30, 1986. Attended the II Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Dean of the College of Cardinals and bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, retaining the title of the suburbicarian see of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto, December 19, 1986. Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Participated in the IV Extraordinary Consistory of College of Cardinals, April 4 to 7, 1991. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, May 4, 1993. Resigned the deanship of the College of Cardinals and the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, May 31, 1993. Returned to Brazil, residing in Campinas. Author of Cardinali santi (Roma : Pontifica Universitas Urbaniana, 1994; La diocesi di Ostia: e i cardinali decani. Roma : Pontificia Universitas Urbaniana, 1993; and Il Sacro Collegio Cardinalizio. (Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1990).

Death. May 21, 1995, Vila Santa Sílvia, neighborhood of Helvetia, Indaiatuba. Buried in the shrine of Nossa Senhora de Guadalupe, Campinas, which he had built.

Link. Biography, in Portuguese.

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ROSSI, Opilio
(1910-2004)

Birth. May 14, 1910, New York, United States of America. Son of Angelo Rossi and Davidina Ciappa. Moved to Italy with his parents as a young boy.

Education. Collegio Alberoni, Piacenza; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome (doctorate in canon law with a thesis on St. Basil); Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 11, 1933, Rome. Incardinated in diocese of Piacenza. Further studies, 1933-1937. Attaché at Secretariat of State, 1937-1938. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, September 1, 1938. Secretary of the nunciature in Belgium, 1938-1939; in Holland, 1939-1940. Auditor of the nunciature in Germany, 1940-1945; in Holland, 1945-1948. Member of the Third Pontifical Mission to Germany, 1948-1951. Counselor of the nunciature in Germany, 1951-1953.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Ancira and appointed nuncio in Ecuador, November 21, 1953. Consecrated, December 27, 1953, cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta, Piacenza, by Aloisius Joseph Muench, archbishop-bishop of Fargo, nuncio in Germany, assisted by Umberto Malchiodi, titular archbishop of Serre, coadjutor with succession of the archbishop-bishop of Piacenza, and by Artemio Prati, bishop of Carpi. Nuncio in Chile, March 25, 1959. Nuncio in Austria, September 25, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the deaconry S. Maria Liberatrice a Monte Testaccio, May 24, 1976. President of the Pontifical Council for Laity, December 10, 1976. President of the Pontifical Committee for the Family, December 10, 1976. Attended the IV Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the V Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Special papal envoy to the 4th Bolivarian Eucharistic Congress, Panamá, April 11 to 18, 1982. Cardinal protodeacon, February 2, 1983. Attended the VI Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. President of the Pontifical Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses, December 5, 1983. Resigned the presidency of the council, April 8, 1984. President of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Pontifical Shrines of Pompeii, Loreto and Bari, April 8, 1984. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress, Managua, Nicaragua, November 17 to 23, 1986; to the celebrations of 9th centennial of the transfer of St. Nicholas' body, Bari, Italy, May 1987. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, June 22, 1987. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, May 14, 1990. Resigned the committee presidency, January 3, 1991. Resigned the presidency of the commission, September 12, 1993.

Death. February 9, 2004, in the morning, Domus Internationalis Paulus VI, Rome. Buried, chapel of Madonna di Lourdes, parish church of Scopolo, diocese of Piacenza-Bobbio, where he used to pray as a child.

<STRONG>Bibliography. Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 268-271.

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ROSSI, O.C.D., Raffaele Carlo
(1876-1948)

Birth. October 28, 1876, Pisa, Italy.

Education. Joined the Order of Carmelites Discalced, October 3, 1887; professed, December 19, 1899. Carmelite International College, Rome; Carmelite Scholasticate, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1901, Rome. Faculty member of Carmelite houses of studies, 1902-1920.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Volterra, April 22, 1920. Consecrated, May 25, 1920, in the church of S. Teresa al Corso d'Italia, Rome, by Cardinal Gaetano de Lai, bishop of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, assisted by Rinaldo Rousset, archbishop of Reggio Calabria, and by Pio Bagnoli, bishop of Marsi. Assessor of the S.C. Consistorial and secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 7, 1923. Promoted to titular archbishop of Tessalonica, December 20, 1923. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, March 11, 1930.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1930; received the red hat and the title of S. Prassede, July 3, 1930. Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, July 4, 1930. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. September 17, 1948, Crespano del Grappa. Buried in the church of S. Teresa al Corso d'Italia, Rome.

Bibliography. Papàsogli, Maria Zalum. Il cardinale del silenzio : Raffaello Carlo Rossi. Roma : Postulazione Generale O.C.D., 1983; Rossi, Raffaello Carlo. Epistolario. 3 v. A cura di Valentino e Vito Bondani. Roma : Editrice Teresianum, 1973-1975. Contents: I. Carisma della paternità -- I. Testimonianza di servizio -- III. Pienezza di donazione. Other titles: Carisma della paternità Testimonianza di servizio; Pienezza di donazione.

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ROSSUM, C.SS.R., Wilhelmus Marinus van
(1854-1932)

Birth. September 3, 1854, Zwolle, Holland. Son of Jan van Rossum and Hendrika Veldwillems. His first name is also listed as Willem.

Education. Minor Seminary of Culemborg, 1867. Joined the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (Redemptorists), June 15, 1873, Roermond; professed, June 16, 1874, Bois-le-Duc. Redemptorist houses of studies.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 17, 1879, Wittem. Professor of Latin and rhetoric in Roermond, 1880. Professor of dogmatic theology, Scholasticate of Wittem, 1883-1892; prefect of studies, 1886-1893; rector, 1893-1895. Member of the Redemptorist community of Rome, 1895-1911. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, December 25, 1896. Counselor to the commission for the codification of canon law, April 15, 1904. General consultor of his congregation, 1909-1911.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, November 30, 1911. Papal legate to the International Eucharistic Congress, Vienna, Austria, August 15, 1912. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1912. President of Pontifical Biblical Commission, January 13, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Grand Penitentiary, October 1, 1915. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, December 6, 1915. Member of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, 1917. Prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, March 12, 1918 until his death.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea in Mauretania, April 25, 1918. Consecrated, May 19, 1918, in the Sistine Chapel, by Pope Benedict XV, assisted by Giovanni Battista Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano, titular archbishop of Tebe, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the 27th International Eucharistic Congress, Amsterdam, Holland, July 2, 1924; to the Congress of Missionology, Einsiedeln, Switzerland, October 15, 1928.

Death. August 30, 1932, Maastricht, diocese of Roermond, Holland. Buried, cemetery of Wittem; later, his remains were translated to the Redemptorist church, Wittem.

Bibliography. Drehmanns, Joseph Maria. Kardinaal van Rossum, korte levensschets. Roermond : J.J. Romen, 1935; Henze, Clemens Maria. Die Redemptoristinnen : Zur 2. Jahrhundertfeier d. Gründg d. Ordens ; Mit e. Schreiben d. Ordensprotektors Wilhelm Marinus Kardinal van Rossum. Bonn : Hofbauer-Verl., 1931; Smit, Jan Olav. Wilhelmus Marinus, Kardinaal van Rossum, een groot mens en wijs bestuurder. Roermond : Romen, 1955.

Links. Biography, in Dutch; his tomb, and closer view of his statue.

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ROUCO VARELA, Antonio María
(1936-

Birth. August 24, 1936, Villalba, diocese of Mondoñedo-Ferrol, Spain. Son of Vicente Rouco and María Eugenia Varela; he was from Santa María del Burgo, Lugo, and she from Bahía Blanca, Argentina; he died very young and she died ten years later, never having recovered from the loss; besides the cardinal, they had Visitación, who still lives in Villalba; Jose, who lives in Canarias; and Manuel and Eugenia, deceased.

Education. Seminary of Mondoñedo, Mondoñedo; Pontifical University of Salamanca, Salamanca (licentiate in theology); University of Münich, Münich, Germany (doctorate in canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 28, 1959, old cathedral, Salamanca, by Francisco Barbado y Viejo, O.P., bishop of Salamanca. Further studies, Münich, 1959-1964. Faculty member of the Seminary of Mondoñedo (fundamental theology and canon law), 1964-1966.Faculty member, University of Münich and pastoral work with Spanish immigrants in Münich, 1966-1969. Faculty member, Pontifical University of Salamanca, 1971-1976; vice-rector, 1972-1976; pastoral work with university students in Salamanca. Counselor of the National Catholic Association of Propagandistas, 1972-1976. Peritus of the Pastoral Council of Galicia, 1974-1976.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Gergi and appointed auxiliary of Santiago de Compostela, September 17, 1976. Consecrated, October 31, 1976, cathedral of Plasencia, by Angel Suquía Goicoechea, archbishop of Santiago de Compostela, assisted by Maximino Romero de Lema, titular archbishop of Cittanova, secretary of the S.C. for the Clergy, and by Oskar Sater, titular bishop of Rubicon, auxiliary of Freiburg in Breisgau. Apostolic administrator ad nutum Sanctae Sedis, of Santiago de Compostela, June 11, 1983. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Santiago de Compostela, May 9, 1984. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Madrid, July 28, 1994. Grand chancellor of the Theological Faculty "San Dámaso", Madrid, September 19, 1996.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, February 21, 1998. President of the Spanish Episcopal Conference, March 2, 1999 to March 8, 2005. Special papal envoy to the IX Spanish National Eucharistic Congress, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, May 26 to 29, 1999. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; relator general. Attended the X Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pilgrimage of European Youth, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, August 7 to 8, 2004. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, December 16, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebrations for the 5th centennial of the birth of of St. Francis Xavier that took place in Javier, Spain, on April 7, 2006. On March 4, 2008, he was elected president of the Spanish Episcopal Conference for the 2008-2011 triennium. Attended the XII Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pauline Year observed on June 29, 2009, in Syria.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 141.

Links. Biography, in Spanish; and his arms.

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ROULEAU, O.P., Felix-Raymond-Marie
(1866-1931)

Birth. April 6 (1), 1866, Isle-Verte, diocese of Rimouski, Canada. His father was a farmer; his mother was of Scottish descent. His baptismal name was Félix. His first name is also listed as Raymond-Marie only.

Education. Primary studies in the local school; Seminary of Rimouski, Rimouski, 1879-1885 (classics); received the soutane, September 1885; suffering from consumption, he was cured after making a promise and for this reason, he entered the Order of Preachers, December 8, 1886, Dominican Novitiate, Saint-Hyacinthe; took the name Raymond-Marire; first vows, August 3, 1888; final vows, August 4, 1891; studied theology at the Dominican monastery of Corbara, Corsica (it was the refuge of the French Dominicans expelled from the metropolitan territory); he had Fathers Gardeil and Sertillanges as professors.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 31, 1892, Corte, Corsica, by Paul-Mathieu de la Foata, bishop of Ajaccio. Returned to Canada in 1894 after having obtained the grade of lector in theology. Professor and master of novices at the Dominican Novitiate, Saint-Hyacinthe, 1894-1897; director of studies, 1897-1898; regent of studies, 1898-1900. Prior of the Dominican convent of Ottawa, 1900-1909; regent of studies, 1900-1919; professor of moral and pastoral theology, Sacred Scriptures and canon law; director of spiritual retreats; defender of the matrimonial bond. Accompanied Archbishop Joseph-Thomas of Québec to the Plenary Council of Québec of 1909 as a theologian. Received the title of master in Sacred Theology on June 12, 1909. Counselor in the apostolic delegation in Canada. Ardent defender of the Franco-Ontarian minority in dispute over Réglament XVII. Dominican provincial in Canada, July 2, 1919 until 1923.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Valleyfield, March 9, 1923. Consecrated, May 22, 1923, cathedral of Ste-Cécile, Valleyfield, by Pietro di Maria, titular archbishop of Iconio, apostolic delegate in Canada, assisted by Félix Couturier, O.P., bishop of Alexandria, and by Georges Gauthier, titular bishop of Filippopoli di Arabia, apostolic administrator of Montréal. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Québec, July 9, 1926.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1927; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, December 22, 1927. Decorated with the grand cross of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, February 11, 1929. Honorary member of ther Permanent Committee of the International Eucharistic Congresses, November 18, 1930.

Death. May 31, 1931, suddenly, in the archiepiscopal palace of Québec; he had suffered from angina for several years. The funeral was celebrated on June 6, 1931, by Andrea Cassulo, titular archbishop of Leontopoli di Augustamnica, apostolic delegate in Canada, in the metropolitan cathedral basilica of Québec; it was attended by twenty archbishops and bishops from Canada. His remains were buried in that metropolitan cathedral basilica.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1939, p. 81; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 786-788; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 117; "Necrologie." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, pp. 917-918.

(1) This is according to LeBlanc, Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada, p. 786; and "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1931, p. 117; Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, p. 81, says that he was born on April 4, 1866.

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ROVÉRIÉ DE CABRIÈRES, François-Marie-Anatole de
(1830-1921)

Birth. August 30, 1830, Beaucaire, diocese of Nîmes, France. He was the youngest of the four children of Marquis Eugène de Cabrières and Yvonne-Guillemette Du Vivier de Fay-Solignac. The other siblings were Artus, François-Marie Humbert and Raymond. His first name is also listed as Anatole-François-Marie; and his last name as de Cabrières only.

Education. Initial studies at home under a a private tutor, M. Paccalin; Collège de l'Assomption, Nîmes; Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris. Received the diaconate on December 28, 1852.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 24, 1853, bishop's chapel, Nîmes, by Jean-François-Marie Cart, bishop of Nîmes. From 1853 to 1874, pastoral work in diocese of Nîmes; director of the Minor Seminary of Nîmes; director of Collège de l'Assomption, 1855-1859; secretary to the bishop of Nîmes, cathedral canon, January 5, 1871; and honorary vicar general.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Montpellier, January 16, 1874. Consecrated, March 19, 1874, cathedral of Nîmes, by Claude-Henri Plantier, bishop of Nîmes, assisted by Julien Meirireu, bishop of Digne, and by Gaspard Mermillod, titular bishop of Ebron, auxiliary of Lausanne et Genève. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, April 27, 1875 and June 23, 1890. Granted the right to use the pallium, July 15, 1890.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, November 30, 1911. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.

Death. December 21, 1921, Montpellier. Buried in the cathedral of Montpellier.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 477-478; Cholvy, Gérard. Le cardinal de Cabrières (1830-1921); un siècle d'histoire de la France. Paris, Éditions du Cerf, 2007; Janvier, Marie-Albert. Le cardinal de Cabrières; éloge funèbre prononcé à la cathédrale de Montpellier le 31 janvier 1922. Paris : P. Lethielleux, 1922; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 11 and 24; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 394; Rovérié de Cabrières, François-Marie-Anatole de. Le Cardinal Cabrières. Paris : Le Bonne Presse, 1944.

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ROY, Maurice
(1905-1985)

Birth. January 25, 1905, parish of Notre-Dame, Québec, Canada. His father was dean of the faculty of law at Laval University and judge of the Court of Magistrates; his mother was a descendant of the poet Napoléon Legendre; they had three children.

Education. Initial studies at home; Seminary of Québec, Québec, 1915-1923 (classics; obtained the Prince of Wales Prize in philosophy in 1923); Grand Seminary of Québec, Québec (theology); University of Laval, Québec (doctorate in theology, 1927); Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome (doctorate in philosophy, 1929); La Sorbonne University and Catholic Institute, Paris, 1929-1930 (philosophy and letters); pastoral ministry in the banlieue rouge of Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 12, 1927, basilica of Québec, by Joseph-Simon-Hermann Brunault, bishop of Nicolet. Further studies, 1927-1930. Professor of dogmatic and sacramental theology and apologetics at the Grand Seminary of Québec, 1930-1939; secretary of the Faculty of Philosophy, 1930-1934. Chaplain of the students of the University of Laval, 1935-1937. Chaplain, with the rank of captain, of the 22nd Royal Regiment, 1939; he served in Great Britain, Italy, France, Belgium, Holland and Germany, 1939-1943. At the same time, he climbed the echelon of the military hierarchy: major as chaplain of group, May 1941; lieutenant-colonel as chaplain of the First Corps of the army, August 1941; and colonel as chaplain of the First Canadian Army, 1945. He returned to Québec in 1945 and resumed his teaching position at the Grand Seminary; in December 1945, he became its superior.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Trois-Rivières, February 22, 1946. Consecrated, May 1, 1946, cathedral-basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec, by Cardinal Jean-Marie-Rodrigue Villeneuve, O.M.I., archbishop of Québec, assisted by Albini Lafortune, bishop of Nicolet, and by Arthur Douville, bishop of St-Hyacinthe. Military vicar of Canada, June 8, 1946. Chaplain general and ordinary of the Canadian armies, June 8, 1946; occupied the post until his promotion to the see of Québec. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Québec, June 2, 1947. Military vicar of Canada, February 17, 1951 until March 12, 1982; visited the battle front of Korea. Pope Pius XII erected Québec as the primatial see of Canada on January 24, 1956, and he became the primate. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora del SS. Sacramento e Ss. Martiri Canadesi, February 25, 1965. President of the Council for Laity and of the Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax, January 6, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the II Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. President of the Pontifical Committee for the Family, January 11, 1973. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Ceased as president of the commission, December 16, 1976. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 20, 1981. Resigned the military vicariate, March 12, 1982. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, January 25, 1985.

Death. October 24, 1985, Québec Hospital, Québec, in his sleep. His funeral was celebrated by Cardinal Louis-Albert Vachon, archbishop of Québec, in the cathedral basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec. Buried in the crypt of that cathedral basilica. He had had the crypt rebuilt in 1959 to bury the mortal remains of all the bishops and archbishops of Québec after François de Laval, first bishop of Québec.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2202. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 793-795.

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RUBIANO SÁENZ, Pedro
(1932-

Birth. September 13, 1932, Cartago, Colombia.

Education. Seminary of Popayán, Popayán (philosophy); University of Laval, Québec, Canada (theology); Catholic University of America, Washington, United States of America (Catechetics); ILADES, Santiago de Chile, Chile (social doctrine of the Church).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 8, 1956, Cali. Pastoral work, Cali, 1956-1971, as vicar cooperator of the parish of "San Fernando Rey"; pastor and founder of the parishes of "San Pedro Claver" and of "Nuestra Seóora de la Providencia"; chaplain of the military school of aviation "Marco Fidel Suárez"; chaplain of the national school "Santa Librada"; chaplain of the Clinic "Nuestra Señora de los Remedios", treasurer and pastoral vicar of the archdiocese of Cali; vice-rector of the Major School "Santiago di Cali".

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cúcuta, June 2, 1971. Consecrated, July 11, 1972, Cali, by Angelo Palmas, titular archbishop of Vibiana, nuncio in Colombia, assisted by Alberto Uribe Urdaneta, archbishop of Cali, and by Alfredo Rubio Díaz, archbishop of Nueva Pamplona. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor, with right of succession, of Cali, March 26, 1983. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Cali, February 7, 1985. President of the Episcopal Conference of Colombia, 1990-1993 and 1993-1996. Apostolic administrator of Popayán, April 1990 to January 1991. Attended the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Bogotá, December 27, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of Trasfigurazione di Nostro Signore Gesù Cristo, February 21, 2001. Attended the X Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. President of the Colombian Episcopal Conference, 2002-2005 and 2005-2008. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil.

Links. Photograph and biographical data, in Spanish; .

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RUBIN, Władysław
(1917-1990)

Birth. September 20, 1917, Toki, archdiocese of Lviv of the Latins, Poland. Son of Ignace Rubin and Tekli Saluk.

Education. Jan Kazimiers University, Lviv; University of Saint Joseph, Beïrut, Lebanon; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome. During the Second World War, he was arrested and interned in a forced labor camp. Released, he joined the Polish Army.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 30, 1946, Beïrut, by Rémy-Louis Leprêtre, O.F.M., titular archbishop of Rusio, vicar apostolic of Aleppo. Pastoral work with Polish refugees, Roumy, Lebanon, 1946-1949. Further studies, 1949-1953, Rome. Pastoral work among Polish refugees throughout Italy, 1953-1958. Rector of the Pontifical Polish College, Rome, 1959-1964.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Serta and appointed auxiliary of Gniezno, Poland, and delegate of the primate of Poland for the spiritual care of Polish emigrés, November 17, 1964. Consecrated, November 29, 1964, church of S. Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, by Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw, primate of Poland, assisted by Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, and by Stefan Bareła, bishop of Częstochowa. Rector of the church and residence of St. Stanisław, Rome, 1964-1967. Secretary general of the World Synod of Bishops, February 27, 1967. Participated in the Fist Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, January 27 to February 13, 1979, Puebla, México.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Santa Maria in Via Lata, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Prefect of the S.C. for the Oriental Churches, June 27, 1980. Attended the V Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of the general secretariat, 1980-1983. Special papal envoy to the commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the union of the Malankar Church with the Catholic Church, Kottayam, India, December 26 to 29, 1980. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned the prefecture, October 30, 1985. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated, pro illa vice, to title, November 26, 1990.

Death. November 28, 1990, Vatican City. Buried in the pro-cathedral of Lubaczow, archdiocese of Lviv of the Latins, Poland.

Bibliography. "25 (dwadzieścia pięć) -lecie święceń kapłańskich J.E. ks. Biskupa Władysław Rubina," Wrocławskie Wiadomości Kościelne, 26 (1971), p. 346-349; J.E. "Kardynał Rubin prefektem rzymskiej kongregacji." Więż, (1980), nr 7/8, p. 265-266; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 335-343.

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RUFFINI, Ernesto
(1888-1967)

Birth. January 19, 1888, San Benedetto Po, diocese of Mantua, Italy. Fifth of the eight children of Giovanni Ruffini and Domenica Gentilini. He was baptized on February 22, 1888. Received the sacrament of confirmation on May 30, 1896; and the first communion on Palm Sunday 1898.

Education. Seminary of Mantua, Mantua, 1898-1910; took the vow of chastity in 1902; renew the vow perpetually, with the consensus of his spiritual director, on June 21, 1904; Pontifical Theological Faculty of Northern Italy, Milan (licentiate in theology, September 17, 1910); resided at Collegio Leoniano, Rome, 1010-1913; during this time, his spiritual director was Msgr. Vincenzo Tarozzi, future servant of God; Pontifical Academy of S. Tommaso, Rome (licentiate in philosophy, January 19, 1911); Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome (diploma to teach Biblical Science, Summer 1913).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 10, 1910, chapel of the Incoronata, cathedral of Mantua, by Paolo Carlo Origo, bishop of Mantua. Further studies, 1910-1913. Took part in the first study travel to the Holy Land organized by the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, November 6 to 15, 1913. Faculty member of the Pontifical Athenaeum of Major Roman Seminary, Rome, 1913-1930. Faculty member of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," 1917-1929. In 1924, he was named diocesan delegate for Rome of the Missionary Union of the Clergy; examiner of the Roman clergy; and substitute for censorship of books in the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 1, 1927. Secretary of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities, Otober 28, 1928. Prefect of studies of the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, 1930; its rector magnifico, 1931. Protonotary apostolic, June 15, 1931. President of the Academy of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Rome. Member of the papal delegation to the International Eucharistic Congress celebrated in Burenos Aires, Argentina, in 1934. Founder of the Medical-biological Union "S. Luca", Rome, 1944.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Palermo, Sicily, October 11, 1945. Consecrated, December 8, 1945, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo, prefect of S.C. for Seminaries and Universities, assisted by Francesco Borgongini Duca, titular archbishop of Eraclea di Europa, nuncio in Italy, and by Domenico Menna, bishop of Mantua.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Sabina, February 22, 1946. Apostolic administrator of the eparchy of Piana degli Albanesi, January 3, 1947. Apostolic administrator sede vacante of Trapani, April 8 to November 10, 1947; and again, December 17, 1950. Apostolic administrator sede vacante of Mazara del Vallo, August 18, 1948. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress and to the Congress of Sacerdotal Vocations, Rosario, Argentina, September 6, 1950; received a doctorate honoris causa in law from the University of Buenos Aires. Papal legate to the Second Sicilian Plenary Council, Palermo, December 20, 1951. Founder of the Missionary Social Assistants, March 25, 1954. Received a doctorate honoris causa in philosophy from the University of Palermo on June 9, 1956. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; member of its board of presidency, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Honorary citizen of Palermo, November 4, 1964.

Death. Sunday June 11, 1967, at 11 a.m., unexpectedly, after having voted in the regional elections and while he was preparing to celebrate mass in Bonagia, one of the poorest areas of Palermo; he received the last rites (1). On Monday June 12, at 8 p.m., the body was placed in a zinc casket, which was placed inside another one of mahogany; according to his will, a Bible was placed inside the casket; a lead tube containing a eulogy was also placed in the casket (2). Exposed in the archiepiscopal palace of Palermo; the funeral, celebrated by Filippo Aglialoro, titular bishop of Germa di Galazia, auxiliary and vicar general of Palermo, took place in the metropolitan cathedral of Palermo on Tuesday June 13, at 5:30 p.m; Cardinal Ermenegildo Florit, archbishop of Florence, imparted the final absolution; twenty archbishops and bishops were in attendance, besides the mayor and councilmen of Palermo and other civil dignitaries. Buried, according to his will, next to the altar of the Madonna, on the left side, in the shrine of "Madonna dei Rimedi", Palermo (3).

Bibliography. Gambio, Emmanuele. Il pastore sulla breccia, Ernesto card. Ruffini. Roma : Ancora, 1967; Petralia, Giuseppe. Il cardinale Ernesto Ruffini, arcivescovo di Palermo. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1989.

(1) Text of his spiritual testament, taken from Gambio, Il pastore sulla breccia, Ernesto card. Ruffini, p. 263:

   Innanzitutto ringrazio di tutto cuore il Signore per i molteplici favori e grandi doni che mi ha elargito, specialmente chiamandomi al Sacerdozio e alla pienezza del Sacerdozio; ci vorrà l'eternità perchè io possa effondere meno inadeguatamente la mia riconoscenza per gli innumerevoli benefizi ricevuti dalla misericordia di Dio per la mediazione della mia dolcissima Madre celeste, Maria Santissima.
   Ringrazio pure tutti coloro che mi hanno aiutato con l'opera, con l'esempio, con la preghiera.
   Chiedo umilmente perdono al Signore dei miei peccati, delle offese recateGli e delle negligenze commesse nel suo servizio.
Professo fede fermissima a quanto il Signore ha rivelato e la Santa Chiesa Apostolica Romana propone da credere.
   Ho consacrato molti anni allo studio della Sacra Scrittura e confesso di averne tratto sempre maggior conferma della mia Fede e impulso a bene operare.
Rinnovo la mia profunda, commossa devozione alla Ss. Eucaristia e alla Madonna, alla quale mi sono consacrato con un voto speciale da più di cinquanta anni.
   Approvo pienamente e confermo con entusiasmo gli altri tre voti, da me emessi con l'approvazione del veneratissimo Mons. Vincenzo Tarozzi (+ 1918), di castità perfetta, di umiltà (non cercare mai onori, ed accettarli soltanto quando risultassero con certezza di maggior gloria di Dio) e di perfezione.
   Chiedo umilmente perdono a quanti avessi offeso, recato loro molestia, o dato cattivo esempio. Per parte mia non ho nulla da perdonare: amo tutti coloro che ho conosciuto, e raggiungendo per divina bontà il Paradiso, tutti porterò con me e mi interesserò della loro salvezza eterna, onde stare poi sempre in loro compagnia beatamente.
   Ho sempre amato la povertà -- sono fin da giovane Sacerdote Terziario Cappuccino -- e godo di morire senza proprietà alcuna di beni immobili, povero per i miei poveri, che tanto da vicino mi rappresentano Gesù Cristo, mio dolce Salvatore.
   Il Seminario e i Sacerdoti hanno formato la pupilla dei miei occhi. Se i Sacerdoti saranno tutti buoni, uomini di orazione e perfettamente obbedienti al loro Arcivescovo, faranno miracoli e l'Archidiocesi di Palermo (con l'Eparchia), attesa l'eccezionale bontà del suo popolo, diventerà presto esemplare sotto ogni aspetto.
   Dopo il Seminario e il Clero mi sta sommamente a cuore l'Istituto delle Assistenti Sociali Missionarie, da me fondato. Credo mi sia stato ispirato dalla Madonna, che ne è e ne sarà sempre la suprema Direttrice e Moderatrice: esso risponde certamente a una grande necessità dei tempi nostri nel vasto campo dell'apostolato cristiano. Considero le Assistenti Sociali Missionarie vere Madri Sociali nel nome del Redentore divino Gesù Cristo. Esse potranno entrare in tutti i settori sociali, per portare ovunque lo spirito dell'Evangelo e per preparare innumerevoli anime al sacro ministero dei Sacerdoti. È però assolutamente necessario che siano animate tutte e singole di grande spirito di orazione, di mortificazione e di carità.
   Desidero essere sepolto -- se nulla oster` -- nella Chiesa della Madonna dei Rimedi, presso l'altare della Madonna, a sinistra di chi La guarda.

(2) This is the text of the eulogy (taken from Gambio, Il pastore sulla breccia, Ernesto card. Ruffini, p. 251-252), which was composed by Msgr. Salvatore Cambria, chancellor of the archiepiscopal Curia, and subscribed by Filippo Aglialoro, titular bishop of Germa di Galazia, auxiliary and vicar general of Palermo, by the metropolitan chapter and by the civil authorities and others:

ERNESTUS RUFFINI, die XIX m. ianuarii anni millesimi octingentesimi octuagesimi octavi in oppido vulgo " S. Benedetto Po " dioecesis Mantuanae natus, inde a pueritia sacerdotalia munera percupiit.
    Studiorum curriculo emenso et laurea doctorali donatus, die decima m. iulii a. MCMX primum sacrum litavit. Castitatem ex voto inde a teneris annis illaesam servavit et coluit, pietate in Deum enituit, eximia devotione erga Beatissimam Virginem flagravit.
    A Sancto Pio X, cui apprime carus fuit, integra valetudine donatus, ipse munus docendi Sacram Scripturam in Pont. Seminario ad Lateranum accepit, quod postea in Pont. Athenaeo Urbaniano cumulavit, donec a Pio Pp. XI "a Secretis Sacrae Congregationis de Seminariis et Studiorum Universitatibus" renuntiatus fuit. Quo in munere multa egregia navavit ad studia ecclesiastica provehenda, eiusque opera et ingenio prodiit Const. Apost. "Deus scientiarum Dominus".
    Quem virum, tantis decoratum animi ornamentis, Pius XII Pontifex Maximus, anno MCMXLV, in lesto Divinae Maternitatis, ad cathedram S. Mamiliani evexit, asserens se nihil melius habere in Urbe ut Panormum ditaret. Inter Purpuratos Patres cooptatus, die XXXI m. martii anni subsequentis Fanormum venit ac, inenarrabili laetitia exceptus, omnium animos sibi devinxit, immo ipse devinctus est. Felix enim urbs, teterrimo bello vix exstincto, innumera vulnera prae se ferebat, ubique erat squalidior egestas. Propterea effecit ut Fanormum re "felicis urbis" appellationem iterum consequeretur.
    Boni Pastoris officio optime functus est; quater universam archidioecesim lustravit; ministerium verbi, doctrina et facundia, mire exercuit; Seminarium Archiepiscopale, sive maius sive minus, novis aptisque aedificiis ditavit, ac, ad peculiarem institutionem neo-mystarum, Institutum Pastorale a sancto Curato d'Ars nuncupatum, excitavit et amplificavit; inopes effusa caritate et summa liberalitate fovit.
    In postulationes temporum intentus, Institutum saeculare " Assistenti Sociali Missionarie " fundavit, quod, rite ab Ecclesia probaturo, fines archidioeceseos cum praetergressum esser, peculiarem apostolatum exercet in plures dioeceses Italiae, Hispaniae et Americae Latinae.
    Compiorati Erm.mi Praesulis alacritas omnino mira fuit, tum in partes Ecclesiae tum in partes ad societatem hominum pertinentes. Erectis nato quadraginta novis paroeciis, affabre a fundamentis viginti ecclesias paroeciales et domus canonicas excitavit, ne verbum dicamus de ecclesiis refectis et de cura in cathedralem ecclesiam impensa.
    Praeclara monumenta caritatis ipsius erga egenos exstant quae italice nuncupantur : Villaggio Card. Ruffini - Istituto Angelo Custode - Casa della Gioia.- Villaggio dell'Ospitalità - Casa della Serenità - Centro di formazione professionale et alia. Omnibus compertum est qua alacritare interfuit Concilio Oecumenico Vaticano II, ut Christi Ecclesia, ad novum renata vigorem, efficaciore virtute salutiferum suum munus expleret.
    Die XI m. iulii a. MCMLXVII, lato suffragio ad renovandum concilium (assemblea) regionis siculae, profecturus ad sacrum faciendum in oratorio loci vulgo "Bonagia", repentino morbo correptus, sacramentis Ecclesiae refectus, pitssime animare Deo reddidit hora undecima, comploratus ab universa archidioecesi et ab bominibus cuiusvis gradus.
    Ut Summi Pontificis utar verbis "ut bonus miles Christi in acri occubuit".
    Christus ipse, intercedente Deipara Virgine, quam semper in ore et in corde gessit, Patri ac Pastori desideratissimo ianuam superni regni patefaciat, eique praemia promerita impertiat.

(3) This is the text of his epitaph, composed by the cardinal and included at the end in his spiritual testament, taken from Gambio, Il pastore sulla breccia, Ernesto card. Ruffini, p. 263:

+ ERNESTO CARDINALE RUFFINI
Arcivescovo di Palermo e Amministratore Apostolic di Piana degli Albanesi
19-1-1888     11-6-1967
« Tanto amó la Madonna in vita che ha voluto essere sepolto accanto a Lei »

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RUGAMBWA, Laurean
(1912-1997)

Birth. July 12, 1912, Bukongo, diocese of Bukoba, Tanganyika. Baptized, March 19, 1921, Kagonodo Mission.

Education. Regional Grand Seminary of Katigondo, Uganda; Scientifical Missionary Institute "De Propaganda Fide," Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 12, 1943, Katigondo, by Burcardo Huwiler, M. Afr., titular bishop of Vazari, apostolic vicar of Bukoba. Missionary work in Western Africa, 1944-1949. Further studies, Rome, 1949-1951.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Febiana and appointed vicar apostolic of Lower Rugera, December 13, 1951. Consecrated, February 10, 1952, Rutabo, by David Mathew, titular archbishop of Apamea di Bitinia, apostolic delegate to Western Africa, assisted by Joseph Kiwanuka, M.Afr., titular bishop of Tibica, vicar apostolic of Masaka, and by Joseph Blomjous, titular bishop of Bubasti, vicar apostolic of Mwanza. Transferred to the see of Rutabo, March 25, 1953.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 28, 1960; received the red hat and the title of S. Francesco a Ripa, March 31, 1960. Transferred to the see of Bukoba, June 21, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Dar-es-Salaam, December 19, 1968. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the V Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, July 12, 1992. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 22, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. He was the first cardinal from Tanganyika (now Tanzania).

Death. December 8, 1997, at 10:15 pm, Dar-es-Salaam. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Dar-es-Salaam.

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RUINI, Camillo
(1931-

Birth. February 19, 1931, Sassuolo, diocese of Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 8, 1954, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1954-1957. Faculty member, Seminary of Reggio Emilia, 1957-1968. Faculty member, Interdiocesan Theological Seminary of Modena-Reggio Emilia, 1968-1986; director, 1968-1977. Faculty member, Academic Theological Seminary of Bologna, 1977-1983. In the diocese of Reggio Emilia, diocesan assessor of the Catholic physicians; episcopal delegate for the Catholic Action; episcopal vicar for lay apostolate; president of the Diocesan Cultural Center "Giovanni XXIII"; president of the diocesan consult for school pastoral, 1975-1986.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Nepte and appointed auxiliary of Reggio Emilia, May 16, 1983. Consecrated, June 29, 1983, Reggio Emilia, by Gilberto Baroni, bishop of Reggio Emilia, assisted by Francesco Tarcisio Bertozzi, bishop of Faenza, and by Renato Spallanzani, bishop of Palestrina. Secretary general of the Episcopal Conference of Italy, June 28, 1986. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; member of the general secretariat, 1990-1994. Promoted to the rank of archbishop and appointed pro-vicar general of Rome and pro-archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran archbasilica, January 17, 1991. President of the Italian Episcopal Conference, 1991- .

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of S. Agnese fuori le Mura, June 28, 1991. Vicar general of Rome, archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran archbasilica, and grand chancellor of the Pontifical Lateran University, July 1, 1991. Member of Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of Holy See, July 15, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. President of the Peregrinatio ad Petri Sedem, December 29, 1992 until November 8, 1997. Attended the IX Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Special papal envoy to the opening of celebrations of the 4th centenary of the shrine of the Blessed Virgin of Ghiara, Reggio Emilia, Italy, April 29, 1996. Resigned the presidency, May 2, 1996. Papal legate to the 23rd National Eucharistic Congress, Bologna, September 20 to 28, 1997. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the synod of the dioceses of Belarus, Minsk, September 29 to 30, 2000. Papal legate for the closing of the Holy Door at the Lateran basilica, January 5, 2001. Confirmed by the pope as president of the Italian Episcopal Conference for another quinquennial term, March 6, 2001. Attended the X Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Special papal envoy to the 24th Italian Eucharistic Congress, Bari, May 21 to 29, 2005. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Confirmed by the pope as president of the Italian Episcopal Conference, donec aliter provideatur, February 14, 2006. On March 7, 2007, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation, upon having reached the age limit, to the charge of president of the Italian Episcopal Conference. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the "Missioni Cittadine Europee", Budapest, Hungary, September 16 to 22, 2007. Resigned the posts of vicar general of His Holiness for Rome and archpriest of the papal Lateran archbasilica for having reached the age limit, June 27, 2008.

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