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PROTOCOL ON ROAD SIGNS AND SIGNALS
(Geneva, 19 September 1949)

The States Parties to this protocol, desiring to ensure the safety of road traffic and to facilitate international road traffic by a uniform system of road signalling, have agreed upon the following provisions:


PART I. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1
The Contracting Parties to this protocol accept the system of road signalling described herein and undertake to introduce it as soon as possible. For this purpose they will erect the signs set out in this Protocol as and when new signs are put up or those now in existence are renewed. Signs which do not conform to the system provided in this Protocol shall be completely replaced within a period not exceeding ten years from the date of the coming into force of ths Protocol in respect of each of the Contracting Parties.

Article 2
The Contracting Parties undertake, as soon as this Protocol comes into force, to replace signs which, although they have the distinguishing features of a sign belonging to the system provided for in this Protocol, are used with a different meaning from the one attaching to that sign in this system.


PART II. ROADSIDE TRAFFIC SIGNS

CHAPTER I. GENERAL

Article 3
The international system of roadside traffic signs shall comprise three classes of signs, namely:
(a) Danger signs;
(b) Signs giving definite instructions subdivided into:
    (i) Prohibitory signs,
    (ii) Mandatory signs;
(c) Informative signs subdivided into:
    (i) Indication signs,
    (ii) Advance direction signs and direction signs,
    (iii) Place and route identification signs.

Article 4
There shall be a distinctive shape for each class of sign.

Article 5
1. The symbols as indicated on the signs shown in the tables appended to this Protocol shall be accepted by the Contracting Parties as the fundamental basis of their roadside traffic signs. As a rule they shall appear within the signplate.
2. Where Contracting Parties consider it necessary to modiy the symbols, these modifications shall be such as not to alter the essential character of the symbols.
3. For the purpose of facilitating the interpretation of the signs additional information may be given on a rectangular plate below the sign.
4. Where an inscription is used or below a sign, it shall be in the national language or languages, and if so desired in one of the official language of th United Nations. The provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to the inscription "Stop" referred to in article 33, paragraph 2.
5. New signs created by Contracting Parties in accordance with the provisions of paragraph a of article 17 of the Convention on Road Traffic opened for signature at Geneva on 19 September 1949, shall be communicated to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall notify all Contracting Parties.

Article 6
1. The colours used on the signs, symbols and inscriptions shall be those prescribed in this Protocol, unless exceptional conditions make them impracticable.
2. Where the colours to be used are optional, each country shall employ the same colours for any one class of signs used under the same condition.
3. The reverse side of signs shall be of a neutral colour except in the case of the signs III, C.1a,b and symbol II, A.15 when afixed to the reverse side of sign II, A.14.

Articel 7
The use of lighting or of reflecting materials or devices is recommended, at least for danger signs and signs giving definite istructions, where it would improve the visibility of roadside traffic signs at night time; but they should not dazzle road users or obscure the legibility of the symbol or the inscription.

Article 8
1. The dimensions of sign plates shall be such that the sign can be easily seen from a distance and easily understood near at hand.
2. The dimensions of various signs shall be standardised in each country so as to ensure the maximum uniformity. In genaral, two sizes shall be used for each type, namely, a standard size and a reduced size for use where conditions do not permit or the safety of road users soes not require the erection of the standard size. In exceptional circumstances, a special small type sign may be used inside built-up areas or for repeating the main sign.

Article 9
1. Outside built-up areas, the centre line of the signs shall be not more than 2 m from the nearside edge of the carriageway unless special circumstances render thisimpracticable.
2. In built-up areas and mountainous country, the distance between the edge of the sign nearest the carriageway and a vertical line drawn from the edge of the carriageway shall be not less than 0.50 m. In exceptional cases, however, thi distance may be reduced.

Article 10
1. In this Protocol the height of signs above the ground shall mean the height of the lower edge of the signs from the level of the road.
2. So far as possible a uniform height shall be observed over the same route.


CHAPTER II. CLASS I. DANGER SIGNS

Article 11
1. The danger signs shall be in the shape of an equilateral triangle with one point upwards except in the case of sign "PRIORITY ROAD AHEAD" (I, 22) which shall have a point downwards.
2. These signs shall have a red border with white or light yellow ground. Symbols shall be black or dark.
3. For signs of the standard size, the length of each side of the triangle shall be not less than 0.90 m and for the reduced size, not less than 0.60m.
4. The signs shall be placed on the side of the road appropriate to the direction of the traffic concerned and facing that traffic. They may be repeated on the other side of the road.
5. Unless otherwise provided hereafter in this Protocol, the signs shll be placed at not less than 150m and not more than 250m from the hazard unless this is impracticable on account of local conditions. In such exceptional cases the sign shall be erected at less than 150 m, but as far as possible from the hazard and special provisions shall be made.
6. The height of signs shall be not more than 2.20m and, outside built-up areas, not less than 0.60 m.
7. The signs shall be placed in such a way that they cannot be obscured nor be a hindrancec to pedestrians.

Article 12
The sign "UNEVEN ROAD" (I,1) shall be used, wherever the competent authorities deem it necessary, as the approach sign to sections of the road in which the road is uneven, to a gutter or drain crossing the road or to a humpback or hump bridge.

Article 13
1. The sign "DANGEROUS BEND" or "DANGEROUS BENDS" (I, 2) shall be used only asa the approach sign for a bend or bends which are dangerous owing to their physical characteristics or to reduced visibility.
2. Each Contracting Parties may elect to sunstitute for the above sign, signa giving a clearer indication of the bend or bends. Such substitution shallapply throughout the territory of the Contracting Parties concerned. These alternative signs are:
I, 3 -- right bend
I, 4 -- left bend
I, 5 -- double bend, the first to the right
I, 6 -- double bend, the first to the left.

Article 14
1. The sign "ROAD INTERSECTION" (I, 7) shall be used, wherever the competent authorities deem it necessary, as the approach sign for a fork, crossroads or road junction. Inbuit-up areas this sign shall onlu be used in exceotonal cases.

2. When there is a roundabout at the crossroads to be indicated, the sign I, 7 bis shown below may be used instead of sign I, 7; where the left-hand rule of the road is observed, the arrows on the sign shall be reversed.

Article 15
1. The sign "LEVEL-CROSSING WITH GATES" (I, 8) shall be used as the approach sign for every level-crossing with gates and for every level-crossing equipped with staggered half-gates on either side of the railway track.
2. The sign "LEVEL-CROSSING WITHOUT GATES" (I, 9) shall be used as the approach sign for every level-crossing without either gates or half-gates.
3. On roads with a large volume of motor traffic during the night, the signs referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article shall be illuminated or provided with reflectors or reflecting materal.
4. At level-crossings equipped with gates or half-gates, the extension of such gates or half-gates across the road shall mean that no road-user may pass; the movement of gates or half-gates shall have the same meaning.
5. The gates and half-gates of level-crossings shall be painted in stripes of red and white or red and light yellow. Alternatively, the gates may be painted white or light yellow with a large red disc. In order to make gates more visible at night they shall either be provided with red lights or red refrectors or red reflecting material or be illuminated by a floodlight whenever they are not fully open.
6. At all level-crossings without either gates or half-gates there shall be placed, in the immediate vicinity of the railway line, a sign in the form of a St. Andrew's cross (I, 10 and I, 11) or a rectangular signplate, on which this symbol is displayed against a neutral background. The St. Andrew's cross or in any case its lower arms may be double if there are two tracks or more. It shall be painted in red and white or in red and light yellow.
7. In the case of level-crossings situated on local railways, on connecting-lines to factory sidings or on parts of railway lines assimilable to such connecting-lines, especially in the case of roads of minor traffic importance or where a level-crossing is coincident with a road intersection, eachContracting Party may:

Article 16
1. The sign "DANGEROUS HILL" (I, 12) shall be used, wherever the competent authorities deem it necessary, as the approach sign for a dangerous descent. The descent must be steeper than ten per cent or the local conditions such that it constitutes a danger.
2. The gradient shall be shown on the sign, as for example, in diagrams I, 12a and I, 12b.

Article 17
The sign "CARRIAGEWAY NARROWS" (I, 13) shall be used, wherever the competent authorities deem it necessary, as the approach sign to a place where the carriageway narrows in such a manner that it may constitute a danger.

Article 18
The sign "OPENING BRIDGE" (I, 14) shall be used, wherever the competent authorities deem it necessary, as the approach sign to a bridge that can be opend.

Article 19
1. The sign "ROAD WORKS" (I, 15) shall be used as the approach sign to works on the road.
2. The lines of the roadworks shall be clearly indicated at night.

Article 20
The sign "SLIPPERY CARRIAGEWAY" (I, 16) shall be used, wherever the competent authorities deem it necessary, as the approach sign to a section of the carriageway which, under certain conditins, may have a slippery surface.

Article 21
1. The sign "PEDESTRIAN CROSSING" (I, 17) shall be used, wherever the competent authorities deem it necessary, as the approach sign to a pedestrian crossing. The marking of pedestrian crossings shall be decided upon by the competent authorities.
2. The provisions of paragraph 5 of article 11 of this Protocol are not applicable to this sign.

Article 22
1. The sign "CHILDREN" (I, 18) shall be used, wherever the competent authorities deem it necessary, as the approach sign to places frequented by children, such as a school or a playground.
2. The provisions of paragraph 5 of article 11 of this Protocol are not applicable to this sign.

Article 23
The sign "BEWARE OF ANIMALS" (I, 19) shall be used, wherever the competent authorities deem it necessary, to mark the point of entry of a road into a special area where unaccompanied animals are liable to be encountered; the symbol shown on this sign may be modified to cover special cases.

Article 24
The sign "INTERSECTION WITH A NON-PRIORITY ROAD" (I, 20) shall be used wherever the competent authorities deem it necessary on a priority or a major road as an approach sign to an intersection with a non-priority road, in the territory of any Contracting Party where the use of such a sign corresponds to traffic rules.

Article 25
1. The sign "OTHER DANGER" (I, 21) shall be used, wherever the competent authorities deem it necessary,as the approach sign for a danger other than those indicated in articles 12 to 24 of this Protocol.
2. However, an inscription in black or dark colour defining the danger, such as limited headroom or width, ferry or falling rocks, may be placed within the sign in substitution for the symbol.
3. The sign shall always contain the symbol or an inscription or both.
4. An addiional rectangular plate bearing an inscription or a symbol in current use in the territory of the Contracting Party may be placed underneath the sign.

Article 26
Where atomospheric conditions do not permit the use of the full sign, a hollow red triangle may be used to indicate the diffrent dangers referred to in articles 12 to 25. A rectanular plate shall always be placed below the triangle on which the appropriate symbol or inscription or both of them shall be given to indicate the danger.

Article 27
1. The sign "PRIORITY ROAD AHEAD" (I, 22) shall be used to indicate to a driver that he shall give way to vehicles moving along the road which he is approaching.
2. This sign shall be placed on roads without priority at a suitable distance from the intersection, which may be in open country up to 50 m and in built-up areas up to 25 m.
It is recommended that there shall also be placed on such roads, as near to the intersection as practicable, a suitable position sign, mark, or line.
3. Where the sign I, 22 is used, it shall not be preceded by the sign I, 7, but it may be preceded by an advance sign consisting of sign I, 22 supplemented by a rectangular plate bearing an indication of the distance from the intersection as shown in diagram I, 22a.
When there are other intersections between the advance sign and the intersection with a priority or a major road, the advance sign shall be repeated after each of these other intersections.


CHAPTER III

CLASS II. SIGNS GIVING DEFINITE INSTRUCTIONS
Article 28
1. The signs of this class indicate prohibitions or obligations laid down by the competent authorities.
2. The signs of this class shall be circular in shape.
3. Except as regards the sign II, A.16, the diameter shall be at least 0.60 m for signs of standard size and at least 0.40 m for the reduced size. In the case of signs II, A.15, 17, 18 and B.1, 2, the diameter may be reduced to 0.20 m if intermediate signs are used.
4. The signs shall be placed on the side of the road appropriate to the direction of the tarffic and facing the traffic concerned. They may be repeated on the other side of the road.
5. The signs shall be placed in the immediate vicinity of the point where the prohibition or obligation starts or continues. Nevertheless, the signs prohibiting turning or showing the direction to be followed may be placed at a suitable distance in advance.
6. The height of signs shall not be more than 2.20 m and not less than 0.60 m.

II, A. PROHIBITORY SIGNS
Article 29
Except where otherwise specified or shown in the diagrams of this Protocol, the colours of prohibitory signs shall be as follows: white or light yellow, with a red border, the symbol being black or of a dark colour.
Article 30
The signs indicating traffic prohibitions shall be the following:
(a) The sign "CLOSED TO ALL VEHICLES (IN BOTH DIRECTIONS" (II, A.1);
(b) The sign "NO ENTRY FOR ALL VEHICLES" (II, A.2); this sign shall be red with a white or light horizontal bar.
(c) The sign "TURNING TO THE RIGHT (OR TO THE LEFT) PROHIBITED" (II, A.3); the arrow shall be turned towards the right or left according to the relevant prohibition;
(d) The sign "OVERTAKING PROIBITED" (II, A.4); this sign shall be used to indicate that, in addition to the general rules for overtaking, the overtaking of any self-propelled road vehicle (including a trolleybus) other than a motor cycle without sidecar is prohibited; where the left-hand rule of the road is observed, the colours of the cars illustrated shall be reversed.

Article 31
The signs indicating prohibition for certain classes of vehicles shall be the following:
(a) The sign "NO ENTRY FOR ALL MOTOR VEHICLES EXCEPT MOTOR CYCLES WITHOUT SIDECARS" (II, A.5);
(b) The sign "NO ENTRY FOR MOTOR CYCLES WITHOUT SIDECARS" (II, A.6);
(c) The sign "NO ENTRY FOR ALL MOTOR VEHICLES" (II, A.7);
(d) The sign "NO ENTRY FOR GOODS CARRYING VEHICLES EXCEEDING ... TONS LADEN WEIGHT" (II, A.8);
(e) The sign "NO ENTRY FOR PEDAL CYCLISTS" (II, A.9).

Article 32
The signs indicating restrictions on the dimensions, or wight or speed of vehicles shall be the following:
(a) The sign "NO ENTRY FOR VEHICLES HAVING OVERALL WIDTH EXCEEDING ... METRES (... FEET)" (II, A.10);
(b) The sign "NO ENTRY FOR VEHICLES HAVING OVERALL HEIGHT EXCEEDING ... METRES (... FEET)" (II, A.11);
(c) The sign "NO ENTRY FOR VEHICLES EXCEEDING ... TONS LADEN WEIGHT" (II, A.12); an additional rectangular plate indicating special traffic rules or the maximum number of vehicles permitted on a bridge at the same time may be affixed underneath this sign;
(d) The sign "NO ENTRY FOR VEHICLES HAVING AN AXLE WEIGHT EXCEEDING ... TONS" (II, A.13);
(e) The sign "SPEED-LIMIT" (II, A.14); an additional rectangular plate with a red edge bearing an inscription concerning the conditions of implementation of the speed-limit may be affixed underneath this sign;
(f) The sign "END OF SPEED-LIMIT" (II, A.15) (white or light yellow ground with an oblique black or dark coloured bar) shall be used to indicate the point at which the effect of the sign "SPEED-LIMIT" ceases; it may be affixed to the reverse side of sign II, A.14 even though, as a result, it would not be placed on the side of the road appropriate to the direction of the traffic.

Article 33
1. The sign "STOP AT INTERSECTION" shall be used to indicate that a driver shall stop before entering another road and shall give way to vehicles moving along that road.
2. This sign shall consist of a red triangle with the point downwards inscribed within a red circle. The triangle may have the word "Stop" as shown in the diagram II, A.16.
3. The diameter of this sign shall be at least 0.90 m for the sign of standard size and at least 0.60 m for the reduced size.
4. The sign shall be placed at roads without priority, at a suitable distance from the intersection, up to 50 m in open country and up to 25 m in built-up areas.
It is recommended that there should also be placed on this road a suitable position sign, mark or line, as near to the intersection as practicable.
5. Where the sign II, A.16 is used, it shall not be preceded by the sign I, 7, but it may be preceded by an advance sign consisting of sign I, 22 supplemented by a rectangular plate bearing an indication of the distance from the intersection as shown in diagram I, 22a.
When there are other intersections between the advance sign and the intersection with a priority or a major road, the advance sign shall be repeated after each of these other intersections.

Article 34
1. The sign "STOP (CUSTOMS)" (II, A.17) shall be used to indicate the presence of a custom house at which the traveller has to stop.
The word "Customs" shall appear on the sign. The translation of the word "Customs" in a language of the neighbouring territory may be added (II, A.17).
2. This sign may be used to indicate other obligations to stop; in this case the inscription "Customs" shall be replaced by an inscription indicating the reason for the stop.

Article 35
1. The sign "RESTRICTED STOPPING OR WAITING" (II, A.18) shall be used to indicate restricted or prohibited waiting and the prohibition of stopping a vehicle. The centre of this sign shall be blue with a diagonal red bar and shall be surrounded by a red border.
2. In the absence of any explanatory inscription the sign shall be used to indicate a permanent prohibition of waiting.
3. Inscriptions may be placed on a plate palced underneath the sign or on the sign itself, specifying:
    (a) The hours between which the prohibition of waiting apply,
    (b) The duration of authorized waiting,
    (c) The days upon which waiting is permitted alternately on one or other side of the road,
    (d) The exceptions applicable to particular categories of vehicles, provided that such inscriptions shall not detract from the general meaning nor make the sign ambiguous or unclear.
4. An inscription "STOPING PROHIBITED", placed on a plate under the sign or on the sign itself, shall indicate that the stopping of a vehicle is prohibited.
5. Contracting Parties which have previously adopted the sign "WAITING PROHIBITED" (red disc with circular centre in white or light yellow bearing the letter P with a diagonal red stroke) for the prohibition of prolonged parking of vehicles with or without their drivers, shall provisionally be at liberty to retain their system unchanged. However, the sign II, A.18 is the only sign adopted in this Protocol for this purpose and Contracting Parties are strongly recommended to adopt this sign for stopping or parking of vehicles in their territories in accordance with the principles set out in paragraphs 1 to 4 above.

II, B. MANDATORY SIGNS
Article 36
1. The colour of mandatory signs shall be as follows: blue ground with a white symbol.
2. Mandatory signs are the following:
    (a) The sign "DIRECTION TO BE FOLLOWED" (II, B.1); it is permissible to adopt variations of the symbol on this sign in order to meet special cases;
    (b) The sign "COMPULSORY CYCLE TRACK" (II, B.2) which shall be used to indicate that cyclists shall use the special track reserved for them.
    (c) The sign "COMPULSORY MINIMUM SPEED" (II, B.3); this sign shall be used to indicate that vehicles using the road shall travel at not less than the speed indicated.

CHAPTER IV. CLASS III. INFORMATIVE SIGNS

Article 37
1. Ths signs of this class shall be rectangular in shape.
2. Where the colours to be used are optional, the colour red shall in no case predominate.

III, A. INDICATION SIGNS
Article 38
1. The sign "PARKING" (III, A.1) shall be used to indicate authorized parking places.
2. The sign shall be square in shape.
3. The side of the square shall be at least 0.60 m for the sign of standard size and 0.40 m for the sign of reduced size.
4. The sign shall be placed facing the traffic or facing across the carriageway.
5. The colour of the sign shall be blue and the colour of the letter P white.
6. A rectangular palte under the sign may be used for inscriptions giving the period during which parking is allowed or indicating the direction of the parking place.

Article 39
1. The sign "HOSPITAL" shall be used to indicate to the drivers of vehicles that they should take the precautions required in the proximity of medical establishments and, in particular, to refrain from making unnecessary noise.
2. Thsi sign shall consist of the symbol H above the word "Hospital" as shown in diagram III, A.2.
3. The colour of the sign shall be blue and the insciption white.
4. The sign shall be placed facing the traffic.

Article 40
1. The signs indicating auxiliary service posts are the following:
    (a) The sign "FIRST-AID STATION" (III, A.3 and III, A.4) which shall be used to indicate that there is in the neighbourhood a first-aid station organized by an officially recognized association;
    (b) The sign "MECHANICAL HELP" (III, A.5) which shall be used to indicate that there is a service station in the neighbourhood;
    (c) The sign "TELEPHONE" (III, A.6) which shall be used to indicate that there is a telephone in the neighbourhood;
    (d) The sign "FILLING STATION" (III, A.7) which shall be used to indicate that there is a filling station within the distance indicated on the sign.
2. The shorter side of the rectangle of the signs provided for in this article shall be placed horizontally. The colour shall be blue, with a black or dark symbol on a white square. In the case, however, of the signs III, A.3 or III, A.4, the symbol shall be red. The side of the square shall be at least 0.30 m. In the case, however, of the sign III, A.7, a white rectangle with the shorter side horizontal shall be substituted for the square.
3. The signs described in (b), (c) and (d) of paragraph 1 shall be used as prescribed by the competent authorities.

Article 41
1. The beginning of a priority road may be indicated by the sign "PRIORITY ROAD" (III, A.8).
2. The sign may also be repeated along priority roads.
3. The end of a priority road shall be indicated by the sign "END OF PRIORITY" (III, A.9) where the sign III, A.8 has been used at the beginning of the road.
4. The sign III, A.9 may be also used to indicate approach to the end og a priority road. In such a case, a rectangular plate shall be added underneath the sign, indicating the distance at which the priority nds, as shown in diagram III, A.9a.
5. The signs povided for in this article shall be square with one point downwards.
6. The size of the square shall be at least 0.60 m for the standard size and at least 0.40 m for the reduced size and 0.25 m for signs repeated within built-up areas.
7. The border of the signs provided for in this article shall be white with a black or dark rim on the outside and the centre shall be yellow. In the case of sign III, A.9, the transverse bar shall be black or dark.
8. The signs shall be placed on the side of the road appropriate to the direction of traffic and facing the traffic concerned. They may be repeated on the other side of the road.

III, B. ADVANCE DIRECTION SIGNS AND DIRECTION SIGNS
Article 42
1. The advance direction signs shall be rectangular in shape.
2. Their size shall be such that the indication can be understood easily by drivers of vehicles travelling at speed.
3. These signs shall have either a light ground with dark lettering or a dark ground with light lettering.
4. Advance direction signs shall be placed at a distance of between 100 m and 250 m from the intersection on normal roads. On special motor roads, this distance may be increased to 500 m.
5. Diagrams III, B.1a and III, B.1b are examples of this sign.

Article 43
1. Direction signs shall be rectangular with the longer side horizontal and shall terminate in the form of an arrow-head.
2. The names of several places lying in the same direction may be indicated on one sign.
3. When distances are indicated, the figures giving kilometres (or miles) shall be inscribed between the name of the place and the arrow-head.
4. The colours of these signs shall be the same as those for advanced direction signs.
5. Diagrams III, B.2a and III, B.2b are examples of this sign.

III, C. PLACE AND ROUTE IDENTIFICATION SIGNS
Article 44
1. Signs indicating a locality shall be rectanglar in shape with the longer side horizontal.
2. These signs shall be of such a size and placed in such a manner that they shall be visible even at night.
3. These signs shall have either a light ground with dark lettering, or a dark ground with light lettering.
4. These signs shall be placed before the beginning of a built-up area, on the side of the road appropriate to the direction of traffic and facing the traffic concerned.
5. Diagrams III, C, 1a and III, C, 1b are examples of this sign.

Article 45
1. The signs for the special identification of routes, bearing numbers or letters or a combination of numbers and letters, shall be rectangular in shape.
2. The inscriptions may be affixed to milestomes, placed above or below other signs or placed as separate signs.
3. Diagram III, C.2a is an example of this sign.


PART III. SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS CONCERNING LEVEL-CROSSINGS



Article 46
Wherever the competent authorities deem it necessary, a vertical plate bearing three red oblique bars on a white or yellow ground may be placed below a sign I, 8 or I, 9, provided that plates of identical form and bearing respectively two red oblique bars and one red oblique bar on a white or yellow ground are placed as independent signs at about two-thirds and one-third of the distance between that sign and the railway line. Diagrams I, 8a; I, 9a; I, 8/9b and I, 8/9c are examples of these plates.

Article 47
1. If a signalling system is installed at a level-crossing to give warning of the approach of a train or of the imminent closing of the gates or half-gates, it shall consist either
    (a) subject to the provisions of paragraph 4 of this article, of a flashing red light or two red lights flashing alternately and placed on the same post, such light or lights being accompanied or not by a sound signal; or
    (b) of a simple sound signal.
2.
    (a) All level-crossings equipped with gates or half-gates operated from a box from which the gates are no visible shall be equipped with the signalling system described in paragraph 1 (a) or in paragraph 1 (b) above;
    (b) All level-crossings equipped with gates or half-gates operated automatically by the approach of trains shall be equipped with the signalling system described in paragraph 1 (a) above.
3. The signal provided for in paragraph 1 of this article means that no road-user may pass.
4. Exceptionally, in or near built-up areas in which there are intersections equipped with the traffic light signals described in article 53 of this Protocol, the signalling referred to in paragraph 1 of the present article may be replaced either by the three-colour light system described in the aforesaid article 53 or by the amber and red lights only of that system; the amber and red lights shall then have for all road-users the meaning indicated in article 53 for vehicular traffic. In the event of such replacement, the approach sign provided for by paragraph 1 or paragraph 2 of article 15 may be dispensed with if, by reason of local conditions, it ould be difficult to affix it in such a way that it would be sufficiently visible.
5. At every level-crossing equipped with gates or half-gates the operation of which is controlled automatically by the approach of a train or is controlled from an operation box from which the gates or half gates are not visible, the closing movement of the gates or half-gates shall be such that road-users approaching the crossing or already on it when the signalling device comes into operation shall have time to stop before reaching the crossing or to clear it.

Article 48
At all level-crossings with gates or half-gates, the gates or half-gates shall be kept in operation during the whole period when train services are in operation. Should a level-crossing with gates or half-gates be permanently reclassified as a level-crossing without gates or half-gates, the gates or half-gates shall be removed to avoid any misunderstanding on the part of the users of the road.

Article 49
The devices signalling the approach of trains prescribed in article 47, paragraph 1 (a), of this Protocol shall be placed in the immediate vicinity of the railway and, if a sign in the form of a St. Andrew's cross is used, wherever possible on the same post as that sign. Where signalling is automatic, appropriate measures shall be taken to guard against any defect in the working of the signal and to ensure that the signal cannot be misinterpreted if it fails to work or works incorrectly.

Article 50
Level-crossings shall not be without either gates or half-gates and signalling of the approach of trains unless the railway line on both sides of the level-crossings is clearly visible to road users, having regard, in particular, to the speed of the trains, so that the driver of a vehicle approaching the railway from either side may have time to stop before entering the level-crossing when a train is in sight and road users who have already entered the crossing when a train appears have time to clear the crossing.


PART IV. SIGNALS TO BE MADE BY TRAFFIC POLICE

Article 51
Traffic police shall be equipped and stationed as to be visible to all road users.

Article 52
1. Signals to be made by traffic police shall conform to one of the two following systems:
First system
    Signal A -- to indicate "STOP" to the vehicles approaching the officer from the front: arm raised vertically, palm of the hand to the front.
    Signal C -- to indicate "STOP" to the vehicles approaching the officer from the rear: arm extended horizontally to the side of the road to which the traffic concerned is keeping, palm of the hand to the front.
Signals A and C may be used simultaneously.

Second system
    Signal B -- to indicate "STOP" to the vehicles approaching the officer from the front: arm extended horizontally to the side of the road to which the traffic concerned is keeping, palm of the hand to the front.
    Signal C -- to indicate "STOP" to the vehicles approaching the officer from the rear: arm extended horizontally to the side of the road to which the traffic concerned is keeping, palm of the hand to the front.
Signals B and C may be used simultaneously.
2. Under both systems, a beckoning gesture with the hand may be made to call vehicles forward.


PART V. TRAFFIC LIGHT SIGNALS

Article 53
1. The lights of the traffic light signals shall be given the following meaning:
(a) In a three-coloured system:
Red indicates that vehicular traffic must not pass the signal;
Green indicates that vehicular traffic may pass the signal;
When amber is used after the green signal, it shall be taken as prohibiting vehicular traffic from proceeding beyond the signal unless the vehicle is so close to the signal when the amber signal first appears that it cannot safely be stpped before passing the signal;
When amber is used in conjunction with or after the red signal, it indicates an impending change in the indications of the signal and shall not be taken as permitting vehiculr traffic to proceed.
(b) In the two-colour system:
Red indicates that vehicular traffic must not pass the signal;
Green indicates that vehicular traffic may pass the signal;
The combination of green and red shall have the same meaning as amber after green in the three-colour system.
2. When a single amber intermittent light is used, it shall indicate "CAUTION".
3. The lights shall be placed one above the other. As a rule the red light shall be placed at the top and the green light at the bottom. Where an amber light is used, it shall be placed between the red and the green lights.
4. When traffic light signals are placed at the side of the carriageway, the height of the lower edge of the lowest light above the carriageway shall normally be not less than 2 m and not more than 3.50 m; where possible, every light signal should be repeated on the opposite side of the intersection. When they are suspended over the carriageway, the height of the lower edge of the lowest light above the carriageway shall be not less than 4.50 m.


PART VI. ROAD MARKINGS

Articel 54
1. Where a carriageway outside a built-up area has more than two lanes, these shall as a rule be made clearly distinguishable.
2. Where a three-lane carriageway outside a built-up area passes through sections where the visibility is not sufficient, or at other danger points, the total width of the carriageway shall be divided only into two lanes.
3. Where a carriageway has two lanes in any section where the visibility is not sufficient and at other danger points, the lane should be clearly distinguishable.
4. The marking of lanes as provided for under paragraphs 2 and 3 of this article indicates that under normal traffic conditions no vehicle shall deviate from the lane reserved for traffic proceeding in its direction.

Article 55
1. Where the edges of the carriageway are defined by means of lights or reflecting devices, two different colours may be used for such lights or devices.
2. Either red or orange may be used to indicate the edge of the carriageway on the side of the road of the direction of the traffic, and white to indicate the edge of the carriageway on the opposite side.
3. Where lights or reflecting devices are used to indicate the presence of posts or refuges in the carriageway, the colours white or amber should be employed.


PART VII. FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 56
1. This Protocol shall be open, until 31 December 1949, for signature by all States signatories to the Convention on Road Traffic, opened for signature at Geneva on 19 September 1949.
2. This Protocol shall be ratified and the instruments of ratification deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
3. From 1 January 1950, this Protocol shall be open for accession by States signatories to the Convention on Road Traffic and by States acceding or having acceded to it. It shall also be open for accession on behalf of any Trust Territory of which the United Nations is the Administering Authority and on behalf of which the said Convention has been acceded to.
4. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 57
1. Any State may, at the time of signature, ratification or accession, or at any time thereafter, declare, by notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, that the provisions of this Protocol will be applicable to all or any of the territories for the international relations of which it is responsible. These provisions shall become applicable in the territories named in the notification thirty days after the date of receipt of such notification by the Secretary-General or, if the Protocol has not entered into force at that time, then upon the date of its entry into force.
2. Each Contracting Party, when the circumstances permit, undertake to take as soon as possible the necessary steps in order to extend the application of this Protocol to the territories for the international relations of which it is responsible, subject, where necessary for constitutional reasons, to the consent of the Governments of such territories.
3. Any State which has made a declaration under paragraph 1 of this article applying this Protocol to any territory for the international relations of which it isresponsible may at any time thereafter declare by notification given to the Secretary-General that the Protocol shall cease to apply to any territory named in the notification and the Protocol shall, after the expiration of one year from the date of the notification, cease to apply to such territory.

Article 58
This Protocol shall enter into force fifteen months after the date of the deposit of the fifth instrument of ratification or accession. This Protocol shall enter into force for each State ratifying or acceding after that date fifteen months after the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession.

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall notify each of the signatory or acceding States and every other States invited to attend the United Nations Conference on Road and Motor Transport of the date on which this Protocol comes into force.

Article 59
In ratifying this Protocol or in acceding to it, each State Party to the Convention concerning the Unification of Road Signals opened for signature at Geneva on 30 March 1931, undertake to denounce that Convention within three months of the date of the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession to this Protocol.

Article 60
1. Any Contracting State may propose one or more amendments to this Protocol. The text of such proposed amendment shall be communicated to the Secretary-General who shall transmit it to each other Contracting Party bound by this Protocol with a request that such Contracting Party reply within four months stating whether it:
(a) Desires that a Conference be convened to consider the proposed amendment; or
(b) Favours the acceptance of the proposed amendment without a Conference; or
(c) Favours the rejection of the proposed amendment without a Conference.
The proposed amendment shall also be transmitted by the Secretary-General to all States, othe than Contracting Parties, invited to attend the United Nations Conference on Road and Motor Transport.
2. The Secreatry-General shall convene a Conference of the Contracting Parties to consider the proposed amendment, if the convening of a Conference is required by at least one-third of the Contracting Parties.
The Secretary-General shall invite to the Conference such Stattes, other than the Contracting Parties, who were invited to attend the United Nations Conference on Road and Motor Transport or whose participation would, in the opinion of the Economic and Social Council, be desirable.
The provisions of this paragraph shall not apply in cases where an amendment to this Protocol has been adopted in accordance with paragraph 5 of this article.
3. Any amendment to this Protocol which shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority vote of a Conference, shall be communicated to all Contracting Parties for acceptance. Ninety days after its acceptance by two-thirds of the Contracting-Parties each amendment shall enter into force for all Contracting Parties except those which, before it enters into force, make a declaration that they do not adopt the amendment.
4. The Conference may be a two-thirds majority vote determine at the time of the adoption of an amendment to this Protocol that it is of such a nature that any Contracting Party which has made a declaration that it does not accept the amendment and which then does not accept the amendment within a period of twelve months after the amendment enters into force shall, upon the expiration of this period, cease to be a Party to this Protocol.
5. In the event of a two-thirds majority of the Contracting Parties informing the Secretary-General pursuant to paragraph 1 (b) of this article that they favour the acceptance of the amendment without a Conference, notification of this decision shall be communicated by the Secretary-General to all Contracting Parties, The amendment shall on the expiration of ninety days from the date of such notification become effective as regards all Contracting Parties except those which notify the Secretary-General that they object to such an amendment within that period.
6. As regards amendment not within the scope of paragraph 4 of this article, the existing provisions shall remain in force in respect of any Contracting Party which has made a declaration or lodged an objection with respect to such an amendment.
7. A Contracting Party which has made a declaration in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 3 of this article or has lodged an objection in accordance with paragraph 5 of this article to an amendment may withdraw such declaration or objection at any time by notification addressed to the Secretary-General. The amendment shall be effective as regards that Contracting Party upon receipt of such notification by the Secretary-General.

Article 61
This Protocol may be denounced by means of one year's notice given to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall notify each signatory or acceding State thereof. After the expiration of this period the Protocol shall cease to be in force as regrda the Contracting Party which denounces it.

Article 62
Any dispute between any two or more Contracting Parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Protocol, which the parties are unable to settle by negotiation or by another mode of settlement, may be referred by written application from any of the Contracting Parties concerned to the International Court of Justice for decision.

Article 63
Nothing in this Protocol shall be deemed to prevent a Contracting Party from taking action compatible with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and limited to the exigencies of the situation which it considers necessary for its external or internal security.

Article 64
1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall, in addition to the notifications provided for in paragraph 5 of article 5, article 58, paragraph 1, 3 and 5 of article 60, and article 61, notify the States referred to in paragaraph 1 of article 56 of the following:
(a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions in accordance with article 56;
(b) Notifications with regard to the territorial application of this Protocol in accordance with article 57;
(c) Declarations whereby States accept amendments in accordance with paragraph 3 of article 60;
(d) Objections to amendments to this Protocol communicated by States to the Secretary-General in accordance with paragraph 5 of article 60;
(e) The date of entry into force of amendments in accordance with paragaraph 3 and 5 of article 60;
(f) The date on which a State has ceased to be a Party to this Protocol, in accordance with paragraph 4 of this article;
(g) Withdrawals of objections to an amendment in accordance with paragraph 7 of article 60;
(h) The list of States bound by any amendment to thsi Protocol;
(i) Denunciations of the Convention cencerning the Unification of Road Signals of 30 March 1931, in accordance with article 59 of this Protocol;
(j) Denunciations of this Protocol in accordance with article 61.
2. The original of this Protocol shall be deposited with the Secretary-General who will transmit certified copies thereof to the States referred to in paragraph 1 of article 56.
3. The Secretary-General is authorized to register this Protocol upon its entry into force.



IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned representatives, after having communicated their full powers, found to be in good and due form, have signed this Protocol.

DONE at Geneva, in a single copy, in the English and French languages, both texts authentic, this nineteenth day of September, one thousand nine hundred and forty-nine.

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