International Activities

Early International Activities
Wright Aeronautical Corp.
Junkers-Larsen Corporation
Fili Production Plant, Russia
TOMTASCH Production Plant, Turkey
AB Flygindustri Sweden
Mitsubishi License Production

Amiot Wartime Production
CASA License Production
Budapest Wartime Production
Latecore Engineering Support

Early International Activities

Since the beginning of the 20th century Hugo Junkers was looking for international markets for his products. Junkers and
Schleissing started to develope a sales organisation for the Junkers + Co. company products throughout Europe since 1900. The oil engines, which Hugo Junkers developed at the Versuchsanstalt Aachen since 1902, were produced under license agreements in England and Russia. In 1914 Hugo Junkers also founded the American Junkers Company in the USA as a sales and marketing office. All those early international cooperations came to a sudden end with the breakout of WW I.

At the end of WW I the Junkers orientation had turned into the aviation direction. But with the beginning of the peace time period, Junkers had to realize, that the Allies were pushing Germany's aviation industry with hard and massive restrictions, which did not allow to built modern and powerfull aircraft in any way. On the other hand, the demand for new aircraft was very low in the German market due to the surplus aircraft from WW I. Therefore Junkers was looking for alternate production facilities outside Germany on one hand. But on the other hand, he was also looking for new marketing cooperations throughout the world.

At the end of WWI Hugo Junkers remained at Dessau, but saw himself in conflict with the Allied restrictions upon the aircraft design in Germany. Several Junkers designs had to be dropped due to these restrictions (i.e. the J1000). Therefore Junkers was looking for an international cooperation, which would allow him to realize his larger aircraft designs. Early approaches led him to the neutral Netherlands, where he started negotiations about the foundation of an aircraft production facility in December 1920. This facility should be used to built larger Junkers aircraft from parts delivered through Dessau. It should also took over the worldwide marketing of these aircraft. Nevertheless the Dutch approach for a Junkers facility failed. Later, in 1925 Junkers finally managed to built up such a facility at Limhamn in Sweden (see below).

Other Junkers intensions led him to Czechoslovacia, Finland, and Italy without success. In winter 1921 the British Air Ministry offered Junkers the opportunity to join the development of a new aircraft engine. They also arranged some discussions with the Britsh Beardmore company about license production of Junkers aircraft in England. These discussions were dropped by Junkers soon. Later Beardmore cooperated with Rohrbach.

Further cooperation discussions were held in Belgium with the Bank of Eupen and Malmedy. They offered Junkers the opportunity to setup a Belgium aircraft facility in autumn 1920. Later Belgium was also interested in license production of Junkers aircraft. But all these discussions finally stopped without success.

Junkers-Larsen Corporation

Junkers JL6
Junkers-Larsen JL6

The Junkers
F13 was the world's first all-metal passenger aircraft. This successfull design was highly accepted by the newly founded airlines in Europe and a lot of aircraft were ordered throughout Europe. In late 1919 the American business man John M. Larsen visited Europe with the intension to sell U.S. built aircraft here. While in Denmark, Larsen heard about the Junkers built F13, which had great success in Europe. Larsen went to Dessau for a presentation of this aircraft. He was interested in a license production of the F13 in the USA. On November 27th 1919 a contract was signed between Junkers and Larsen about the delivery of a total of 26 Junkers F13 aircraft to Larsen.

The first of these aircraft (c/n 536) left Hamburg on board the steamship "Luckenbach" on February 7th, 1920. A total of 8 benches were shipped to the USA until September 1920:
07.02.1920   "Luckenbach", one aircraft (c/n 536)
31.03.1920   "Clausus", four aircraft (c/n 535, 538, 540, 541)
08.06.1920   "Mediteraneo", two aircraft (c/n 546, 548)
17.06.1920   "Kermit", two aircraft (c/n 549, 550)
25.06.1920   "Mette Jensen", three aircraft (c/n 551, 553, 555)
06.08.1920   "Emanuelle III", six aircraft (c/n 556, 558, 559, 560, 562, 563)
28.08.1920   "Mette Jensen", five aircraft (c/n 561, 564, 566, 567, 568)
07.09.1920   ship unknown, five aircraft (c/n 569, 570, 571, 572, 573)

The Junkers employee and pilot Monz went to the USA to support the assembly of the aircraft and to educate pilots. The aircraft are assembled at Roosevelt Airport at Mineola, New York. Larsen started the marketing of the F13 under a new designator JL-6. which means Junkers-Larsen six seater. Larsen started an extensive demonstration tour throughout the USA during which he performed several long range wide distance flights. The complete marketing tour was financed by Larsen himself.

The contract between Larsen and Junkers asked for the foundation of an US-based Junkers company. In May 1920 Larsen founded the Junkers-Larsen-Aircraft Cooperation. This company is share-owned by Junkers and Larsen The company is responsible for the F13 marketing within the USA.

In June 1920 Larsen managed to sell a total of 8 JL-6 aircraft to the US postal office. for a total of 720 thousand dollars. Further sales were done by Larsen:
U.S. Air Mail, 8 aircraft
U.S. Navy, 3 aircraft (A5867/5869/6696)
U.S.A.A.S, 2 aircraft (AS64122/64123)
Mercury Airlines, 1 aircraft
Detroit Chicago Airline, 1 aircraft
to Mexico, 2 aircraft (TNCA)
to Canada, min. 4 aircraft

The 1919 formed Mercury Air Lines used some JL-6 on its routes in California until it was dissolved in 1921. At least one aircraft was used by the Detroit-Chicago Airline. The first aircraft was delivered in August 1920. Two JL-6 seemed to have been sold to Mexico. They were assembled at Talleres Nacionales de Construcciones Aeronauticas in Mexico.

In October 1920 the second batch (eleven aircraft, c/n 574 to 584) of the F13 was ready for shipping to the USA. It was sent to Hamburg harbour, from where they should be shipped. But before the aircraft could be boarded they were confiscated by the Allied Commission. In December 1920 Junkers managed to get his F13 aircraft back. But instead of shipping them to the U.S., he returned them to Dessau, where the aircraft were maintenained and later sold to other customers.

Even if the initial Larsen sales in the U.S. were very successfull, a series of accidents caused massive problems in further sales. All accident occured on postal flights of the U.S. Air Mail Service and were caused by engine fires:
12.05.1920 c/n ???, two dead
31.08.1920 c/n ???, Chicago-New York, Wiley Smith, no injuries
01.09.1920 c/n ???, at Morristown, NJ, Dean Smith and Max Miller killed
14.09.1920 c/n 560, at Pemperville, OH, two dead
09.02.1921 c/n 538, destroyed by inflight fire, Wisconsin, three dead
In mid of September 1920 the U.S. Air Mail Service decided to ground all JL6 aircraft. A leakage of a fuel line was the cause of this accident series. A modification was performed and at the end of 1920 the JL6 was back into the air again. Junkers suggested, that these fuel leaks resulted from a former modification, which was performed by Larsen in the U.S.A., when he introduced flexible fuel lines instead of the standard fixed fuel lines. Also the fact, that the aircraft were flown with petrol instead of Benzol in the U.S.A. was pointed out as a possible reason for the accidents.

The accident series made it difficult for Larsen to sell further F13s. A few JL6 were sold to Canada. Finally Larsen converted one JL6 to a military derivate. This aircraft should be equipped with 12 machine gun positions and was equipped with a 294kW Liberty engine. It was designated JL-12. Larsen tried to offer the aircraft to the US Army, but was not successfull. Finally Larsen stopped the marketing activities within the USA. That was the end of the Junkers-Larsen Cooperation in the USA. However, out of the total of 28 F13 aircraft delivered to Larsen, at least 21 were sold.

Further Reading at other Sites:
Angelika Hofmann's F13 Page detailled German text about Larsen
Aerofiles with description/images of JL6
History of Hollywood reference to Mercury JL-6s.

Wright Aeronautical Corporation

After the Junkers-Larsen Corporation had failed in 1920, Hugo Junkers continued to search for other U.S. partners. In September 1921 the represents of the US Wright Aeronautical Corporation visited Dessau for discussions about a cooperation with Junkers. They were interested in Junkers patents, as well as in his support in the setup of an own aircraft production.

Following these intial discussions Junkers developed a passenger aircraft design, which probably should have been built by Wright Aeronautical Corporation for the American market. This passenger aircraft was designed for two pilots and up to 8 passengers. Two BMW IIIa engines were intended for this aircraft with a fuselage length of 11,80 m and a span of 22,70 m. The maximum range was designed for up to 1350 km.

Finally Wright was not really interested in this design and the approach for a possible new cooperation in the USA failed. In 1924 Hugo Junkers made a final approach for the U.S. market with the foundation of
Jucoram, the Junkers sales office in the United States. At least one F13 was registered in the USA on behalve of Jucoram. However no infos about successfull sales are known.

German-Russian Junkers Venture at Fili

The Setup of Fili

After WW I Germany and Russia were isolated from the worldwide trade. The Allied Western countries tried to isolate the Communists at Moscow and keep them short of any new weapon development. On the other hand they also forced the German industry to drop any major industrial development or production after WW I.

Within that situation German and Russian officials began negotiations about some industrial and trade agreements early in 1921. As a first step, on May, 6th 1921 both countries signed a trade agreement, which gave the German industry an opportunity for a knowhow transfer to Russia and help the Russians to develope an own industrial plattform. Already in April 1921 the "Reichswehr" (German Army) had agreed to Blohm+Voss, Krupp and Albatros as possible German companies, which might transfer knowledge to the Russian industry.

The "Reichswehr" was thinking of Albatros Flugzeugwerke as a state-owned company, which should set up a new production facility in Russia for simply structured aircraft designs. Due to the large experience of aircraft production at Albatros, the "Reichswehr" thought, that Albatros would be able to set up such a production in Russia very quickly. However, the Russians were not only interested in the setup of a new aircraft industry, but they also wanted to participate from Germany's aircraft design knowledge. Therefore Russia was not interested in Albatros, which still designed conventional wooden structured aircraft in the early 20s. Instead they figured out their interest in the all metal aircraft designs of Junkers, which was accepted from the "Reichswehr" as well.

Junkers himself was already negotiating Russian cooperations since September 1920, when an emigrated Russian officer, named Doloukhanow asked Junkers for the setup of a Russian airline operation with up to twenty aircraft after the Soviets should have been defeated. Negotiations about this theme continued through 1920 and Junkers was already thinking about a possible initialization of an aircraft production line in Russia, when 11 F13 for John Larsen were confiscated in Hamburg harbour by the Allied Control Commission. Since September 1920 the Junkers aircraft production at Dessau had to be decreased to prevent further aircraft confiscations. From November 1920 to March 1921 the number of employees at Dessau decreased from about 880 to less than 450. Again, the Junkers aircraft production came to a sudden end. Studies for possible alternate production countries showed, that any transfer to a Western country would increase production cost, as loans were much higher in Netherlands, Belgium or the U.S. than in Germany. Therefore Junkers interest oriented towards Russia in Summer 1921.

In January 1922 a German team under the leadership of Oberstleutnant Schubert and Major von Niedermayer went to Moscow for further discussions. They were joint by Junkers director Spaleck and Sachsenberg. The German-Russian meetings upon the construction of an aircraft plant in Russia were strictly confidential. No protocols are available about that theme. Finally, on February 6th, 1922 an initial agreement between Junkers (not the German government) and the Soviet government was signed. Due to this agreement, Junkers was allowed to built a Junkers facility in Russia. He became the first and only western industrial, which was allowed to built an own facility in Russia.

Junkers' plans for the setup of an aircraft production in Russia saw two steps.
Phase I saw the quick setup of a provisional production facility at Fili near Moscow. At this facility Junkers should train Russian engineers and mechanics for metal construction productions. Also on request of the Soviets, this facility should be used as a repair shop for the conventional wooden structured Russian military aircraft, which were urgently required at the fronts at Poland.

Phase II was the extension of Fili towards a fully capable aircraft production facility, as well as the setup of a sister facility at the Petersburg based Russo-Polish Automobile Plants. At the end of Phase II the two Russian based Junkers facilities should be capable for an aircraft production of about 100 aircraft per month. The total cost for both programmes were calculated to about 1000 million Reichsmark, which should supplied by the German "Reichswehr".

The Russian side offered an old industrial plant of the Russo-Baltiiskii Vagonnyi Zavod at Fili near Moscow. On the other hand, Junkers agreed to start the production of all-metal aircraft within this facility. The German Defense Ministry offered subsidies to Junkers for that engagement. During Summer 1922 detailled plans for the cooperation were developed by Russian and German officials and finally November 26th, 1922 Junkers signed the final agreement, which was ratified by the Soviet government on January 29th, 1923.

The final agreement allowed Junkers to built up an aircraft and engine plant at Fili, the startup of an own airline service within Russia and the inaugeration of aerial photography services. On the other hand Junkers agreed to built up a facility, which was capable to built 300 aircraft and 450 engines per year. This reduced production rate mainly resulted from financial difficulties of the "Reichswehr" in supplying the necessary money for the Phase II Programme. Therefore Junkers had to take a much larger risc, which he hoped to cover by being the owner of the Fili Plants.

The Fili Production

Shortly after Junkers had signed the final agreement, the Soviet government ordered about twenty Junkers
Ju 20, a derivate from the A20, about fifty Ju 21, also known as H21 and thirty fighter aircraft Ju 22 on December 4th, 1922.

The development work for those aircraft types immediately were started at Dessau. F.W. Schubert was appointed as the director of the Fili plant. In early 1923 the needed machinery was sent from Dessau via Moscow to Fili to set up a production plant there, which was now named Zavod Junkers (Junkers Facilities). German Junkers employees were sent to Fili for the training of local mechanics and engineers. The final rate of about 1000 employees was already reached in early 1924.

Ju 20 (converted from A20)
The Fili production started with the Ju 20, which was converted from the civil Junkers A20. The development of the conversion was performed at Dessau. Two prototypes were also built at Dessau under the development designator J20 in spring 1923. Shortly afterwards productional details were transfered to Fili, where the initial production aircraft was built. The first Fili-built Ju20 flew first at Leningrad in November 1923. The complete line of 20 J20s were delivered to the Russian Air Force until April 1924. Parts and material for the aircraft came from Dessau while Fili performed the final assembly of the aircraft. The initial 20 aircraft were delivered to the Soviet Navy, which used it until 1930. Later these aircraft were transfered to the Artic Flight Command. A further 20 Ju 20 were ordered later on, so that a total of about 40 aircraft were built at Fili for the Soviet forces. Several more were also built for export to Turkey and Spain.

Ju 35 (converted Ju 20)
In 1925 the first Ju 20 was equipped with a Junkers L5 engine. By that modification the Ju 20 became the military variante of the Junkers A35. At Limhamn in Sweden the military variante of the A35 was called K53. In Russia the K53 was called Ju 35 as well as Ju 20. The exact number of conversions is not known.

Ju 21 (converted from T21)
Meanwhile the second reconnaissaisance type J21 was developed at Dessau from the experimental T21 aircraft and in summer 1923 the first J21 aircraft from Dessau production went into the air. Production of the Ju 21 started at Fili in 1923. A total of 122 Ju 21 were built until 1926. The Ju 21 was built exclusively at Fili.

Ju 22 (converted from T22)
The fighter aircraft J22 followed in November 1923. It was developed from the experimental T22 aircraft at Dessau. But this fighter aircraft showed an unsatisfactory performance and was not accepted by the Russian Air Force. Also did the second prototype, which first flew in April 1924. Finally the Soviet government changed the order to the additional 20 Ju20s and 80 Ju21s, dropping the Ju22 order.

Ju 13 and PS-2 (Russian built F13)
Some of the successfull F13 passenger airliner were also built at Fili. Parts and material were prebuilt at Dessau, while the final assembly was performed at Fili. A few Ju 13, also called PS-2, from the Fili production were equipped with a machine gun behind the pilot's seat. They were intended as a light bomber aircraft or military transport aircraft. But the Russian Army showed little interest in such an aircraft. Therefore these military converted Ju 13 went to Persia. Nevertheless Fili performed the final assembly for several Ju 13s, which were used by the newly formed Russian airlines, such as Dobrolet. The total number of Ju 13s built at Fili is not clear as the Russian airlines received F13 from German production lines at Dessau as well as Ju 13s from Fili. A major business of Fili was the maintenance of the Russian F13 and Ju 13 later on.

PS-4 (Russian built W33)
The PS-4 was not really a Fili aircraft. This type designator was used for Russian built W33. Several dozens of the W33 were ordered by the Soviet government in 1928. By this time the Fili facility was already closed. Therefore the final assembly of the parts, which were preproduced at Dessau, took place at the homebase of the Russian Dobroljot airlines in Moscow as well as in Irkutsk. The Russian built PS-4 was mainly used in Siberia and the Artic regions for transport missions until 1941. In contrast to the W33 the PS-4 had now windows.

JuG-1 (Russian built K30, converted from G24)
In 1925 the Soviet Army showed some interest in a heavy bomber aircraft. Therefore Junkers developed a military derivate of the G24 airliner. About 20 to 25 of this military K30 variante were ordered by the Russians. But the Fili production facilities were to small for the serial assembly of a large bomber aircraft. Finally the production assembly of the K30 was transfered to Limhamn in Sweden and designated R42. The Swedish built R42s were flown to Fili and got there their final military equipment. In Russia the R42 was designated as JuG-1. A total of 23 JuG-1 were delivered between 1926 and 1927. The JuG-1 was used by the Soviet Airforce until 1931. By then it was transfered to Aeroflot. None of the JuG-1 was really assembled at Fili. Only the military equipment was added there. The JuG-1 was the last Junkers aircraft handled by Fili. After completition of the delivery of the K30s Junkers retreated from Fili.

Further development discussions for Fili
Several approaches for better aircraft designs were discussed between Junkers and the Soviets during 1924 without success. Discussions were held about a major modification of 60 J21 aircraft, but did not came to an end. Only a single prototype was modified at Fili. In August 1924 Junkers offered two prototypes of the Ju25 to the Soviet Air Force, which was interested in the BMW IV engines. But the Russians were not interested in that aircraft as well as in the Ju28 fighter aircraft.

Since April 1924 the cooperation began to slow down. The Soviet authorities were not satisfied with the performance of the Fili aircraft. Next, they pointed out, that the delivery sequence was to slow, as all of the 100 aircraft ordered, should be delivered until April 1924 but only about 75 were actually delivered. Also they called attention to the fact, that most parts of the aircraft were built at Dessau and were only assembled at Fili, while the contract saw a Fili part construction facility. The engine facilities at Fili never came into being and all engines were imported from Germany. Therefore Fili only became an assembly facility but no knowhow transfer plattform.

The Soviet government announced, that no further orders will be given to Fili until Junkers has fullfilled his part of the contract. On the other hand Junkers was not interested in investing more money into the Russian plant, while being unsure about further Soviet orders. Also the German government made an advanced payment for fifty aircraft, which should be built at Fili, in summer 1923 the German defense ministry decided to order fighter aircraft from Fokker in Holland. Therefore the only remaining customer for Fili might have been the Soviet Air Force.

In December 1924 Junkers put an ultimatum to the Soviet government for further orders for the Fili production plants. No action was undertaken by the Soviets and so the Fili production was suspended in March 1925. Of the 1165 men, working at Fili in December 1924, only a small staff of 30 Russians remained at Fili for maintenance works. The 154 Germans returned to Dessau.

By 1925 Germany started to recover from the isolation after WW I. Consequently the political orientation to Russia was reduced. Also in 1925 the German government stopped paying subsidies for the Fili facilities. By then the Fili facilities were financed by the Soviet government, who changed the Fili director to a Soviet named S.P. Gorbunov. He prepared the Fili facilities for the production of the Tupolev ANT-4 bomber.

As soon as the last K30 was delivered, Junkers retreated from Fili in March 1927. The Fili production plant was integrated into the Soviet aircraft facilities as GAZ No. 7 and by February 8th, 1928 it was named Zavod No. 22 The remaining Junkers owned machinery and materials were returned to Germany in summer 1927 finishing the Junkers ventures in Russia.

In total Junkers suffered massive losses from his Fili engagement. He was unable to built up a successfull production plant and to achieve enough Soviet orders. The change of the political orientation in Germany finally forced Junkers to retreat from Russia and due to the fact, that only Junkers had made agreements with the Soviet government but not the German government, he finally was forced to take over the complete financial losses.

Further Reading at other Sites:
German Air Combat School at Lipsek with comments on Fili aircraft types
Khrunichev Center (developement of Fili)
Khrunichev Enterprise History

AB Flygindustri in Sweden

In 1923 Junkers got into contact with Carl and Adrian Florman in Sweden. Both had the intention of building the first Swedish airline and asked Junkers for support. In March 1924 the Florman brothers and Junkers founded the Aero Transport AB and started operations enroute Stockholm to Helsingfors during the same year.
AB Flygindustri Logo

On the other hand Junkers is still looking for alternate production facilities outside Germany, which would allow him to reengage in military aircraft production. Therefore Junkers and Florman founded a Swedish aircraft production facility named AB Flygindustri at Limhamn in Sweden on 25th January 1925. A total of 82% of the 150000 skr shares belonged to Junkers. They were signed by Swedish dummy shareholders due to the fact, that only 50% of a Swedish company could belong to non-Swedish people.
AB Flygindustri Logo
AB Flygindustri Plant at Malmo

taken from Schmitt:
Junkers und seine Flugzeuge

The AB Flygindustri facilities allowed Junkers to transfer civil aircraft from Dessau to Sweden and reregister them as Swedish aircraft. These Swedish aircraft now were reequipped with military equipment and could be sold worldwide as military aircraft. Futhermore Junkers allowed license building of Junkers aircraft at Limhamn.

In 1925 Friedrich Treitschke, a Junkers engineer and Swedish national is appointed as the first director of AB Flygindustri. Since 1926 Adrian Florman and Treitschke changed the position of the director for several times until in 1930 another Junkers engineer Hermann Mierzinski became the final director.

G23/G24 Conversion Programme at Limhamn 1925/26

The initial workload of the new Limhamn facilities came from the G23/G24 conversion programme.
The original Dessau built G23 was underpowered due to the requests of the Allied Control Commission in Germany.
Several engine alternatives had been designed at Dessau but were not allowed in Germany.
Therefore the Dessau built G23 were flown to Flygindustri at Limhamn and were reengined there
with more powerful engines. About 11 G23s were flown to Sweden in 1925 and got Swedish registrations there.
Now they were converted to the stronger G24 standard. Some remained in Sweden with AB Aero Transport
but most returned to Germany after that conversion.

The first original built G24 was c/n 846, which was completely built at Limhamn in 1925.
A further two G24 (c/n 847 and 851) of the first batch followed during the same year.
The second batch of the G24 (c/n 902 to 911 and 917 to 926) was also completely built at Limhamn between 1925-26.
In 1926 the Allied restrictions in Germany came to an end.
By now, Junkers could built the stronger G24 versions directly at Dessau.
Only two further G24 (c/n 931 and 932) of the third (1926) batch were built at Limhamn.

G24 Military Adaption Programme at Limhamn

By 1926 Junkers was allowed to built aircraft without any performance restrictions in Germany.
But the Allied Commissions still refused any military equipment onboard these aircraft.
A single military derivate of the G24 was built at Dessau as the Junkers K30
The R42 got two machine gun towers on the roof of the aircraft and a third tower below the aircraft.
The bombs were placed under the fuselage, but also some bombs were placed under the wing.
The serial production of this military aircraft should be performed at Flygindustri at Limhamn.
By 1926 the complete G24 production was transfered back to Dessau.
The aircraft built there were civil G24 aircraft. They were flown to Limhamn
and were equipped there with military equipment to the K30 standard.
The Limhamn type designator for this military variante was R42 (reversed numbers of the G24!)
The new type designator at Limhamn was created to prevent Junkers from attacks from the Allied Commission.
Most of the R42 were delivered to the USSR and were used there as bomber aircraft.
Some of those Limhamn R42s were again converted at the Fili facility and named Ju G-1.
The first 15 aircraft were flown to Russia by the end of 1926. A further 8 followed in 1927
Further six R42s were sold to Chile since autumn 1926 and a single R42 was delivered to Spain.

Other military conversion programmes at Limhamn

R02 (converted from A20)
Already in 1925 Limhamn started with military conversions of Junkers civil aircraft.
The first aircraft to be equipped with military components was the Junkers A20.
A Junkers A20 (c/n 456, built in 1923) was flown to Limhamn in 1925 and reregistered as S-AAAJ.
The observer seat was equipped with a turnable machine gun tower.
Like the G24/R42 also a new type designator was used for this military A20 as R02 (reversed numbers again!)
But only a single R02 was built at Limhamn. Russian orders were managed by Fili as Ju 20.
A large number of military A20s were finally built in Turkey as light bomber aircraft during 1925/26.
They were built under license with parts produced by the Dessau facilities.
About 65 of these Turkish R02/A20s were built. Finally Limhamn was unable to get other orders for that aircraft.

R41 (converted from A25, K45)
During 1926 the sole R02 at Limhamn was equipped with a Junkers L2 engine to A25 standard.
Also this A25 was redesigned at Dessau to military standard and designated K45.
The Limhamn version became the R41. This derivate was sold in several numbers from Limhamn.

K39 (converted from A32)
In 1927 a single A32 three seated aircraft was modified at Limhamn.
The military variante K39 had one fixed machine gun at the pilot position and a turnable tower at the rear seat.
A third machine gun was available at the observer's center seat for lower defense.
Only 100kg bomb payload could be ferried. No customers are known for that type.
Only a single K39 was converted at Limhamn.

R53 (converted from A35, K53)
Finally the A35 was modified to military standard by Junkers as the K53.
Again the observer seat was equipped with a turnable machine gun tower and the aircraft was designated R53.
During 1926 several A20s were flown from Dessau to Limhamn and reengined and modified to R53 standard there.
Later, A35s were directly produced at Dessau and send to Limhamn for final military equipment
About 15 R53 were built at Limhamn.

K37 (converted from S36)
A single military K37 was modified at Limhamn from the civil S36 standard.
This prototype was bought by Mitsubishi in Japan and built under license for the Japanese Airforce
as a bomber aircraft in 1931 under the designator Ki-1/2.

K43 (converted from W34)
In 1926/27 Junkers modified the W34 to military K43 standards.
About 16 military K43 were built at Limhamn of which 6 were sold to Finland, 5 to Portugal
5 to Argentina and Bolivia.

K47 (converted from A48)
The K47 was a two seated fighter aircraft modified from the A48 standard.
The observer's seat was turned to tail and equipped with a turnable machine gun.
Several K47 were built for China, as well as two aircraft for Russia in 1930.

K54 (converted from Ju52)
A single Ju52 was converted to military K54 standard at Limhamn in 1932.
This Ju52 was the single engined Ju52ce (c/n 4004), which was equipped with floaters.
In December 1932 this aircraft was flown to Limhamn and got a torpedo system.
The aircraft returned to Germany with Swedish registration and was tested at Travemunde.
No further Ju52 modifications are known at Limhamn.

The following table contains the different aircraft types built at Limhamn
as well as the assumed production numbers of Limhamn between 1925 and 1935

no. built
in Sweden

R42 (also K30)

R41 (also K45)
R53 (later also K53)
20 G24s + 21 R42/K30s
21 W34s plus 16 K43s
1 plus 65 in Turkey

R42s to USSR (15) and Chile (6)
built for Swedish Airforce in 1933

2 R53s to Manchuria in 1930
2 K37s to Japan in 1931, built under license as Ki-2 in Japan

2 to USSR, more sold to China since 1930

The Junkers engagement in the AB Flygindustri slowed down,
when the Nazis got control about the Junkers consortium since 1934.
Finally AB Flygindustri was closed due to missing further orders
on June 15th 1935.

In total the AB Flygindustri was not really a German/Swedish joint venture like Fili.
Furthermore was the Limhamn facility more or less a complete Junkers production facility
with an own marketing name, which prevented Junkers from trouble with the Allied Commissions.
Limhamn was the Junkers Military Aircraft facility during a period, when it was not allowed
to built military aircraft in Germany. Consequently the Limhamn engagement went down,
when the Nazis again allowed the military aircraft production in Germany.

License Production of Mitsubishi in Japan

In 1931 representatives of the Mitsubishi Nainenki Kabushiki Kaisha in Japan
visited the Limhamn facilities to study some of the military conversions of Junkers aircraft.
Mitsubishi was interested in the K37 bomber aircraft, which was derivated from the civil
The sole K37 prototype S-AABP (ex D-1252 S36-prototype) was bought by Mitsubishi
as well as all development papers for that aircraft and were shipped to Tokio.
In Japan Mitsubishi put up a serial production for this military aircraft under the designator Ki 1.

Junkers developed an improved second S36 prototype (D-AMIX) in 1934.
This aircraft was also bought by Mitsubishi and shipped to Japan.
A further improved Ki 2 was built in Japan as a light bomber based on the S36 since 1935.

Mitsubishi showed also interest in the large passenger airliner G38,
which first flew in 1929. On request of Mitsubishi Junkers developed a military derivate as K51.
Mitsubishi bought the design of this heavy bomber aircraft as well as a license for the L88
oil engine. In Tokio this aircraft was built as Ki 20 for the Japanese Airforce.
It was used until 1941.

Turkische Flugzeug- und Motoren AG (TOMTASCH)

In 1925 Junkers started discussion with the Turkish government about the foundation of
initial Turkish airline operations. Experimental services were started during the same year.

Parallel to the airline engagement, Junkers also discussed the possible foundation of an aircraft production plant in Turkey. With the support of the German government a contract was signed between Junkers and the Turkish government in August 1925. According to this contract, a company named TOMTASCH was founded, of which Hugo Junkers took 50% shares, while the Turkish government took the remaining 50%. TOMTASCH had to built up an aircraft production plant in Turkey during the next two years and was responsible for the training of Turkish workers within the area of aircraft manufacturing. Junkers received 50% of TOMTASCH shares for supplying the necessary engines, as well as for utilizing Junkers licenses. These agreements were very similar to the Russian Fili Contract. The duration of this contract was signed for a period of 40 years. The annual capacity of the Turkish plant was to be dimensioned for 250 aircraft per year. Also Junkers was responsible for the setup of an engine shop at TOMTASCH. The Turkish government was forced by the contract, to buy all military aircraft exclusively at TOMTASCH.

The TOMTASCH production plant was located at Kaissarie. In 1925 Junkers started with the construction of four Junkers "Lamellenhangars" here. But only two were finished until 1927, when the Junkers engagement in Turkey came to an end. Another production plant was settled at Eskischehir near Bursa. Hans Sachsenberg became the responsible Junkers manager at TOMTASCH in 1925.

As a result of the TOMTASCH contract, Junkers delivered 20 Junkers A20 aircraft to Turkey in late 1925. These aircraft were civil versions and should be equipped with Madsen machine guns in Turkey. Since 1927 these aircraft were also maintained at Kaissarie.

In 1927 the relation between Junkers and the Turkish government was frozen. The Turkish government's payment for TOMTASCH were still pending and discussions about Junkers' capabilities within the field of military aircraft construction came up as well as about the performance of the Junkers A20 aircraft. In March 1928 these discussions finally led to the dropping of the TOMTASCH contract and Junkers retreated from the Turkish scenery. Markings and Camouflage (Turkish A20 Color Profiles)

CASA license production of Ju52 in Spain

After the end of the Spanish Civil War the Spanish and German Government
signed an agreement, which allowed Spain to produce German aircraft
under license in Spain. The production lines were built up at
Construcciones Aeronauticas S.A. (CASA) in Madrid, which
prepared production lines for the Heinkel He 111, the Bucker Bu 131
the Messerschmitt Me 109 and the Junkers Ju52.

Due to the bad economical situation in Spain, the first Ju 52
from the Madrid lines rolled out in summer 1945.
The Spanish Ju 52 were designated CASA 352.
A total of 106 CASA 352, powered by the license built BMW 132A, were built.
A further improved CASA 352L was equipped with the Spanish ENMASA B3 engine.
A further 64 of this improved CASA 352L were built until 1954.
Most CASA 352 were used by the Spanish Airforce under the designator T.2B
until 1965. The last CASA 352 was removed from service in 1978.

Junkers WWII Facilities in occupied countries

With the beginning of WWII and the occupation of other European countries
the German aviation industry began to delegate development and serial production
to aerospace companies in the occupied countries.

Junkers used the development offices of several Czech aerospace companies
like Avia AG and Letov AG at Prague and Fokker in the Netherlands.
Fokker also supported the Junkers production lines in Germany as a part supplier.

Ju 52 Production in France during WWII

On July, 23th 1941 the French Vichy-Government and the German Reich
signed the socalled Wiesbaden Agreements. This agreement allowed
Vichy to built up an own airforce. To support this process, Vichy also
was allowed to built German aircraft under license in the still remaining
French aerospace facilities. About 1000 aircraft should be built for the
Vichy airforce, while another 2000 aircraft should be built for the German Luftwaffe.
Aircraft like the Fi 156 Storch, the Me108 Taifun and the Ju 88 were built in France.

The French aerospace company Amiot in Colombes was responsible for
the serial production of the Ju 52 in France. The serial production at Amiot was started in 1942.
Several French aerospace companies supported the Amiot production line,
like SNASCO at Suresnes, who were responsible for the outer wing production
and the undercarriage and fuselage fin production at Courbevoie.
Breguet in Villacoublay was responsible for final assembly and test flights
while Amiot itself produced the fuselage and supplied the equipment.

The Amiot production for Junkers last until the Allied reoccupation in 1944.
About 10 aircraft per month were produced in 1942, mostly Ju52 3mg10e.
In 1943 about 25 aircraft per month came out of production. By this time
the Vichy France was already occupied by the German Forces and the
dreams of a Vichy airforce were gone. The Amiot production for Junkers
lasted until the Allied reoccupation in 1944.

Amiot also was engaged in the wing production of the Ju 88 during WWII
as well as a maintenance station for the German Air Force in France.

Amiot continued the Ju 52 after WWII under the designator AAC.1
for Air France and the French Air Force since autumn 1944.
Another 415 aircraft were built after WW II also named Tucan.

Ju 488 Development at Latecore, Toulouse during WWII

In 1944 it became obvious, that the larger bomber design He 177
would not reach serial production status. Therefore the German Air Force
was thinking about a further development of the Ju 388 of Junkers.
The development of this new Ju 488 should be performed on the base
of already existing serial produced aircraft.

Due to the high workload at the Junkers homebase at Dessau
the prototype construction was delegated to French Latecore at Toulouse.
Two prototypes Ju 488V401 and V402 were built at Latecore during 1944.
The German Air Force ordered also a further four prototypes.
In July 1944 the two initial prototypes were nearly completed.
But they were destroyed by a bomb explosion in the facilities
caused by sabotage. The rebuilt of the aircraft continued
until November 1944, when the work was stopped by the RLM.

Ju 52 Production in Hungaria

The cooperation between Germany and Hungaria during WWII
led to an agreement about the license production of Ju 52 in Hungaria.
In the end of 1943 a production line was initiated at Pestlorinci Ipartelepek R.T.
in Budapest. Like the Amiot production half of the production line
should be delivered to the Hungarian Airforce, while the other
aircraft were produced for the German Luftwaffe.

Between January and June 1944 a total of 26 Ju 52 were produced
at Budapest. Due to the war development the production was
ceased in summer 1944, shortly before Russian troops arrived
at Budapest. Only four Ju 52 were delivered to the Luftwaffe.

The Hugo Junkers Homepage
at http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/hzoe/ju_home.htm
© Horst Zoeller, Germany,
100644.613@compuserve.com, February 1997
Last modification of this page on 6th March 1998, 2nd edition
visits of this page since March 1998
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