Introduction

Long distance radio signal expeditions (DXpeditions) are generally more readily known to Radio Amateur operators than TV DX enthusiasts. Using large receiving antennas coupled to sensitive communications receivers, a team travels to a distant remote site where the absence of local transmitters and reduced terrestrial interference noise, facilitates improved long distance (DX) signal reception.

In September 2001, the authors organised a DXpedition to Howard Springs, approximately 30 km east of Darwin. The purpose of the trip was to survey the availability of Asian, Middle East, and Pacific Island terrestrial VHF television and radio signals.

Transequatorial Propagation

Since the early 1970s, high maximum useable frequency (MUF) VHF DX openings from Japan to Darwin were reported in various electronics and radio amateur journals. Of particular note, were a series of transequatorial propagation (TEP) articles by Leo McNamara and Roger Harrison that appeared in Electronics Today International (ETI) magazine.

One indication that high eTEP MUFs are possible at Darwin during relatively low sunspot activity, is the following extract from Unusual Propagation Modes by Leo McNamara and Roger Harrison: "Maximum observed frequencies in excess of 100 MHz were regularly observed between Darwin (Australia) and Yamagawa (Japan), before Cyclone_Tracey put one too many twists in the receiving antennas at Darwin." Since Cyclone_Tracey occurred during December 1974, we can infer that 100 MHz eTEP MUFs were observed during solar-cycle 20.

Even though this information was encouraging, there were no documented reports of long distance VHF television and FM radio signals received at Darwin. To the best of our knowledge, George Francis, an Australian expatriate living in Papua New Guinea in 1978, was the first DX enthusiast to receive TV DX signals above 88 MHz from Japan via evening TEP. Although we were both vaguely aware of the DX possibilities that Darwin had to offer, it would take over 20 years before we decided to attempt a DXpedition.

Several factors contribute to the excellent eTEP conditions present at Darwin. Foremost is Darwin's low geographic latitude (12 degrees south), and low geomagnetic latitude (20 degrees south).

Evening transequatorial (eTEP) propagation occurs just after local sunset between 1930 and 2300 local time. The March-April and September-October equinox periods are especially favourable for eTEP during periods of high solar activity. Transequatorial propagation makes it possible for reception of VHF television and radio stations 5,000-8,000 km across the equator. Ideally, receiving and transmitting stations should be placed approximately equidistant from the geomagnetic equator, with the signal paths perpendicular to the equator.

Before undertaking the trip, we were corresponding with Mituhiro Hukunaga, a VHF television and FM radio DX enthusiast located at Kumamoto, Kyushu Island, Japan. Around September 1999, Mituhiro started to receive Darwin 88-108 MHz FM radio signals for the first time during the current solar-cycle. This was further evidence that a 2,000-mile trip to Darwin was worthwhile.

In September 2000, Tony completed a short solo DXpedition to Broome, Western Australia (with a Yupiteru 7100 handheld scanner), that demonstrated evening TEP MUFs up to 85 MHz from China. Around mid 2001, when Todd acquired an Icom R-8500 VHF/UHF communications receiver with high stability PLL crystal unit and 110 KHz ceramic wide FM IF filters, we finally accumulated the main receiving equipment for use at Darwin.

Receiving Station Installation

The first step was to find suitable accommodation, ideally on the outer fringes of Darwin, in order to minimize interference from local high power TV FM transmitters, power lines, and man-made noise. We eventually decided on the Melaleuca Homestead, Howard Springs, which is located 30 km east of Darwin. This homestead had two separate cottages that were well adequately separated from most sources of RF interference.

There was no discernable power line noise noted on the Icom R-8500 receiver while at the homestead. Because of low external ambient noise levels, the R-8500 noise blanker offered no improvement.

Further proof that we were living in a quiet RF area was confirmed by the presence of Australian government monitoring stations which were equipped with large HF/VHF log-periodic arrays. These antennas were located within a couple of km from the homestead.

Australian government HF/VHF log periodic antenna located east of Darwin.

First day at Darwin

We met at Darwin airport, picked up the hire car, and headed for the homestead. Then from a large hardware store, an Antenna Signal #512 VHF/UHF log-periodic TV/FM antenna and associated hardware was purchased.

To facilitate TEP reception from the north, the antenna was installed on the northern side of the cottage. Nylon rope was used for the guy wires, which were tied to nearby palm trees. A plastic umbrella base was used as the antenna mast base support. The vertical antenna mast was an 8-to-16 foot aluminium extendable pole used for cleaning swimming pools. The VHF/UHF log-periodic yagi antenna, which was 16 feet above ground level, could be manually rotated.

VHF/UHF log-periodic antenna, next to the cottage.

After finally installing the antenna at around 1830 local time, coax cable was directed in through the main sliding door, while gaffer tape was used to seal the gap in the door. Because of insects coming through the gap, it proved to be somewhat inconvenient at night when it was necessary to venture outside to manually rotate the antenna.

VHF/UHF log-periodic receiving antenna, at 16 feet above ground level.

After setting up all the internal DX equipment, we finally switched on the Icom R-8500 receiver at 1908 (CST) and found there was no DX! However, at 1918 we noted 49.75, 57.75 Chinese TV, 50.01, 50.027 Japanese beacons, weak KGMV3, and strong 55.2596 MHz KHON ch2 Honolulu, Hawaii video!

Nightly sequence of TEP DX

As predicted, eTEP DX signals didn't appear until complete darkness just after local sunset. Then 30-88 MHz signals rapidly faded in. As the evening progressed, Asian 88-108 MHz FM broadcast signals started to appear. The initial signals noted were 55.2596 MHz KHON TV-2, Honolulu video, and the 50.061 MHz KH6 Hawaii beacon.

Frequently, Dubai and Iran chE2 TV video were also received just after sunset. As the ionisation gradually moved from east to west, dozens of Japanese 50-88 MHz signals started to appear. The MUF then rapidly increased to the 88-108 MHz FM band. Korean and Japanese 88-108 MHz FM were initially received. By 2130, band 3 175-220 MHz TV carriers started to appear! We later deduced that these signals were from south western Japan and eastern Korea, as far north as 40 degrees. As the ionisation continued to move west, Chinese and Malaysian signals improved in strength, while the Hawaiian chA2-A4 and Russian R2 TV weakened.

While at Darwin, the main VHF receiving antenna was mounted only 15 feet above ground. Fortunately, there were minimal obstructions to the horizon. However, while outside at ground level, Tony was able to receive 80-100 MHz Asian TEP FM on his Yupiteru 7100 hand-held scanner with its own whip antenna. This underscores that providing there is a reasonably clear view to the horizon, geographic location is the most main requirement. The major requirement for high MUF TEP DX is the geographic receiving location, being within approximately +/- 10-30 degrees of the geo-magnetic (not geo-graphic) equator.

South East Asia.

Late evening short distance east-west TEP

Another unexpected surprise was late evening high quality reception of Brunei, Singapore, Malaysian, and Indonesian 88-108 MHz FM. These signals were not via conventional north-south evening TEP. Instead, they were propagated via some form of sideways ducting scatter from the equatorial TEP ionisation! The noted distances were unusually short, ranging from 1,600 - 2,000 miles. Moreover, the signature for these signals was unique, i.e. having no discernable flutter, Doppler shift or phase distortion. These late evening southeast Asian FM TEP signals displayed similar fading characteristics to tropospheric propagation, but they did eventually fade out.

The following explanation for the late evening short distance TEP signals has been offered by Ian Roberts, ZS6BTE: "The diagnostics for this type of TEP are as follows: The previous TEP phase (earlier in the day) always produces good to excellent TEP conditions. Late in the evening, typically after 2100-2200 local time, short-range TEP becomes the mode, there may be weak long distance TEP still on the go, but generally not. The conditions are ultra stable and last for hours, and the path has a "pipe line" quality, typically between two localized zones. There is no amplitude fading, few anti-phase effects, and no scattering/Doppler. Both stations must be close to the equator, within +/- 18 degrees, even on the same side of the equator is OK. The path gradually fades out. Due to local landscape on the African continent, I have only experienced this on the north-south path between the eastern Caprivi strip and TR (distance ~2000 km) and on 50 MHz. An attempt to do this on 144 MHz was unsucessful as I did not have antennas for that frequency. This is not a common mode, and can easily be mistaken for sporadic E. It is NOT TEP backscatter."

"The previous TEP reflective layer consolidates more intensly, with a considerable change in altitude. This makes long distance TEP difficult. Only short range paths are feasible. The reflective zone spreads considerably over the equatorial zone - much further than one would think, making paths between stations near the equator possible. Under ideal conditions, this can spread up to 26 degrees north and south, but the mechanism for these further locations is much weaker."

Highlights of the second day - Thursday, 27/9/2001

In the morning at 0830 (EST, UTC+10), we received some Asian and USA utility DX, via F2, up to 43 MHz. New Zealand channel 1 TV video was noted at very weak levels via F2 backscatter.

Another interesting type of propagation that was usually noted during the mid to late mornings was chE2 video via single-hop F2 from Songkhla, Thailand (2,490 miles), or chC1 video, southern China.

Evening TEP DX for the second day - 27/9/2001

Thursday evening, 27th September, proved to be the most active day in terms of the extremely high MUF and quantity of stations received.

A big surprise was the unexpected high obliquity factor. For example, Hawaiian TV carriers up to chA6, and 88.1 MHz FM!

The following signals were received on the 27th September, 2001:

Channel A2,3,4,5,6 TV Hawaii.
88.8 MHz Nauru FM (2,600 miles).
88.1 MHz Hawaii FM.
ChA2,3,4,5,6 TV South Korea & Philippines.
ChC1,2,3,4,5 TV China.
ChE2,3,4 TV Malaysia.
ChE2 48.250105 MHz, TV Dubai.
ChE2 TV Syria.
ChE2 TV Iran.
ChR2 from North Korea.
55-88 MHz Japanese FM - dozens of 76-88 MHz transmitters, including 80.0 MHz Tokyo.
88-108 MHz Okinawa & South Korean FM.
ChJ1,2,3 Band 2 TV Japan (strong)!

ChJ1 was still in at 3am local time!

Band 3 TV carriers, system M, Japan; 171.25, 181.25, 187.25, 193.25, 193.26, 199.24, 199.25, 199.26, 205.24, 205.25, 205.26, 211.24, 211.25, 217.24, 217.25, 217.26 MHz.

This Band 3 reception lasted 2 hours or more!

Band 3 TV carriers, system D, North and South Korea; 183.24, 183.25, 183.26, 199.24, 199.25, 199.26 MHz.

88-108 MHz FM from Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam.

Highlights of the fourth day - Saturday, 29/9/2001

1. First ID of a country via band 3 evening TEP.
2. First ever TV audio at band 3 via evening TEP.
3. First Indonesian tropospheric on band 3 TV (chE10), at weak levels. Also. chE6 earlier in the evening.
4. First identification of Indonesian 43-47 MHz wide FM station links, including ID of Jakarta 101.3 MHz.

Highlights of Sunday, 30/9/2001

Arabic and Indian 40-48 MHz radio-telephone and utility stations noted via F2 propagation during the afternoon period.

Strong 48.250105 MHz Dubai TV during the afternoon period. On certain days, Dubai, UAE TV was received at very high levels. On one occasion, we were using full wide IF bandwidth, but Dubai was still almost overloading Tony's D100 TV tuner! Dubai chE2 TV was frequently seen with soccer matches and horse racing. Dubai chE2 TV had a permanent logo at the top RHS of the TV screen. The sync bar was also empty.

Far East Russian 66-72 MHz OIRT FM DX

Far east Russia OIRT FM transmitters were located near the extreme north distance limit for evening TEP. In fact, the time window was short for signals from this latitude. This explains why the MUF didn't reach above 72 MHz.

2057 68.33 FM slush, Russia.
2057 69.68 FM slush, Russia.
2057 71.85 Vladivostok, wide FM.
2103 71.84 Russia, mx, // 68.33 // 69.68 // 67.67.
2112 66.73 Russia, mx.

2300 Vietnam, Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia 88-95 MHz FM.

Attempt at UHF DX

After the excellent band 3 TEP DX, Anthony suggested that we should try for UHF TEP TV signals. We did try a separate fringe UHF TV yagi, but no TEP DX was noted.

Japanese UHF TV starts at 471 MHz. However, the transmitter powers for these channels are fairly low powered, hence reception was very unlikely. Moreover, cycle 23 TEP was not equal to the conditions observed during the peaks of cycles 21 and 22.

Last day of DX at Darwin, Monday, 1/10/2001

Due to different return flight schedules, Todd stayed one night longer at Darwin. The last day was also unusually inactive with regards to Asian evening TEP DX. This was due to the unusually high A index (50) for that day. The only Asian DX noted during the evening of the 1/10/2001 were 40.53 and 43.649 MHz Japanese data signals.

The almost complete lack of evening TEP to Asia enabled a unique opportunity to monitor chR1 and chE2 TV carriers from the Middle East and Central Asia.

Initially, 48.250106 MHz channel E2 Dubai, UAE made it's usual daily appearance with a soccer game. This was quickly followed by strong Arabic and Indian radio-telephone channels between 40.1 to 49.905 MHz. Iran and Syria chE2 TV then followed.

Around 2100 Darwin time, some 49.75 carriers started to appear. Todd thought that Asian evening TEP had finally started. But when Todd turned the yagi to the north, the 49.75 carriers were nulled. The chR1 carriers were peaking toward the Middle East area!

Precision frequency measurements of TV carriers

We didn't use a 15625 Hz TV derived reference unit because this would have required a separate TV antenna permanently aimed at the local NTD 8, Darwin transmitter. Also, we weren't sure if NTD8 used a rubidium reference standard.

Tony brought his frequency reference unit, which generates markers every 2.5 KHz. It is based on a Vectron CO-246B510-VW12 oven-controlled 5 MHz crystal oscillator. This reference was accurate to within 1-2 Hz at 48 MHz. We used a Tandy high isolation (80dB) switch for comparing the reference signal to TV DX video carriers.

We found that certain TV carriers received via evening TEP, suffered from large doppler shift and flutter, hence were difficult to accurately measure. Under these conditions, Tony's DFM and 20 Hz audio bandpass filter were unable to give a stable frequency measurement.

We eventually decided to use Tony's crystal reference with a harmonic on 15 MHz. We programmed the Icom R-8500's priority channel for 14.999 MHz USB. By using our hearing, and carefully comparing the video carrier against the 15 MHz reference, we were able to more efficiently compensate for TEP flutter and doppler shifts.

Path obliquity

Although evening-type TEP is more tolerant of path obliquity than afternoon-type TEP, we found that evening TEP MUFs above 170 MHz were limited to the eastern coastal areas of Korea and southwestern Japan, or path angles of +/- 3.5 degrees centered on our longitude of 131 E. At lower frequencies, the path obliquity was greater - in theory as much as +/- 14 degrees at 100 MHz - the western limit being mainland China. We observed 88-108 MHz FM from all over Korea, and 76-89 MHz FM from most of Japan.

Audio quality of evening TEP VHF DX

We found that the Korean and Japanese 88-108 MHz FM signals were of generally good quality and did not suffer from excessive rapid fading or multipath distortion. However, large doppler spreads with deep and rapid fading were especially noted on TEP DX above 171 MHz.

Darwin DXpedition DX MP3 audio files

Japanese Joy FM station on 89.5 MHz 23.34 27 Sept, 2001: Play 1 minute audio file.

Japanese TEP TV audio on 221.76 MHz: Play 1 minute audio file.

Meteor scatter DX

When TEP DX had either weakened or gone completely, we tried for specific TV transmitters via meteor scatter propagation. Based on our great circle map, the following TV transmitters were within range for MS propagation:

55.25 MHz chA2 Davao City, South Philippines (1,397 miles).
61.25 MHz chA3 General Santos, South Philippines (1,300 miles).
62.25 MHz chE4 Ujung Pandang, Indonesia (928 miles).
87.27 MHz ch3 ABTQ3, Townsville, QLD, Australia (1,161 miles).

Despite frequent attempts, only ABTQ3 Townsville was frequently noted via Meteor scatter. MS 'pings' from ABTQ3 were noted every couple of minutes. This was also further confirmation that our receiving system sensitivity was adequate on the 86-108 MHz band.

At 1228 and 1230 (EST), 30/9/2001, we noted some faint MS pings on 55.25, which could have been from the Davao, South Philippines chA2 transmitter.

Random low level bursts of video via single-hop F2 + MS propagation were noted from chE2 Songkhla, south Thailand (2,490 miles). Southern Chinese 49.75 video 'pings' were also noted. Mid-morning to midday seemed to be the optimum period.

Sporadic E

Despite frequent checks for TV transmitters within single-hop (1,350 miles) range, no sporadic-E was noted during our stay at Darwin.

F2 propagation from New Zealand

On the 29th September, at 0839-0910, we were surprised to receive New Zealand ch1 video 45.2396 MHz Te Aroha and 45.2603 MHz Hikurangi via 3,170-mile single-hop F2.

Unfortunately, for some unknown reason, Tony's D100 tuner could not reach down to 45.25 MHz. In order to view the New Zealand video, it was necessary to bypass the D100 tuner, and connect the TV lead directly to the C531 TV.

Afternoon TEP

As the day progressed, we noted that the afternoon period was almost absent of VHF DX above 40 MHz. This is because Darwin is too close to the geomagnetic equator, for afternoon TEP to generally occur.

Further evidence that Darwin is too far north for afternoon TEP, was confirmed when Tony Mann was staying at Alice Springs (800 miles south of Darwin) on September 25 and October 1. Due to different return flight schedules, Todd stayed one day longer at Darwin. While Tony was receiving strong Chinese chC1 TV and Japanese 50 MHz beacons during the afternoon period, Todd was not receiving any of these signals.

Geomagnetic equator with bands of maximum ionization at +/- 20 degrees.

Path distances

45-88 MHz TV skip distances ranged from ~ 1,600 miles (chE2 Limbang, East Malaysia), to 6,940 miles (chE2 Homs, Syria).

88-108 MHz FM skip distances ranged from ~ 1,600 miles (Brunei), to 3,500 miles (Korea).

Davao City, Philippines - 1,397 miles.
Brunei - 1,600 miles.
Limbang, East Malaysia - 1,612 miles.
Jakarta. Indonesia - 1,695 miles.
Manila, Philippines - 1,983 miles.
Singapore - 2,093 miles.
Songkhla, south Thailand - 2,486 miles.
Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand - 2,870 miles.
Hanoi, China - 2,871 miles.
Miyazaki (JA6), south Japan - 3,061 miles.
Auckland, New Zealand - 3,172 miles.
Tokyo, Japan - 3,380 miles.
Seoul, Korea - 3,396 miles.
Sangmusan, north Korea - 3,515 miles.
Vladivostok, Russia - 3,845 miles.
Dushanbe, TJK - 5,326 miles.
Honolulu, Hawaii - 5,373 miles.
Teheran, Iran - 6,154 miles.
Homs, Syria - 6,940 miles.

Documentation

We were able to record five VHS, four video-8 video tapes, and twelve C90 audio cassettes worth of DX material during our stay at Darwin.

We decided to use a video camera for video of the Icom R8500's digital display, and connect the audio direct into the VCR. We now have the displayed frequency, date, time, and direct audio on video tape.

Conclusion

We were surprised that the 10.7 cm solar flux was in the order of 250-270 during our stay. However, despite the excellent TEP observed at Darwin, other DX listeners in Adelaide, Sydney, Melbourne, and Perth, all experienced poor TEP and F2 DX during the same period. This raises the question; are high MUFs frequently normally received at Darwin, even when the 10.7 cm solar flux is relatively low?

We considered a possible return trip to Darwin during April 2002. However, due to work commitments, this did not eventuate. We know that high eTEP MUFs continued to be received at Darwin during March and April, 2002. For instance, during the same period, Mituhiro received Darwin 91-108 MHz FM, and ch6 (175.25 MHz) and ch8 (189.25 MHz) band 3 TV.

After this experience, we strongly recommend that DXers well placed relative to the geomagnetic equator, try for Band 3 TV or higher when receiving 88-108 MHz FM via evening TEP. Our DXpedition also confirmed that Darwin is one of the best locations in the Southern hemisphere for most forms of VHF DX. We recommend that other DXers consider a visit to the Melaleuca Homestead, Howard Springs, Darwin.

We would also like to thank Eddie and Colette O'Connor for their hospitality during our 5 days at Melaleuca.

VHF DX receiving equipment.

Icom R8500 VHF/UHF receiver,
Yupiteru 7100 hand-held VHF/UHF scanner,
D100 TV tuner/RF convertor,
Panasonic VHS Hi-Fi VCR,
Toshiba C531 5" colour TV,
JIM-75 GaAsFET VHF/UHF preamp(s),
RDX Labs UA-701 wideband GaAsFET VHF preamp,
88-108 MHz tunable BF981 MOSFET preamp,
Frequency measuring equipment: DFM, crystal reference signal generator, 20 Hz audio bandpass filter,
AntennaSignal #512 fringe area VHF/UHF log-periodic,
Band 1,2,3 TV antenna at 16 feet, with hand rotation system.

Darwin DX log, Wed, 26/9/2001, times: UTC+9.5.

10.7 cm solar flux: 282, Sunspot number: 278, A index: 24, K index: 3-4.

1906 Nil!
1916 Fade-in 49.75, 57.75, 61.25, bfo level.
1916 50.010 JA2IGY, 50.027 JE7YNQ Japanese beacons.
1916 55.07 FM slush, (55.25 weak)
1916 55.2596 KHON, chA2, Honolulu, Hawaii (strong).
1939- 2026+ 59.76 KHON TV audio, nFM, US, EE
1958 61.24993 KGMV3, Wailuku, Hawaii.
2028 48.2592 chE2 Iran.
2031 53.75 JA beacon.
2031 56.09 JA FM.
2031 57.75 chC2, 61.25 chA3, weak.
2035 56.09 JOZF, Gifu, Japan FM.
2055 63.83, 63.17 JA FM.
2057 63.83, 76.1 JA FM.
2057 48.2501 chE2 Dubai, United Arab Emerites.
2106 KHON still strong!
2119 chE2 Dubai soccer match, smeary with 1Hz fade.
2141 48.25122 chE2 Limbang, east Malaysia.
2141 55.23963 chE3 Sipitang, Malaysia.
2146 62.249970 chE4.
2146 65.75, weak.
2146 43.25 Chinese TV audio harmonic.
2146 53.751 Limbang TV audio.
2146 55.26043 weak.
2146 62.2499 (2tx ~ 10-20Hz apart), 62.26038 weak, Thailand?
2146 60.75 chE3 audio.
2211 60.75 chE3 WFM audio, Thailand.
2211 46.75, 47.95 FM tones - north.
2211 44.65 WFM Chinese, US news report. (broadcast link or TV?)
2211 44.73 Chinese mobile phone, 42.175, 43.37, utilities.
2221 67.25 weak.
2234 56.25 Chinese C1 TV audio.
2235 53.751 chE2 Malaysia TV audio // 60.75 and 67.75.
2235 60.75 chE3 Malaysia TV audio // 67.75 chE4 Malaysia TV audio.
2235 77.2500, 83.2500 weak!
2242 43.25 Chinese TV audio, not // 44.65.
2242 44.65 WFM Chinese TV audio, drama with traditional CC mx.
2242 48.425 Chinese or Korean.
2254 65.15, 67.25, 77.25 weak.
2257 80.7, 77.4 Japan FM.
2257 83.25, 83.26.
2257 91.24/91.25/91.26 chJ1 Japan.
2300 95.75 chJ1 TV audio.
2300 97.24/25/26 chJ2.
2302 101.75 chJ2 TV audio.
2302 79.2, 77.4, 79.8, 80.1, 80.7 Japan FM.
2308 83.20 Joy FM, WFM, Japan.
2308 57.75 chC2 audio, S7.

Darwin DX log, Thurs, 27/9/2001, times: UTC+10.

10.7 cm solar flux: 269, Sunspot number: 279, A index: 10, K index: 3.

0124 Still in: 48.25, 49.75, 55.25, 61.25, 67.75, 77.25, 76.1, 77.4, 78.7,
79.5, 79.8, 83.2, 83.25, 84.8, 91.25 (2tx), 91.26, 97.25 bfo.
0147 55.73, 85.4 Japan, chJ2 97.24, 97.25 bfo.
0201 57.47 // 60.29 Japan.
0201 63.83, 65.15, 76.1, 95.75, 97.25, 59.75, 62.25 all weak.
0201 43.649 (S3), 49.75 (S3), 57.75 weak.
0208 48.25, 55.25, 62.25 weak.
0816 33 MHz Japan, 32.15 nFM (MUF ~ 32 MHz).
0826 35.18 nFM USA.
0826 35.205 AM Chinese HF harmonic.
0845 40.69 data tx Alaska , 40.5293 Utah, USA, 43.649 Asia MS.
0940 36.65 Japan fishing boat with boat motor in background.
0940 45.2396 bfo Te Aroha, New Zealand via F2 backscatter.
0940 46.1718 bfo RTQ0 via F2 bs.
1103 43.25 Chinese TV audio, piano music - test card music?
1749 31.935 OHR, Black sea area, Japan utilities: 37-39 MHz, 40.15 Malay or Indonesia 2way.
1806 fade-in 48.250101 Dubai, chE2 UAE.
1838 55.25956 KHON chA2, Honolulu, Hawaii.
1838 55.25 Hilo, Hawaii - bfo.
1909 59.76 KHON TV audio.
1909 61.25 KGMV3 Wailuku, Hawaii
1909 49.75 (just).
1917 67.24007 video + 71.74 audio, KITV chA4 Honolulu, Hawaii.
1917 88.1 probable KHPR Honolulu, Hawaii.
1917 83.2500 bfo KLEI Kailua - Kona, Hawaii.
1917 65.75 KGMV chA3 TV audio.
1917 77.2498 chA5, 67.24 KITV (S5-6).
1917 81.75 chA5 (FM slush).
1939 KHON video (S7-8), 49.75 video - 'sleigh bells' sound.
1950 67.24 KITV (S7), 71.74 audio.
2005 48.2501 Dubai, fade-in.
2014 88.8 MHz Radio Nauru (2,600 miles), one speaker, UK accent (broken up like TEP), fade ~ 2040.
2028 49.75 Chinese TV offsets - S5.
2028 55.07, 55.73, 56.09 Japanese FM STLs.
2028 57.75 chC2 China TV offsets.
2028 62.2403 chE4, 65.75 FM slush.
2028 67.24, 67.25, 67.26 chA4 video - Korea or Philippines.
2028 71.74 chA4 audio, 77.27 chA5 - (S3), 83.25 (Just).
2047 88.1 Korea or Japan.
2047 91.24, 91.25, 91.26 chJ1 Japan, 95.75 J1 audio.
2047 97.24, 97.25 fade-in chJ2 Japan - very weak.
2059 88.1 mx.
2059 80.o MHz Tokyo, Japan.
2059 76.1 Japan.
2059 76.4, 76.5, 76.6, 76.8 Japan.
2100 77.1, 77.4, 77.8, 77.9 Japan.
2100 78.2, 78.4, 78.5, 78.6, 78.7, 78.9, 79, 79.1 Japan.
2100 79.2, 79.5, 79.7, 79.8, 80, 80.2, 80.3, 80.4, 80.5 Japan.
2100 80.7, 81.3, 81.5, 81.6, 81.8, 81.9, 82.0, 82.1, 82.2 Japan.
2100 82.3, 82.4, 82.5, 82.7, 82.8 82.9, 83.0, 83.1, 83.2, 83.3, 83.4 Japan.
2100 83.5, 83.6, 83.7, 83.8, 83.9, 84.0, 84.1, 84.2, 84.3, 84.4 Japan.
2100 84.5, 84.6, 84.7, 84.8, 84.9, 85.0, 85.1, 85.2, 85.3, 85.4, 85.5, 85.6 Japan
2100 85.7, 85.8, 85.9, 86.0, 86.2, 86.4, 86.5, 86.6, 86.7, 86.8, 86.9 (clear), 87.0 Japan.
2100 87.1 (clear), 87.2, 87.3 (clear), 87.4, 87.5, 87.7, 87.8, 87.9, 88.0, 88.1, 88.2
2105 88.3 Japan, harp music.
2105 88.6 Japan FM Yamaguchi, Ube city, 100w // 88.7 MHz.
2105 88.9 Japan NHK FM, classical mx. (S7).
2105 89.3 Korean news
2110 89.5 FM Miyazaki- "Joy FM", Japan, pop music, EE.
2110 89.7 Korea.
2110 90.3 Korea.
2110 90.7 Korea.
2110 91.25 chJ1 - S7.
2110 91.7 // 92.1 Korea.
2113 93.1 Korea, mx - S5.
2113 93.3 Korea, Jazz mx, TEP flutter, 95.75 J1 audio.
2113 97.5 Korea, mx.
2113 98.7 mx - pop song.
2113 107.75 chJ3 TV audio - WFM.
2117 88.0 FM Oita - "Air Radio", Oita city in east Kyushu Is, Japan.
2117 88.3 // 88.9 Japan NHK FM Classical music.
2117 89.1 Japan classical music, not // 88.3 and 88.9
2118 89.5 Japan, pop song, EE.
2118 89.7 ?
2118 90.3 Korea. - echoey hall sound.
2119 90.5 Korea.
2120 91.9 EE POP, not // to 89.5
2126 88.3 // 88.9 piano mx, - (NHK FM Japan).
2126 88.5?
2126 88.7 two talk stations.
2126 88.8 music.
2126 88.9.
2126 89.1.
2126 89.3.
2126 89.5 Korea - YL.
2127 89.7 piano music.
2127 89.9 ?
2127 90.1 ?
2127 90.3, OM, EE?
2128 90.5 // 90.7 // 90.9 OM, Korea
2128 91.1 Pop music
2128 91.25 chJ1 video
2128 91.7 Korean OM
2128 91.9 Korea, pop mx, easy listening
2128 92.1 Korea, flutter
2128 92.3 Korea.
2128 92.7 Korea, OM
2128 92.9 Korean Station overriding Bathurst Island.
2130 93.1 Korea, OM.
2130 93.3 Korea, OM.
2130 93.5 Korea, OM.
2130 93.9 Korea, easy listening mx (Seoul).
2130 94.1 Korea, FM slush.
2130 94.9 Korea, FM slush, OM.
2130 95.1 Korea, FM slush.
2130 95.3 Korea, OM & YL.
2130 95.5 Korea, mx.
2130 95.75 chJ1 TV audio.
2130 95.9 Korea, pp mx.
2132 96.1 Korea, mx.
2132 96.3 Korea, mx.
2132 96.5 Korea, pop mx, then western pop YL. Also, talkback program. Commercial tx.
2132 96.7 FM slush.
2132 96.9 FM slush.
2132 97.25 chJ2 Japan video, S7!.
2132 97.3 Asian classical mx station.
2135 97.5 OM.
2135 97.9 FM slush.
2135 98.1 FM slush.
2135 98.5 FM slush.
2135 98.7 Korea, pop mx, easy listening.
2137 98.9 FM slush.
2137 99.3 Easy listening pop mx.
2137 99.5 Korea.
2137 99.7 Song.
2137 100.5 FM slush.
2137 101.1 FM slush.
2137 101.3 Korea.
2137 101.5 Korea.
2139 101.9 Classical mx, S3 (Japan?).
2139 104.5 Korea.
2139 106.1 Korea, FM slush.
2139 106.3 FM slush.
2139 106.7 FM slush.
2139 106.9 Korea.
2139 107.1 Korea, not // 106.9.
2140 107.75 chJ3 Japan, TV audio.
2158 89.5 Japanese language, advertisments, pop mx, some in EE.
2205 88.9 Japanese language, YL.
2207 85.252093, 85.24104 chC5 China.
2207 ChA6 TV audio.
2207 77.25 chC4, S6!
2209 57.75 (S9), 57.47, 55.25 (S10).
2209 46.1718 in via TEP backscatter, chR2 59.2602,
2210-2246 Receiving JJ and KK 171-217 MHz TV (See summary below). 2247 89.5 JA, OM
2247 89.3 Classical, American style mx.
2247 89.7 Ria FM, Sentosa Island, Singapore.
2247 92.4 Symphony FM, Singapore.
2247 93.3 Yes FM, Singapore.
2250 96.8 Oil FM, Singapore.
2255 89.5 Japan, Joy FM, ads and promos, strongest tx.
2255-2301 JJ and KK band 3 TV, still in.
2301 83.2 "83.2 Joy FM, Japan - 'Radio Omnipotent', id: "Kur...FM".
2303 89.1 RTM2 Radio Muzik (voice of islam), Mukah, Sarawak, East Malaysia.
2303 88.5 RTM2 Radio Muzik (voice of islam), Kelang, near Kuala Lumpur, West Malaysia.
2304 87.8 Japan.
2306 88.9 BBC World service, Singapore.
2308 90.7 Brunei, id: "His majestys government, Brunei".
2312 91.0 Indonesia? mx.
2312 91.7 EE, Indonesia?
2312 92.5 Cambodia/Thailand type language, probable Vietnam or Thailand.
2313 93.3 Singapore, Yes FM.
2315 89.7 Pop mx, easy listening, // 90.7.
2329 89.7 // 90.7 "---FM" Indonesian, no TEP flutter.
2329 90.5 Asia, Pop EE USA mx.
2336 88.9 Singapore, BBC WS, EE.
2336 89.3 EE news, YL, Asia accent.
2336 92.4 "Class FM" - Singapore.
2336 93.3 Yes FM, Chinese OM (Singapore).
2336 93.5 Malaysia or Indonesia.
2336 89.7 Korea or Japan?, rap song // 90.7.
2346 88.3 Chinese YL, talkback: "hello...goodbye", Singapore?
2346 88.5 Indonesia, OM.
2346 88.7 mx.
2352 51.25 Chinese TV wide FM harmonic.
2352 53.75 Limbang, East Malaysia, wide FM TV audio.
2352 62.24875 chE4 Malaysia.
2352 83.2410 > 83.2500, chA6.
2352 85.2521 Still in.
2352 71.750 Korean, wide FM.

Darwin DX log, Friday, 28/9/2001, times: UTC+10.

10.7 cm solar flux: 266, Sunspot number: 234, A index: 13, K index: 3.

0009 217.25975 video carrier.
0018 91.25 Japan TV, 89.5 (last Asian FM tx in from north).
0022 89.1?
0022 88.3 FM slush.
0024 Turned yagi to west (Malaysia/West Indonesia direction.
0025 89.9 Pop mx, YL
0025 90.2 Indonesia or Malaysia, pop mx.
0025 90.3 Indonesia or Malaysia, OM, news, with hum on carrier.
0025 90.7 CC YL mx, Singapore?
0031 91.9 Pop mx, EE ballad, Indonesian OM.
0036 89.9 "Stay with us---", OM, mx.
0036 88.9 // 89.9 // 91.9 Indonesia.
0041 88.1 Indonesia, pop mx, Jingle "Radio...."
0048 Malaysian TV wide FM audio: 53.75//60.75//67.75.
0048-0300 ChE2/E3/E4, chA2/A3/A4/A5, chE2/E3/E4, chC1/C2/C3.
0330 91.25 chJ1 weak video, still in!

1805 50.061 KH6 beacon, 55.2596 KHON Hawaii, 46.1717 F2 bs.
1850 48.2396 and 48.2604 fluttery bfo, north Thailand.
2027 55.2596, 49.75 weak!!
2048 49.75 (S6), 53.75 JA beacon, 55.25 DU TV (S5), 55.2596, 56.09, 56.25, 57.47, 57.75 (S5), 77.25.
2050 59.25, 59.2602 chR2 video.
2050 61.25 chA3 Philippines.
2050 62.2404 chE4.
2050 65.76 chC3 Chinese video (S5).
2050 77.2472, 77.2500, 77.2527 chC4 China.
2050 83.2500, 83.2600 chA6.
2057 Japan FM: 60.2, 60.29, 63.83, 65.15, 65.75, 77.4, 80.7.
2057 85.2410 bfo, chC5 China.
2110 Japan FM: 76.1, 76.5, 76.8, 77.0, 77.4, 78.2, 78.7, 79.5, 79.7, 80.7, 84.8, 85.4.
2110 91.25, 95.75 ch J1 Japan.
2118 88.0 Japan.
2118 88.1 Japan, OM.
2118 88.3 Japan NHK FM, classical mx, YL.
2118 88.6 Mx, KK or JJ.
2118 88.3 // 88.9 Korea, YL.
2120 89.5 Japan.
2120 89.7 Classical mx, KK or JJ.
2121 90.3 Korea, OM.
2121 90.7 Korea, OM/YL talkback show.
2121 91.25 Japan (stromg).
2121 91.7 Korea, YL.
2121 91.9 Korea, 2 stations.
2122 92.3 Korea, mx (S5).
2122 92.7 Korea, Violin classical mx, (S3).
2123 93.1 Korea, interview with two YL's.
2123 95.3 Korea, YL/OM.
2127 95.75 chJ1 audio.
2127 96.1 Korea.
2127 96.5 // 97.5 Korea.
2127 97.25 chJ2 Japan video.
2128 98.1 Korea.
2130 98.4 Chinese YL. (Rare example of China via TEP).
2130 98.5 Korea, classical mx.
2133 98.7 Korea, "MBC FM", (S8).
2133 92.1 Korea.
2133 99.3 Korea, pop mx.
2133 99.5 Korea, pop mx.
2134 101.9 Korea, classical mx.
2134 102.1 Korea.
2134 102.7 Korea, "CBS".
2134 102.9 Korea, OM.
2134 106.9 Korea, classical mx, YL.
2134 107.9 Korea.
2135-2159 181-216 MHz Japan and Korean video carriers.
2159 88.1 // 88.9 Classical mx.
2159 89.5 Japan, pop mx.
2203 95.3 Wide FM, not fluttery, EE.
2205 44.65 Chinese, wide FM, YL.
2205 43.65 data, 46.17 via TEP backscatter, 47.9 tones.
2205 50.037 JA beacon.
2205 51.1500 China video.
2205 53.82 Japan.
2213 57.47, 89.5 Japan.
2216 59.25035, 59.260425 chR2.
2217 57.27392 bfo video, Bowen, north Queensland, via TEP backscatter.
2217 57.2600 Wawrick, via TEP backsatter (very weak).
2238 66.83, 67.19, 67.55 Japan FM.
2238 68.33 FM slush, (Russia?)>
2238 69.434, 69.68, 71.25.
2238 72.25 China TV audio.
2238 67.75 chE4 TV audio.
2250 193.26, 199.24, 199.25, 211.25 bfo TV (still in).
2250 91.250017 chJ1 Japan.
2250 91.260032 chJ1 Japan.
2250 91.240000 chJ1 Japan.
2320 89.5 Japan (weak).
2323 ChE2/E3/E4 Malaysia TV.
2323 61.25 Philippines (S9).
2323 77.4 Japan.
2323 83.24094 chA6 Korea or Philippines.
2323 83.2500, 83.2600 (2tx).
2323 85.25215 ch C5 China.
2323 77.240, 77.2472, 77.2545, 77.2576 ch C4 China.
2337 Yagi turned to west direction.
2338 93.3 Singapore, CC, OM.
2340 88.9 Singapore, BBC world service.
2340 88.3 Singapore, phone talkback show.
2340 88.0 Indonesia, EE pop mx.
2340 87.7 Indonesia, OM.
2343 89.3 Singapore?, US EE accent, tourist radio.
2343 89.7 Indonesia, YL/OM.
2344 90.1 Indonesia, OM (2 stations).
2344 90.5 Quiz prg, EE.
2344 92.4 Singapore, classical mx.
2344 95.8 Singapore.
2344 96.8 Singapore, tamil.
2344 97.2 Pop mx.
2344 97.3 Pop mx.
2354 91.3 Singapore?, EE, "This is the 91.3 weekly top 20".

Darwin DX log, Saturday, 29/9/2001, times: UTC+10.

10.7 cm solar flux: 239, Sunspot number: 233, A index: 21, K index: 3-4.

0005 90.9 Indonesia, OM.
0005 92.1 Indonesia or Malaysia, YL.
0005 92.4 Singapore, classical mx.
0005 93.3 Singapore, CC.
0007 92.0 Vietnam, YL.
0007 90.2 Vietnam, news, then mx.
0009 89.7 Indonesia.
0009 89.3 Singapore.
0010 90.5 Pop mx "...FM", 2 tx's.
0010 90.9 Pop mx.
0011 93.6 Classical mx.
0011 93.3 Pop mx.
0011 92.55 Indonesia, pop mx.
0025 90.5 "...of Singapore".
0025 89.7 Indonesia.
0025 88.0 Indonesia, 2 tx.
0025 89.7 Indonesia or Malaysia, pop mx.
0025 90.7 CC, YL.
0026 67.60 (strong).
0037 71.75 chA4 TV audio WFM, Philippines (strong).
0048 Antenna, north.
0048 DX still in: 77.4, 80.7, 83.25, 85.2500, 85.2520, 91.25, 95.75, 97.25, 101.75.
0141 67.2507.
0241 DX still in: 42.75 carrier, 91.25, 95.75, 97.25, 67.25, 65.15, 61.25, 60.75, 60.29, 57.75, 57.47, 55.25, 49.75, 48.26005 (Taiping).
0241 48.23958 (Genting Sempah), 48.24974 (Songkhla, South Thailand), 48.25005.

0839-0910 45.2396 Te Aroha, 48.2604 Hikurangi, New Zealand ch1 video, via single-hop F2.
0849 45.2603 (S7), 45.25 bfo.
1056 USA highway police: 39.60, 39.24, 39.26, 39.36, 39.44.
1100 BC harmonic: 3 x 11.940.
1110 42.12, 42.44, 42.42 (US police?).
1942 Fade-in 48.2604 (2 tx), north Thailand.
2029 Fade-in 48.250105 bfo Dubai.
2042 Fade-in 48.239616, 48.259336 bfo Iran.
2046 48.259336 strongest tx (S3).
2046 48.515 radio-telephone.
2056 49.185, 48.12, 47.73 Arabic radio-telephones.
2058 48.259336 Iran (S6).
2100 Fade-in 49.75.
2107 55.2596 KHON 2, Hawaii.
2119 59.2500, 61.25, 65.75, 67.25, 64.25.
2127 59.75 Manila, Philippines ABS CBN local tagalog news.
2133 61.25 DU TV (S7), 77.25.
2133 83.2409 and 83.2600.
2136 63.83, 57.47 Japan FM.
2136 48.2514 and 53.75 Limbang.
2136 55.25 DU TV (S9+).
2138 66-73 MHz Russians.
2146 Dubai chE2, soccer match (S10) > Limbang.
2155 chE2/E3/E4 Malaysia.
2155 62.2410, 62.2500, 62.26040 chE4.
2155 65.75 chC3 China.
2155 67.25.
2159 71.75 wide FM TV audio, Philippines, EE.
2212 Japan FM: 76.1, 77.4, 79.5, 79.8, 80.0, 80.7.
2212 83.25, 83.26 chA6 video.
2212 85.2491 bfo, China.
2214 89.5 Japan.
2214 Ch J1, J2 Japan.
2215 182.25 bfo, chE6 and 182.25 chE10 Indonesia via tropo.
2222 Japan FM: 78.7, 79.5, 79.8, 85.4, 85.6, 86.2.
2222 85.6 // 86.2 // 88.3 // 88.9 // 89.7 Japan FM. 2222 88.6 Japan, YL.
2227-2300 193-217 MHz Japan and Korea video carriers.
2244 221.76 MHz Japan TV audio!
2258 89.5 Japan.
2307 68.33 nFM, possible far east Russia.
2310 Band 3 TV and 88-93 MHz gone!
2312 48.2593 bfo, Iran (weak).
2315 55.25 Manila, Philippines, (S20+), abyssmal video quality.
2321 89.5 south Japan.
2321 91.25 chJ1 Japan.
2330 46.015 WFM station link, Indonesia.
2330 46.75, 47.755 FM tones, 47.68 sb/carrier.
2331 50.014 V73 Marshall Islands.
2331 Japan beacons: 50.010, 50.017, 50.023, 50.027, 50.033.
2333 6 metre Beacons or JA tests ? (CW): 50.051, 50.055, 50.058, 50.067, 50.082.
2335 51.25 Chinese TV audio.
2335 59.2500, 59.250025 chR2.
2335 chA2 Philippines (S20), chA3 (S8).
2335 Japan FM: 55.73, 56.09, 57.47, 60.2 // 60.29.
2335 49.75, 57.75, 65.75 strong Chinese TV video.
2341 62.25, 62.249942 chE4.
2341 65.16, 66.65 Japan FM.
2341 64.25 chC2 Chinese TV audio.

Darwin DX log, Sunday, 30/9/2001, times: UTC+10.

10.7 cm solar flux: 236, Sunspot number: 230, A index: 17, K index: 2-3.

0023 46.01 MHz Hindi music, Indonesian wide FM station link.
0043 45.65 Hindi music, Indonesia.
0048 44.65 CC drama.
0049 44.43 Advertisment: "Radio Jakarta ...101.3" YL.
0050 43.08 mx, wide FM, Indonesia.
0055 43.25 Chinese TV audio.
0055 45.45 Radio-telephone, slow fade, like F2.
0110 45.78 mx, wide FM STL, Indonesia.
0110 44.43, Indonesia, broadcast with man speaking in background - test?
0124 46.29 Rap music, EE, Indonesia.
0124 46.03, Indonesia wide FM STL.

1520 40.53 Asian Snotel.
1520 41-44 MHz Arabic and Hindi Radio-telephones.
1549 43.73 Russian utility.
1618 48.250105 Dubai, UAE (S8).
1636 48.60 Arabic radio-telephone.
1948 55.259589 KHON 2, Honolulu.
2057 68.33 FM slush, Russia.
2057 69.68 FM slush, Russia.
2057 71.85 Vladivostok, wide FM.
2103 71.84 Russia, mx, // 68.33 // 69.68 // 67.67.
2112 66.73 Russia, mx.
2117 83.25 (S5), 85.24, 91.25, 95.75, 97.75.
2125 88.9 // 88.3 // 87.0 Korean, pop mx 'Knocking on heaven's door'.
2125 88.0 Pop mx, EE.
2125 89.5 Japan.
2127 88.9 Korean, studio echo.
2127 86.6, 86.2, 85.0 Japan.
2129 80.0 Tokyo, Japan.
2129 85.5, 78.2, 77.8, 86.2 Japan.
2208 90.7 Korea.
2208 89.1 Korea.
2208 91.25 and 97.25 J1, J2 Japan (S7).
2208 87.5 // 88.9 // 88.1 // 88.3 Japan?, USA pop mx.
2208 88 Japan.
2228 Phillipines ABS/CBN TV audio: 59.75, 71.75.
2230 89.7 // 89.9 Korea.
2230 90.7 Korea.
2230 91.1 Korea.
2230 91.7 Korea.
2230 93.1 Korea, US EE crooner!.
2241 95.75 J1.
2241 77.25 China C4 (S9).
2242 50.115 9M6 SSB.
2242 50.13 VK4FNQ speaking to JA.
2243 Malaysian Ch's E2-E4.
2247 81.75 wide FM TV audio, Philippines!
2247 83.2410/25/26.
2247 85.2485, 85.2463, 85.25, 85.2520.
2247 87.75 Korean.
2248 98.7 Korean.
2248 89.1 // 93.3 Chants (Malaysia).
2248 89.7 Opera.
2248 89.5 Japan.
2256 89.1 Malaysia.
2256 89.3 Singapore.
2257 90.7 Pop mx, EE.
2257 89.7 Malaysia or Indonesia, YL.
2257 88.9 BBC world service, Singapore.
2302 90.7 News in EE, YL.
2302 93.3 Yes FM, Singapore.
2304 92.0 Vietnam, OM.
2304 87.70 Malaysia or Indonesia, "....Kuala Lumpur".
2304 88.5 FM tx with echo type sound.
2313 88.0 Pop mx, EE.
2313 88.5 Pop mx, EE.
2313 88.7 ?
2313 88.9 Singapore, BBC world service.
2313 89.3 Singapore, EE.
2313 89.7 Pop mx.
2314 90.2 Vietnam, traditional mx.
2314 91.9 EE tx. 2324 89.7 Pop mx.
2333 88.0 Pop mx, EE.
2333 89.5 Japan.
2333 55 - 89.5 MHz Japanese FM.
2352 51.150 Chinese TV video, prg.

Darwin DX log, Monday, 1/10/2001, times: UTC+9.5.

10.7 cm solar flux: 216, Sunspot number: 289, A index: 50, K index: 5.

0014 89.3, 88.9 Singapore.
0014 88.3 Singapore, CC.
0014 88.0 Indonesia or Malaysia, pop mx (S7).
0014 89.7 Indonesia or Malaysia, pop mx.
0014 90.5 ?.
0015 92.4 Singapore, classical mx.
0026 89.3 Singapore, ads for TV5 Singapore!, CC and EE.
0103 Bandscan on Icom R-8500:
0103 49.75 (S8), 48.24/25/26 (S10), 53.75 (S7), 55.25 (S7), 55.73, 56.25 (S4), 57.47, 57.75 (S4), 58.13, 59.25 (weak), chE2/E3/E4 Malaysia, 61.25, 64.25 (weak).
0103 65.15, 65.75 (AM and FM), 71.17 (slush), 76.1 (slush), 77.25 (weak), 77.4, 79.5, 79.8 (FM slush), 83.25 83.26 (weak), 85.2521 (weak), 91.24/25/26 (weak). 95.75 (FM slush), 97.24/25 (weak).

0838 45.2396, 45.25, 45.2603 bfo NZTV, 46.17 bfo RTQ0, 46.24 bfo ABMN0 via F2 backscatter - north.

0846 39-42 MHz Asian utilities, and 40.53 USA snotel.

0849 43.649 Asian data.

0859 39.29 San Bernadino USA police.

0901 43.494 43.463 Japanese marine CW beacons.

0901 43.25 Chinese FM TV audio (weak level - only slush on SSB).

0901 43.58 MHz BC harmonic (not 2 x 21.790 MHz), EE.

0908-1011 48.239586 Nakhon Ratchasima, and 48.249886 Songkhla, Thailand via early morning single-hop F2. (Programs VCR'ed).

0930 probable 48.249923 Baling/Bukit, Malaysia (near Songkhla).

0908-1030 southern Chinese chC1 tx's via single-hop F2, at ~ 2,500 miles: 49.752493 (strongest tx), 49.74326, 49.7485, 49.750725.

1105 49.748575 bfo southern China.

1255 49.750015 bfo + other weak Chinese TV carriers.

1340-1400 48.249976 bfo, via single-hop F2 + MS.

1445 43.649 via F2 (this indicates ~ 2,200-2,600 miles north of Darwin). Asian 40.53 snotel.

1611 43.12, 42.53, 40.1.

1847-2130 Several strong Arabic and Indian radio-telephone channels between 40-49 MHz.

1947 48.250106 Dubai, UAE (~S7-10).

2014 48.259376 chE2 Iran (~S5), 48.239616 Iran (~S1), possible Thai weak 48.2396 mixing with Iran.

2022 48.250166 chE2 Syria, behind Dubai.

2038 48.239616 Iran (~S3-4).

2105 Arabic or Indian radio-telephone 48.60 MHz: "You have dialed a incorrect number, please dial the correct number".

2114 Indian radio-telephone 49.905 MHz.

2119 48.239616 (S5-7).

2138-2025 chR1 TV carriers from central Asia / Middle east Area:

2138 49.750016 (slight warble), 49.745465, 49.751125, 49.754845.

2150 Dubai still ~S7. 48.259376 > 48.239616.

2155 VCR chR1 prg: 49.750015.

2201 chR1 49.747365 (~S4).

2213 49.745455.

2244 chE2 Dubai, only tx still in. (~S7-9).

2313 nil.

Summary of band 3 TV TEP DX

27/9/01 2123 181.250 MHz chA8 South Korea.
27/9/01 2123 187.250 A9 S.Korea.
27/9/01 2123 193.250 J8, A10.
27/9/01 2123 193.260 J8, A10.
27/9/01 2123 199.240 J9, A11, R9.
27/9/01 2123 199.250 J9, A11, R9.
27/9/01 2123 199.260 J9, A11, R9.
27/9/01 2123 205.240 J10, A12.
27/9/01 2123 205.250 J10, A12.
27/9/01 2123 205.260 J10, A12.
27/9/01 2123 211.240 J11, A13.
27/9/01 2123 211.250 J11, A13.
27/9/01 2123 217.240 J12 Japan.
27/9/01 2123 217.250 J12 Japan.
27/9/01 2123 217.260 J12 Japan.
27/9/01 2137 183.240 J6, R7.
27/9/01 2137 183.250 S5 J6, R7 Japan.
27/9/01 2137 183.260 J6, R7.
27/9/01 2137 183.260 J6, R7.
27/9/01 2137 199.240 J9, A11, R9.
27/9/01 2137 199.250 J9, A11, R9.
27/9/01 2137 199.260 J9, A11, R9.
27/9/01 2307 217.260 J11, A13 217.25 & 181.25 gone.
28/9/01 2039 181.250 A8 S.Korea.
28/9/01 2039 183.240 J6, R7.
28/9/01 2039 187.250 A9 S.Korea.
28/9/01 2039 193.260 (S3) J8, A10 Japan.
28/9/01 2039 199.250 J9, A11, R9.
28/9/01 2039 207.250 R10 North Korea.
28/9/01 2148 193.260 J8, A10.
28/9/01 2148 199.240 J9, A11, R9.
28/9/01 2148 199.250 J9, A11, R9.
28/9/01 2148 211.250 J11, A13.
29/9/01 2125 193.250 J8, A10.
29/9/01 2125 193.260 J8, A10.
29/9/01 2125 199.240 J9, A11, R9.
29/9/01 2125 199.250 J9, A11, R9.
29/9/01 2125 217.240 J12 Japan.
29/9/01 2128 217.240 J12 Japan.
29/9/01 2128 217.260 J12 Japan.
29/9/01 2128 221.760 J12 audio Japan!
29/9/01 2144 193.260 J8, A10 Japan.
29/9/01 2145 197.760 J8, A10 audio Japan.
29/9/01 2145 199.240 J9, A11, R9 (weak).
29/9/01 2145 199.250 J9, A11, R9 (weak).
29/9/01 2146 205.260 J10, A12.
29/9/01 2146 193.260 J8, A10.
29/9/01 2150 183.250 J6, R7.
29/9/01 2150 199.240 J9, A11, R9.
29/9/01 2150 205.750 R9 ! audio, weak N. Korea.
30/9/01 2017 171.240 J4 Japan.
30/9/01 2017 171.250 J4 Japan.
30/9/01 2017 171.260 J4 Japan.
30/9/01 2017 183.240 J6, R7.
30/9/01 2017 183.250 J6, R7.
30/9/01 2017 183.260 J6, R7.
30/9/01 2017 193.260 J8, A10.
30/9/01 2017 193.250 J8, A10.
30/9/01 2017 193.240 J8, A10.
30/9/01 2017 199.240 J9, A11, R9.
30/9/01 2017 199.250 J9, A11, R9.
30/9/01 2017 205.260 J10, A12.
30/9/01 2017 211.250 J11, A13 (just).
30/9/01 2017 217.240 J12 Japan.
30/9/01 2017 217.260 J12 Japan.
30/9/01 2017 187.250 A9.
30/9/01 2017 215.248 R11 N. Korea.
30/9/01 2028 171.240 J4 Japan.
30/9/01 2028 171.250 J4 Japan.
30/9/01 2028 171.260 J4 2 txs Japan.
30/9/01 2028 181.250 A8 S.Korea.
30/9/01 2028 183.240 J6, R7.
30/9/01 2028 183.250 J6, R7.
30/9/01 2028 183.260 J6, R7.
30/9/01 2028 187.250 A9 S.Korea.
30/9/01 2028 193.250 J8, A10.
30/9/01 2028 193.260 J8, A10.
30/9/01 2028 199.240 J9, A11, R9.
30/9/01 2028 199.250 * J9, A11, R9.
30/9/01 2028 199.260 J9, A11, R9.
30/9/01 2028 205.250 J10, A12.
30/9/01 2028 205.260 J10, A12.
30/9/01 2028 211.250 J11, A13.
30/9/01 2028 215.260 R11 weak N. Korea.
30/9/01 2038 171.250 J4 (S3).
30/9/01 2038 183.240 J6, R7.
30/9/01 2038 183.250 J6, R7.
30/9/01 2038 183.260 J6, R7.
30/9/01 2038 193.240 J8, A10.
30/9/01 2038 193.250 J8, A10.
30/9/01 2038 193.260 J8, A10.
30/9/01 2038 199.240 J9, A11, R9.
30/9/01 2038 199.250 J9, A11, R9.
30/9/01 2038 199.260 J9, A11, R9.
30/9/01 2038 205.240 J10, A12.
30/9/01 2038 205.250 J10, A12.
30/9/01 2038 205.260 J10, A12.
30/9/01 2038 211.240 J11, A13.
30/9/01 2038 211.250 J11, A13.
30/9/01 2038 217.240 J12 Japan.
30/9/01 2038 217.250 J12 Japan.
30/9/01 2038 217.260 J12 Japan.
30/9/01 2040 175.750 J4 audio Japan.
30/9/01 2046 175.750 J4 audio Japan.
30/9/01 2100 177.240 J5 Japan
30/9/01 2100 177.250 (S1/2) J5 Japan.
30/9/01 2100 177.260 J5 just in, Japan.
30/9/01 2100 183.250 J6, R7.
30/9/01 2103 181.750 J5 audio Japan (not // 175.75).
30/9/01 2106 171.250 J4 Japan.
30/9/01 2115 183.250 (S1) J6, R7 Japan.
30/9/01 2115 187.750 J6 audio Japan.
30/9/01 2124 187.750 J6 audio Japan.
30/9/01 2124 171.250 J4 Japan.

Table of band 3 Japan and Korean TV TEP DX

chch#carrierstationlocationprefectureregioncountrykWcall
freq (MHz)
J4171.24NHK-Gen.KochiKochiShikokuJapan1JORK
J4171.25RKBFukuokaFukuokaKyushuJapan10JOFR
J4171.26NHK-Ed.TottoriTottoriChugokuJapan1JOLC
J4171.26RCCHiroshimaHiroshimaChugokuJapan10.
J5177.24NHK-Edu.KagoshimaKagoshimaKyushuJapan5JOHC
J5177.25NBCNagasakiNagasakiKyushuJapan1JOUR
J5177.25OBSOitaOitaKyushuJapan3-
J5177.26NHK-G.OkayamaOkayamaChugokuJapan10JOKB
A8181.25KBS TV1Taegu (Daegu)..S. Korea10.
J6183.24NHK-Ed.KochiKochiShikokuJapan1JORB
J6183.24NHK-G.MatsuyamaEhimeShikokuJapan5JOZK
J6183.25NHK-Gen.KitakyushuFukuokaKyushuJapan1JOSK
J6183.26NHK-Edu.FukuokaFukuokaKyushuJapan10JOLB
A9187.25KBS TV1Busan (Pusan)..S. Korea10.
J8193.24NHK-Gen.SaseboNagasakiKyushuJapan1JOAQ
J8193.25RKBKitakyushuFukuokaKyushuJapan1-
J8193.26NHK-Gen.MiyazakiMiyazakiKyushuJapan1JOMG
J9199.24NHK-G.YamaguchiYamaguchiChugokuJapan1JOUG
J9199.25NHK-Gen.KumamotoKumamotoKyushuJapan2JOGK
J9199.26TNCFukuokaFukuokaKyushuJapan10JOJY
J10205.24NBCSaseboNagasakiKyushuJapan1-
J10205.25TNCKitakyushuFukuokaKyushuJapan1-
J10205.26MRTMiyazakiMiyazakiKyushuJapan1JONF
R9205.75(FM audio)Sepo..N. Korea70.
R10207.25.Wosan..N. Korea70.
J11211.24KRYTokuyamaYamaguchiChugokuJapan1JOPF
J11211.25RKKKumamotoKumamotoKyushuJapan2JOBF
R11215.248.?..N. Korea..
R11215.26.?..N. Korea..
J12217.24NHK-Edu.OitaOitaKyushuJapan3JOID
J12217.25NHK-Edu.KitakyushuFukuokaKyushuJapan1JOSB
J12217.26NHK-Edu.MiyazakiMiyazakiKyushuJapan1JOMC

Tony Mann.

Todd Emslie.

References

Reference list of Asian TV and FM VHF signals used for Darwin DXpedition. Compiled by Tony Mann.

Transequatorial propagation. IPS paper.

EA6VQ's TEP page. 144 MHz TEP information.

EA6VQ's TEP page. Japan to Australia 144 MHz TEP information.

Equatorial Propagation by Ray Cracknell, G2AHU.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank Mituhiro Hukunaga (Kyushu Island, South Japan) for the very useful Far East FM and VHF TV tx lists on his webpage http://www5a.biglobe.ne.jp/~mitu/eng.htm and for his help in identifying Japanese Band 3 TV transmitters.

E-mail Todd Emslie and Tony Mann.





Copyright © 2005 Tony Mann and Todd Emslie. 1