Junkers S36 / K37
(AFI Designator: K37, Japanese Designator: Ki1, Ki2)
postal, photo and bomber aircraft, F/F: 5th September 1927
cantilever monoplane, corrugated Duralumin, designed by
Zindel


Junkers S36 Civil Version
with unglassed nose section

Historical Data:

The Junkers S36 was a further developement of the Junkers A32. Based on the A32 design ideas for a postal and survey aircraft, the S36 was developed for higher payload. The S36 was the first and only aircraft design of Hugo Junkers, which was equipped with two engines.While the aircraft was offically designed as a civil aircraft, it offered a lot of military features like the double tail unit (taken over from the G31), which was usefull for machine gun fire to the back sides and the forward seat was located in a glazed nose section of the aircraft. The prototype was first flown on Sept. 5th 1927.


Junkers / A.B. Flygindustri K37 Unarmed Military Version

The S36 was transfered to A.B. Flygindustri at Limhamn, where machine guns and other military equipments were added. This military version of the S36 was designated as K37. Due to its double engines, the S36 was capable to climb to altitudes, which were not reachable for the fighter aircraft of 1927. But as soon as 1930 this advantage of the S36/K37 dropped by some British developements like the Bristol Bulldog. While the K37 was the first Junkers aircraft, which fullfilled the requirements for military aircraft of the twenties, Junkers was not successfull in selling this aircraft. At least two S36/K37s were built.


Mitsubishi Ki1-1
Heavy Bomber Aircraft

Finally the Japanese Army was interested in the K37 bomber version. At least one, maybe two K37 were delivered to Japan in February 1931, where Mitsubishi bought a license for the production of the K37. This K37 was used for test missions during the Manchurian war in 1931 and showed good capabilities. The Japanese Army advised Mitsubishi to construct a heavy and a light bomber version of the K37. The Heavy Bomber Ki 1 showed the principle outline of the K37 but was much larger than the origin aircraft. It flew first in August 1932. A total of 219 Ki 1 heavy bombers were built between March 1933 and April 1936. Nevertheless the Ki 1 was to heavy to meet the demands of the Japanese Army. Especially this aicraft was not capable to maintain altitude during single engine flights.


Mitsubishi Ki2
from Classic Aeroplane

The light bomber design Ki 2 was started in Sept. 1932. It was much smaller than the Ki 1 and was strongly focused on the original K37. While the fuselage was mainly redesigned by Mitsubishi, the wings of the K37 were kept unchanged except of the additional ailerons. In May 1933 the Ki 2 flew first. A total of 113 aircraft plus additional 13 aircraft built at Kawasaki of this initial Ki 2-1 aircraft were built until 1936. A further improved version Ki 2-2 with retractable undercarriage, Mitsubishi engines, enlarged canopies was introduced in 1936 of which 61 aircraft were built. The Allied codename for the Ki2 was Louise.

Technical Data:
Aircraft year engine length
in m
span
in m
wing area
im sqm
net weight
in kg
payload
in kg
seats speed
in km/h
range
in km
S36
K37
K37
Ki 1
Ki 2
Type 93
1927
1928
1928
1932
1935
n.a.
2 x Jupiter VI
2 x Jupiter VI (440kW)
2 x Jupiter VII (440kW) *)
Mitsubishi Ha-2 (691 kW)
Mitsubishi Ha-8
n.a.
11,40
11,40
11,40
14,80
12,60
n.a.
20,15
20,05
20,05
26,50
19,96
n.a.
54,00
54,20
54,20
90,74
56,20
n.a.
2600
2600
2640
4880
2800
n.a.
1700
1700
1660
3220
1750
n.a.
3 seats
.
.
4 seats
254
224
243
232
n.a.
n.a.
1100
850
880
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
*) The Jupiter VII equipped survey version had a range of 1350 km with a payload of 310kg.


Further material at the WWW:
Russia's Shortcut to Fame (Russian conversion from a K37?)
Asahi's Museum Site, 2 (Japanese site, but color drawing of Type93!)
Japanese Aircraft and Ship Modelling Page (about Ki 1)
Japanese Aircraft and Ship Modelling Page (about Ki 2)
Aviation Indicator (cockpit details of Ki2)


Updated:
22nd February 2003
The Hugo Junkers Homepage
at http://www.junkers.de.vu
© Horst Zoeller, Germany, July 1996
hugojunkers@yahoo.de

visitors since October 2000
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