Wind in the Bush: The most informative, comprehensive, and up-to-date pages on Australian wind power and wind farms.
These pages are independent of any company, lobby group, or government.

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Wind farms in New South Wales
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Wind power and wind farms in SA
Wind farms in Tasmania
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Wind farms in Western Australia

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Wind power potential in Australia
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Title

Contents of this page

Introduction | Advantages of wind power | Future of wind power | Wind power capacity in Australia | Wind farms under construction | Major wind farms in Australia | How does Australia compare? | Twenty percent by 2020 | News | Wind power in territories |

Reference

Acknowledgements | About these pages | Links | Wind farm businesses - links and contacts
General index | Wind farm index

Ancillary

Turbines and steam | Number of homes supplied | Level playing field | Electricity generation costs | How big can wind turbines get? | Energy return on investment | Wind forecasting | Community investment in wind energy | Payments to land-owners | Small wind disadvantaged

Graphs

Biggest wind farms in Oz | Wind power by states | Installed wind power, World and Oz | Electricity generation costs | Energy return on investment |

Tables

Installed and proposed wind power | Installed wind power, by wind farm | Wind farms under construction | Major wind farms in Australia | Leading countries in wind power | Energy return on investment |


Created as a separate page 2008/03/03, modified 2009/10/20
Information about wind farms that I have missed, additional interesting information,
or corrections for anything that I have got wrong, would be greatly appreciated.
Contact: email daveclarkecb@yahoo.com



 
Updated 2009/06/08

Introduction

This page discusses matters that relate to wind-generated electricity, especially on the utility scale and as it is developing in Australia. For information on specific Australian wind farms refer either to wind farm pages on individual states (box above left) or the Wind farm index.

I have aimed at facts, rather than opinions, on these pages. It is my intention to update the pages by seeking information from the wind farm proposers/owners twice a year, at the end of June and especially in December; information will also be added as I discover it. I'd be pleased to receive comment from anyone who believes that any items here are wrong or out of date (my email address is at the top of each page).

 
Operating Australian wind farms, MegaWatts
By states
Wind Power in Oz
As of June 2009 – Total 1694MW
Some States' pages have pie diagrams showing individual wind farms
Australia has huge potential for wind farm development, but if that potential is to be developed governments must take a more pro-active part. Apart from the artificially low price of fossil-fuel-generated power, the greatest obstacle to the development of wind power – and sustainable power in general – is the lack of high capacity electricity transmission lines where they are needed; and governments are showing no willingness to build them. This might be compared with Texas, where the state government is building transmission lines into areas with top-quality wind resources in anticipation of wind farm development.

By the end of 2007 Australia had a total of around a gigawatt 1GW of wind power installed. Europe had 57GW operational at the same time. Even the USA, a country whose administration at that time was notoriously against renewable power, installed more than 5GW of wind power in 2007 alone, and a single wind farm in Texas totaled 0.781GW. India has a target of 10GW by 2012. China has targets of 8GW by 2010 and 30GW by 2020, and according to Zhang Xiaoqiang, the vice chairman of China's National Development and Reform Commission, a more ambitious target of 100GW is being considered for 2020 (reported in ABC On-line news June 2009). In 2006 alone China increased its wind energy capacity by 80%. Australia was a slow starter in wind power!

In Australia's wind power potential I have calculated that if all the best wind resources of Australia were developed about 90GW of wind power is possible. (This excludes areas of denser population, areas of tourism value, and conservation and other parks.)
 

CO2 reduction from one wind turbine

One typical (2MW) wind turbine in Australia can be expected to produce over 6000 megawatt hours of electricity each year. If this replaces coal-fired power, then the CO2 released to the atmosphere will be reduced by 6000 tonnes each year, if it replaces oil or gas-fired power, CO2 released each year is reduced by about 3000 tonnes.

By my own calculation in June 2009 there was about 1540MW (1.54GW) of operating wind power in Australia. I have not been able to find any published figures after late 2006.

Electricity generated from the wind is $30-$40 per megawatt hour (MWh) more expensive to produce, at present, than is electricity generated from burning fossil fuels (fossil fuel electricity costs about $40/MWh to generate, of course the cost to the environment is not included in this).

The Howard Federal Government had a Mandatory Renewable Energy Target (MRET) which aimed at Australia having something under 2% of its electricity generated by renewable means. (In contrast, the UK Sustainable Development Commission has announced that the UK is aiming at 10% by 2010 and 20% by 2020 and that there "are no major technical barriers to meeting these targets".) Scientists have warned that we must reduce world greenhouse gas production rates by 60%. The Rudd government promised twenty percent renewable energy by 2020 in the 2007 election campaign; as of mid 2009 he is in no hurry to see that this is achieved.

 
Photos of Hallett wind farm
Hallett Hill wind farm, SA

More Australian wind farm photos and international wind farm photos
Both the NSW and Victorian governments have legislated much larger mandatory renewable energy targets than that of the Howard government. These will make electricity retailers buy significant percentages of renewable energy. For NSW to fulfill its commitment to renewable energy it will have to buy wind generated electricity from SA - SA has a much better wind resource than NSW (there is some dispute on this point). The SA government will deviously try to take credit for the upsurge due to the new demand from NSW.

Electricity generators and wholesalers trade in Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) to cover the difference in the cost of generation between dirty (fossil fuel) electricity and green (renewable) electricity. For more detail see Office of the Renewable Energy Regulator. From the 2004 federal election to March 2005 the price of RECs fell from around $40 per megawatt hour to about $36.
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The advantages of wind power

We hear a lot about the problems and alleged problems of wind power, much less about its advantages. (This site has a page on the pros and cons of vareous methods of generating electricity.)

Some of the advantages that wind power has over other forms of electricity generation are:

  • It is environmentally sustainable.
  • There are huge areas with excellent wind resources where wind farms could be built, especially in Australia.
  • Unlike hydro power, wind farms can be built with little environmental damage and little loss of economically productive land.
  • Wind generated electricity, on a level playing field is as cheap as most conventional forms of power generation and cheaper than most of the other sustainable forms.
  • Unlike 'clean coal' (coal with sequestration), wind farms can and are be built now.
  • Wind farms, once operating, produce negligible greenhouse gasses. The greenhouse gasses produced in the construction of wind farms are 'abated' within the first few months of operation. Coal-fired power stations are one of the largest producers of greenhouse gasses on the planet; in terms of tonnes of CO2 per GWh of electricity, oil fired power stations are less polluting than coal and gas-fired is less polluting than oil, but gas-fired power still produces about half the CO2/GWh of coal.
  • Wind farms use a neglible amount of water. By comparison, coal-fired power stations typically use more than a million litres of fresh water for each gigawatt-hour of electricity generated. Many of the larger solar power stations also require significant amounts of cooling water.
  • Compared to solar power wind farms use little land. (Solar and wind are compared elsewhere on this site.)





The future of wind power in Australia

 
Wind turbine at Starfish Hill, Fleurieu Peninsula
Wind turbine at Starfish Hill, Fleurieu Peninsula
Climate change is happening and must be minimised; Australia and the world must move away from fossil fuels. No reasonable and informed person can doubt this any more. Australia now has a government that reconises the need for action, but is doing too little too leasurely. Australian governments could do much more and there are many possible actions that would have very little cost to taxpayers or industry.

Wind, at the present, is the only economically competitive form of sustainable energy ready to take a significant part of the load. (Australia's wind power potential is dealt with on another page on this site.) Using biological waste and methane from land-fill to generate electricity is feasible and is being done, but its capacity is limited. It is looking like solar thermal and 'hot dry rock' geothermal is close to being competitive, but these are not ready yet and will take many years to 'scale-up' to the point where they are major sources of energy. Wave-power, photovoltaics, harnessing algae to produce fuels, and other alternatives seem further away. A decade or two could change that picture.

Limits to growth of the wind industry

In early 2009 the limits to the growth of the wind industry in Australia are three:
  1. the lack of electricity transmission lines where they are needed (Governments seem willing to build transmission lines to new mines, but unwilling to build them for the large-scale development of wind farms);
  2. lack of certainty due to government's failure to legislate its promised expanded Mandatory Renewable Energy Target (MRET);
  3. and a shortage of working capital due to the financial break-down.

Certainly wind power is not 'the answer' to climate change. Only a naïve person would believe that there is a single answer, and only a naïve person would object to wind power because it is not 'the answer'. It is a part of 'the answer'. Other parts are energy conservation, technological innovation, development of other forms of sustainable energy, and education. (I have listed some suggestions in What should be done.)

So, what is the future of wind power in Australia?

If the logic in the few sentences above is correct, then wind power must be developed to the maximum reasonable degree and as quickly as possible.

In Australia's wind power potential I argue that the potential installed wind power in Australia is more than 91GW, and the amount of generation then would be more than 241TWh p.a.

Off-shore wind power installations are also quite possible. Turbines can either be set in the seabed in shallow water or they can float and be tethered to the seabed in deap water. Off-shore developments could at least double Australia's wind power potential. The greatest Australian potential for off-shore wind power is near Tasmania, but all the southern coast of Australia could be used.

Whether all of this potential should be developed is another matter.

Will we get sick of the sight of wind turbines? Quite possibly. The alternatives, it seems to me, are either to throw caution (and, I believe sanity) to the wind and continue with fossil fuels, or to totally change our life-styles and enormously cut down on the amount of energy that we use, in our personal lives and in industry. I cannot imagine our society being ready or willing to do that.

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Updated 2009/06/24
Wind turbines at Starfish Hill, SA.
Wind turbines at Starfish Hill, Cape Jervis, South Australia
 

Installed and proposed Wind power capacity in Australia

The figures in the table below were recorded from the AusWEA site in July 2003, February 2004, June 2005, and December 2006. Later figures were from my own records. The increases in both installed and proposed capacities are substantial.

SA has been the leading wind power state in Australia since 2004.

Capacity factor

All the figures given here are what the wind farms can produce in ideal wind conditions. I believe that it is important that the actual generation figures from wind farms (annual production in GWh and capacity factor as a percentage) should also be made public; but wind farm operators are reluctant to do this. My information is that a typical capacity factor for a fully established Australian wind farm is around 30% to 35%, although I have been informed that Cathedral Rocks (SA) achieves 39%.

Data received from the Electricity Industry Supply Planning Council (ESIPC) of South Australia indicates that the cumulative capacity factor for all SA wind farms from late 2004 to mid 2008 has been 27% (see SA wind farm generation) – this low value would be partly due to commissioning problems with some of the turbines.



Some records: Installed and proposed wind power
All figures are megawatts (MW)
DateJuly 2003 February 2004 June 2005 December 2006 April 2008 Jan. 2009 June 2009
PlaceInstalled InstalledProposed InstalledProposed InstalledProposed Installed Installed Installed
NSW17 17550 17960 171193 17 17 173
NT1 00 00 00 0 0 0
Qld.12 1252 12175 12175 12 12 12
SA0 352011 1612307 3881869 621 740 740
Tas.11 13628 67564 67555 140 140 140
Vic.39 92915 921634 1341952 134 384 428
WA25 28427 30256 199241 202 202 202
Australia
Total
105 1974799 3805897 8175985 1125 1494 1694
The figures above to 2006 are from the Australian Wind Energy Association (AusWEA - now replaced by the Clean Energy Council), later figures are from my own calculations.

Note that installed capacities are a very long way from what they could be. The shortfall is mainly due to lack of government - both state and federal - support for renewable energy; for exammple the failure to build the needed new transmission lines.

These pages deal with industrial-scale wind turbines only. Dept. Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts data (2009/02/20) recorded about 50 Australian 'wind farms' of less than 160kW each, totaling 1.48MW installed capacity, and not included in the above figures.


Installed wind power in Australia

 
Installed wind power capacity - The world and Australia
Wind power in world & Oz
World - top curve
Australia - lower curve
From several sources - updated 2009/02/18
The figures for installed wind power after 2006 on the table above, are from my own calculation and estimation; I didn't calculate the figures for proposed capacity because I have come to suspect that some of the proposals are made for dubious reasons and not with a serious belief that the particular farm will ever be built.

The daily minimum electrical consumption rate in SA at 2008 is around 1000MW. If SA wind farm generation was to grow much greater than this then substantial amounts of electricity would have to be sent to other states, at least a part of the time; or other uses for the electricity would have to be found, for example, desalination of sea water.



The graph on the right shows the figures for installed wind power in the world (top pink line - from World Wind Energy Report 2008) and in Australia (lower blue line). Growth in world installed capacity since 1997 has been around 29% per year. Growth in Australian installed capacity, while starting from a very much lower base, has, since 1997, been about 75% per year.


Installed wind power in Australia, by wind farm and as of June 2009
Wind farmStateMW
AlbanyWA21.6
AlintaWA90.2
BlayneyNSW9.9
Bremer BayWA0.6
CanundaSA46.0
CapitalNSW126.0
Cathedral RocksSA66.0
Challicum HillsVic.52.5
CodringtonVic.18.2
Coral BayWA0.83
CrookwellNSW4.8
Cullerin RangeNSW30.0
DenhamWA0.7
Emu DownsWA79.2
Esperance groupWA3.6
Hallett groupSA94.5
Hampton ParkNSW1.3
Wind farmStateMW
HopetounWA0.6
KalbarriWA1.7
KooragangNSW0.6
Lake Bonney groupSA239.5
Mt MillarSA70.0
Portland groupVic.132.0
RottnestWA0.6
SnowtownSA6.3
Starfish HillSA34.5
Thursday IslandQld0.5
TooraVic.21.0
Wattle PointSA90.8
WaubraVic.192.0
Windy HillQld12.0
WonthaggiVic.12.0
Woolnorth groupTas.139.8
These wind farms are parts of larger units
(the groups on the right two tables).
Wind farmStateMWPart of
Brown Hill RangeSA94.5Hallett group
Cape BridgewaterVic.58.0Portland
Cape Nelson S.Vic.44.0Portland
Lake Bonney Stage 1SA80.5Lake Bonney
Lake Bonney Stage 2SA159.0Lake Bonney
Nine Mile BeachWA3.6Esperance
Ten Mile LagoonWA2.0Esperance
YambukVic.30.0Portland
Woolnorth Stage 1Tas.10.5Woolnorth
Woolnorth Stage 2Tas.54.3Woolnorth
Woolnorth Stage 3Tas.75.0Woolnorth
From the above tables, total installed capacity as of the end of June 2009 was 1694MW (Capital, and Cullerin Range may not quite be finished).
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Wind farms under construction

 
Updated 2009/06/10
The numbers below are calculated from the records on these pages and are correct, so far as I know, as of June 2009.

Wind farms under construction
StateFarmsMW
NSW130.0
Queensland00
SA3281.1
Tas1129.0
Victoria144.0
WA00
Totals6484.1

The wind farms that were under construction in June 2009 include:

NSW
Capital
Cullerin Range

SA
Clements Gap
Hallett Hill
Waterloo

Tasmania
Musselroe

Victoria
Cape Nelson
Three of these are very nearly, or possibly finised as of June 2009: Capital, Cullerin Range and Hallett Hill. I am unsure of their exact status.
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Updated 2009/08/06

Major wind farms in Australia


 
Biggest wind farms in Australia
Biggest wind farms in Oz
The graph at the right shows the biggest wind farms built or under construction in Australia as of May 2009.

Several media reports have stated that Waubra is the biggest; in fact Lake Bonney, which was built in two stages is bigger (a third stage of a further 39MW is due for completion in December 2009).

Also, the Hallett wind farms of SA could be called a single wind farm. Brown Hill Range (Hallett #1) at 95MW is operating, Hallett Hill (Hallett #2) at 69.3MW is nearing completion, North Brown Hill (Hallett #3) at 132.3MW is planned for construction in mid 2009, and Mount Bryan (Hallett #4) at 63MW is planned for construction in late 2009. When all are built the total for Hallett will be 359MW.

Major wind farms in Australia: greater than 100MW

 
Updated 2009/08/18
Note that as of June 2009 only three of these wind farms were operating, although the construction of several others were well under-way, but one or two are no more than dreams.

Wind farms greater than 100MW
In alphabetical order
NameCapacity (MW)StatusStateLocation
Bald Hills104? ProposedVictoriaNear Wilson's Promontory
Ben Lomond 150 to 200ProposedNew South WalesNew England
Capital/Bungendore 141OperatingNew South WalesGoulburn area
Crows Nest 125ProposedQueenslandToowoomba area
Crowlands170? ProposedVictoriaArarat area
Hallett wind farms Up to 320Stage 1 operating
Stage 2 nearing completion
South AustraliaMid-North
Lake Bonney 240To increase to 279MW Dec. 2009South AustraliaSouth-East
Lal Lal140-240? Seeking approvalVictoriaBallarat area
Macarthur330-450? ApprovedVictoriaHamilton area
NameCapacity (MW)StatusStateLocation
Mount Gellibrand232?ProposedVictoriaSouth of Colac
Port Augusta 118ProposedSouth AustraliaWest of Port Augusta
Portland wind energy project195?132MW operatingVictoria Portland area
Pyrenees200? ProposedVictoriaMid-west
Silverton Up to 2000ProposedNew South WalesFar west
Snowtown Up to 30099MW operatingSouth AustraliaMid-North
Taralga 108ApprovedNew South WalesGoulburn area
Waterloo 117ApprovedSouth AustraliaMid-North
Waubra192 OperatingVictoriaBallarat area
Worlds End180? Proposed?South AustraliaMid-North, near Burra
Yaloak115? ProposedVictoriaBallarat area
Yass Up to 700ProposedNew South WalesCanberra/Goulburn area
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How does Australia compare to the rest of the world?

At the end of 2008 worldwide wind power capacity reached 121 188MW, of which 27 261MW were added in 2008. In 2007 wind power capacity increased by about 20 000MW.
Leading countries in wind power at end of 2008 National statistics about 2004
CountryWorld
ranking
MWadded 2008 Population,
Millions
Land area,
km2
USA125 1708351 2899 159 000
Germany223 903 1655 82357 000
Spain316 7401595 40499 000
China412 2106298 12009 573 000
India59 5871737 1 0412 973 000
Italy63 7361010 58301 000
France73 404949 59544 000
UK83 288899 59244 000
Denmark93 16035 543 000
Portugal102 862 732 1092 000
Canada112 369523 319 971 000
Netherlands122 225 4781542 000
Japan131 880352 126378 000
Australia141 494 677 207 682 000
The above information came from
World Wind Energy Report (WWEA)
From New Internationalist
and Encyclopedia Britannica

Australia's record on wind power, on the world stage, is poor.

Germany has one twenty-first the land area of Australia, yet has about 16 times as much wind power (and hugely more solar power). Spain has about twice the population of Australia, a fifteenth the land area, yet about 11 times as much wind power. Little Denmark, with a quarter our population and 0.6% of our land area has more than twice our wind power.

Even the USA, a nation whose federal administration has, in the recent past, been notoriously against doing anything about greenhouse/climate change, has about 16 times as much wind power as Australia.

Australia has huge potential for developing wind power, but has been notably slow in doing so.

The proportion of electricity that can be generated by wind before problems relating to variability of supply become intolerable has been debated for years. The magazine Wind Power Monthly reported that Denmark generated 31.5% of its power by wind in January 2008 (apparently January is its windiest month) and had generated even more in January 2007 (35.5%). Even more important, the article stated that there had been no need to constrain production from the turbines at any time. (I believe that Denmark has the advantage of power-sharing with neaby Norway which has a large hydro-power resource.)

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Twenty percent by 2020

Australia's target of 20% renewable power by the year 2020

Kevin Rudd promised an MRET of 20% by 2020 before the November 2007 election, as of June 2009 the Labor Government has not enacted this in a way that will encourage the orderly adoption of renewable energy in time to reach the target. He has also introduced a corrupt accounting system to make it appear that Australia is closer to the target than it really is.

 

Old sustainable energy

To the time of writing (2009/03/04) I have not been able to find out exactly how much hydro-electricity is generated in Australia annually, but believe that, together, the Snowy Mountain Authority (SMA) and Hydro Tasmania (HT) generate about 15TWh per year. Installed capacity of all other hydro-generators in Australia is about one third of that owned by SMA and HT, (DEWHA figures) so it is reasonable to assume that generation from them would be about 5TWh/yr; giving a total for Australian hydro-power generation of about 20TWh/yr. (This may be declining because of climate change, reducing rainfall, and hence less run-off and less water to run through turbines.)
The Rudd Government's stated target of 20% renewable energy by 2020 involved adding 20% new renewable energy above the baseline at the time the MRET was promised. If Australia is to reach the target then we will require about 42TWh/yr of new renewable energy and a total of 62TWh/yr of renewable generation by 2020.

Little new hydro capacity is being built, so we can figure on hydro making up no more than 20TWh (see the box on the right) of the 62TWh/yr required by 2020. This leaves a deficit of 42TWh to be generated by technologies other than hydro.

Installed wind power in Australia at the end of 2008 was about 1.5GW. I have not been able to obtain any figures for actual wind power generation for the whole of Australia, but using a capacity factor of 35% we can calculate about 4.6TWh per year from the 1.5GW installed capacity.

It seems unlikely that forms of sustainable energy other than hydro and wind can make up more than 5TWh/yr by 2020, see Sustainable Energy - Overview. Wind currently makes up just over 90% of new renewable energy, so it seems that if we are to reach the target, wind power will have to fill most of the gap. So, if we are to have 62TWh/yr of renewable energy by 2020 it is likely to be made up of about 20TWh (old) hydro, wind at least 37TWh, and other probably less than 5TWh (20+37+5=62).

 
In Australia's wind power potential I argue that the potential installed wind power in Australia is more than 91GW, and the amount of generation then would be more than 241TWh p.a.
Wind will need to be increased from 4.6TWh to 37TWh if Australia is to reach its 20% by 2020 target. This translates to a total of about 12GW installed wind power; we now have 1.5GW install wind power, we need 10.5GW more to get to 12GW; there are 12 years from the end of 2008 to the end of 2020, so about 900MW will have to be installed each year, or about one 2 or 3MW turbine installed every day.

Considering that governments, both state and federal, are providing only limited encouragement for the development of wind power (as of early 2009), it seems unlikely that we will reach the target, unless our total consumption is substantially reduced (this too seems highly unlikely); obviously then the target, in absolute terms, would be correspondingly reduced.

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News

I'm not set up for reporting all news relating to the wind energy industry, so this section will report bits of news that readers may not come across elsewhere. News specific to individual wind farms will, of course, be reported in the section on that particular farm.

2009/09/07
Noise testing at Waubra; quoting from ABC on-line news, Ballarat

An engineering expert has started testing noise levels at properties near the Waubra wind farm. Some residents close to the farm say low frequency noise from the turbines is damaging their health. Ballarat University engineering lecturer Graeme Hood will do the tests at several locations near the wind farm during the next three weeks. He says he hopes people keep an open mind about the results. "There has been a lot of interest in it and from a long way away as well," he said. "I hope people don't end up disappointed as a result of what we might find or not find, because we are doing a fairly small sort of test, I suppose." "I think there's always the possibility that if the results become inconclusive, some people might be very disappointed."
I don't envy Graeme. If people don't like the answers he gets I'm sure he'll hear about it.

2009/08/29
Air navigation lights might go

I heard on the grape vine that the unpopular flashing red air navigation lights might be removed from wind turbine towers. It seems that the turbines will be added to air navigation maps and then the lights will no longer be required.

2009/08/29
Wind Turbine Syndrome, by Nina Pirpont

Pirpont has made a number of claims about health problems experienced by people living within 1.5km of wind turbines; including sleep disturbance, headaches, tinnitus, dizziness and nausea in a book that she apparently self-published.

The author's net page is at http://www.windturbinesyndrome.com/, a page criticising Pirpont's work is at "http://www.grist.org/article/ 2009-08-03-attack-on-industrial-wind-puffed-with-false-peer-review-claims/".

My impression is that valid questions have been raised about the claim that Pirpont's book was properly peer-reviewed and there seem to be valid criticisms of her methodology; in particular it seems that Pirponts subjects were few (28) and apparently selected because they claimed to have health problems associated with wind turbines, and there was no control group. This is not to say that she is necessarily wrong.

2009/08/24
Turbines to be built for Norwind in Devonport

ABC Northern Tasmania online news reported that "Manufacturing company Eco Energy Solutions has opted to build a $23million factory near the Devonport airport. The factory will produce 450 turbines, worth about $200million, for the German company Norwind." The article was not forthcoming about exactly which part of the turbines would be built, one supposes that it will be the blades (so is it 450 blades, or blades for 450 turbines?) An obvious question, since Suzlon and Vestas seem to be building most new turbines in Australia, is where and to whom Norwind will sell their 'turbines'?

2009/08/21
Renewable energy target of 20% by 2020 finally passes through Parliament

Few, if any, people in the wind industry in Australia will be unaware of this, but perhaps it could be news to some overseas readers. The Rudd Government was elected in November 2007, they were certainly in no hurry to keep this promise.

2009/06/22
Pacific Hydro shelve half a billion dollars worth of wind farm projects because of Rudd's failure to keep promise

Construction of around 27 turbines at Portland and another 75 or so at Crowlands, both in Victoria, have been put on hold because of the Federal Government's failure to introduce the renewable energy target that it promised before the 2007 election. Pacific Hydro's Andrew Richards said that the company cannot secure finance from banks without the legislation.

2009/06/18
AGL announce purchase of wind farm projects from Transfield

AGL have bought the rights to build Barn Hill (Mid-North SA) wind farm and another smaller project at Crows Nest (near Toowoomba, Queensland) from Transfield. Transfield reported that AGL paid $9 million for Barn Hill. Neither project is yet off the drawing board.

2009/03/31
Suzlon announce contract to build wind farm for AGL

Suzlon has agreed to build the North Brown Hill wind farm, one of the Hallett group. This will be made up of 63 turbines each of 2.1MW, a total of 132.3MW. North Brown Hill will be the second biggest wind farm in SA (after Lake Bonney, 240MW) and fourth biggest in Australia (Waubra is second at 192MW, Woolnorth third at 140MW).
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Small wind disadvantaged against solar

The Australian Government offers a rebate of up to $7500 for the installation of solar photovoltaic panels on homes and small businesses anywhere in Australia. However, if you want to install a small wind generater and you are connected to the electrical grid you get nothing.

This produces an unfair discrimination against the small-scale wind industry. Why would you pay full price for a small wind turbine when you can get a $7500 rebate on solar?






Of wind turbines and steam ships

In April 2005 I visited the new Wattle Point wind farm on the Yorke Peninsula of South Australia and was struck by the thought that, in some ways, wind turbines are to conventional power stations what sailing ships are to steam ships (or diesel powered ships). Steam ships and sailing ships both have been used to move people and freight from one place to another, conventional power stations and wind turbines both generate electricity.

Both sailing ships and wind turbines are graceful and are works of art, while steam ships and fossil fuel power stations are simply practical and are means-to-an-end.

Both sailing ships and wind turbines are sustainable; steam ships and conventional power stations are not, because of the finite reserves of fossil fuels they burn and the damaging carbon dioxide they dump into the atmosphere.

To anyone who says that a wind turbine is not a work of art I would say go and stand in the middle of a modern wind farm and watch while the sun sets. If you go with an open mind you cannot help seeing their beauty and grace: quietly powering our energy-hungry life styles while doing very little harm to the environment. I don't mind admitting that they fascinate me.

Ironically, steam ships replaced sailing ships, yet wind turbines are, to some extent, replacing fossil fuel fired power stations. With greenhouse and the approaching end of oil, will we one day see the return of sail?



Orcel
Proposed solar/wind/wave powered cargo ship, Orcel - Credit Solar Navigator


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No level playing field

Relative cost estimates vary depending on the source of the information. These are displayed to give some indication of relative costs and should not be considered accurate.
Electricity generating costs in Australia
Cost of electricity generated by various methods, including capital costs
Adapted from Geodynamics Annual Report 2004; Geodynamics is a hot-dry-rock company, and the commercial viability of that energy source has never been demonstraited.
Note that wind-generated electricity is not greatly more expensive than the estimated cost of 'responsible' coal-fired power (Coal with geosequestration). Note also that coal-fired power with geosequestration of carbon dioxide has never been proven at any price, so who knows what the price may be? Solar here, I believe, refers to photo-voltaic.
Fossil fueled electricity generation is currently cheaper than wind generated electricity, because the fossil fuel industry is subsidised and environmental pollution costs are not paid by the fossil fuel industry.

Economists and politicians often make statements such as "Non fossil fuel methods of power generation cannot yet compete financially on a level playing field with fossil fuel fired power stations". There is no level playing field! Fossil fuel power stations release their damaging carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere at no cost to their operators, while the cost to the planet will be huge. If the fossil fueled power generators were forced to dispose of their emissions responsibly then the playing field would become level; and they would not be able to compete with some of the more advanced environmentally friendly alternatives. (Also see Fossil fuel electricity in perspective.)

It is difficult to imagine any cheaper way of getting energy than by digging coal out of the ground, moving it a couple of kilometres, and burning it in a power station. It is as cheap as it is irresponsible, polluting, and unsustainable.

Geosequestration is one way that the fossil fuel industry is hoping to dispose of its carbon dioxide (the Howard Government is subsidising research for them).

The graph on the right compares the costs of various forms of electricity, including the estimated cost of 'responsibly' generated coal-fired power (third from the left). No-one has yet proven this form of generation in practice.

The $64/MWhr for coal-fired power with geosequestration on the graph is probably a minimum. Other researchers calculate between Aust$74 and $130; see the cost of geosequestration on my Greenhouse page.

Interestingly, a Queensland government site (http://www.energy.qld.gov.au/infosite/electricity_generation.html, no longer available), gave the cost of nuclear generated electricity as $190-$250/MWh.

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The number of homes supplied by a given wind farm

It is almost a tradition for wind farm developers, when announcing a new wind farm, to state how many homes it could supply. I haven't used this on my pages, believing it to be a bit too vague to be of much use. How many homes do various companies equate to one installed MW of wind farm?

CompanyNo. homes per MWWind farm
AGL570Brown Hill Range (Hallett)
Acciona740Waubra
Epuron400Broken Hill
Pacific Hydro500Challicum Hills
Roaring 40s500Woolnorth
Verve700Albany
WestWind571Lal Lal

Why the variation? Perhaps it is due to the perceived quality of the local wind resource, perhaps it depends on how much power households use in different regions, perhaps it is only due to variations in the estimations of company public relations people?

The numbers above vary from 400 to 700 homes per installed megawatt. If we assume a 35% capacity factor we can calculate that an installed megawatt will generate 350kW on average. If 350kW will supply 400 homes then the assumption is 875 Watts per home; if it will supply 700 homes then the assumption is 500 Watts per home.






How big can wind turbines get?

The first wind farm in Australia was Salmon Beach, which was commissioned in March 1987 at Esperance. It consisted of six 60kW turbines.

As of March 2009 the largest wind turbines in Australia are 3MW (3000kW) which are being used at Lake Bonney wind farm. These have steel towers 78m high and fibre glass blades about 44m long.

The technical challenges of lifting loads of nearly 100 tonnes (the Nacelle, including gearbox, dynamo, cooling system, etc.) to heights of around 80m are considerable.

In some European off-shore wind farms, turbines of 6MW are now being used. They have blades of up to about 65m long (the wingspan of a Boeing 747-400 aircraft is 64.67m - that's the length from wingtip to wingtip). When assembling these turbines, instead of raising the whole of the nacelle and its contents in one lift, as has generally been done in Australian wind farms, I believe that the main components of the nacelle are raised in separate lifts for these very big turbines.

The limit to the size of a wind turbine seems to be in the size of the crane needed and the difficulty of lifting very heavy loads to great heights.

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Energy return on investment (EROI)

EROI is an important concept in the energy industry. It is defined as the ratio between the useful energy got out of a process against the energy needed for that process; in simple terms, energy out against energy in. As an example, petroleum in the past has typically had an EROI of around 30:1, that is, thirty units of energy obtained from the oil or gas for each unit of energy consumed in finding, pumping and refining the oil or gas. (The EROI is often written as a simple number, ie. 30 rather than 30:1.)

Importantly the EROI for petroleum is declining as more wells have to be drilled, more pumping done, more high-tech processes used, to obtain the same amount of oil.

It has been suggested that if EROI for our most important energy sources gets down to 10:1 it will begin to have a heavy impact on the modern way of life.

Studies on EROI for many of the energy industries have been reported on The Oil Drum and in particular Dr. Cutler Cleveland and Ida Kubiszewski posted an article describing a meta-analysis on the EROI of wind power on The Oil Drum.

From Cleveland and Kubiszewski's data the following can be extracted;
Energy return on investment for wind power
CountryNumber of
values recorded
in each country
Average EROI
Belgium229
Denmark1228
Germany2817
Japan910
Switzerland24
USA420

It should be noted that there is a huge range of EROI values, indicating that the industry is not mature. As the industry matures businesses will learn to develop wind power in areas and using methods that maximise the EROI value.

Cleveland and Kubiszewski calculated an overall average EROI of 18.1, placing "wind energy in a favourable position relative to conventional power generation".

Unfortunately, Cleveland and Kubiszewski's data did not include any information on Australian wind farms. ESIPC (SA Electricity Supply Industry Planning Council) does not record EROI figures for South Australian wind farms.

Kurt Cobb has posted on EROI in the Energy Bulletin. Some of his figures for energy sources other than wind are in the table below (I added wind):
Energy return on investment
Energy sourceEROI or RangeComment
WindAround 18See above
Crude oilAround 20Conventional
Tar sands1 to 7Figures vary greatly
Coal80but falling
Nuclear2 to 11Figures vary greatly
Solar?Figures vary greatly
Hydro-electricvery high 


EROI x Scale for fossil and renewable energy sources

EROI against total energy
EROI
The figure on the right gives a different perspective on the EROI picture.

The original of the figure was posted on the Oil Drum. It relates primarily to US data.

The distance the balloons are from the bottom shows increasing energy return on energy invested. The distance from the left shows increasing power obtained from that source.

Click on the image for a larger, clearer, view.

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Wind forecasting

If Australia is to reach PM Rudd's stated target of 20% renewable energy by 2020 then wind energy will become a large component of the electricity supply and the forecasting of wind velocities should be, and is being, improved.

Denmark successfully produces some 20% of its electricity by wind farms and plans to increase this to 40% in the future. The Danish Wind Energy Association has confirmed (pers. com.) the need for detailed wind forecasting if a large component of wind power is to be used. Denmark has the advantage of being part of a large European power grid. Australia, on the other hand, has the advantage of being much bigger than Denmark; a wind change on the west coast of Eyre Peninsula will take a long time to affect wind farms in Victoria or eastern NSW.

The rise of the world-wide wind industry has caused a very competative wind forecasting industry to follow. At present, I believe, wind forecasting in Australia is produced by a single organisation and the forecasts are distributed to all interested parties. It has been suggested that "this discourages competition by being centrally produced and a better solution is a central forecast that is NOT distributed to participants. That way the system operator gets a forecast and they should also require operating schedules from the wind plants – not ones that are as strict as fossil fuel operating schedules, but something none-the-less. This is good for everyone – except maybe the incumbents.

  1. Competition will force down prices (if the prices are inflated too much) – we bring our same pricing structure as we use in the very competitive US market.
  2. Competition will force the forecasters to continue to improve.
  3. The system operator will get a system wide forecast (very useful) but will also get project specific forecasts that are tuned to each wind farm and will likely be more accurate for that wind farm (which in turn helps scheduling transmission).
  4. It helps get more wind onto the system as it will be better forecast and easier to control (i.e. there will be an expectation to meet schedules to some extent). This will allow for higher wind penetration."

In regard to the way that wind forecasts are produced, I am informed that: "In a VERY high level overview, good forecasts are created using numerical weather prediction [NWP] models which use global models as inputs (e.g. Global Forecast System) which are derived from observations all around the world. This is the best method 6 hours to almost a week ahead. Shorter time frames use some kind of local observation-based system. This approach is best up to around 6 hour out - primarily because the NWP models take so long to run that they are out of date by the time that have finished operating (and you can get better information by using local observations). The exact overlap of usefulness depends strongly on the location."

Much of the above couple of paragraphs were from a person in the wind forecasting industry who didn't want his/her name published. If others in the industry can add more, I'd be please to hear from them.






Community investment in wind energy

Germany has successfully developed community ownership of wind farms, see WindPowerWorks. A part of the Wind Power Works article:
40% of local residents have invested in the Galmsbüll "Citizens' Wind Farm"

Community investment has helped Germany to become the most successful nation for wind power in Europe. At Marienkoog in the North Friesland region, dozens of local people have taken a share in their local wind farm and watched the turbines being constructed for the benefit of the neighbourhood.

When the older wind turbines at Marienkoog were replaced by fewer more powerful models, the local community was offered a third of the shares in the 'repowering' project. Altogether, in the Galmsbüll Bürgerwindpark (Citizens' wind farm), of which Marienkoog is part, a total of 240 residents invested 5 million euros. This represented 40% of the district's adult population.

One result has been general acceptance of the new taller wind turbines in the landscape of this mainly farming region close to the North Sea coast. The local council also receives income from the business tax paid by the wind farm.

Couldn't local people be offered the chance to invest in nearby wind farms in Australia? Some degree of local ownership could increase acceptance of the wind farms.





 
Updated 2009/07/09

Payments to land-owners

When wind farmers build a wind farm on privately owned land (most are on privately owned land) they have to come to an agreement with the land owner. Some land owners don't want wind turbines at all, but most come to an agreement with the wind farming companies.

There may be a once-off payment for access, and there usually is an annual payment per turbine. Some years ago I heard that a typical payment for one turbine was $4000 per year. More recently I had a confirmed figure of $7000 per turbine per year for one wind farm (the company didn't want it to be commonly known, most of these deals are 'confidential'). I have recently (July 2009) heard, second hand, unconfirmed, that some wind farmers are paying $12 000 to $14 000.

Farmers should, for their own protection, make sure that the agreement that they sign does not leave them liable for decommissioning the turbines at the end of their useful life. Depending on how the decommissioning is done, it could be very expensive, especially if nearby native vegetation has to be protected in the decommissioning process.






 
Updated 2009/07/09

Wind power in territories

The 'states' pages cover wind farms within the Australian states. As of October 2009 there are no wind farms in the Northern Territory nor in the Australian Capital Territory (so far as I know). There is a wind farm in the Australian Antarctic Territory.

Australian Antarctic Territory wind farm

There are two 300kW wind turbines at Mawson. Quoting from the AAD Net page:
Two 300 kW wind turbines were installed at Mawson in 2003 and now make a significant contribution to the station's power requirements.

The Mawson wind turbine system ranks among the world's most innovative, and is capable of providing 600 kW of renewable power. Australia is the first country to obtain a significant electricity supply for its Antarctic stations fuelled by the most powerful winds on the planet.

Studies in the early 1990s revealed that the constant katabatic winds blowing from the inland of the continent make Mawson ideally situated to generate the bulk of its energy requirements with wind turbines.

The AAD worked closely with a German turbine manufacturer (Enercon) and an Australian company (Powercorp Pty Ltd) to install the turbines and the associated computerised powerhouse control system in early 2003.
Some statistics on the wind farm are on the Mawson site.

I thank Lee Sice for allerting me to the AAD net page on the Mawson wind farm.

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Acknowledgements

The greatest part of the information on these pages has been gleaned from the Internet. I have visited all the South Australian, Victorian, and south coast WA wind farms (as of mid 2008); some of what is on these pages comes from those visits. But importantly other of the information has come direct from people who have been kind enough to respond to my inquiries, but several people have come to me with very welcome information.

These acknowledgements are arranged in alphabetical order. I am indebted to a number of others who have provided information but have requested that their names not be mentioned (a pity, because I like to ascribe information sources to allow readers to judge credibility). My apologies to any informants who have helped but I have missed acknowledging.

  • Ahern, Rodney - TrustPower
  • Blair Donaldson - Gippsland Friends of Future Generations
  • Bradshaw, Josh - Roaring 40s
  • Brennan, Frank - Wattle Range Council (SE SA)
  • Brooks, Roger - District Council of Yorke Peninsula
  • Delmarter, Clayton - TrustPower
  • Durran, Andrew - Epuron/Taurus Energy
  • Ecuyer, Danielle - Pamada (Kyoto Energy Park)
  • Engelmann, Mark - Information on the interactions between wind farms and weather
  • He, Tao Tao - Monadelphous Engineering Pty Ltd
  • George, Miles - Infigen Energy, previously Babcock and Brown, Wind Partners
  • Jack, Ken - Originally of Stanwell Corp, more recently of Transfield?
  • Knight, Steve - Vestas
  • Knill, Tim - AGL
  • Law, Julian - Macquarie Generation
  • Marcheson, Doreen - Wind Prospect
  • Nun, Richard - private citizen
  • Osmond, David - Windlab Systems
  • Reed, Peter - Suzlon
  • Ryan, Brendan - Suzlon
  • Teoh, Terry - Pacific Hydro
  • Whorral, David - Hatch
  • Wheatley, Megan - Suzlon

Photo credits

I have tried to use photos that have some artistic merrit; there are a great many on the Internet that do not. Several photos have come from the Net, several others were offered to me by a friend, the others are mine.
  • Argyle County Council - Crookwell wind farm
  • Roddom, Wayne - Windy Hill wind farm
  • Rose, Sara - Emu Downs wind farm
  • Ryan, Brendan - Brown Hill Range, Coral Bay and Emu Downs wind farms
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Wind power links

This section contains general links relating to wind power. Links to Wind farm businesses are below.

The Australia Institute is an independent public policy research centre funded by grants from philanthropic trusts, memberships and commissioned research. It has a pdf document about The facts and fallacies of wind power.


The Clean Energy Council (replaced Australian Wind Energy Association) has some very informative pages on the Australian wind industry.
Gippsland Friends of Future Generations: a group who are devoted to diseminating information and providing a foram for open discussion on windfarms, not only in Gippsland but in the whole of Australia.
The Clean Energy Future Report by the Clean Energy Future Group is very informative on many energy-related matters.
Julian Law of Macquarie Generation has been putting the locations of all Australia's power stations, wind and all the others, on Google Earth; the full URL is
"http://maps.google.com.au/maps/ms? msa=0&msid=115121582416927516062.00045aeaed1f5012d834a"
Note that there should be no space following the '?' in the URL. Another way of accessing Julian's data is:
  1. Go to Google Maps;
  2. Move the map so that Australia is at the centre of your screen;
  3. Search for "NEM Power";
  4. Julian's map comes up at the top of the search results.

The Industrial Wind Action Group, an anti-wind power group based in the USA.
Wikipedia - Wind Power in Australia, Wikipedia wind power in SA; there are pages on wind power in other Australian states too.
RISE, Research Institute for Sustainable Energy - Wind Farms.
CSIRO Wind Energy Research Unit http://www.csiro.au/weru

For questions regarding the renewable energy rebate etc. Office of the Renewable Energy Regulator
National Electricity Market Management Co. Ltd. NEMCO
Advanced Wind Technologies, a friendly and helpfull supplier of renewable energy equipment based at Kuranda in Queensland.
National Wind Watch, A US site "Presenting the facts about industrial wind power".
Sustainability Victoria, a Victorian government organisation.
Many photos of wind turbines and wind farms are on Flickr at my wind farm photos set and international wind farm photos.





General electricity links

Many links and information relating to electricity supply in general - for South Australia - are given in ESIPC; (Electricity Industry Supply Planning Council).
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Updated 2009/06/22

Wind farm businesses - links, contacts and farms.

The 'Information' column gives a guide to the quantity and quality of information provided by the businesses about their wind farms. The more stars the better, '-' indicates no information, a blank box indicates I have not sought information from that company.
Business name
Links to their sites
InformationEmail Wind farms owned
Comments
Acciona http://www.acciona.com
Site difficult to navigate
* * * *info@
waubrawindfarm.com.au
Berrimal, Waubra, Gunning
AGL http://www.agl.com.au *
Net page slow, uninformative, out of date
AGL are poor at answering inquiries
* * Barn Hill, Crows Nest, Hallett Hill, Macarthur, Mt Bryan, North Brown Hill
Alinta * * *customerrelations@
alinta.net.au
Alinta
Allco Wind Energy http://www.allco.com.au
and "http://www.allco.com.au/WF_ddl.aspx?m=217".
* * * * Enquiry form Ben Lomond, Worlds End.
Allco is now out of business.
Babcock and Brown Wind Partners (now Infigen Energy),    
Canunda Power PL. * *  Canunda
Built Environs
No reply to my only inquiry
-be@builtenvirons.com.au Engineering and construction
Energy Infrastructure Investments – Made up of Marubeni Corporation, Osaka Gas and APA Group    Brown Hill Range, North Brown Hill
Energy Infrastructure Trust (a subsidiary of ANZ). *  Wattle Point, 50% of Waubra
Epuron, Epuron wind (Net site - inefficient, slow, difficult to navigate, but informative in the end. Response to emails - variable.) * * * *info@epuron.com.au, Silverton@epuron.com.au, Silverton, Conroys Gap, Cullerin Range, Gullen Range, Snowy Plains
Business name
Links to their sites
InformationEmail Wind farms owned
Comments
Eraring Energy http://www.eraring-energy.com.au/ * * * * *  Blayney, Crookwell
Hatch Wind Power Capabilities * * *dwhorrall@hatch.com.auWind power engineering services
Horizon Power http://www.horizonpower.com.au/ * *service@
horizonpower.com.au
Esperance?
Hydro Tasmania http://www.hydro.com.au
All wind farms taken over by Roaring 40s?
 webmaster@hydro.com.au Huxley Hill?
Infigen Energy (previously Babcock and Brown Wind Partners) * * *  Alinta, Capital-Bungendore, Lake Bonney Stage 1, Lake Bonney Stage 2, Lake Bonney Stage 3, Woakwine Range
Integral Energy http://www.integral.com.au/ -  Hampton Park
Keppel Prince Engineering PL. http://www.keppelprince.com.au   Engineering services
Meridian Energy http://www.meridianenergy.co.nz/    Only has NZ assets now?
NEMMCO (National Electricity Market Managment Company) http://www.nemmco.com.au/index.html   corporate_affairs@
nemmco.com.au
Market manager
NewEN http://www.newen.com.au/
Site difficult to navigate
* * * *  Mortons Lane, Salt Creek
N.P. Power (or National Power) http://www.nppower.net/
   Lake Bonney Stage 1 wind farm
Lake Bonney Stage 2 wind farm
Origin Energy (acquired Wind Power PL. on 2009/05/06)    Bald Hills, Collaby Hill, Lexton, Wonthaggi, Stockyard Hill
Business name
Links to their sites
InformationEmail Wind farms owned
Comments
Pacific Hydro Limited http://www.pacifichydro.com.au
PH have informative Internet pages on their farms.
* * * * *Crowlands, Cape Bridgewater, Cape Nelson, Cape Sir William Grant, Carmodys Hill, Challicum Hills, Clements Gap, Codrington, Vincent North, Yaloak, Yambuk
Powercorp; suppliers of subsidiary equipment including voltage compensating systems - mail@pcorp.com.au n/a
RES Southern Cross * * * info-australia@res-ltd.com Taralga
Roaring 40s http://www.roaring40s.com.au/
formed in 2005 - joint venture between Hydro Tas. and China Light and Power
* * *infoaustralia@
roaring40s.com
Cathedral Rocks, Musselroe, Sidonia Hills, Waterloo, Woolnorth
Stanwell Corporation http://www.stanwell.com/    Stanwell sold all its wind farms to Transfield in late 2007
Suzlon Energy Australian PL. http://www.suzlon.com
I have found several of their local staff to be very helpful and informative, but their Net site seems poor.
* * * *info-au@suzlon.comTurbine manufacturer and wind farm builder
Synergy www.synergy-wind.com/projects.htm * *wind@synergy-wind.com Devon North/Yarram, Carrajung.
Tarong Energy Corporation http://www.tarongenergy.com.au    Tarong sold all its wind farms to Transfield in late 2007
Taurus Energy (Created 2002)  Taken over by Epuron in 2005
Business name
Links to their sites
InformationEmail Wind farms owned
Comments
TME Australia PL. http://www.tmeaustralia.com.au/Projects.html
Union Fenosa Wind Australia have taken over TME's wind farm portfolio.
* *info@
tmeaustralis.com.au
 
Transfield Services Infrastructure Ltd. http://www.tsinfrastructurefund.com/ * * *info@tsifund.com Emu Downs, Mount Millar, Starfish Hill, Toora, Windy Hill
Trust Power Ltd (NZ) http://www.trustpower.co.nz * * * *Snowtown
Union Fenosa Wind Australia  info@unionfenosa.com.au NSW: Crookwell 2, Paling Yards, Vic: Berrybank, Darlington Hawkesdale, Ryan Corner
Verve Energy http://www.verveenergy.com.au * *inquiries@
verveenergy.com.au
Albany, Kalbarri
Vestas http://www.vestas.com   Turbine manufacturer
West Wind * * *Contact for at Net site Lal Lal, Moorabool, Mount Mercer
Wind Corporation -  Black Springs
Wind Energy Solutions * info@
WindEnergySolutions.nl
Port Augusta
Wind Farm Developments PL. http://www.windfarmdevelopments.net * *enquiries@
windfarmdevelopments.net
Collaby Hill, Drysdale, Naroghid, The Sisters
Wind Power PL. was acquired by Origin Energy on 2009/05/06. * * * * *info@wind-power.com.au Bald Hills, Lexton, Wonthaggi
Wind Prospect PL. http://www.windprospect.com.au * *admin@
windprospect.com.au
Does early-stage wind farm development work
Windlab systems
http://www.windlabsystems.com/
* * * *enquiries@
collgarwindfarm.com.au
Wind-assessment technologies, identifying wind farm sites, early site development. Collgar, Oaklands Hill.
World Wind Energy Association WWEA is an international non-profit association embracing the wind sector worldwide, with members in 90 countries. WWEA works for the promotion and worldwide deployment of wind energy technology.


Footnote on AGL

My personal experience with AGL is not a happy one. I installed photovoltaic (solar) panels on my South Australian house. AGL were legal obliged to pay me $0.44/kWh for the power that I fed into the grid from July 1st 2008, but they did not until about October of that year. In spite of many attempts to get the payments out of AGL, and contacting the Energy Industry Ombudsman on the matter, AGL have never paid what they owed.

They also changed my supply back from green to brown electricity without my permission.

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About these pages

If you find an error (of fact or omission) on a sustainable energy, or any other, page you will be doing me a favour by pointing it out so that I can correct it; my email address is daveclarkecb@yahoo.com and is also near the top of each page. My aim is that everything that is not plainly an opinion should be true.

I (David Clarke, the author of these pages) am independent of any company, lobby group, or government.

All photos on these pages are mine unless otherwise indicated. The background photo for the wind farm pages, and the title photo on this page, are of Wattle Point wind farm, Yorke Peninsula, SA. The title photo on the Wind Victoria page is of the Toora wind farm, that of the Wind SA page is of the Brown Hill Range wind farm and that of the Wind WA page is of the Albany wind farm.


I considered working on the appropriate Wikipedia pages rather than writing these sustainable energy pages, but decided to 'do my own thing' for the following reasons:

  • Political comment seems inappropriate in Wikipedia pages on sustainable energy, but I believe critisism of governments is important if Australia is ever to substantially replace its fossil-fuel-based electrical generating systems with sustainable energy systems.
  • Any work that I do on a Wikipedia page can be altered or deleted by somebody else.
  • I have full control over the format of these pages.
  • I can request and receive feedback from readers.
  • I can work on the pages without being on the Net.
  • I have an ego; having put a lot of work into these pages, I want my name on them.





General index

Home
On this page...
About these pages
Acknowledgements
Advantages of wind power
AGL footnote
Biggest wind farms in Oz-graph
CO2 reduction from one wind turbine
Community investment in wind energy
Capacity factor
Contents
Electricity generation costs
Electricity generation costs-graph
Energy return on investment
Energy return on investment-graph
Energy return on investment-table
Epuron
Future of wind power
How big can wind turbines get?
How does Australia compare?
Installed and proposed wind power-table
Installed wind power in Australia
Installed wind power, World and Oz-graph
Installed wind power, by wind farm-table
Introduction
Leading countries in wind power-table
Level playing field
Limits to growth
Links
Major wind farms in Australia
Major wind farms in Australia-table
News
Number of homes supplied
Payments to land-owners
Small wind disadvantaged
Top
Turbines and steam
Twenty percent by 2020
Wind farm businesses - links and contacts
Wind power in territories
Wind farm index
Wind farms under construction
Wind farms under construction-table
Wind forecasting
Wind power by states-graph
Wind power capacity in Australia
Wind power in Australia
Wind power links





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Wind farm index

Links to notes on specific wind farms discussed on this site...

Note that many wind farms that have not gone past the proposal stage are not listed here. Please check the index on the particular state's page; see links at the right.
Albany wind farm
Alinta wind farm
Allendale wind farm
Ararat wind farm
Archer Point wind farm
Australian Antarctic Territory wind farm
Badgingarra wind farm
Bald Hills wind farm
Barn Hill wind farm
Barunga wind farm
Ben Lomond wind farm
Berrimal wind farm
Black Springs wind farm
Blayney wind farm
Bremer Bay wind farm
Broken Hill wind farm
Brown Hill Range wind farm
Bungendore wind farm
Canunda wind farm
Cape Bridgewater wind farm
Cape Nelson wind farm
Capital wind farm
Carmodys Hill wind farm
Cathedral Rocks wind farm
Challicum Hills wind farm
Clements Gap wind farm
Codrington wind farm
Collaby Hill wind farm
Collgar wind farm
Conroys Gap wind farm
Cooktown wind farm
Coopers Gap wind farm
Coral Bay wind farm
Crookwell 2 wind farm
Crookwell wind farm
Crowlands wind farm
Crows Nest wind farm
Cullerin Range wind farm
Denham wind farm
Denmark wind farm
Devon North wind farm
Drysdale wind farm
Emu Downs wind farm
Esperance wind farms
Grasmere wind farm
Green Point wind farm
Gullen Range wind farm
Gulnare wind farm
Gunning wind farm
Hallett Hill wind farm
Hallett wind farms
Hampton Park wind farm
Hawkesdale wind farm
Hopetoun wind farm
Huxley Hill wind farm
Kalbarri wind farm
Kooragang wind farm
Lake Bonney Stage 1 wind farm
Lake Bonney Stage 2 wind farm
Lake Bonney wind farms
Lal Lal wind farm
Lexton wind farm
Macarthur wind farm
Major wind farms in Australia
Major wind farms in Australia-table
Merredin wind farm
Moorabool wind farm
Mortons Lane wind farm
Mount Gellibrand wind farm
Mount Mercer wind farm
Mount Millar wind farm
Mt Bryan wind farm
Musselroe wind farm
Myponga-Sellicks Hill wind farm
Naroghid wind farm
Nilgen wind farm
Nine Mile Beach wind farm
North Brown Hill wind farm
Oaklands Hill wind farm
Paling Yards wind farm
Robertstown wind farm
Rottnest Island wind farm
Ryan Corner wind farm
Salmon Beach wind farm
Salt Creek wind farm
Sidonia Hills wind farm
Silverton wind farm
Snowtown wind farm
Snowy Plains wind farm
South Australian wind farms
Starfish Hill wind farm
Stockyard Hill wind farm
Stony Gap wind farm
Taralga wind farm
Ten Mile Lagoon wind farm
Thursday Island wind farm
Toora wind farm
Vincent North wind farm
Walkaway wind farm
Waterloo wind farm
Wattle Point Stage 2 wind farm
Wattle Point wind farm
Waubra North wind farm
Waubra wind farm
Winchelsea wind farm
Windy Hill wind farm
Wonthaggi wind farm
Woolnorth wind farm
Worlds End wind farm
Yaloak wind farm
Yambuk wind farm
Yarram wind farm
Yass wind farms
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See also...

Other proposed wind farms in...
New South Wales
Queensland
South Australia
Victoria
So far as I know there are no proposed wind farms in WA that have not been built (although Albany/Grasmere is being expanded), and there are none in Tasmania that are not listed on the left as of December 2008.

Pages on wind farms in each state...
New South Wales
Queensland
South Australia
Tasmania
Victoria
Western Australia


Wind farm photo pages...
Canunda/Lake Bonney
Hallett
Mount Millar
Snowtown
Starfish Hill
Victoria
Wattle Point


Solar power in Australia


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