Who’s Who In Chess

By Bill Wall



Aagaard, Jacob (1973-    )

Jacob Aagaard was born on July 31, 1973.  He is an international master from Denmark, but now lives in Glasgow, Scotland.  He took 2nd place in the 111th Scottish Championship in 2004.  He took 1st place in the 112th Scottish Championship in 2005, but is not a Scottish citizen yet.  He has written several chess books, including Excelling at Chess and Inside the Chess Mind.


Schmied – Aagaard, Copenhagen 1985

1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 d5 3.c4 e6 4.Bg5 dxc4 5.Qa4+ Nbd7 6.Qxc4 c5 7.Nc3 a6 8.a4 cxd4 9.Nxd4? (9.Qxd4)  Ne5  0-1


Aaltio, Erkki (1935- )

Chess master from Hanko, Finland.  He participated in the World Under 26 Championship in 1957.  In 1959, he represented Finland in the 6th World Student Team Chess Championship in Budapest.


Aaron, Manuel (Dec 30, 1935 -   )

India’s first International Master (IM).  He was born in Toungoo, Burma on December 30, 1935 and became an International Master in 1961.  In 1960 he had a 2509 performance rating at the Leipzig Chess Olympiad (he defeated Max Euwe).  In 1962 he took last place out of 23 players in the Stockholm Interzonal (but he did defeat Portisch and Uhlmann).  He became an International Arbiter in 1986.  His highest FIDE rating was 2420.  He has won the state of Tamil Nadu (Madras) 10 times and the India National Championship 9 times.  These records still stand.  He is the director of the Aaron Chess Academy, India’s first chess academy and the founder (1982) and editor of Chess Mate magazine.


Aaron - Suer, Varna Chess Olympiad 1962

1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 g6 3.c4 Bg7 4.Nc3 O-O 5.e4 d6 6.Be2 c5 7.d5 Na6 8.O-O Nc7 9.h3 a6 10.a4 Rb8 11.Bf4 Nd7 12.Re1 Ne5 13.Nxe5 Bxe5 14.Bxe5 dxe5 15.Bg4 f5 16.exf5 gxf5 17.Bh5 Qd6 18.Qe2 e4 19.f3 b5 20.axb5 axb5 21.fxe4 fxe4 22.Qxe4 b4 23.Nd1 e6 24.dxe6 Bxe6 25.Ra7 Bf5 26.Qe7 Qd4+? (26...Qxe7) 27.Kh1 Ne8?? (27...Rbc8) 28.Bf7+  (28...Kh8 29.Qxf8 mate; 28...Kg7 29.Bxe8+ Kg8 30.Re5 wins)  1-0


Aarseth, Sverre Johannes (Jul 20, 1934 -   )

Chess master from Norway.   He participated in the 6th World Correspondence Chess Championship in 1971 and finished 14th out of 15 players.   He lost one game in 14 moves.  He is an astromer and avid mountain climber.  In 1981, he was awarded the International Master for Correspondence award.


Aarseth - Rittner, 6th World Correspondence Championship 1971

1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.e5 c5 5.Qg4 Ne7 6.dxc5 Nbc6 7.Nf3 d4 8.Bb5 Qa5 9.Bxc6+ bxc6 10.Qxg7 (10.Qxd4) 10...Rg8 11.Qxh7 Ba6 12.Ng5 Bxc3+ 13.Kd1 O-O-O 14.Nxf7 d3!   (15.Nxd8 Qa4 16.b3 Qg4+ 17.f3 Qxg2 18.cxd3 Qxh1+ 19.Kc2 Rg2+ 20.Kxc3 Nd5+ 21.Kd4 Qg1+ 22.Ke4 Re2+ 23.Be3 Qxe3 mate)  0-1


Abarca Aguirre, Manuel (1965- )

Awarded the FIDE master title in 1986.  He represented Chile in the 2nd Panamerican Chess Team Championship, held in Villa Gesell in 1985.  He is rated around 2350.


Abasheev, Denis (1977- )

International Master from Russia.


Abbasov, Farid (1979-    )

International Master from Azerbaijan.  In 1997 he took 2nd place in the European Youth Chess Championship.  His FIDE rating is 2444.  His handle on the Internet Chess Club (ICC) is Oficer.


Abbott, Hedley ( 1904-1979)

New Zeland champion in 1936-1937. 


Abbott, Joseph William (1840-1923)

English chess problemist.  In 1887, he wrote 121 Chess Problems.


Abdelnabbi, Imed (1963-    )

International Master (1985) and Egypt’s top rated player.  His FIDE rating is 2464.


Domingos – Abdelnabbi, Abuja 2003

1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 d5 3.c4 e6 4.Nc3 c5 5.e3 Nc6 6.a3 a6 7.Bd3 dxc4 8.Bxc4 b5 9.Bd3 Bb7 10.O-O Rc8 11.dxc5 Bxc5 12.Qe2 Qc7 13.Ne4 Ne5 14.Nxf6+ gxf6 15.Nxe5 Qxe5 16.f3 Rg8 17.Kh1 Bd6 18.f4? (18.g3) Rxg2!  0-1


Abdulaziz, Mahmoud (1972-    )

Champion of Lebanon in 2000.  His FIDE rating is 2101.


Abdulaziz – Talal Abas, Beruit 2001

1.Nf3 Nf6 2.g3 g6 3.Bg2 Bg7 4.O-O O-O 5.d3 d5 6.Nbd2 c5 7.c4 Nc6 8.a3 b6 9.Rb1 Bb7 10.b4 cxb4 11.axb4 dxc4 12.Nxc4 Nd4 13.Nxd4 Bxg2 14.Ne6 Qd5? (14…exf6) 15.Nf4  1-0


Abdulla, Al-Rakib (1980-    )

International Master from Bangladesh.  His highest rating has been 2458.


Abdullah, Mansoor

International Master from the United Arab Emirates.


Abdurahmanovic, Fadil (Aug 24, 1939 -    )

Bosnian chess problemist and Grandmaster for Chess Compositions (1992).  His best work is in the field of helpmates.


Abel, Lajos (1944- )

International Master from Hungary.


Abela de la Torre, Aurelio (1843-1892)

Chess composer from Malaga, Spain.


Abelardo Roldan, Adrian (1965- )

Chess master and Intrrnational Arbiter (1986) from Buenos Aires, Argentina.


Abella, Roger

Chess master from the Philippines.  He is rated 2330.


Abergel, Thal (Oc 13, 1982 -    )

International Master from France.  His highest FIDE rating has been 2477.


Abhyankar-Gokhale, Anupama (1969- )

Chess master from India.  Awarded the Women’s International Master title in 1985.  She married chess master Raghunandan Gokhale, chairman of the Mumbai Chess Assoication and Anupama’s coach.


Abilmazhinov, Dauren (1986- )

International Master from Kazakhstan.


Abkin, V. A. ( -1940)

Polish chess master who played in St Petersburg 1901 (took 2nd place) and Leningrad 1920.


Abolianin, Arthur (Jul 25, 1966 -    )

International Master from Belgium.  He played Board 2 for Belgium in the 2004 Chess Olympiad in Calvia.  His highest rating was 2473.


Van Leeuwen – Abolianin, Gent 2003

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 g6 5.Nc3 Bg7 6.Be3 Nf6 7.Nxc6 bxc6 8.e5 Ng8 9.Bd4 f6 10.f4 Nh6 11.exf6 exf6 12.Bc4 d5 13.Qe2+ Kf7 14.O-O-O Bg4  0-1


Abonyi, Istvan (Aug 18, 1886 – Jun 5, 1942)

Hungarian master from Budapest.  In 1922 he published analysis on the Abonyi Gambit of the Budapest Defense (1,d4 Nf6 2.c4 e5 3.dxe5 Ng4 4.e4 Nxd5 5.f4 Nec6) in Deutsches Wochenschach.  He was one of the 15 founders of FIDE in 1924.  In 1928, he played 300 opponents on 105 boards, scoring 79 wins, 6 losses, and 20 draws.


Abonyi – Hromadka, Prague 1908

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bb5 Nd4 5.Ba4 c6 6.O-O Bc5 7.Nxe5 d6 8.Nd3 Bg4 9.Qe1 Nf3+ 10.gxf3 Bxf3 11.e5 O-O 12.exd6 Ng4 13.Qe7 Bxd6  0-1


Abou El Zein, Eid Mahmoud (1952- )

International Master from Egypt.


Abrahams, Gerald (Apr 15, 1907 – Mar 15, 1980)

British lawyer (barrister), chess master and chess author.   His eight chess books include Teach Yourself Chess (1948), The Chess Mind (1952), Handbook of Chess (1960), Technique in Chess (1961), Test Your Chess (1963), Pan Book of Chess (1966), Not Only Chess (1974), and Brilliancies in Chess (1977).  He introduced the Abrahams variation (also called the Noteboom variation) of the Queen’s Gambit Declined (1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 c6 4.Nf3 dxc4 5.a4 Bb4 6.e3 b5 7.Bd2 a5) in 1925 (Allcock-Abrahams, England 1925).  In 1933 he finished in 3rd place in the British Championship.  In 1946, he defeated Viaschelav Ragozin (who later became the second World Correspondence Champion) in the Anglo-Soviet radio match, winning one game and drawing one game.   He tied for 3rd at the Nottingham Major Open in 1936.



Unknown - Abrahams, England 1929

1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 c6 4.e4 Bb4 5.Bd3 e5 6.dxe5 dxe4 7.Bxe4 Bxc3+ 8.bxc3 Qxd1+ 9.Kxd1 Be6 10.Rb1 Na6 11.Rxb7? (11.Be3) 11...O-O-O+! (12.Kc2 Kxb7 wins)  0-1.


Abrahamyan, Tatev (Jan 13, 1988 -    )

Woman’s International Master (WIM) who was born in Yerevan, Armenia on January 13, 1988.  In 2005, she tied for 1st in the U.S. Women’s Chess Championship, but lost the play-off match to Rusudan Goletiani. In 2006, she won the Pan American Championship for Girls Under 20.   She represented the US in the 2006 World Junior Championship and made her first WGM norm.  She lives in Glendale, California.  Her coach is IM Armen Ambartsoumian.


Abramavicius, Leonardas (Leonhard) ( -1960)

Lithuanian chess master.  In 1930, he played on the 4th board for Lithuania at the 3rd Chess Olympiad in Hamburg.  In 1931, he played 4th board at the 4th Chess Olympiad in Prague.  In 1933, he played the reserve board at the 5th Chess Olympiad in Folkestone and won the individual silver medal with 5 wins, 2 losses, and 2 draws..  In 1936, he played 5th board at the Chess Olympiad in Munich.  In 1937, he played the reserve board at the 7th Chess Olympiad in Stockholm.  In 1943, he tied for 1st place in the Lithuanian championship.  He took 3rd in the play-off.  In 1950, he tied for 1st in the Lithuanian championship.


Abramian, Suren (1910- )

Russian chess master.  He played in the 1938 USSR Championship in Leningrad (won by Botvinnik).  Abramian took 10th place. 


Abramov, Boris (1941- )

International Master from Russia.


Abramov, Lev (1911- )

Russian chess master.  He was awarded the International Arbiter title in 1957.   He was awarded the title of International Master of Correspondence Chess in 1979.  In 1971, he wrote Move by Move.  He is the former head of the Sports Committer Chess Department.  He was the captain of the USSR team during the USSR vs. Rest of the World match in Belgrade in 1970.


Abramovic, Bosko (Feb 14, 1951 -    )

Serbia/Montenegro Grandmaster (1984).  He won at Belgrade in 1984 and was second at Montpellier in 1986.  He took 16th-20th in the 1993 Biel FIDE Interzonal.  His highest FIDE rating has been 2633 and currently, it is 2489.


Abramovic – Chiburdanidze, Montpelier 1986

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.O-O b5 6.Bb3 Bb7 7.c3 g6 8.d4 exd4 9.e5 Ne4 10.Re1 Nc5 11.cxd4 Nxb3 12.Qxb3 Nb4 13.Nc3 Nd3 14.Ne4 Bxe4 15.Bg5 Be7 16.Bxe7 Qxe7 17.Rxe4  1-0 


Abramson, Moesei ( -1977)

Russian master.  In 1967, he was awarded the International Master for Correspondence Chess title.  He took 6th place in the 5th World Correspondence Chess Championship.


Abrantes, Joao

Portuguese chess player.  In 1983, he was awarded the International Arbiter title.


Abreu, Aryam (1978-   )

International Master from Cuba.  His highest rating has been 2510.


Abreu – Van Riemsdijk, Columbia 2001

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 a6 6.f4 b5 7.e5 b4 8.Qf3 Ra7 9.exf6 bxc3 10.Qxc3 gxf6 11.Be3 Rc7 12.Qd2 Nd7 13.Be2 Bb7 14.Ne6 Qc8 15.Nxc7+ Qxc7 16.O-O Rg8 17.Bf3 f5 18.Bd4 d5 19.Rae1 e6 20.Bh5 Qc6 21.Rxe6+ Qxe6 22.Re1 Kd8 23.Rxe6 fxe6 24.Bf7  1-0


Abreu, Jorge (1958- )

International Master from the Dominican Republic.


Abroshin, Mikhail (1923- )

Russian chess master.  He played in several USSR correspondence chess championships.


Acers, Jude Frazer (Apr 6, 1944 -   )

Jude Acers was born in Long Beach on April 6, 1944.  He is a U.S. senior chess master now living in New Orleans who has set several world record simultaneous exhibition records.  He learned to play chess at age 7 and was a master at age 17.  In 1966 at the Louisiana State Fair, he played 114 opponents simultaneously and won all 114 games.  In 1976 he played 179 opponents simultaneously in Long Island.  He has toured 48 states and 5 countries to give over a thousand chess exhibitions.  When not touring and playing in other chess tournaments, Jude can be found at his World Chess table on the Gazebo sidewalk terracem 1018 Decatur Street (the French Quarter), New Orleans, Louisiana.  He is known as the man with the red beret.  In 2005, he survived hurricane Katrina in New Orleans and was evacuated to Tennessee.



Steers - Acers, Santa Monica 1968

1.e4 d5 2.exd5 Nf6 3.d4 Nxd5 4.c4 Nb4 5.Qa4+ N8c6 6.a3 Na6! 7.d5 Nc5 8.Qb5 b6 9.dxc6 a5 10.b4 Ba6 11.bxc5 Bxb5 12.cxb5 Qd4 (13.Ra2 Qe4+ 14.Ne2 Qxb1)  0-1


Acevedo-Millan, Armando (Jul 4, 1937 -    )

FIDE master and former champion of Mexico.  In 2001, when Nigel Short thought he was playing Bobby Fischer on the Internet, he asked his opponent when he played Acevedo.  The response was immediate. “Siegen 1970.”  Fischer had played Acevedo in the Siegen Chess Olympiad in 1970.  Acevedo played in the 1966 and 1970 chess Olympiads for Mexico.  He was the first Mexican FIDE master.


Acevedo – Fischer, Siegen 1970

1. d4 Nf6 2. Nf3 c5 3. c3 g6 4. g3 b6 5. Bg2 Bb7 6. O-O Bg7 7. Nbd2 O-O 8. Re1 d5 9. Ne5 Nc6 10. Ndf3 Rc8 11. Nxc6 Bxc6 12. Bh3 Bd7 13. Bf1 Bc6 14. Ne5 Bb7 15. a4 Ne4 16. f3 Nd6 17. e3 Qc7 18. a5 f6 19. axb6 axb6 20. Nd3 e5 21. Nf2 e4 22. f4 Ra8 23. Bd2 Rxa1 24. Qxa1 Ra8 25. Qb1 Qc6 26. b3 Ba6 27. Qb2 Bxf1 28. Rxf1 c4 29. b4 Qa4 30. Rb1 Bf8 31. Kf1 Nb5 32. Ke2 f5 33. Nd1 Kf7 34. Nf2 Qa2 35. Nd1 Ke6 36. Qxa2 Rxa2 37. Rb2 Ra1 38. Be1 Kd7 39. Bd2 Kc6 40. Be1 Na3 41. Kd2 Kb5 42. Bf2 Ka4 43. Be1 Be7 44. Bf2 Nb5 45. Kc2 Ka3 46. Rb1 Ra2+ 47. Rb2 Nxc3 48. Kxc3 Ra1 0-1


Ackermann, Hans-Werner (1952- )

FIDE master from Germany.  He is rated 2358.


Acosta, Alejandro (1959- )

International Master from Columbia.


Acs, Peter (May 10, 1981 -    )

Peter Acs (pronounced “oks”) is a Hungarian Grandmaster (1998) and the 2001 World Junior Chess Champion.  His highest rating has been 2606.  He has represented Hungary in three Olympiads (2000, 2002, and 2004).


Van Wely – Acs, Netherlands 2002

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.e3 O-O 5.Bd3 d5 6.cxd5 exd5 7.Ne2 Re8 8.O-O Bd6 9.a3 Ng4 10.h3 Nh2 11.Re1 Nf3+ 12.gxf3 Qg5+ 13.Kh1 Qh4 14.Nf4 Bxh3 15.Ncxd5 Re6 16.Nxe6 Bf5+ 17.Kg1 Qh2+ 18.Kf1 Bg3  0-1


Acs – Donchenko, Tel Aviv 2001

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 a6 6.Be3 Ng4 7.Bg5 h6 8.Bh4 g5 9.Bg3 Bg7 10.Be2 h5 11.Nf5 Bxf5 12.exf5 Qa5 13.O-O Bxc3 14.bxc3 f6 15.Rb1 Nc6 16.Rxb7 Rd8 17.Qd3 h4 18.Qc4 Nge5 19.Bxe5 Nxe5 20.Qe6 Nd7 21.Bc4  1-0


Adabashev, Mark (1908-1954)

Russian chess composer.  His chess problems are found in  Sovetskaya Shakmatnaya Kompozicya (Soviet Chess Composition), published in 1937.  He starting composing chess problems around 1926.


Adam, Edmund (1894-1958)

The last German Open correspondence champion.  He spent World War II in a conetration camp.  He played in the 1950 world correspondence chess championship.  The Adam variation in the Ruy Lopez is named after him (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.O-O Nxe4 6.d4 b5 7.Bb3 d5 8.dxe5 Be6 9.Qe2 Be7 10.c4).  From 1946 to 1956, he was President of the German Correspondence Association.  He was a doctor. 


Adams, Edward (1878-1972)

In 1934, he won the New York State Chess Championship.


Adams, Faneuil (Jul 20, 1923 –Mar 22, 1999)

Former President (1990-1999) of the American Chess Foundation (Chess-in-the-Schools), former director and treasurer of the Manhattan Chess Club, and former member of the US Chess Federation Policy Board (FIDE delegate).  He was a former senior executive of Mobil Corporation for 28 years and multi-millionaire.  He was a direct descendant of a brother of President John Adams and direct descendant of Samuel Adams.  He died of a brain tumor.


Adams, John Quincy (Jul 11, 1767 – Feb 23, 1848)

6th President of the United States (1825-1829) and avid chess player.  His chess set is displayed in the Smithsonian Museum of American History.  John Quincy Adams may have lost the Presidency because he played chess.  Andrew Jackson supporters charged that John Quincy Adams wasted money and used public funds to buy an expensive ivory chess set (gambling) for him.  Adams had paid for the chess set with his own money.  Andrew Jackson won big in 1828.  John Adms (1735-1826) taught his son, John Quncy Adams, to play chess.


Adams, Michael (1971-    )

Highest rated 13 year old ever, rated 2405 in 1986.  In 1988 he was the only winner in a 10-board satellite simultaneous exhibition with Kasparov. He won the 76th British Championship in 1989 at age 17, the youngest ever.  In 1989, he became at Grandmaster at 17.  In 1997, he tied for 1st in the British Championship with Matthew Sadler.  In 1997 he lost to Anand in the semi-finals of the FIDE World Chess Championship.  In 1998 he had an Elo rating of 2715 and was the 5th strongest player in the world.  In 2002 he was rated 2757 and was the 4th strongest player in the world (behind Kasparov, Kramnik, and Anand).  Three times he has reached the semi-finals of the FIDE World Chess Championship.  In June, 2005, while ranked 7 in the world, he lost a chess match with the Hydra chess program, losing 5 games and drawing one game.  His highest rating is 2732.



Wickert - M. Adams, Islington 1992

1.d4 Nf6 2.Bg5 Ne4 3.Bf4 c5 4.d5 Qb6 5.Nd2 Qxb2 6.Ngf3? (6.Nxe4 Qxb4+ 7.c3) 6...Nc3 7.Nc4? (7.Qc1 Qxc1+ 8.Rxc1 Bxa2) 7... Nxd1 (8.Nxb2 Nxb2)  0-1


Ziemann – M. Adams, Germany 1992

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Nf6 4.O-O Nxe4 5.Re1 Ng5 6.Bxc6 dxc6 7.Rxe5+ Ne6 8.Ng5 Bd6 9.Qh5 g6 10.Nxf7 Kxf7 11.Qf3+ Qf6 12.Re3 Qf6 13.Qe4 Bf5  0-1


Adams, Weaver Warren (1901-1963)

Weaver Warren Adams was born on April 28, 1901 in Dedham Massachusetts.  He was an American chess master.  He participated in the U.S. Championship in 1936 (15th-16th place), 1940, 1944, 1946 and 1948.  He won the Massachusetts State Championship in 1937, 1938, 1941 and 1945.  He won at Ventnor City in 1945.  In 1948, he won the US Open in Baltimore.  He won the New England Open championship five times (1925-1929).  In 1939, he wrote a book entitled White to Play and Win.  After publication he played in the U.S. Open at Dallas.  He did not win a single game as White (3 losses and 1 draw) and won all his games (4 games) as Black!   Weaver Adams won the 49th U.S. Open, held in Baltimore, in 1948.  He also wrote Simple Chess, How to Play Chess, and Absolute Chess.  He died on January 6, 1963.


Weinstock - W. Adams, New York 1944

1.c4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.Nf3 Nc6 4.d4 exd4 5.Nxd4 Bb4 6.Bg5 h6 7.Bh4 d6 8.e3 Qe7 9.Be2 g5 10.Nxc6 bxc6 11.Bg3 Ne4 12.Qd4 O-O 13.O-O Nxc3 14.bxc3 Bc5 15.Qd3 f5 16.Rae1 Kh8 17.Bd1 Ba6 18.Bb3 Rae8 19.Kh1? (19.Qxf5)  19...f4 (20.exf4 Qxe1)  0-1


W. Adams – Santasiere, Baltimore (49th US Open) 1948

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.Bc4 c6 4.d4 Bb4 5.dxe5 Nxe4 6.Qd4 d5 7.exd6 O-O 8.Bf4 Re8 9.Ne2 Bc5 10.Bxf7+ Kf8 11.Qc4 b5 12.Qb3 Bxf2+ 13.Kf1 Nc5 14.Qa3 Nba6 15.b4 Kxf7 16.Kxf2 Ne4+ 17.Nxe4 Rxe4 18.Qf3 Qe8 19.Be5  1-0


Adamski, Andrzej (1939-    )

Polish International Master (1980).


Adamski, Jan (1943-    )

Polish International Master (1976).  Polish Champion in 1982.  He represented Poland in the 1968, 1970, 1974, and 1978 chess Olympiads.  His FIDE rating is 2345.


Adamski – J. Christiansen, Copenhagen 2000

1. Nf3 f5 2. g3 Nf6 3. Bg2 e6 4. O-O Be7 5. c4 O-O 6. Nc3 d6 7. d4 Qe8 8.b3 Nc6 9. d5 exd5 10. cxd5 Ne5 11. Nd4 Qh5 12. f4 Neg4 13. h3 Nh6 14. Qd3 Ne4 15. g4 fxg4 16. Bxe4 gxh3 17. Bxh7+ Kh8 18. Kh1 Bh4 19. Qg6 1-0


Adamson, Robby

FIDE master from Tucson, Arizona.  He is an attorney.  In 1984, he won the National Junior High K-8 championship.   He is the chess coach at the Catalina Foothills High School in Tucson.  His ELO rating is 2344.


Adamson, Henry Anthony (1871-1941)

English chess problemist. He contributed chess problems to the Chess Amateur and to Fairy Chess Review.


Addison, William Grady (1933-2008)

Considered the best Go player among chess masters.   He was born in Baton Rouge, came to San Francisco in the 1950s, and was the area’s strongest player for 20 years.  He became an International Master in 1967.  In 1969, he took 2nd place in the 20th US Chess Championship (1/2 point behind Reshevsky and ahead of Benko, Lombardy, etc.) and qualified to play in the Interzonal.  He competed in the 1970 Interzonal in Palma de Mallorca, taking 18th place, and then gave up chess to work for the Bank of America in San Francisco.  He played in five U.S. championships.  His highest rating was 2595.  He died on October 29, 2008.


Addison - Kostro, Havana 1966

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.e3 O-O 5.Ne2 d5 6.a3 Be7 7.cxd5 Nxd5 8.e4 Nxc3 9.Nxc3 c5 10.d5 exd5 11.Nxd5 Nc6 12.Bc4 Bd6 13.O-O Qh4 14.f4 Bg4 15.Qd3 Nd4 16.Rf2 Rae8 17.Be3 Rxe4? (17...b5) 18.Qxe4 Bf5 19.g3 (19...Bxe4 20.gxh4)  1-0


Ader Haussman, Walter (1913- )

He was born on Nov 7, 1913 in Czechoslovakia.  In 1966, he won the championship of Chile.  He was still a rated master (2270) by FIDE while in his 90s.  In played Board 2 in the 1956 Chess Olympiad in Moscow, representing Chile.  In 1960, he played Board 3 in the Chess Olympiad in Leipzig.  In 1964, he played Board 3 in the Chess Olympiad in Tel Aviv.


Aderito, Pedro (1976- )

International Master from Angola.


Adianto, Utut (1965-   )

First Indonesian Grandmaster (1986) and best chess player in Indonesia.  He was born in Jakarta, Indonesia on March 16, 1965.  He learned the game of chess at the age of six.  He won the Jakarta Junior Championship at age 12.  He won the Indonesian national championship in 1982.  He tied for 1st place at San Francisco in 1987.  His highest rating has been 2663.  Between 1990 and 1995, he was the second strongest Asian chess player, after Anand.  He is the Chairman of the Indonesian Chess Association (Percasi).



Adianto - Neamtu, Biel 1994

1.d4 d5 2.c4 dxc4 3.e4 Nf6 4.e5 Nd5 5.Bxc4 Nb6 6.Bb3 Bf5 7.Nc3 e6 8.Nge2 Nc6 9.a3 Be7 10.O-O O-O 11.h3 h6 12.Ba2 Qd7 13.Be3 Rad8 14.Qc1 Na5 15.Bxh6 gxh6 16.Qxh6 Rfe8 (16...Nac4) 17.Ng3 Bf8 18.Qg5+ Bg6 19.Nce4 Bg7 20.Nf6+ Bxf6 21.exf6 Qxd4?? (21...Qd6) 22.Rad1 (22...Qa4 or 22...Qxd1, 23.Qh6 and 24.Qg7 mate)  1-0


Adla, Diego Gustavo (1968-    )

International Master from Argentina.  His highest FIDE rating has been 2507.


Adler, Victor (Viktor) (1947- )

International Master.  2006 Minnesota State Champion.  He won the 114th Minnesota Open in 2007.  He is rated over 2400.


Adly, Ahmed (1987-    )

The first Egyptian Grandmaster (2005), and the youngest-ever from Africa..  In 2001, he was African Under-20 champion.  In 2003,he contracted malaria while playing in a chess tournament in Nigeria.  He then went straight from Nigeria to Greece to participate in the World Youth Championship.  Doctors discovered he had malaria and saved him.  Two of his chess-playing friends returned to Egypt and died.  In 2004, he took 3rd place in the World Under-18 championship.    In 2005, he won the Arab Junior Championship.


Adorjan, Andras (1950-   )

Hungarian chess grandmaster who took 2nd place, behind Anatoly Karpov, at the 1969 World Junior Championship in Stockholm.  At the time, he played under the last name Jocha.  He later adopted his mother’s surname, Adorjan.  He became an International Master in 1970 and a Grandmaster in 1973.  He is the author of Black is OK!  In 1977, during a game with Pachman in Munich, he had a heart attack and fell from his chair.  He was rushed to the hospital and survived.  In 1979 he tied (with Ribli) for 3rd-4th in the Riga Interzonal (behind Tal and Polugaevsky).  In 1980, he lost his Candidates match to Robert Huebner with 1 won, 2 losses, and 7 draws.  He won the New York Open in 1987.  His highest rating has been 2675.  As a junior, he played under the name Andras Jocha.



Spassov – Adorjan, Sochi 1977

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 c5 3.d5 d6 4.Nf3 g6 5.g3 Bg7 6.Bg2 b5 7.cxb5 a6 8.bxa6 Qa5+ 9.Nc3 Ne4 10.Qc2? Nxc3 11.Bd2 Qa4! (12.Qxa4 Nxa4)  0-1


Adorjan - Zsinka, Budapest 1982

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 c5 4.Nc3 cxd4 5.Nxd4 b6 6.Ndb5 d6 7.Bf4 e5 8.Bg5 Be7? (8...Bb7) 9.Bxf6 gxf6 10.Qd5 Nc6 11.Qxc6+ Bd7 12.Nc7+ (12...Kf8 13.Qxa8 Qxa8 14.Nxa8)  1-0


Adrian, Claude (1963-    )

International Master from France.


Adu, Oladapo

International Master from Niger.


Adzic, Slobadan (1958- )

FIDE master.  He is a professional journalist living in Novi Sad.  From 1985 to 1992, he was the chess editor of the daily newspaper Dnenik in Novi Sad.  In 1985, he founded Chess Press in Novi Sad, then moved it to Szeged.  He is the editor of Sakkfutar, A monthly Hungarian chess magazine.


Afek, Yochanan (1952-    )

International Master from Israel.  He is also an IM in chess composition.  He is also an International Arbiter in composition chess and over-the-board chess.


Afifi, Assem (1947-    )

Egyptian International Master.  He played in the 1985 Tunis International and took 16th place.  He played in the 1990 Manila Interzonal and tied for 60th-63rd place.


Agababean, Naira (1951-    )

Woman Grandmaster from Moldava.  She is a former Armenian woman chess champion.  Her daughter is Woman Grandmaster Almira Skripchenko, who married  Grandmaster Joel Lautier of France.


Agdamus, Jose Luis (1938- )

Chess master rated around 2300.  He was born in Argentina and now lives in Brazil.  He took last place (no wins, 3 draws, and 14 losses) in the Buenos Aires 1970 International tournament (won by Fischer).


Agdestein, Simen (1967-   )

Norway’s first Grandmaster (1985) who shared first place (with Walter Arencibea) in the World Junior Champion in 1986.  He became an International Master in 1983 at the age of 16.  He became the youngest grandmaster in the world at age 18 when he won the title.  He has won the Norwegian championship four times, the first time as a 15-year-old in 1982.  He has also represented Norway on their professional soccer (football) team, but had to give it up due to injuries (torn ligament in his knee).  He is currently a teacher at the Norwegian Sports Gymnasium, teaching soccer and chess.  He is also a chess columnist for a Norwegian newspaper.  His highest rating has been 2716, ranked #12 in the world.  Currently, he is a trainer to Magnus Carlsen, one of the youngest grandmasters in the world.



Agdestein - Quinteros, Tessaloniki Olympiad 1984

1.d4 d6 2.Nf3 g6 3.c4 Bg7 4.g3 Nf6 5.Bg2 O-O 6.O-O Nc6 7.Nc3 Bg4 8.d5 Na5 9.Nd2 c5 10.h3 Bd7 11.Rb1 e5 12.a3 b6 13.e4 Ne8 14.b4 Nb7 15.Nb3 f5 16.exf5 gxf5 17.bxc5 Nxc5 18.Nxc5 dxc5 19.d6 e4 20.Nd5 Be6 21Bf4 Nxd6? (21...Kh8) 22.Bxd6 (22...Qxd6 23.Nf6+ and 24.Qxd6)  1-0


Ageeva, Lidia (1907- )

Winner of the 1933 and 1934 Leningrad women’s chess championship.  She was runner-up in the 1927 and 1934 USSR Women’s Championship.


Ageichenko, Genadi (1941- )

Russian master.  In 1970, he won the Central Chess Club championship in Moscow.  His highest rating in 2543 and ranked #57 in the world in 1968.


Aginian, Nelli (1981-    )

Nelli Aginian was born on August 4, 1981 in Armenia.  In 2005, she was awarded the Woman Grandmaster title.  Her highest FIDE rating was 2380.  She is the third player from Armenia, after Elina Danielian and Lilit Mkrtchian, to gain the Woman Grandmaster title.


Agnel, Hyacinth R. (1799-1871)

He was a professor (taught French) and Colonel at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point and a chess problemist.  In 1845, he formed the first chess club at West Point.  Author of a chess book with perhaps the longest title.  The Book of Chess containing the Rudiments of the Game, and Elementary Analysis of the Most Popular Openings, Exemplified in Games Actually Played by the Greatest Masters; Including Staunton’s Analysis  of the King’s and Queen’s Gambits, Numerous Positions and Problems on Diagrams, Both Original and Selected; Also a Series of Chess Tales, With Illustrations Engraved From Original Designs, The Whole Extracted and Translated From the Best Sources.  The book was written in 1847 by Agnel and published in 1859 by D. Appleton and Company of New York.  The book is 509 pages long.  In 1848, he wrote Chess for Winter Evenings.   It was later called Agnel’s Book of Chess.  Agnel was on the Committee on the Chess Code during the First American Chess Congress.  He was a frequent chess opponent of General Winfield Scott.  He died in 1871 and is buried at West Point.


Agnos, Demetrios

Greek Grandmaster.  In 1987 and 1988, he took 2nd in the World Under-18 Championship.


Agopov, Mikael (1978-    )

IM from Finland.  He was the Under-16 Finnish champion in 1991, 1992, and 1993.


Agrest, Evgenij (1966-    )

Grandmaster now living in Sweden (since 1994).  He was born in Belarus.  His FIDE rating is 2592.   In 2003, he won a game from former world champion Ponomariov when Ponomariov’s cell phone rang during their match.  A cell phone ringing during a match is an automatic disqualification.  Ironically, Agrest lost a game in 2004 when his cell phone rang.  Was it Ponomariov calling?  He was Nordic Chess Champion in 2001 and 2003.  He was Swedish Champion in 1998, 2001, 2002, and 2004.  In 2004, he played Board 1 for Sweden at the Chess Olympiad in Calvia.


Agrest, Svetlana (1966-    )

Woman IM from Sweden.  Her FIDE rating is 2270.


Aguado, Jose Sanz (1907-1969)

Spanish chess champion in 1943.


Agudelo, Antonio

Chess master from Columbia.  He represented Columbia in the 1978, 1982, and 1988 chess Olympiads.  He is rated 2355.


Agur, Eliezar (1949- )

Chess master from Israel.  He is the author of Bobby Fischer: His Approach, written in 1992.


Agusto, Obafunmilayo (1961- )

FIDE master from Nigeria.  He played Board 2 for Nigeria at the 1980 chess Olympiad.  He played Board 3 at the 1982 chess Olympiad.


Agzamov, Georgy (George) Tadzhiyevich (1954-1986)

First Uzbekistan Grandmaster.   He was born in Almalyk in the province of Tashkent, into a family of doctors.  In 1966, at the age of 12, he was the chess champion of his town.  In 1982, he was awarded the IM title.  In 1984, he was awarded the GM title.  He was killed when he tried to take a shortcut to go swimming in Sevastopol in the Crimea.  He fell off a cliff and got stuck between two rocks.  Some people heard him yell for help, but he was too deep down in the rocks.  He died before a rescue team could get to him.  His highest rating was 2728, ranked #8 in the world.  He won Belgrade 1982, Sochi 1984 (defeating Tal), Tashkent 1984, and Calcutta 1986 (the strongest chess tournament ever held in India up to that time – Anand took 3rd place).  He played in the USSR championship at Frunze in 1981 and tied for 6th-7th place.  He played in the USSR championship at Moscow in 1983 (won by Karpov), and tied for 10th-13th place.  He played in the USSR championship at Riga in 1985 and tied for 7th-8th place.  He died at the age of 32.


Agzamov - Gulko, Sochi 1985

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5 4.Bf4 Bg7 5.e3 c5 6.dxc5 Qa5 7.Rc1 Ne4 8.cxd5 Nxc3 9.Qd2 Qxa2 10.bxc3 Qa5 11.Bc4 Nd7 12.Nf3 Nxc5 13.Be5 O-O 14.O-O f6 15.Ra1 Qd8 16.Bc7 Qd7 17.d6+ e6 18.Nd4 Qf7 19.Ra5 b6 20.Rxc5 bxc5 21.Nb3 Qd7 22.Qd3 Rd8? (22...Qc6) 23.Qe4  (23...Bb7 24.Qxb7 Rab8 25.Bxe6+ Qxe6 26.Bxb8)  1-0


Ahlander, Bjorn (1963-    )

IM from Sweden.  His highest FIDE rating is 2436.


Ahlhausen, Carl (1835-1892)

Librarian of the Berlin Chess Association.  His historical chess rating is 2471, ranked #44 in the world in 1889.  He was an early player of 1.g4, sometimes known as the Ahlhausen Opening (better known as Grob’s Attack). 


Ahlheim, Karl-Heinz (1933-1996)

German chess composer.  He died on October 15, 1996.


Ahmad, Aziz (1981- )

International Master from Iraq.


Ahman, Ernst (1915-1981)

1948 Swedish co-champion.


Ahman, Harry (1912-1992)

Swedish master.  In 1959 and 1961, he won the Swedish correspondence chess championship.  In 1979, he was awared the Internationl Master for Correspondence Chess title.


Ahmed, Esam (1964-2003)

Arab Champion in 1996.  In 2003, he won the Egyptian Championship.   He died of cerebral malaria after being bitton by a mosquito in Nigeria at a chess tournament.


Ahues, Carl Oscar (1883-1968)

German International Master (1950).  German champion in 1929.  He was winning blitz chess tournaments in Germany in his 80s.  His Elo rating was around 2490.  His highest historical rating was 2651, ranked #11 in the world in 1931.  Father of Herbert Ahues.


Ahues – Gregory, Hamburg 1921

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Nf6 4.Nc3 d6 5.d4 Bd7 6.O-O exd4 7.Nxd4 Be7 8.Nde2 O-O 9.Ng3 Kh8 10.b3 Qe8 11.Bb2 Bd8 12.f4 Ne7 13.e5 Ng4 14.Bxd7 Qxd7 15.Nce4 Ne3 16.Qh5 Qg4 17.Rf3 N7f5  18.Qxg4  1-0


Ahues, Herbert (1922-    )

Son of Carl Ahues.  In 1989 he became a Grandmaster for Chess Compositions.


C. Ahues – Gregory, Hamburg 1921

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Nf6 4.Nc3 d6 5.d4 Bd7 6.O-O exd4 7.Nxd4 Be7 8.Nde2 O-O 9.Ng3 Kh8 10.b3 Qe8 11.Bb2 Bd8 12.f4 Ne7 13.e5 Ng4 14.Bxd7 Qxd7 15.Nce4 Ne3 16.Qh5 Qg4 17.Rf3 N7f5 18.Qxg4  1-0


Aikhoje, Odion

IM from Nigeria.  In 1998, he won the gold medal on boad two at the Chess Olympiad in Elista.  His rating is 2253.


Aitken, James Macrae (1908-1983)

Scottish player who won the Scottish chess championship 10 times (1935, 1952, 1953, 1955-1958, 1960, 1961, and 1965).  He was also London champion in 1950.  His highest rating was 2525.  His PhD dissertation was on the Lisbon Inquisition.


Aitken - Hunter, Scotland 1949

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Ba4 Bb4 5.O-O Nge7 6.d4 exd4 7.Nxd4 d5? (7...O-O) 8.exd5 Qxd5 9.Nxc6 Qxd1 10.Nxb4+ Bd7 11.Rxd1 (11...Bxa4 12.Nc3)  1-0


Akerblom, Axel (1904-1980)

Swedish chess problemist.  In 1956, he was awared the title of Internationl Judge of Chess Composition.  In 1967, he was awarded the title of International Master of Ches Composition.


Akesson, Joel (1980-    )

Spanish IM.   His highest FIDE rating is 2360.


Akesson, Ralf (1961-    )

Swedish Grandmaster.  He was European Junior Champion in 1980-81.  He was Swedish Champion in 1985.  His has been rated as high as 2535.


Akhmadeev, Vadim (1956-    )

Russian IM.  His FIDE rating is 2436.


Akhmetov, Artiom (1976-    )

Russian IM.  He is a journalist for a Russian children’s and youth chess site.  His rating is 2468.


Akhmilovskaya, Elena Bronisklavovna (1957-    )

Woman Grandmaster (1977) from Tbilisi, Georgia who was the 1986 World Women's Championship challenger (losing to Maya Chiburdanidze with 1 win, 4 losses, and 9 draws).  She was equal first in the 1988 challengers, but lost the playoff to Ioseliani.  In 1988 she eloped with American International Master John Donaldson, captain of the US team, while playing in the chess Olympiad in Thessaloniki, Greece. At the time, she was the number two Soviet woman player.  The two were married at the U.S. Consulate in Greece.  She returned to the Soviet Union almost a year later to get her 7 year-old daughter.  It took three weeks to secure their exit visas.  Her mother, Lydia Akhmilovskaya, qualified several times for the USSR Women's Championship and was a top-ranked correspondence player.  She is now married to IM Georgi Orlov.


Akhmilovskaya - Dahl, Thessaloniki Olympiad 1988

1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nf3 e6 4.e3 f5 5.g4 fxg4 6.Ne5 Nf6 7.Nc3 Nbd7 8.Nxg4 Nxg4 9.Qxg4 Nf6 10.Qg5 Bd7 11.Bd2 Qe7 12.O-O-O O-O-O 13.f3 c5 14.Be1 cxd4 15.exd4 h6 (15...Bc6) 16.Qe5 Qd6  17.Bg3 Bc6 18.Bh3 dxc4? (18...Kd7) 19.Qa5 (19...Qd7 20.Bxe6 Qxe6 21.Qc7 mate)  1-0


Akhsharumova, Anna Markovna  (1957-    )

Woman Grandmaster who finished first in the 1976 Soviet Women's Championship.  Her husband, Boris Gulko, tied for first in the 1977 Soviet Men's Championship.   By all rights, she should have won the 1983 Soviet Women's title played in Tallinn when she defeated her main competitor, Nana Ioseliani after she won by time forfeit.  It would have given her 12 points to Nana's 11 points.  The next day, Ioseliani filed a protest alleging a malfunction in the clock.  Anna refused to play.  The result of her game was arbitrarily reversed by the All-Union Board of Referees in Moscow, thereby forfeiting her title and ending up in 3rd place.  She was the USSR Women’s Champion in 1976 and 1984.  She and her husband immigrated to the United States in 1986.  She won the U.S. Women's championship in 1987 with a perfect 9-0 score.  In 1990, she tied for 5th-6th place in the Genting Women’s Interzonal.


Rudolph - Akhsharumova, Malaysia, 1990

1.e4 g6 2.Nc3 Bg7 3.g3 c5 4.Bg2 Nc6 5.d3 d6 6.Nge2 e6 7.O-O Nge7 8.Be3 Nd4 9.Nf4 O-O 10.Qd2 Rb8 11.Nd1 b6 12.c3 Ba6 13.Nh5 gxh5 14.cxd4 cxd4 15.Bg5 f6 16.Bh4 Ng6 17.Qe2 Kh8 18.Qxh5 Bxd3 19.Re1 Nxh4 20.Qxh4 f5 21.Qh3 e5 22.f3 (22.exf5) 22...fxe4 23.fxe4 Qf6 24.Rc1 Rb7 25.Bf1 Bh6 (26.Rc6 Be3+ 27.Nxe3 Qf2+; 26.Bxd3 Bxc1 27.Rf1 Qg7; 26.Rc8 Bd2)  0-1


Akimov, Ivan (1982-    )

Russian IM.   His rating is 2287.


Akins, Claude (1926-1993)

Movie and television actor (Sheriff Lobo) and chess enthusiast.  He taught Dean Martin how to play chess.  He played chess and won several games against John Wayne.


Akintola, Fola

International Master from Niger.


Akobia, Yuri (Iuri)(1937- )

Chess composer from Tbilisi, Georgia.  He is the author of the multi-volume World Anthology of Chess Studies, published in 1994.  Volume I contained 4,232 studies with stalemate.  He is a television engineer.


Akobian, Varuzhan (1983-    )

International Grandmaster (2004), born in Yerevan, Armenia on November 19, 1983.  In 2002, he tied for 1st place in the World Open.  In 2002, he won the Samford Fellowship.  In 2003, he won the U.S. Junior Championship and the American Open.  In 2004, he won the World Open, National Open, and North American Open.  He lives in Glendale, California.  His USCF rating is 2670.  His FIDE rating is 2600.


Akopian, Vladimir (1971- )

Armenian grandmaster (1991) who won the World Under-16 Championship in 1986 at the age of 14 won the World Under-18 Championship at 16 and was World Junior Champion in 1991.  He tied for 1st at the U.S. Open in 1991.  In 1999 he played without a single loss in the FIDE knockout world championship at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas until Alexander Khalifman defeated him in the final match.  He was given the title of Vice Champion of the World.  His highest rating has been 2714, ranked #12 in the world.  In 2005, he had to withdraw from the Dubai Open when he was arrested at Dubai airport having been mistaken for someone wanted for murder.



Steinbacher - Akopian, Groningen 1990

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5 4.cxd5 Nxd5 5.e3 Bg7 6.Bc4 Nxc3 7.bxc3 c5 8.Qf3 O-O 9.Ne2 Qc7 10.Bd5 Nd7 11.Bb3 Nf6 12.e4 cxd4 13.cxd4 Bg4 14.Qg3 Qa5+ 15.Bd2? (15.Qc3) 15...Qxd2+ (16.Kxd2 Nxe4+ and 17...Nxg3)  0-1


Akselrod, Vladislav (1972-    )

IM from Russia.  His Elo rating is 2428.


Al-Adli (800-870)

The first great Arabic chess champion and author.  He lived during the reign (847-861) of Caliph Mutawakkil.  Al-adli’s chess book (now lost) contained chess problems, endgames and openings.


al-Lajlaj (the Stammerer)

First person to analyze and publish works on the openings in 910.  He was a pupil of as-Suli, the strongest player of the 10th century. His analysis was carried down from Arabic to Persian to Sanskrit to Turkish to 16th century Italian.


Al-Modiahki, Mohamad (1974-    )

First Grandmaster from Qatar.  He is the highest rated Arab, with a FIDE rating of 2570.  He is married to former world women’s champion Zhu Chen.



Moorish poet-king who reigned over Seville in the late 11th century.  He was regarded as a chess patron and kept several chess masters in his kingdom.  In 1078 Alfonso VI and Ibn-Ammar, chess master in al_Mutamid's court, played a game of chess for the stake of Seville.  Ibn-Ammar won and the city was spared from siege.  Alfonso kept the chess set and board.


Al-Rashid (?-809)

Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad (786-809) who favored chess and granted liberal pensions to chess masters in his court around 800 A.D.


Al-Zendani, Zendan (1982- )

International Master from Yemen.


Aladdin (Ala’Addin, As Tabrizi)

The strongest chess player at the end of the 14th century.  He was also known as Ali Shatrangi (Ali the Chess player).  He could successfully give odds to all other leading players.  He was Chinese and a lawyer from Samarkand (now in modern day Uzbekistan).  He was at the court of Timur (Tamerlane), who made Samarkand his capital.


Alaikov, Venelin (1933-2007)

Bulgarian chess composer.  His first chess problem was published in 1947, when he was 14 years old.  He composed around 1,300 chess problems in his career.  In 1933, he was awared the title of Grandmaster for Chess Compositions.  He died on February 13, 2007.


Alapin, Semyon Zinovievich (1856-1923)

Russian chess master and openings analyst. He was born in Vilnius, Lithuania.  He later settled in St. Petersburg, then Heidelberg, Germany.  While studying at St. Petersburg Engineering Institute, he became one of the strongest players in the city.  In 1879, he tied for first in the Best Russian Players tournament in St. Petersburg, but lost the play-off to Chigorin.  In 1880 and 1881, he lost a match against Chigorin.  In 1893, he tied for 1st place in the championship of Berlin.  In 1899, he drew a match with Schlechter in Vienna (+1-1=4).  In 1902 he was ranked #8 in the world.   In 1911, he won the championship of Munich.  Alapin’s Opening is 1.e4 e5 2.Ne2.  The Sicilian, Alapin variation is 1.e4 c5 2.c3.  Alapin’s Gambit is 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Be3.  He was a linguist and involved in grain commodities.  He spent his later years in Heidelberg, Germany and died there in 1923.



Alapin - Marshall, Ostende 1905

1.e4 e5 2.f4 d5 3.exd5 e4 4.d3 Nf6 5.dxe4 Nxe4 6.Nf3 Bc5 7.Qe2 f5 8.Nc3 Bf2+ 9.Kd1 O-O 10.Bd2 Nxc3+ 11.Bxc3 Qxd5+ 12.Kc1 Rd8? (12...Bc5) 13.b4 Bb6 14.Qe7 (threatening 15.Qxg7 mate) 14...Qd7 15.Bc4+ Kh8 16.Bxg7 mate  1-0


Alatortsev, Vladimir (1909-1987)

Russian International Master (1950) and honorary Grandmaster (1983).  He had been the city champion of Leningrad (1933 and Moscow (1936, 1937).  He took 2nd place in the USSR championship in 1933, behind Botvinnik.  In 1935, he drew a match with Lilienthal.  From 1931 to 1950, he played in 9 USSR championships.  He won the Latvian championship in 1945.  From 1954 to 1961, he was head of the Soviet Chess Federation.  His highest rating was 2626.  


Alatortsev - Mazel, Moscow 1931

1.d4 e6 2.Nf3 d5 3.g3 Nf6 4.Bg2 Bd6 5.O-O O-O 6.c4 c6 7.Nbd2 Nbd7 8.Qc2 Re8 9.Rd1 e5 10.cxd5 cxd5 11.dxe5 Nxe5 12.Nxe5 Rxe5 13.Nf3 Bf5 14.Qb3 Re7 15.Bg5 Be4 16.Bxf6 gxf6 17.Nd4 Bc5 18.e3 Rc8 (18...Qb6) 19.Bxe4 dxe4 20.Nc6 bxc6 21.Rxd8+ Rxd8 22.Rc1 (22...Rd5 23.Qa4)  1-0


Alavkin, Arseny (1969-    )

Russian IM.  His Elo rating is 2507.


Albero, Roman Toran (1931-2005)

Spanish International Master (1954).  Spanish Champion in 1951 and 1953.   He was a FIDE Deputy President and President of the Spanish Chess Federation from 1984 to 1997.


Albin, Adolf (1848-1920)

Romanian chess master (born in Bucharest) who learned the game at age 23.  In 1872 he authored the first chess book written in Romanian, Amiculu Jocului de Schach.   He played in his first international tournament at 43 (Vienna 1891).  In 1894 he took 2nd at New York, behind Steinitz, but ahead of Showalter and Pillsbury.  By 1895, his rating was 2643, ranked #15 in the world.  The Albin Counter-Gambit is 1.d4 d5 2.c4 e5.  Albin played this gambit against Emanuel Lasker in New York in 1893, but lost in 31 moves.  Lasker won the tournament (13 wins in a row) and Albin took 2nd place. 


Albin - Shipley, New York 1894

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.O-O Nf6 5.c3 O-O 6.d4 exd4 7.cxd4 Bb6 8.d5 Ne7 (8...Na5) 9.e5 Ne8 10.d6 cxd6 11.exd6 Ng6 12.Bg5 Nf6 13.Nc3 h6 14.Qd3 hxg5? (14...Kh8) 15.Qxg6! Nh7 16.Nd5 fxg6?? 17.Ne7+ Kh8 18.Nxg6 mate  1-0


Albulet-Pogorevici, Maria (1932-2005)

Romanian chess master.  In 1957, she was awarded the title of Woman International Master.  In 1985, she was awarded the title of Woman Grandmaster (emeritus).   She was known as the grand lady of Romanian chess.  She was a medical doctor.


Alburt, Lev Osipovich (1945-    )

Russian Grandmaster (1977) from Odessa who defected from the USSR to the United States in 1979.  He was three-time Ukrainian champion, first winning in 1974.  He has won the U.S. Championship 3 times (1984, 1985, 1990) and the U.S. Open twice.  He led the U.S. team at the 1980 Malta Olympiad.  He has a doctorate in physics and natural philosophy.  He was the first grandmaster ever elected to the governing body of the United States Chess Federation (USCF).  His highest rating was 2667, ranked #28 in the world.



Norquist - Alburt, Chicago 1989

1.e4 Nf6 2.Nc3 d5 3.e5 Nfd7 4.Nxd5 Nxe5 5.Ne3 Nbc6 6.c3 Nd3+ 7.Bxd3 Qxd3 8.Qe2 Qxe2+ 9.Nxe2 e5 10.f4 Bc5 11.Nd5 Bd6 12.fxe5 Nxe5 13.d4 Nd3+ 14.Kf1 O-O 15.Nef4? (15.Bf4) 15...Nxc1 (16.Rxc1 c6, winning one of the knights)   0-1


Albert – Hebden, New York 1983

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 c5 3.d5 b5 4.cxb5 a6 5.e3 g6 6.Nc3 Bg7 7.a4 O-O 8.Nf3 Bb7 9.Be2 b6 10.dxe6 fxe6 11.Qd6 axb5 12.Bxb5 Ne4 13.Nxe4 Bxe4 14.O-O Rf5 15.Rd1 Qf6 16.Nd2 Rd5? 17.Nxe4  1-0


Alcazar Jimenez, Victor (1986- )

International Master from Spain.


Aldama, Dionisio (Degumay)

IM from Cuba who now plays for Mexico.  His highest FIDE rating is 2461.


Aldrete Lobo, Jorge (1940- )

FIDE master from Mexico.  He learned chess in 1954 at the age of 14.  He participated in the World Junior Championship in 1957.


Alekhina, Natalia ( 1954)

In 1984, she was awarded the Woman International Master title.  She now is a Woman Grandmaster.  She is married to GM Sergey Archipov.  In 1997, she won the Moscow championship.  She was the only female player in the event.


Alekhine, Alexander (1892-1946)

Winner of the first Soviet Chess Championship (1920) and the only man to die while holding the world chess championship.  He learned chess from his older brother Alexei (1888-1939).  He studied law at the Sorbonne but failed to get his doctorate as he claimed.  He was sometimes called "Ale-and-Wine" because of his drinking habits.  He married four times to women 20 to 30 years older than he.  One of his wives was dubbed "Philidor's Widow."  He was a prisoner of war like all the other chess contestants at an international tournament in Mannheim in 1914.  In 1915 and 1916 he served in the Russian Red Cross.  In 1918 he was a criminal investigator in Moscow.  In 1919 he was imprisoned in the death cell at Odessa as a spy.  In 1920 he was back in Moscow intending to be a movie actor.  He also served as interpreter to the Communist party and was appointed secretary to the Education Department.  In 1921 he married a foreign Communist delegate and left Russia for good.  At the Sorbonne his thesis dealt with the Chinese prison system.  In 1930 he scored the first 100% score in the Chess Olympiad, winning 9 games on board 1 for France. During World War II, he became a Nazi collaborator and declared he was ready to sacrifice his life for a Nazi Russia.  He competed in seven tournaments in Germany during the war and wrote several pro-Nazi articles.  During that time, Soviet players changed the name of Alekhine’s Defense to the Moscow Defense.  He died in Portugal after choking on an unchewed piece of meat.  He was 53.  Alekhine was not buried for three weeks because no one would claim the body.  The Portuguese Chess Federation took charge of the funeral.  Only 10 people showed up for his funeral.  The funeral was delayed for five days until the Portuguese Chess Federation raised enough money to pay for his burial.  In 1956 his remains were transferred to a cemetery in Paris.  FIDE provided the tombstone in the shape of a chessboard.  His birth and death date on the tombstone is wrong.  The tombstone reads “ALEXANDER ALEKHINE 1ST NOVEMBER 1892 25TH MARCH, 1946 CHESS WORLD CHAMPION 1927-35-37 TO THE END”.  He was born on October 31, 1892 and died either on the evening of March 23rd or the morning of March 24th, 1946.  He was ranked #1 in the world from 1924 to 1946.



Alekhine - De Cassio, Blindfold Simultaneous Exhibition, Portugal 1944

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Bc5 3.Bc4 Ne7 4.d3 Nbc6 5.Qh5 O-O 6.Bg5 Qe8 7.Nf3 Ng6 8.Nd5 Bb6 9.Nf6+! (9...gxf6 10.Bxf6, threatening 11.Qh6 and 12.Qg7 mate)  1-0


Alekhine - Vasic, Banja Lika 1931

1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.Bd3 Bxc3+ 5.bxc3 h6 6.Ba3 Nd7 7.Qe2 dxe4 8.Bxe4 Ngf6 9.Bd3 b6?? (9...c5) 10.Qxe6+! fxe6 11.Bg6 mate  1-0


Alekhine, Grace (1876-1956)

Alexander Alekhine’s fourth wife.  She was born Grace Wishard on October 26, 1876 in New Jersey.  Her parents were Emile Bernard Wishard (Jewish) and Marie Ida Smith.  She later married Archibald Freeman, a British tea-planter in Ceylon.  He died in the early 1930s.  She took up chess and played Alexander Alekhine in a simultaneous exhibition in Tokyo in 1933.  The two started a relationship shortly thereafter.  They were married in March 1934 at Villefranche-sur-Mer, near Nice, France.  The marriage certificate says her maiden name was Wishaar.  She was 16 years older than Alekhine.  It was his 4th marriage and may have been her 4th marriage as well.  She owned a chateau in Saint Aubin-le-Cauf, a few miles southwest of Dieppe in Normandy, France.  In 1936/37, she participated in a minor tournament at Hastings.  Alexander Alekhine won the premier section and she took 3rd place in her section.  He won 15 pounds for 1st place and she won 1 pound for 3rd place.  During World War II, the Nazis took over their chateau and looted it.  She moved to Paris.  Alekhine was free to travel, but no exit visa was given to Grace.  After World War II, she sold her chateau under American Embassy protection.  She was in failing health and in her 70s.  She spent her final years in her studio in Paris, but visited St. Ives, Cornwall, where she was a member of the local chess club.  She later led the effort to get Alekhine’s body transferred to the Cimetiere de Montparnasse in Paris.  The USSR and French Chess Federation paid to transfer the remains from Portugal to Paris.  She died in March 1956.  Her grave spells her maiden name as Wishar.   After she died, the notes in Alekhine’s handwriting were allegedly found in her effects to prove he wrote the Nazi articles.


Aleksandrov, Aleksej  (1973)

GM from Belarus.  His highest FIDE rating is 2679.


Alekseev, Evgeny (1985-    )

Russian Grandmaster (2002).  He won the Russian Junior Championship twice.   His Elo rating is 2640.


Aleksic, Nenad (1958- )

International master from Serbia and Montenegro.  He has been rated over 2400.


Aleksieva-Collas, Silvia (1974-    )

Woman GM born in Bulgaria and now living in France.  Her Elo rating is 2382.


Aleman Dovo, Miguel (1906-1979)

In 1939, he won the championship of Cuba.


Aleshnia, Valery (1939-    )

Russian IM of Correspondence.  He lives in Moscow.


Alexander, Conel Hugh O'Donel (1909-1974)

Irish-born (Cork, Ireland) mathematician and chess International Master (1950) who won the British Championship in 1938 and 1956.  During World War II he was promoted to colonel in British Intelligence and was part of the British Government Code and Cipher Code at Bletchley Park, England, along with other English chess masters who helped break the German Enigma Code. He was prohibited from traveling to any country under Soviet control or influence during his lifetime because of his association with cryptography.  He was given the Order of the British Empire (OBE) for his wartime services.  In 1946, he won one game and lost one game against Botvinnik in the Anglo-Soviet radio match.  In 1953/54, he tied for first (with Bronstein) at Hastings.  He played on 6 English Olympiad teams between 1933 and 1958.  In the early 1960s he gave up over-the-board chess to concentrate on correspondence chess.  He was ranked #24 in the world in 1932.


Alexander - E. Brown, Cambridge 1929

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.b4 Bxb4 5.c3 Ba5 6.d4 exd4 7.O-O d6 8.cxd4 Bb6 9.Nc3 Na5 10.Bg5 Ne7 11.Nd5 f6 12.Bxf6 gxf6 13.Nxf6+ Kf8 14.Ng5 Nxc4 15.Qh5 Ng6?? (15...Kg7) 16.Qh6+ (16...Ke7 17.Qg7 mate)  1-0


Alexandre, Aaron (1766-1850)

Author of Encyclopedie des Echecs, the first book containing the collection of all opening variations then known.  Published in 1837, he introduced the algebraic notation and the castling symbols O-O and O-O-O. The rules of the game were published in four languages in this book.  He also wrote Collection des Plus Beux Problems d’Echecs (The Beauties of Chess) in 1846, the first large compilation of chess problems and endgames, containing over 2,000 chess problems and solutions.  He was a Jewish rabbi from Bavaria who moved to Paris in 1793.  He was one of the operators of the automaton, the Turk.


Alexandrescu, Gheorghe-Gica (1906- )

In 1951, he was joint Romanian champion.


Alexandria, Nana Georgievna (1949-    )

Woman Grandmaster (1976) from Soviet Georgia.  She was the USSR Women’s Champion in 1966 (the youngest ever), 1968, and 1969.  She was Women’s World Championship Challenger in 1975 (against Gaprindashvili) and 1981 (against Chiburdanidze).  She is now an administrator to the World Chess Federation (FIDE).  She became the chairperson of the FIDE Women’s Committee in 1986.


Alexandrov, Alexey

Grandmaster from Belarus.  He is rated 2630.


Alexandrova, Olga (1978-    )

Men’s IM and Woman GM from the Ukraine.  She is Ukraine’s woman chess champion.  Her Elo rating is 2437.


Alexeev (Alekseev), Evgeny (1985- )

Russian International Master.  He is rated 2639.


Alexikov, Alexander (1963-    )

IM from the Ukraine.  He is the trainer of Sergey Karjakin.  His Elo rating is 2369.


Alfonsi, Petrus (1062-1120)

Physician of Alfonso VI (1030-1109) and author of the Disciplina Clericalis (Clerks Instruction). He included chess as one of the seven knightly accomplishments to be mastered.  The other tasks included riding, swimming, archery, boxing, hawking, and verse writing.   Alfonsi was born Moses Sephardi in Spain, but was baptized as Petrus Alfonsi at the age of 44.


Alfonso XIII (1886-1941)

King of Spain from 1886 to 1931.  He played in Spanish national chess tournaments in the 1920s.  Alfosno suspended the exercise of royal power and went into exile in Rome in 1931.  The Second Spanish Republic deposed him.  His grandson, Juan Carlos, is now king.


Ali, Essam Ahmed  (1964-2003)

Essam Ahmed Ali was born on March 31, 1964 in Egypt.  He won the Arab Championships in 1996.  In 2003, he won the Egyptian championship.  He was an Egyptian International Master and Egypt’s top player, who died on October 27, 2003, of cerebral malaria after returning from the All Africa Games tournament in Abuja, Nigeria.   The 60-year-old head of the Egyptian chess delegation, Mohammed Labib, died of the same disease the next day.   Both were incorrectly diagnosed in Egypt after becoming ill.   Both were bitten by an infected mosquito.


Allan, Denis (1944-    )

FIDE master (1987) from Canada.  In 1984, he tied for 1st at the Canadian Open Championship.  He represented Canada at the 1987 Interzonal and played in the 1968, 1980, and 1986 Chess Olympiads.


Allen, George (1808-1876)

The grandnephew of Ethan Allen, who wrote The Life of Philidor, Musician and Chess-Player, in 1858 and had it published in Philadelphia in 1863.  He was the first to reveal how The Turk operated, in a book on the first American Chess Congress.  He was a lawyer, rector of an Episcopal Church, and professor of ancient languages at Delaware College and the University of Pennsylvania.  In 1832, he was married by Reverend Ralph Waldo Emerson to Mary Hancock, niece of the famous John Hancock.


Allerhand, Philipp (1899-    )

New Zealand master.  He won the 1940/41 and the 1949/50 New Zealand championship, held in Wellington.  He was a doctor.


Allgaier, Johann (1763-1823)

Author of the first chess book published in German, Neue theoretisch-praktische Anweisung zum Schachspiel.  It was published in Vienna in 1795.  He was the first operator of the Turk automaton.  He operated the chess automation The Turk, when it beat Napoleon Bonaparte in 1805 in Wagrum, Austria.  He served as quartermaster accountant in the Austrian Imperial army.  He acted as chess tutor to the Emperor’s sons.  He was considered the best chess player in Vienna.  He died of dropsy, the accumulation of excessive watery fluid outside the cells of the body.  The Allgaier Gambit is 1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 g4 5.Ng5.  Allgaier published analysis on it in 1819. 


Almasi, Istvan (1973-    )

Hungarian IM.  His highest FIDE rating is 2451.


Almasi, Zoltan (1976-    )

Hungarian Grandmaster (1993) at the age of 17.  He has won the Hungarian championship five times.  In 2000 he was ranked #23 in the world.  In 1993, he won the World Junior Championship.  In 2005, he became the first grandmaster to lose to a computer program in Chess960 (random chess), when he lost an exhibition match to Shredder in Germany.  In 2005, he challenged Peter Svidler for the Chess 960 (Fischerandom) World Championship, but lost the match.  His FIDE rating is 2619.


Almeida, Omar

IM from Cuba.  His highest FIDE rating is 2484.


Almeyra, Jorge Sanchez (1968-    )

IM from Argentina.  His FIDE rating is 2447.


Aloni, Izak (1905-1985)

Izak Aloni (born Itzchak  Schaechter) was Israeli champion in 1945, 1961, and 1965.


Alonso, Francisco Javier Sanz (1952-    )

Spanish International Master (1977).  Spanish Champion in 1973.


Alonso, Salvador (1974-    )

IM from Argentina.  His highest FIDE rating is 2484.


Alster, Ladislav (1927-    )

Czech champion in 1956.


Alterman, Boris (1970-    )

Israeli Grandmaster (1992).  His FIDE rating is 2562.  He is an advisor to the Deep Junior chess program. 


Altounian, Levon (1975-    )

IM from the USA.  In 2001, he won the Southern California championship.  In 2003, he tied for 1st in  the Southern California championship.


Altrichter, Ulrich (1938- )

Austrian chess player.  In 1982, he was awarded the title of Internation Master for Chess Composition.  He is a doctor.


Altshuler, Roman (1919- )

Russian chess master.  He played in the 1965 5th World Correspondence Chess Championship and took 11th place.  This event was won by Hans Berliner.  In 1967, he was awarded the title of International Master for Correspondence Chess. 


Alvarez, Joh (1981-    )

IM from Venzuela.


Alvarez Ibarra, Rafael (1961- )

Spanish master.  In 1986, he was awarded the International Master title.


Alvarez, Roberto Gabriel

Correspondence GM from Argentina.


Alzate, Dario (1955-    )

IM (1984) from Columbia.  His highest FIDE rating is 2432.


Amar, Charles

Parisian amateur who frequently played 1.Nh3 in the 1930s.   1.Nh3 is sometimes called the Amar or Paris Opening.


Ambarcumjan, Armen

IM from Armenia who now lives in the USA.


Ambroz, Jan (1954-    )

Czech International Master (1980).  Czech Champion in 1980.


Amonatov, Farrukh (1978-    )

GM from Tajikstan.  His FIDE rating is 2588.


Amos, Bruce (1946- )

Canadian master from Toronto.  In 1969, he was awarded the International Master title.  He played on the Canadian chess team at the 1970, 1972, and 1976 Chess Olympiads.  He won a team bronze medal at the World Students’ Team Championship in 1971 and a silver medal for Board 2.  He gave up competitive chess for Go.


Amura, Claudia  Noemi (1970-    )

Woman Grandmaster from Argentina.  She is the first Latin American woman to earn the male International Master title.  Her FIDE rating is 2372.  She is married to GM Gilberto Hernandez of Mexico.


Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios (1970-    )

GM from Greece.  His highest FIDE rating is 2460.


Anand, S Poobesh (1985)

IM from India.


Anand, Viswanathan (1969-   )

Indian Grandmaster (1988) who won the World Junior Championship in 1987.  In 1995 he played Kasparov for the world PCA championship in New York and lost after 1 win, 13 draws and 4 losses.  In 1998 he lost to Karpov for the FIDE World Chess Championship.  In 2000 he won the FIDE World Chess Championship held in Teheran and became the 15th official world chess champion and the first Asian to win the title.  He defeated Shirov in the final match with 3 wins and 1 draw.  He held the title for two years.  In 2002, Ponomariov won the world FIDE championship in Moscow.  He was ranked #1 in the world in November 2004.  His highest rating has been 2833.  In 2007, he won the World Championship, played in Mexico.  He defended his title in 2008 against Vladimir Kramnik.



Micalizzi - Anand, Rome 1990

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 d6 6.Bg5 Bd7 7.Qd2 a6 8.f4 b5 9.Bxf6 gxf6 10.f5 (10.Be2) 10...h5 11.Be2 h4 12.O-O Bh6 13.Qd3 Qb6 14.Rad1 Qxd4+ (15.Qxd4 Nxd4 16.Rxd4 Be3+ 17.Kh1 Bxd4)  0-1


Ivanchuk – Anand, Reggio Emilia 1988

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.Nxe5 d6 4.Nf3 Nxe4 5.d4 d5 6.Bd3 Be7 7.O-O Nc6 8.Re1 Bg4 9.c3 f5 10.Qb3 Qd6 11.Nfd2 O-O-O 12.f3 Bh4 13.Rd1 Bh3 14.Qc2 Qg6 15.Nb3 Rhf8 16.Na3 Rde8 17.Kh1 Nf2+ 18.Rxf2 Bxg2+!  0-1


Anastasian, Ashot  (1964-    )

Grandmaster from Armenia.  In 2005, he won the Championship of Armenia.  His FIDE rating is 2595.


Andersen, Borge (1934-    )

Danish International Master (1964).  Danish Champion in 1958, 1967, 1968, and 1973.


Andersen, Erik (1904-1938)

Won the Danish Championship 12 times, including 8 times in a row.  He was Nordic Champion in 1930.


Andersen – Censer, London 1927

1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 e6 3.Bf4 c5 4.e3 Qb6 5.Qc1 Nc6 6.c3 Be7 7.Nbd2 d5 8.Bd3 O-O 9.h3 Bd7 10.O-O Rac8 11.Re1 cxd4 12.exd4 a6 13.Re3 Rfd8 14.Bc2 Qa7 15.Qd1 b5 16.Ne5 Be8 17.Rg3 Bf8 18.Bg5 Qe7 19.Ng4 Kh8 20.Nxf6 gxf6 21.Qh5  1-0


Anderson, Frank Ross (1928-1980)

Three-time Canadian Champion (1953, 1955, 1958) from Toronto and International Master (1954).  In 1948 he won the U.S. Junior Championship.   In 1954 and I 1958 he won the gold medal on 2nd board in the Chess Olympiad.  He came closer to the Grandmaster title than any other player.  In 1958 he scores 84% in the Munich Olympiad.  He became ill (reaction to an incorrect prescription) and was unable to play his final round.  He missed the Grandmaster title because of this.  Even if he had played and lost, he would have made the final norm necessary for the Grandmaster title.  He had polio and was disabled his whole life.   He was a computer expert.


Anderson - Weaver Adams, St. Louis 1941

1.e4 g6 2.d4 Bg7 3.Nf3 b6 4.c3 Bb7 5.Bd3 e6 6.Bf4 Ne7 7.Nbd2 d5 8.Qe2 a6 9.h4 h5 10.Ne5 Nd7 11.O-O-O c5 12.exd5 exd5 13.Rde1 cxd4? (13...Nxe5) 14.Nxf7! Kxf7 15.Qe6+ Kf8 16.Bd6 (or 16.Bxg6 Nxg6 17.Bd6+ Be7 18.Bxe7+ wins)  16...Ne5 17.Rxe5! (17...Bxe5 18.Bxg6 threatening 19.Qf7 mate)  1-0


Anderson, Gerald Frank (1893-1983)

British chess problemist, International Judge of Composition (1960), and International Master of Composition (1975).  He was the last person to play Alexander Alekhine.  He worked in the British Foreign Office.


Anderson, Renard W. (1956-    )

FIDE master from California, now living in Colorado.


Anderson, Terry (1947-    )

Former Associated Press correspondent that was held hostage for six years by Lebanese extremists.  He credits chess with helping him survive the ordeal.  He was held hostage from March 16, 1985 to December 4, 1991.  He built chess sets out of aluminum foil before they allowed him to have a regular chess set.


Anderssen, Adolf (1818-1879)

Winner of the first international chess tournament (London 1851).  Between 1851 and 1878 he took part in 12 chess tournaments.  He was on the prize list in every one of them.  He took 1st prize at London 1851, London 1862, Hanburg 1869, Barmen 1869, Baden 1870, Crefeld 1871, and Leipzig 1876.  Strongest player in the world between 1859 (when Morphy retired) and 1866 (when Steinitz defeated him).  In 1851 A. Anderssen was recognized as the strongest chess player in the world.  That same year A. Anderson (Andrew Anderson) was recognized as the strongest checker player in the world (first world checker champion).  In 1877 a group of German chess fans organized a tournament to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Anderssen's learning the chess moves.  This is the only tournament in chess history organized to commemorate a competitor.  He tied for second, behind Paulsen.  He was a professor of mathematics when not playing chess.  When he died, his obituary was 19 pages long. 



Mayet - Anderssen, Berlin 1851

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Bc5 4.c3 Nf6 5.Bxc6 dxc6 6.O-O Bg4 7.h3 h5 8.hxg4 hxg4 9.Nxe5 g3 10.d4 Nxe4 11.Qg4? (11.fxg3) 11...Bxd4 12.Qxe4?? (12.Nd3) 12...Bxf2+ (13.Rxf2 Qd1+ 14.Rf1 Rh1+ 15.Kxh1 Qxf1 mate)  0-1


Anderssen – Schallopp, Berlin 1864

1.e4 e5 2.f4 d5 3.Nf3 dxe4 4.Nxe5 Bd6 5.Bc4 Bxe5 6.fxe5 Qd4 7.Qe2 Qxe5 8.d4 Qxd4 9.Nc3 Nf6 10.Be3 Qd8 11.O-O h6 12.Bc5 Nbd7 13.Qxe4+!  1-0


Andersson, Ulf (1951-  )

Swedish Grandmaster (1972) who is the all-time drawing master.  Against top-level opposition, he has drawn 74% of his games, winning 10%, and losing 16%.  In 1984 he was the 5th highest rated player in the world.  In 1996 he set a world record of playing 310 chessboards simultaneously, winning 268, drawing 40, and losing 2 games in 15 hours and 23 minutes.  It is estimated he walked over 7 miles during this exhibition.  In 1996 he became a Grandmaster is correspondence chess and is currently the highest rated correspondence player in the world.  He was the first person to beat Karpov after Karpov became world champion in 1975.


Anderssen - Portisch, Skopje 1972

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.Bb5+ Nc6 4.O-O Bd7 5.Re1 Nf6 6.c3 a6 7.Bf1 e5 8.h3 h6 9.d4 Qc7 10.a4 g6 11.Na3 Bg7 12.dxc5 dxc5 13.Nc4 Rb8 14.b4 cxb4 15.cxb4 Be6 16.Nd6+ Ke7 17.Ba3 Ne8 18.Nxb7 Qxb7 (18...Rxb7) 19.b5+ Kf6 20.bxc6 Qc7 21.Nxe5 (21...Qxe5 22.Qf3+ Bf5 23.exf5 and if 23...Qxf5 24.Be7 mate)  1-0


Anderton, David (1941-    )

Lawyer and international director of the British Chess Federation.  Former President of the BCF.


Andonov, Bogomil (1959-    )

IM (1986) from Bulgaria.


Andreev, Eduard (1980-    )

GM from Ukraine.


Andreeva, Nalaliya (1980-    )

Woman IM from Russia.


Andreikan, Dmitry (1990-    )

IM from Russia.


Andres Mendez, Miguel (1952)

Cuban International Master (1984).


Andrianov, Nikolay (1961-    )

IM (1988) from Russia, who now lives in Phoenix, Arizona.  He won the Ukrainian championship at the age of 15.  At age 18, he was the Soviet Under-20 Champion.  In 2002, he tied for 3rd place in the U.S, Open.


Andrijevic, Milan (1959-    )

IM from Serbia/Montenegro.  His highest FIDE rating is 2411.


Andriasian, Siranush (1986)

Woman IM (2005) from Armenia.  Her FIDE rating is 2280.


Andruet, Gilles (1958-1995)

French IM (1982) and former French champion.  He was murdered in Paris.


Angantysson, Haukur (1948-    )

Icelandic International Master (1981).  He was Icelandic Champion in 1976.


Angelov, Kosta (1946)

Bulgarian chess master.  In 1979, he was the unofficial world champion of chess solving.  In 1982, he was awarded the International Master in Chess Problem Solving. 


Anger, Frederic

Winner of the 1887 British amateur championship.


Anic, Darko (1957-    )

French GM.  His highest FIDE rating is 2499.


Anikaev, Yuri (1948-    )

Russian IM (1975).


Anka, Emil (1969-    )

Hungarian GM.  His highest FIDE rating is 2477.


Annaberdiev, Meilis (1985-    )

IM from Turkmenistan.  His FIDE rating is 2409.  He has won the championship of Turkmenistan twice.


Annageldyev, Orazly (1960-    )

GM from Turkmenistan.  His FIDE rating is 2503.  He has won the Turkmenistan championship 6 times.


Ansell, Simon (1975-    )

IM from Bristol, England.  His highest FIDE rating is 2408.


Anson, Jane (1959- )

In 1974, she won the girls’ under 18 British Chess Federation Championship.  In 1982, she won the Wales Women’s Championship.


Antal, Gergely (1985-    )

IM from Hungary.  His highest FIDE rating is 2498.


Anthony, Edwyn (1843-1932)

Founder (along with Lord Randolph Churchill) and President of the Oxford University Chess Club.  He helped establish the annual Oxford-Cambridge chess match.  In 1890, he wrote a book called Chess Telegraphic Codes.  He reported on chess activities for his father’s newspaper, The Hereford Times.


Antic, Dejan (1968-    )

GM from Serbia/Montenegro.  His highest FIDE rating is 2518.


Anton, Aurel (1928- )

International Master of Correspondence Chess (1980) from Romania.


Antoniewski, Rafal (1980-    )

IM from Poland.  His FIDE ratig is 2523.


Antonio, Rogelio (1962-    )

Second GM (1990) from the Philippines, after Rosendo Balinas (1976).


Antonov, Vladimir (1949-   )

Bulgarian IM (1980).  He was born in Pernik, Bulgaria.  His highest FIDE rating is 2375.


Antonsen, Mikkel (1973-    )

Danish IM.  His highest FIDE rating is 2404.


Antoshin, Vladimir Sergeyevich (1929-    )

Russian Grandmaster (1964) and technical designer.  He has played in 5 USSR chess championships, taking 6th place in 1967.  In 1960, he was USSR Correspondence Champion.  In 1966, he took 1st place at the international tournament in Zinnowitz.


Hamann – Antoshin, Venice 1966

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 e6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nc6 5.Nb5 d6 6.Bf4 e5 7.Be3 a6 8.N5c3 Nf6 9.Be2 Be7 10.O-O O-O 11.Nd2 b5 12.a4 b4 13.Nd5 Nxd5 14.exd5 Na5 15.f4 exf4 16.Bxf4 Bf5 17.Kh1 Bg6 18.Nf3 Bf6 19.Ra2 Bxc2 20.Qxc2 b3  0-1


Seleznev – Antoshin, USSR 1960

1.d4 f5 2.c4 Nf6 3.Nc3 d6 4.g3 c6 5.Bg2 Qc7 6.Nf3 e5 7.dxe5 dxe5 8.O-O Bb4 9.Qb3 Na6 10.e4 fxe4 11.Ng5 Bxc3 12.Qxc3 Bf5 13.Re1 Nc5 14.b4 Nd3 15.Re2 O-O 16.Nxe4 Nxe4 17.Bxe4 Bxe4 (17...Qxd3) 18.Rxe4 Nxf2 19.Rxe5 Rad8 20.c5 (20.Bb2) 20...Qf7 21.Bg5 Rd3 (22.Qc2 Qf3, threatening 23...Qh1 mate)  0-1


Antunac, Goran (1945-    )

Croatian IM (1975).  He was born in Bari, Italy and learned chess at the age of 5.  He won the championship of Zagreb in 1958 and 1962.  He was Croatian champion in 1962 and 1963.  He was Yugoslav Junior champion in 1963. 


Antunes, Antonio (1962-    )

Grandmaster from Portugal.   His FIDE rating is 2496.  In 1985, he was awarded the IM title.  He was born in Lisbon.


Apicella, Manuel (1970-    )

Grandmaster from France.  His FIDE rating is 2553.


Appel, Izaak (1905-1941)

Polish master.  He won the Lodz City Chess Championship in 1934.  He participated in several Polish championships.


Appel, Ralf (1971-    )

German IM.  His highest FIDE rating is 2513.


Apscheneek, Fritzis (Franz Apsenieks) (1894-1941)

Latvian master.  In 1924, he took 2nd place in the World Amateur Championship in Paris, behind Hermannis Mattsion of Latvia.  He was the Latvian Champion in 1926-27, and in 1934.  He died of pulmonary phthisis, at the age of 47.


Araiza Munoz, Jose Joaquin (1900-1971)

Won the Mexican Chess Championship 15 times in a row, from 1924 to 1949.  He was a Lt. Colonel in the Mexican Army.


Soto Larrea - Araiza, Mexico 1932

1.Nf3 d5 2.c4 c6 3.e3 e6 4.b3 Bd6 5.Bb2 Nf6 6.d3 Nbd7 7.Nbd2 e5 8.cxd5 cxd5 9.g3 O-O 10.Bg2 Nc5 11.Bf1 Bf5 12.e4 dxe4 13.dxe4 Nxe4 14.Nxe4 Bxe4 15.Be2 Qa5+ 16.Kf1 Rad8 17.Kg2? (17.Qe1)  17...Bc7 18.Qc1 Nd3 19.Qc3 Nxb2 20.Qxb2 Rd2 21.b4 Rxb2 22.bxa5 Rxe2  0-1


Arakhamia-Grant, Ketevan (1968-    )

Georgian Woman Grandmaster.  In 1986, she was the World Women’s Under 16 Champion.  She won the 1995 Women’s Interzonal at Kishinev.  Her FIDE rating is 2423.


Aramil, William

Chess master from Chicago.  In 2002, he was the World Open Under-2300 Co-Champion.  In 2003, he was the American Open Under-2450 Co-Champion.  In 2003, he was the Denker National High School Champion (along with Ryan Milisitis).  In 2004, he was the American Collegiate Co-Champion.


Arapovic, Vitomir (1951-    )

International Master from Bosnia and Herzegovina.  His highest FIDE rating is 2446.  He was born in Mostar, Yugoslavia.


Araque, Rafael

International master from Columbia.  His highest FIDE rating is 2338.


Arbakov, Valentin (1952-    )

Russian Grandmaster.  He was joint Moscow Champion in 1981.  He is one of the strongest blitz players in the world.


Psakhis – Arbakov, Irkutsk 1983

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 c5 3.d5 b5 4.Nf3 g6 5.cxb5 a6 6.Qc2 Bg7 7.e4 O-O 8.Nc3 Bb7 9.Bf4 d6 10.Bc4 axb5 11.Nxb5 Nbd7 12.O-O Nb6 13.Be2 Nxe4 14.Qxe4 Ra4 15.Nfd4 Bxd4 16.Nxd4 Rxd4 17.Qf3 Nxd5 18.Bh6 Qa8 19.Qg3 Re8 20.b3 Ba6 21.Rfe1 Bxe2 22.Rxe2 Qa6 23.Rae1 Qxe2  0-1


Arbues, Pedro de (1441-1484)

An Dominican member of the Spanish Inquisition, living in Aragon, who ordered victims of persecutions to stand in as figures in a game of living chess played by two blind monks.  Each time they captured a piece, they condemned someone to death, usually by burning them alive.  Arbues was assassinated in the Saragossa Cathedral in 1484.  He was made a saint in 1867.


Arbunic Castro, Giovanna (1964)

Woman International Master from Chile.  In 1982 she played in the Women’s Interzonal in Bad Kissengen, but tied for last place, 15th-16th, with Rachel Crotto.  In 1985, she took 10th-11th place at the Women’s Interzonal in Zeleznovodsk.


Ardaman, Miles (1963-    )

FIDE master.  He won the Florida State Championship in 1986 and 1987.  He was Texas champion in 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, and 1997.  In 1998, 1999, and 2001, he won the South Carolina State Championship.  In 2005, he won the Georgia State Championship.  His highest FIDE rating is 2342.  He is a medical doctor and psychiatrist. 


Ardiansyah, Herman (Haji)  (1951-    )

Indonesian Grandmaster (1986).  He tied for 1st place at Jakarta 1986.  His highest FIDE rating is 2421.


Arduman, Can

IM (1996) from Turkey.  His highest FIDE rating is 2397.  He was born in Istanbul and started to play chess at age 11.  He won the Turkish championship in 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, and 2002.


Arencibia Rodriguez, Walter (1967-    )

Cuban Grandmaster who won the 1986 World Junior Chess Championship.  He became the 2nd Cuban, after Capablanca, to hold a world chess crown.


Areshchenko, Alexander (1986-    )

Ukrainian GM.  His FIDE rating is 2670.  In 2000, he won the World Under-14 Championship.  In 2005, he won the 74th Ukrainian Championship.


Arias Santana, Mauricio (1977- )

International Master from Costa Rica.


Arizmendi-Martinez, Julien Luis (1976-    )

Spanish GM (2004).  His highest FIDE rating is 2534.


Arkell, Keith (1961-    )

English Grandmaster.  His FIDE rating is 2521.  He was once married to WIM Susan Walker, who later married GM Bogdan Lalic.


Arkhangelsky, Boris (1931-    )

Russian IM.


Arkhipov, Sergey (1954-    )

Russian Grandmaster (1992).    His FIDE rating is 2505.


Westerinen – Arkhipov, Budapest 1983

1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nc3 Qh4+ 4.Ke2 Ne7 5.Nf3 Qh5 6.d4 g5 7.Kf2 d6 8.Be2 Bg7 9.Nb5 Na6 10.c3 g4 11.Ne1 Bh6 12.Kg1 Rg8 13.h3 f3 14.hxg4 f2+  0-1


Arlamowski, Edward (1909-1979)

Doctor of Law, who took part in several Polish chess championships.


Arlandi, Ennio (1966-    )

Italian IM.  His highest FIDE rating is 2456.


Arlauskas, Romanas (Jun 11, 1917 -    )

Grandmaster of Correspondence Chess (1965).  He finished 3rd in the 4th World Correspondence Championship (1962-1965).  He tied for first place in the 1943 Lithuanian chess championship.  He moved from Lithuania to Australia in the late 1940s.  He won the South Australian championship in 1949.


Tautvaisas – Arlauskas, Augsburg 1946

1.c4 Nf6 2.Nc3 d5 3.d4 g6 4.Qb3 dxc4 5.Qxc4 Bg7 6.e4 O-O 7.Nf3 b6 8.Bf4 c5 9.dxc5 Ba6 10.Nb5 bxc5 11.Rd1 Qa5+ 12.b4 Qxb5 13.Qxb5 Bxb5 14.Bxb5 Nxe4 15.Rd3 cxb4 16.O-O Nc3 17.Bc4 Ne2+  0-1


Armas, Jorge (Nov 11, 1959 -    )

Cuban IM (1979).  He was born in Holguin, Cuba.  In 1985, he won the Cuban Championship.His highest FIDE rating is 2441.


Armas, Julius (April 26, 1955 -    )

French International Master.  His highest FIDE rating is 2397.


Arnason, Jon Loftur (Nov 13, 1960 -    )

Icelandic grandmaster (1986).  He was winner of the first World Championship for juniors under 17, in 1977 (ahead of Jay Whitehead and Kasparov).  He won the championship of Iceland in 1977, at the age of 16, the youngest champion of Iceland.  He has won the Icelandic championship three times.  He represented Iceland in the chess Olympiads from 1978 to 1994.    He obtained a degree in Fiance and Accounting and became a successful businessman in a communications company.


Arnlind, Eric Alfons (March 14, 1922 - 1998)

In 1959, he received the title of International Correspondence Master.  In 1961, he took 2nd in the Swedish Championship.   In 1968, he received the title of International Correspondence Grandmaster.  From 1955 to 1985, he was considered among the five strongest correspondence players in the world.  In the 2nd World Corr. Championship (1956-1959), he took 6th place.  In the 8th World Corr. Championship (1975-1980), he took 6th-10th place.  He was born in Arnas, Sweden on March 14, 1922.


Arnold, Lothar (Jan 10, 1959-    )

German International Master.


Aronian, Levon (Oct 6, 1982-    )

Grandmaster (2001) from Armenia.   In 1994, he won the World Under-12 Chess Championship.  He won the 2002 World Junior Chess Championship, held in Goa, India.  He won the 2005 FIDE World Knockout Chess Championship (FIDE World Cup), held in Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia.  He defeated Ruslan Ponomariov in the final knockout round.  In 2006, he took first place at Linares.  In August, 2006, he won the Chess960 World Championship.  His highest Elo rating has been 2761.  He is ranked 5th in the world.


Aronin, Lev (1920-1982)

Soviet International Master (1950).  He played in eight Soviet championships, taking 2nd in the 18th USSR Championship in 1950.  He won the Moscow Championship in 1965.  His occupation was a meteorologist.


Aronin – Kantorovich, Moscow 1960

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 g6 3.c3 b6 4.d4 Bb7 5.Bc4 d5 6.exd5 Bxd5 7.Qa4+ Bc6 8.Ne5  1-0


Aronoff, Irene (1961- )

Woman FIDE Master and strong correspondence chess player.


Aronson, Eva (1908- )

In 1967, she took place in the World Women’s Championship Candidates tournament in  Subotica, but took last place (1 win, 4 draws, 12 losses).  In 1969, she won the women’s championship in the 70th US Open in Lincoln, Nebraska.  In 1972, she tied for 1st place with Marilyn Koput in the US Women’s Championship.  In 1972, she was awarded the Woman International Master title.   She lived it St Petersburg, Florida.


Aroshidze, Levan (1985-    )

IM from the Republic of Georgia.  His FIDE rating is 2490.


Arribas, Maritza (1971-    )

Woman GM from Cuba.  Her highest FIDE rating is 2366.


Arsovic, Goran (1967-    )

IM from Bosnia.  His highest FIDE rating is 2452.  In 1989, he played a game against Ivan Nikolic in Belgrade which laster 269 moves and took more than 20 hours to play.  The game was a draw.


Arsovic, Zoran (1967-    )

IM from Bosnia.  His highest FIDE rating is 2455.


Arteaga, Eldis Cobo (1929-    )

Cuban International Master (1967).  Cuban Champion in 1950.


Arulaid, Alexander (1924-    )

Estonian Champion in 1948, 1955, and 1964.


Arutunian, Davit (1984-    )

IM from the Republic of Georgia.


Arzumanian,Georgy (1980-    )

IM from Armenia.  His highest FIDE rating is 2461.


Asanov, Bolat (1961-    )

Grandmaster from Kazakhstan.  His highest FIDE rating is 2476.


Ascher, Jacob (1841-1912)

Canadian Chess Champion in 1878 and 1883.  He was a chess columnist for the New Dominion Monthly.


Aseev, Konstantin (1960-2004)

Russian Grandmaster.  He was Leningrad Champion in 1985.  His peak FIDE rating was 2591.  He was the chess trainer for Maya Chiburdanidze, Nana Aleksandria, Andrei Kharlov, and Evgeny Alekseev.  He played in four USSR Championships.


Asenova, Venka (1930-1986)

Woman International Master (1965) from Bulgaria.  In 1986 she was awarded the Woman Grandmaster title (emeritus).  In 1967, she participated in the World Chess Championship for Women Candidatest tournament in Subotica.  She won the Bulgarian Women’s championship 9 times.


Asgeirsson, Asmundur

Icelandic Champion in 1931, 1933, 1934, 1944, 1945, and 1946.


Ashley, Maurice (1966-   )

In 1993, he became the first African-American International Master in US history.  First African-American Grandmaster (1999).   He won the Marshall Chess Club Championship in 1993. In 1997, he tied for 1st in the Bermuda Open.  He was born in Jamaica and coached the Harlem Raging Rooks, which won the National youth title in 1991.   He is the author of  Chess for Success.


Berkovich - Ashley, New York 1994

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.Qc2 O-O 5.Nf3 c5 6.a3 Bxc3+ 7.Qxc3 cxd4 8.Qxd4 Nc6 9.Qh4 d5 10.b4 dxc4 11.Qxc4 e5 12.Bb2 Be6 13.Qh4 Qd5 14.Qg5 Qb3 15.Rb1 Rfd8 16.g3 (16.Qe3) 16...Nxb4 17.axb4 Ne4 18.Nd2 (18.Qxe5 Qxb4+) 18...Nxd2 19.Qxe5 f6 (20.Qc3 Nxb1)   0-1


Asmundsson, Ingvar (1934-    )

Icelandic Champion in 1979.



Champion of Persia in 847 after defeating al-Aldi in the presence of the caliph Matawakkil.  He wrote a book of chess problems of which two survive today.


as-Suli (880-946)

Turkish player who defeated al-Mawardi, the resident master of the caliph al_Muktafi, to become the champion of the known world in the 10th century.  His superiority was recognized up to Renaissance times.


Asztalos, Lajos (1889-1956)

Hungarian player and International Master (1950).  He won the Hungarian championship in 1913.  He was a professor of philosophy (PhD) and a journalist.  From 1951 to 1956 he served as President of the Hungarian Chess Federation. 


Atabek, Fasil (1923)

International Master for Correspondence Chess (1968) from Turkey.


Atahualpa (1500-1533)

12th and last Inca emperor of Peru who was imprisoned by Francisco Pizarro  and the Spanish conquistadors in 1533.  He was imprisoned in Cajamarca, Peru and learned chess by watching his guards play,  and before long was beating them all.  It is said that a certain  Spanish captain hated him for this and had him murdered.  This information is preserved in a letter from Don Gaspar de Espinosa (1533) and the autobiography of Don Alonso Enriquez de Guzman (1518-1543).


Atalik, Suat (1964-    )

First and only Turkish Grandmaster (1994).  His FIDE rating is 2561.


Atanasov, Petko (1948- )

International Master (1983) from Bulgaria.  He is rated 2349.


Atiashev, Peter (1918- )

In 1955, he won the USSR correspondence chess championship.


Atkins, Henry Ernest (Aug 20, 1872 – Jan 31, 1955)

British schoolmaster and mathematics teacher who won the British Championship 9 times out of 11 appearances, 7 times in a row (1905-1911, 1924, and 1925).   Only Penrose has won it more often (10 times).  At Amsterdam in 1889, he won the Championship of the Netherlands with a perfect 15 out of 15 score.  He was the first foreign champion of the Netherlands.  He won the British amateur championship in 1895, 1897, and 1900.  In 1909, he was appointed Principal of Huddersfield New College.  In 1950, he was awarded the International Master title at the age of 78.    He played in only two international tournaments.  In 1902 he played at Hanover and took 3rd place.  Tweny years later, in 1922, he played at London and took 10th out of 16.  He represented the British Chess Federation in the 1927 and 1935 Chess Olympiads.


Atkins - Gunsberg, Hanover 1902

1.d4 d5 2.c4 dxc4 3.Nf3 c5 4.e3 Bg4 5.Bxc4 e6 6.Qa4+ Nd7 7.Ne5 Bf5?? (7...Nf6) 8.Nxd7 (8...Qxd7 9.Bb5)   1-0


Atwood, George (1746-1807)

George Atwood was born in 1746.  He was an English mathematician and lecturer at Cambridge.  In 1776, he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London.  William Pitt, British Prime Minister, was one of Atwood’s former students.  He gave Atwood a position as a personal secretary and an office in the Treasury.  In the 1784, he created the Atwood machine for verifying experimentally the laws of acceleration of motion.  In 1787, he joined the London Chess Club.  From 1787 to 1800, he recorded his own games and the games of others, including Philidor, played at the London Chess Club.  On June 20, 1795, he took part in Philidor’s last blindfold performance.  Philidor played his last game of chess, against Atwood, on June 29, 1795 at the Parsloe’s Club.  In 1798, he defeated Joseph Wilson in a match (3-0).  In 1799, he, again, defeated Wilson in a match (3-0).  When George Atwood died on July 11, 1807, he left his chess notebook to Joseph Wilson.  When Wilson died in 1833, George Walker bought Atwood’s notebook.  In 1835, Walker, based on Atwood’s chess notebook, wrote Selection of Games at Chess, actually played by Philidor and his Contemporaries, published in London.  The book contained 47 of Philidor’s games.


Augustin, Josef (1942-    )

Czech International Master (1976).  Czech Champion in 1965.


Ault, Leslie (1940-    )

Chess author who helped write Bobby Fischer Teaches Cbess.  He also wrote The Genesis of Power Chess.


Ault, Robin (1941-1994)

Robin Ault was born in Elizabeth, New Jersey on December 23, 1941.  He was the first person to win the U.S. Junior Championship three times in a row (1959, 1960, 1961).  The 1959 US Junior Championship was held in Omaha, Nebraska.  Ault won on tiebreak over Gilbert Ramirez because Ault had defeated Ramirez in their individual game (any other normal tiebreak would have had Ramirez winning).  He was invited to the 1959-60 U.S. Championship (won by Bobby Fischer), then lost all 11 games.   As a result, the program of allowing the US Junior Champion to play in the US Championship was abolished and was not reinstated until 1979.  The 1961 US Junior Championship was held in Dayton, Ohio.  Robin Ault won on tiebreak over Bernard Zuckerman.    He died on September 16, 1994 in Newton, Massachusetts.


Averbakh, Yuri (1922-    )

Endgame expert and grandmaster (1952).  He was the Soviet Chess Federation president from 1972 to 1977.  His daughter married Grandmaster Mark Taimanov.  He was the editor of the principal Soviet chess magazine, Schachmatny v SSSR.  He played in the USSR Championship 15 times between 1949 and 1969.  In 1954 he won the USSR championship and in 1956 tied for first place with Spassky and Taimanov.   He has been chief arbiter at many chess Olympiads.


1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Nf3 dxc4 5.Bg5 Bb4 6.e4 c5 7.Bxc4 cxd4 8.Nxd4 Qc7 9.Qb3 Bxc3+ 10.Qxc3 Nxe4 11.Nb5 Qc5 12.Qxg7 Rf8 13.Bh6 Qxf2+? (13...Nd7) 14.Kd1 Nd7 15.Re1 Nef6 16.Bxe6 Qxb2 17.Rc1 (17...Qxb5 18.Bc4+)  1-0


Averby, Rune (1922)

1973 Swedish correspondence chess champion.


Averkin, Orest (1944- )

Russian International Master (1976).  In 1969, he represented the USSR in the 16th World Student Team Championship.  His team took the gold and he won the gold medal for best individual with 7 wins out of 7 games (100%).  He took 12th place in the 37th USSR Championship in 1969.  He took 15th-16th place in the 41st USSR Championship in Moscow in 1973.  His rating has been over 2550.


Aveskulov, Valery  (1986 - )

Grandmaster from the Ukraine.


Avrukh, Boris (1978-    )

Grandmaster from Israel.  His FIDE rating is 2652.


Axt, Helga (1937- )

Woman International Master (1961) from Germany.  She won the Women’s German championship in 1957, 1958, and 1961.


Azmaiparashvili, Zurab (1960-    )

Grandmaster (1988) from Soviet Georgia.  In 1978 he became junior champion of the USSR.  He was Garry Kasparov’s trainer from 1987 to 1993.  In 1990 he was elected president of the Georgian chess federation.  He is the highest rated player from Georgia.


Stangl - Azmaiparashvili, Tilburg 1994

1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 g6 3.Bg5 Bg7 4.c3 c5 5.dxc5 Ne4 6.Be3 O-O 7.Bd4 d5 8.cxd6 Qxd6 9.Nbd2 Nf6 10.e4 Qc7 11.Be2 Nc6 12.O-O Rd8 13.Qb1 Bh6 14.Nc4 Nh5 15.Be3 Nf4 16.Bxf4 Bxf4 17.Ne3 Be6 18.Bc4 Bxc4 19.Nxc4 b5 20.Na3 Ne5 21.Nxb5? (21.Nxe5)  21...Nxf3+ 22.gxf3 Qd7 (23.Nd4 Qh3 24.Rd1 Bxh2+ 25.Kh1 Bg3+ 26.Kg1 Qh2+ 27.Kf1 Qxf2 mate)  1-0


Babula, Vlastimil (1973-    )

Grandmaster from the Czech Republic.  His FIDE rating is 2604.


Baburin, Alexander (1967 -    )

Russian player who moved to Ireland in 1993 and became a Grandmaster in 1996.  He won the 1999 Mind Sports Olympiad in London and the 2000 National Open in Las Vegas.  He edits the electronic newsletter, Coffer Break Chess.


Stefansson - Baburin, Budapest 1991

1.d4 d5 2.c4 dxc4 3.Nf3 a6 4.a4 Nf6 5.e3 Bg4 6.Bxc4 e6 7.h3 Bh5 8.Nc3 Nc6 9.O-O Bb4 10.g4 Bg6 11.Nh4 Bxc3 12.bxc3 Ne4 13.Nxg6 hxg6 14.Kg2 Qh4 15.Qf3 O-O-O 16.Rh1 f5 17.Bxe6+ Kb8 18.gxf5 Rh5 19.Qf4 Rg5+ 20.Kf3?? (20.Kf1) 20...Qxf2+ 21.Kxe4 Qc2+ (22.Kf3 Qg2 mate)  0-1


Bachmann, Ludwig (1856-1937)

German author and chronicler of chess.  He worked for the Bavarian railway.  In his spare time, he collected information on chess events and put them in yearbooks (Schach-Juhrbuch), from 1891 to 1930.  His nickname was the ‘Chess Herodotus’.  He was the first person to issue a yearbook on chess.


Bachtiar, Arovah (1934)

International Master (1977) from Indonesia.


Bacrot, Etienne (1983- )

Youngest FIDE master at age 10. He won the World under 12 championship in Brazil in 1995.  In March 1997, Bacrot become the youngest Grandmaster in history at the age of 14 years and 2 months.   His FIDE rating is 2717, ranked #13 in the world.


Bacrot - Alexandria, Biel 1995

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 b6 3.Nf3 Bb7 4.g3 g6 5.Bg2 Bg7 6.O-O O-O 7.d5 b5 8.Qb3 Qc8 9.Qxb5 c6 10.dxc6 Bxc6 11.Qa5 Qb7 12.Nc3 Na6 13.Rd1 Rfc8 14.Rb1 Nc5? (14...d6) 15.Qxc5 Ne4 16.Nxe4 Bxe4 17.Qxe7 Re8 18.Qd6 Bxb1 19.Nd2 Qb8 20.Nxb1 Rxe2 21.Qd5 (21...Re8 22.Qxa8 Qxa8 23.Rxa8 Rxd7)  1-0


Baczynskyj, Boris (1945- )

FIDE master (1982) from Philadelphia.  He was Philadelphia 76ers President Pat Croce’s chess instructor.  He is the co-author, with David Welsh, of Computer Chess II. 


Bagby, Charles (1903-1975)

Chess master and San Francisco lawyer who was elected to the Board of Trustees of the Mechanics’ Institute (Chess Club) in 1940.  He served longer than any Trustee in the history of the Institute.  He won the Northern California Championship in 1950.  He won the California championship in 1958.


Bagirov, Vladimir (1936-2000)

Russian Grandmaster (1978) who competed in nine Soviet championships between 1960 and 1978.  His best result was 4th place in 1960.  He became a Grandmaster in 1978 at the age of 42.  In 1998 he won the 8th World Senior Chess Championship, held in Austria.  He helped train Tal and Kasparov.  He died of a heart attack while playing in a chess tournament in Finland.  He had just finished a move while in time pressure and his flag fell.  As both players moved to a separate board to reconstruct the game, he collapsed and died.


Buhman - Bagirov, USSR 1970

1.d4 d5 2.c4 dxc4 3.e4 e5 4.Nf3 exd4 5.Nxd4 Bc5 6.Be3 Nf6 7.Qa4+ Nbd7 8.Nc3 O-O 9.Qxc4 Ng4 10.Qe2 Nxe3 11.Qxe3 Nf6 12.Rd1 Ng4 13.Qd2 Qf6 14.f3 (14.Na4) 14...Rd8 15.Nd5 Rxd5! 16.exd5 Qe5+ 17.Be2 Ne3 18.Kf2 Nf5 (19.f4 Qxd5 and 20...Bxd4)  0-1


Bagley, Clarence (1843-1932)

First chess champion of Washington State (Washington territory).  He was chess champion of Washington territory from 1862 to 1875.  He lived in Seattle.  He was a printer, newspaper and magazine publisher, writer, historian, and founder of the Washington State Historical Society.


Bain, Mary Weiser (1904-1972)

1937 challenger to the World’s Women Championship (she was born in Hungary).  She won titles in Cuba, Sweden, Finland, and the United States.  U.S. women’s champion from 1951 to 1953.  In 1952, she was awarded the title of Woman International Master.  She was a pupil of Frank Marshall and Geza Maroczy.  She was a Bridge expert and operated a duplicate-bridge club in New York. 


Baird, David Graham (1854-    )

Charter member of the chess club that eventually evolved in the Manhattan Chess Club.  In 1880, he tied for 2nd place in the minor section of the 5th American Chess Congress in New York.  In 1883, he took 2nd place in the 5th Manhattan Chess Club championship, behind Gustave Simonson.  In 1889, he was a participant in the 6th American Chess Congress in New York and took 11th place.  In 1890, he won the Manhattan Chess Club championship.  In 1895, he won the New York state championship.   He was the younger brother of John Washington Baird.


Baird, Edith Helen (1859-1924)

She was born Winter Wood.  She was the most famous female chess composer.   She published her problems using the name “Mrs. W.J. Baird.  She composed over 2,000 problems.  In 1902, she wrote 700 Chess Problems.


Baird, John Washington (1852-    )

Charter member of the chess club that eventually evolved in the Manhattan Chess Club.  In 1889, he participated in the 6th American Congress in New York and took 19th place out of 20.  He was an umpire for Steinitz and signed the contract for the Steinitz-Lasker world championship match.  He was the older brother of David Graham Baird.


Bakcsi, Gyorgy (1933- )

Hungarian Grandmaster for Chess Composition (1980).


Baker, Philip ( -1932)

Irish chess champion in 1924, 1927, 1928, and 1929.


Bakker, Ineke (    -2003)

Former FIDE General Secretary from 1972 to 1982.  When Florencio Campomanes was elected FIDE President, she resigned.  She was appointed Honorary Member of FIDE by its general assembly.


Bakulin, Nikolac (1926-    )

Moscow champion  in 1961, 1964 and 1966.  He took last place in the 32nd USSR Championship in 1964-65.


Balanel, Ion (1926-    )

Romanian International Master (1954).  Romanian Champion in 1950, 1953, 1955, and 1958.


Balashov, Yuri (1949-    )

Russian Grandmaster (1973) from Moscow.  He won the Moscow championship in 1970.  He played in 15 Russian championships, taking 2nd place in 1976 (behind Karpov).   In 1978, he served as second for Karpov at the world championship match with Korchnoi in Baguio, Philippines.  In 1985 he withdrew from the Taxco Interzonal Tournament after 11 rounds.  He had won one game, drew 7 games, and lost 3 games at the time.  He ended up in last place.  In 1992, he served as second for Boris Spassky during his match with Bobby Fischer.


Balashov - Beszterczey, Poland 1992

1.e4 g6 2.d4 Bg7 3.Nc3 d6 4.Nf3 Bg4 5.Be2 Nc6 6.Be3 e5 7.d5 Nce7 8.Ng5 Bd7 9.f4 exf4 10.Bxf4 h6 11.Nf3 g5 12.Be3 Ng6 13.Bd4 Nf6 14.e5 dxe5 15.Nxe5 Nxe5 16.Bxe5 O-O 17.O-O Ne4?? (17...Ne8) 18.Bxg7 (18...Kxg7 19.Nxe4; 18...Nxc3 19.Bxc3)  1-0


Balcarek, Wiktor (1915-    )

Polish Champion in 1950.


Balcerowski, Witold (1935-    )

Polish Champion in 1962 and 1965.


Balinas, Rosendo (1941-1998)

Philippine lawyer and Grandmaster (1976) who was Asia’s best player in the 1960s.  He won the Philippine chess championship 6 times.  In 1976 he won an international tournament in the USSR (Odessa).  It was only the second time in 35 years that a foreigner won an international event in the USSR.  The only other foreigner who won in Russia was world champion Capablanca.  He died of liver cancer.


Krause - Balinas, Dortmund 1976

1.c4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.Nf3 Nc6 4.d4 e4 5.Ng5 Bb4 6.d5 Na5 7.Qa4 Qe7 8.a3 Bxc3+ 9.bxc3 b6 10.Nh3 Qc5 11.Qb4 Nxc4 12.e3 Ba6 13.a4 (13.Qxc5) 13...Nxd5 14.Qxc5 bxc5 15.Bd2 Rb8 16.Ng5 f5 17.f3 h6 18.fxe3 Ndxe3 (19.Bxe3 Nxe3 20.Bxa6 Nc2+)  0-1


Balla, Zoltan von (1883-1945)

First official Hungarian chess champion (Budapest, 1913).  He was Hungarian champion in 1906 and 1911.  He died in Budapest at the end of World War II.


Von Balla – Ritzen, 1914

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Bc5 4.O-O Nge7 5.c3 f5 6.d4 Bb6 7.d5 fxe4 8.Ng5 Nb8 9.Ne6  1-0


Balogh, Csaba (1987-    )

Grandmaster from Hungary.  His FIDE rating is 2537.


Balogh, Janos (1892-1980)

Romanian Champion in 1930.  Correspondence International Master (1953).


Bana Bhatta (595-655)

One of the foremost poets of India.  His two most important works are Harsacarita (Deeds of Harsa) and Kadambari, which is a romantic love story.  Both were written in Sanskrit.   Both works mentioned Chaturanga, an early form of chess.


Banas, Jan (1947- )

International Master (1979) from Slovakia, formerly from Czechoslovakia.


Banfalvi, Sandor (1914- )

Grandmaster of Correspondence Chess (1979).   Hw was born Sandor Brilla.


Bang, Erik (1944- )

Grandmaster of Correspondence Chess (1979) fron Denmark.  In 1963, he won the Danish Junior Championship.  In 1973, he took 6th in the Danish Championship.  He has won the Danish club championship more than 11 times.  He is an electronics technician.


Banikas, Hristos (1978-    )

Grandmaster from Greece.  His FIDE rating is 2548.


Banks, Newell W. (1887-1977)

U.S. checker champion who was also a chess master.  His father was a checker champion and taught Newell how to play checkers at age 5.  Newell had such a phenomenal memory that he was able to play blindfold games of checkers at the age of 6.  He defeated the U.S. chess champion, Frank Marshall, and he leading challenger, Isaac Kashdan, at the Chicago Tournament in 1926.  In his lifetime he traveled over a million miles playing chess and checkers and played over 600,000 games of chess and checkers.  He was considered the world’s best checker player from 1917 to 1922 and 1933-1934.  He died in Detroit on February 17, 1977 at the age of 89.


Jordan – Banks, USA 1917

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Nd4 4.Nxe5 Qg5 5.Nxf7?? Qxg2 6.Rf1 Qxe4 7.Be2 Nf3 mate  0-1


Bany, Jerzy (1961)

Polish International Master (1983).  In 1978, he won the Polish Junior Championship.


Baragar, Fletcher (1955-    )

Canadian FIDE Master from Manitoba.  In 1987, he took last place at the Zagreb Interzonal.  He won 1 game, drew 1 game, and lost 14 games.


Barasz, Zsigmond (1877-1935)

Hungarian Champion (with Zoltan Von Balla) in 1911.


Barbero, Gerardo (1961-2001)

Argentine Grandmaster (1988) who died of eye cancer.  He was Argentine champion in 1984.  He won at Montpellier 1986 and at Prokupje in 1987.  He also won the Kecskemet Open in 1987.


Barbero - Aalto, Argentina 1993

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.f4 exf4 4.Nf3 g5 5.d4 g4 6.Bc4 gxf3 7.O-O d5 8.exd5 Bg4 9.Qd2 Na5 10.Bb5+ c6 11.Qxf4 Qd7 (11...Nf6) 12.Qe5+ Ne7 13.Ne4 O-O-O?? (13...fxg2) 14.Bf4 (threatening 15.Qb8 mate)  1-0


Barbulesco, Dan-Catalin (1964- )

International Master (1984) from Romania.


Barcza, Gideon (1911-1986)

Hungarian professor of mathematics and Grandmaster (1954).  He won the Hungarian championship eight times.  He was editor of the chess magazine Magyar Sakkelet.  He played on seven Hungarian Olympiad teams.  The opening 1.Nf3 d5 2.g3 is called the Barcza System.


Kiss - Barcza, Debrecen 1930

1.e4 Nc6 2.d4 d5 3.exd5 Qxd5 4.Nf3 Bg4 5.Nc3 Bxf3 6.Nxd5 Bxd1 7.Nxc7+ Kd7 8.Nxa8 Bxc2 9.Bf4 e5 10.dxe5 Bb4+ 11.Ke2 Nge7 12.e6+ fxe6 13.Nc7?? (13.Nb6+)  13...Nd4+ 14.Ke3 Nef5 mate  0-1


Barczay, Laszlo (1936-    )

Hungarian Grandmaster (1967) and Correspondence Grandmaster (1979).  He took 17th place in the 1967 Sousse Interzonal.  He took 1st place at the 1967 Asztalos Memorial, 1st at Polanica Zdroj 1969, and 1st at Astor 1982.


Barda, Olaf (1909-1971)

Norwegian International Master (1952) and Correspondence Grandmaster (1953).  He won the Norwegian championship six times (1930, 1947, 1948, 1952, 1953, 1957).   He took 4th in the first World Correspondence chess championship (1950-1953). 


Bardeleben, Curt von (1861-1924)

Strongest German player of the late 19th century, openings expert, and player of Grandmaster strength.  Against Steinitz, he had a losing position, so he just got up and left the playing hall without resigning and did not return.  Steinitz had to sit and watch the clock to end the game.  Bardeleben did leave a note on the table that said, “Saw it, went home,” referring to Steinitz’s combination.  Bardeleben was in the habit of leaving the tournament room, allowing his clock to run out of time, rather than resign.  He committed suicide at the age of 62 by jumping out of an upper window of his boarding house in Berlin where he lived in poverty.  He was a lawyer.


Barden, Leonard (1929-    )

British Champion (with Alan Phillips) in 1954.  He played on four English Olympiad teams.  He has written a chess column for the Guardian since 1956.  He has written several chess books.


Bareev, Evgeny (1966-    )

Russian Grandmaster (1989) who was World Under 16 Champion in 1982.  In 1999 he was ranked 3rd in the world, behind Kasparov and Karpov.  His current rating is 2698.


Bareev - Yakovich, Tallinn 1986

1.d4 d5 2.c4 dxc4 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.Nc3 a6 5.e4 b5 6.e5 Nd5 7.a4 Nxc3 8.bxc3 Qd5 9.g3 Be6 10.Bg2 Qb7 11.O-O Bd5 12.e6 Bxe6 13.Ng5 Bd5 14.Bxd5 Qxd5 15.axb5 e6 16.Re1 Nd7 (16...axb5) 17.Qh5 g6?? (17...e5) 18.Nxe6! (18...gxh5 19.Ng7+ Kd8 20.Re8 mate; 18...c6 19.Nc7+ Kd8 20.b6! Nxb6 21.Nxd5 gxh5 22.Bg5+ Kc8 23.Nxb6+)  1-0


Barendregt, Johan (1924-    )

Dutch International Master (1962).  He was a medical doctor and lectured in clinical psychology at the University of Amsterdam.  He died of lung cancer.


Barker, Malcolm N.

Malcolm Barker was British Under-18 chess champion in 1949, 1950, and 1951.  In the first World Junior Chess Championship, he took 2nd place, behind Boris Ivkov, and ahead of Bent Larsen and Friderick Olafsson.  After the tournament, he gave up chess and took up bridge.


Barle, Janez (1952- )

International Master (1976) from Slovenia.  He is rated 2400.


Barlov, Dragan (1957-    )

Yugoslav Grandmaster (1986).  He won the Yugoslav championship in 1986.  He took 15th place at the 1987 Zagreb Interzonal.


Benjamin – Barlov, Hallsberg 1975

1.e4 Nf6 2.e5 Nd5 3.d4 d6 4.c4 Nb6 5.exd6 exd6 6.h3 Be7 7.Nf3 O-O 8.Be3 Bf5 9.Nc3 Nc6 10.Be2 d5 11.b3 Bb4 12.Qc1 dxc4 13.Bxc4 Nxc4 14.bxc4 Bd3 15.a3 Ba5 16.c5 Re8 17.Kd1 b6 18.cxb6 cxb6 19.Ra2 Bc4 20.Rd2 Bb3+ 21.Ke2 Qc8 22.Kf1 Ne7 23.Rb2 Bxc3 24.Rxb3 Qc4+  0-1


Barnes, Thomas Wilson (1825-1874)

One of the strongest English players in the 1850s.   He scored more wins than anyone else against Paul Morphy, defeating him 8 times.  He went on a diet and lost 130 pounds in 10 months, causing his death.


Barnes - Owen, London 1857

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.b4 Bxb4 5.c3 Ba5 6.d4 exd4 7.Qb3 Qf6 8.O-O Nh6 9.e5 Qg6 10.Ba3 dxc3 11.Nxc3 Bxc3 12.Qxc3 b6? (12...Nf5) 13.e6 fxe6 14.Bxe6 Bb7 15.Nh4 Qf6 16.Bxd7+ Kxd7 17.Qh3+ Kd8 18.Rfe1 Re8 19.Rad1+ Nd4 20.Rxd4+ Qxd4 21.Rxe8+ Kxe8 22.Qe6+ (22...Kd8 23.Ba7+ Ke8 24.Bd6+ Kd8 25.Qe7 mate)  1-0.


Barry, Denis (1929-2003)

Former President of the U.S. Chess Federation (1993-1996).  He organized the U.S. Open in Atlantic City in 1972 and in Somerset, New Jersey in 1986.   He established the US Amateur Team East Chess Championship, which is held annually in Parsippany, New Jersey.  He was the captain and guide for the US Blind Team in three Blind Chess Olympiads.  He organized the third USCF Blind Championship in 1977, and was the first to use Braille wallcharts at that tournament.


Barry, John Finan (1873-1940)

John Finan Barry was born in Boston, Massachuesetts on December 12, 1873.  He was a Boston lawyer, clerk for the Minicipal court for 28 years, and strong chess amateur.  He played in several Anglo-American cable matches from 1896 to 1911.  He played a match with J.W. Showalter for the U.S. championship, but lost.  He played at Cambridge Springs, Pennsylvania in 1904.  He was New England champion from 1912 to 1935.  He was president of the Boston Chess Club.  He edited a chess column in the Boston Transcript for 25 years (1915-1940).  He died in West Roxbury, Massachusetts on April 9, 1940.


Bartok, Gyorgy (1933- )

Grandmaster for Chess Composition (1980).


Barua, Dibyendu (1966-    )

Grandmaster from India.  He was India’s first chess prodigy.  He became India’s 2nd grandmaster, after Anand.


Basagic, Zlatko (1947- )

International Master (1986) from Slovenia.


Basman, Michael (1946-    )

International Master (1980) from England who specializes in irregular openings.  He tied for 1st place in the 1973 British Championship, but lost the playoff to Bill Hartston.  He organizes the British Chess Challenge, which is probably the largest chess tournament in the world, with 35,000 school children participating.


Basman – NN, Paris 1982

1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Qe2 Nc6 4.c3 d6 5.d4 Qh4+ 6.Kd1 g5 7.Nf3 Qh5 8.Qb5 g4 9.Qxh5  1-0


Bass, Leonid (1957- )

International Master (1982), now living in the United States.  He tied for 1st, with William Williams, in the 1983 Wisconsin State Championship.  In 1988, he won the New Jersey State Championship.  He is rated 2415.


Battell, Jack Straley  (1909-1985)

Former USCF correspondence chess director (1969-1978).  In the 1937-38 Marshall Chess Club Championship, he scored no wins and 11 straight losses, for the worse score in Marshall Chess Club history.  In 1946 he was the highest rated postal player in the United States and won the 1946 Correspondence Chess League of America (CCLA) championship.  He was a photographer, English teacher, riding master, and restaurant manager.  He died of complications of Alzheimer’s disease.


Baturinsky, Viktor (1914-2002)

Former vice president of the USSR Chess Federation.  Former director of the Central Chess Club in Moscow.  Head of Anatoly Karpov’s delegation in the 1978 and 1981 world championship matches against Viktor Korchnoi.  He was a colonel in the KGB.   He died on December 21, 2002.


Bauer, Christian (1977-    )

French Grandmaster (1997).    His FIDE rating is 2641.  In 1977, he won the French championship. 


Bauer, Johann (1861-1891)

Czech master.  In 1887, he won a tournament in Frankfurt to earn the master tile played in the German Hauptturnier.  He died of tuberculosis.


Baumbach, Friedrich (Fritz) (1935-    )

German correspondence player who won the 11th World Correspondence Championship, which ended in 1989.  In 1970 he won the East German championship.  He was awarded the Correspondence Grandmaster title in 1973.  He is a chemist and a Ph.D. 


Baumstark, Gertrude (1941-    )

International Women’s Master (1970).  Romanian Women’s Champion in 1967 and 1981.


Becker, Georg Albert (1896-1984)

International Master (1953).  He played for Austria (1931), then Germany (1939), on their chess Olympiad team.  He was editor of Wiener Schachzeitung from 1926 to 1935.  He settled in Argentina after the outbreak of World War II.  In 1929 at Carlsbad , Becker said “I propose to open the Vera Menchik Club, whose members will be solely masters defeated by the lady world champion.”  Before the tournament at Carlsbad in which Menchik was playing, he said that he would go onstage as a ballerina if Menchik scored more than 3 points.  At Carlsbad (won by Nimzovich), she finished last with 2 wins, 2 draws (3 points) and 17 losses.  She beat Becker (the first member of the Vera Menchik Club) and Saemisch.  He was Austrian champion in 1925.


Becker – Norman-Hansen, Munich 1936

1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Nd7 5.Nf3 Ngf6 6.Bd3 Nxe4 7.Bxe4 Nf6 8.Bd3 Be7 9.Qe2 O-O 10.Bg5 g6 11.Bxf6 Bxf6 12.Qe4  1-0


Beauharnois, Eugene (1781-1824)

Stepson of Napoleon and Prince and Viceroy of Italy.  He purchased the Turk from Maelzel for 30,000 francs (equivalent to $60,000) in 1811.  The Prince stored it at his residence in Milan.  He sold the Turk back to Maelzel in 1817 for the same price.


Bednarski, Jacek (1939-    )

Polish International Master (1964).  Polish Champion in 1963. 


Beechey-Rowland, Frideswide (1843-1919)

First woman to a chess column and the first woman to win a prize as a  composer of chess problems (1882).  She authored a book called Chess Blossoms in 1883 and Chess Fruits in 1884.


Begin, Menachem (1913-1992)

Former Prime Minister of Israel (1977-1983) and Nobel Peace Prize recipient who played chess every day when he was imprisoned by the British and the Russians.  He said chess helped him keep his mental powers in shape.  In 1940, he was playing chess at home with his wife when Russian troops (NKVD) burst in to arrest him.  As he was being dragged away, he called out to his wife that he was resigning his game to her.  While at Camp David in 1978, he played chess regularly with National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzesinski.


Begovac, Franja (1957- )

International Master (1986) from Croatia.


Beim, Valery (1950-    )

Grandmaster originally from Russian and now living in Austria.  His FIDE rating is 2534.  He is the author of Chess Recipies from the Grandmaster’s Kitchen.


Beim – Wagman, Aosta 1990

1.d4 d5 2.c4 dxc4 3.e4 c5 4.d5 e6 5.Nc3 Nf6 6.Bxc4 exd5 7.Nxd5 Nxd5 8.Bxd5 Be7 9.Nf3 O-O 10.O-O Nd7 11.Qe2 Qc7 12.e5 Nb6 13.Be4 Be6 14.Re1 Rae8 15.Ng5 Bxg5 16.Bxg5 Bd5 17.Bxh7+ Kxh7 18.Qh5+ Kg8 19.Bf6  1-0


Belakovskaia, Anjelina (1969-    )

Woman Grandmaster (1993).  U.S. Women’s Chess Champion in 1995 (with Sharon Burtman), 1996, and 1999.  She was born in the Ukraine and won the Women’s Championship of the Soviet Union and the Ukraine.  She has a Master’s Degree in Mathematics..    She came to the USA in 1991.  She had a bit role in the movie “Searching for Bobby Fischer.”  She won the New York Women’s Chess Championship three times.  She played on the US women’s team in the Chess Olympiads in 1994, 1996, and 1998.  She is now a real estate agent in Arizona.


Heaton - Belakovskaia, Las Vegas 1995

1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 g6 3.c4 Bg7 4.g3 O-O 5.Bg2 c5 6.O-O cxd4 7.Nxd4 Nc6 8.Nc2 d6 9.Nc3 Be6 10.b3 Qd7 11.Re1 Bh3 12.Bh1 Ng4 13.Bb2 Qf5 14.f3 Qxc2 15.Qxc2 Bd4+ 16.e3 Nxe3 17.Qf2 (17.Qe4) 17...Nc2 18.Qxd4 N6xd4 19.Rxe7 Nxa1 20.Nd5? (20.Bxa1) 20...Nac2 21.g4 Rfe8  (22.Nf6+ Kf8 23.Rxe8+ Rxe8 24.Nxe8 Kxe8)  0-1


Belamaric, Tanja (1946- )

Woman International Master (1967) from Croatia.


Belavenets, Liudmila (1940- )

Russian Woman International Master (1977) , International Master in Correspondence Chess (1979), and now Grandmaster of Correspondence Chess.  She won the 4th Women’s World Correspondence Chess Championship (1984-1992).


Belavenets, Sergey (1910-1942)

Chess champion of Moscow in 1932, 1937, and 1938.  He won the Russian championship in 1934 and took 3rd in the USSR Championship in 1939.  He died in the siege of Leningrad.  His daughter, Ludmilla (born in 1940), won the 4th Women’s World Correspondence Chess Championship in 1992.


Freymann – Belavenets, Kiev 1938

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.c4 e5 4.Nc3 Nc6 5.h3 g6 6.d3 Bg7 7.Nd5 f6 8.Be3 Nh6 9.Qd2 Nf7 10.Be2 Be6 11.h4 h5 12.Bd1 a6 13.Ba4 Rb8 14.b4 b5 15.Bb3 Bxd5 16.exd5 Nd4 17.Bxd4 cxd4 18.a4 Bh6 19.Qe2 O-O 20.O-O f5 21.axb5 axb5 22.c5 Re8 23.g3 Qf6 24.Rfd1 e4 25.dxe4 d3 26.Qa2 fxe4  0-1


Beliavsky, Alexander (1953- )

Grandmaster (1975) from Slovenia who won the World Junior Championship in 1973, held in Teesside, England.   In 1973 he took last place in the USSR championship.  The next year, he won it.  He tied for first place (with Tal) at the USSR Championship in 1974, and won the USSR Championship in 1990.  In 1983, he lost against Kasparov in the quarterfinals for the World Championship.  In 1997 he lost to Nigel Short in the FIDE world championship knockout matches.


Beliavsky - Stean, Lucerne 1982

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 a6 6.Bg5 e6 7.f4 Qb6 8.Qd2 Qxb2 9.Nb3 Nbd7 10.Bd3 b5 11.O-O Nc5? (11...b4) 12.Nxc5 dxc5 13.Bxf6 gxf6 14.Rab1 Qa3 15.Nxb5! (15...axb5 16.Bxb5+ Ke7 17.Rfd1, threatening 18.Qd6 mate; 15...Qxa2 16.Nc7+ Ke7 17.Nxa8)  1-0


Belkadi, Ridha (1925- )

International Master (1974) from Tunisia.   He was the president of the Tunisian Chess Federation.  He represented Tunisia, either as Board 1 or 2, in the chess Olympiads in 1960, 1962, 1966, 1968, 1970, 1972, 1974, 1978, and 1980.  He is rated 2345.


Belkhodja, Slim (1962- )

Grandmaster from Tunisia.  He is Tunisia’s 2nd grandmaster, after Bouaziz.


Bellin, Jana Malypetrova Hartston Miles (1947-    )

Top British woman player.  She is also an anesthesiologist who she says is an appropriate specialization for a chess player - "it's like time trouble, you only have four minutes."  Formerly married to Bill Hartston and Tony Miles, top British chess players.


Bellin, Robert (1952-    )

British International Master (1977) and British Champion in 1979.  He is married to Dr. Jana Malypetrova (Hartston Miles Bellin). 


Bellon Lopez, Juan Manuel (1950-    )

Spanish Grandmaster (1978).  He was Spanish Champion in 1969, 1971, 1974, 1977, and 1984.  He is married to Grandmaster Pia Cramling from Sweden.


Bellon – Ljubojevic, Palma de Mallorca 1972

1.b3 e5 2.Bb2 Nc6 3.e3 g6 4.d4 exd4 5.Nf3 Bg7 6.Nxd4 Nf6 7.Nxc6 bxc6 8.Be2 O-O 9.Nd2 a5 10.a4 Re8 11.O-O Nd5 12.Bxg7 Kxg7 13.Bd3 Nc3 14.Qf3 Ba6 15.Bxa6 Rxa6 16.e4 Qf6 17.Qd3 Raa8 18.f4  1-0


Belova-Borisenko, Valentina (1920- )

Woman Grandmaster (1978).  In 1945, 1955, 1957, 1960, and 1962, she won the USSR women’s championship.  She was the Women’s World Championship Challenger in 1949-50. 


Bely, Miklos (1913-1970)

Hungarian International Master (1956).  He represented Hungary in the 1956 chess Olympiad.


Benedict, Clare (1871-1961)

Granddaughter of James Fenimore Cooper who moved to Switzerland and became a chess patroness of a team tournament of European countries.  The first Clare Benedict International Team Tournament was held in 1953 and won by the Dutch.


Beni, Alfred (1923-1995)

Austrian International Master (1950).  Austrian Champion in 1947.


Benini, Clarice (1905-1976)

International Women’s Master (1950).  She was a Women’s World Championship Challenger in 1937 and 1949-50.


Benjamin, Joel (1964-    )

Winner of the National Elementary (1976), Junior High School (1978), and High School  Championships (1980-81), U.S. Junior Championship (1980, 1982), U.S. Open Championship (1985), and U.S. Championship (1987, 1997).  He is the editor of CHESS CHOW, a monthly chess magazine.  He defeated his first master at age 11 and was the first 11-year old U.S. Expert.  At 13 years and 3 months, he broke Bobby Fischer’s record (13 years, 5 months) for becoming the youngest U.S. master up to that time.  He was the youngest Manhattan Chess Club champion at 14, and became a Grandmaster in 1986.  He assisted the IBM DEEP BLUE team that helped defeat Garry Kasparov in the DEEP BLUE computer vs. Kasparov chess match in April, 1997.


Benjamin - Gamboa, Philadelphia 1995

1.c4 e6 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.e4 d5 4.e5 d4 5.exf6 dxc3 6.bxc3 Qxf6 7.Nf3 c5 8.Bd3 Bd7 9.Be4 Bc6 10.Qe2 Bxe4 11.Qxe4 Nc6 12.Rb1 O-O-O 13.d4 Rd7 14.Bf4 Qg6?? (14.Bd6) 15.Qxc6+! (15...bxc6 16.Rb8 mate)  1-0


Benko, Pal (1928-    )

French-born Hungarian player who won the Hungarian national championship in 1948 at the age of 20.  He was secretly involved in the 1956 Hungarian revolt.  He spent a year and a half in a Hungarian political prison.  The Hungarian Secret Police once suspected he was a spy because of his coded letters.  The coded letters were correspondence chess games and the code was chess notation.  He was permitted to play first board on Hungary's team in the 1957 Student Olympiad in Iceland where he defected to the U.S. He became a Grandmaster in 1958.  In 1965 he was the first American Open Champion.  In 1970 he yielded his interzonal place at Palma de Mallorca to Bobby Fischer, who went on to become  World Champion.  He has won or tied for first place in eight US Open tournaments.   His book, Pal Benko My Life, Games and Compositions won the 2004 British Chess Federation Book of the Year.


Benko - Sawyer, New York 1964

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Nge7 4.c3 a6 5.Bc4 h6 6.d4 d6 (6...b5) 7.Qb3 Na5?? (7...d5) 8.Bxf7+ Kd7 9.Nxe5+! (9...dxe5 10.Qe6 mate)  1-0


Berdichevski, Igor (1964-    )

Grandmaster from Russia.  His FIDE rating in 2546.


Berea de Montero, Maria (1914-1983)

Woman International Master (1952) from Brazil.   In 1939, she was the Women’s World Championship Challenger.   In 1952, she took 15th place in the World Women’s Chess Championship Candidates Tournament in Moscow.


Berend, Elvira (1965-    )

Woman Grandmaster from Luxembourg.  Her FIDE rating is 2350.


Berg, Emanuel (1981-    )

Grandmaster from Sweden.  His FIDE rating is 2539.


Berger, Johann (1845-1933)

Chess master, author, and educator from Graz.  In 1870 he won the first major tournament in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.  In 1873 he helped create the Sonnenborn-Berger tie-breaking system (first used in 1882).  In 1886 he won the world championship chess problem-solving contest.  He played in a correspondence chess tournament sponsored by Monde Illustre from 1889 to 1992 and won it with 45 wins, 3 losses and no draws.  From 1898 to 1911 he was editor of Deutsche Schachzeitlung.  In 1890 he wrote Theorie und Praxis der Endspiele and revised it in 1922.  He also wrote Probleme, Studien und Partien 1862-1912.  He was an Austrian high school administrator.


J. Berger – Froelich, Graz 1922

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.Nf3 d6 4.Bb5 Bg4 5.Nd5 Nge7 6.c3 a6 7.Ba4 b5 8.Bb3 Na5 9.Nxe5 Bxd1?? 10.Nf6+ gxf6 11.Bxf7 mate  1-0


Bergkvist, Nils Valentin (1900-1993)

Former Stockholm City Chess Champion.  He played on the Swedish Chess Olympiad team in 1936, 1939, and 1950.


Bergraser, Volf (1904-1986)

Won the French chess championship in 1957 and 1966.  He became a Correspondence Grandmaster at the age of 77 in 1981.  He was a doctor.


Handel - Bergraser, Correspondence 1985

1.e4 d5 2.exd5 Nf6 3.d4 Nxd5 4.c4 Nb6 5.Nc3 e5 6.Nge2 Bg4 7.Be3 N8d7 8.b3 Ba3 9.Qd2 Qe7 10.h3 Bh5 11.Ng3 exd4 12.Qxd4 O-O-O 13.Nxh5 Nf6 14.Qf4 Bb2 15.Rd1? (15.Nb5) 15...Bxc3+ 16.Ke2 Nxh5 17.Qf5+ Kb8 18.Qxh5 Qe4 (19.Qxf7 Qc2+ 20.Kf3 Rxd1)  0-1


Bergs, Teodors (1902-1962)

In 1926, he took 2nd in the Latvian Chess Championship.  In 1934, he won the Riga, Latvia City Chess Championship. 


Berkes, Ferenc (1985-    )

Grandmaster from Hungary.  In 2002, he won the World Under-18 championship.  His FIDE rating is 2619.


Berliner, Hans (1929-    )

Computer scientist specializing in Artificial Intelligence and winner of the 5th world correspondence championship (1965-68).  His 3-point margin of victory (14-2) was the greatest margin of victory ever achieved in a World Championship final round, and his winning percentage was also the greatest of any World Champion.  His game with Yakov Estrin was voted the best game in the history of correspondence chess.  In 1979 he developed a backgammon-playing program that defeated the reigning World Backgammon Champion.  This was the first time that a World Champion had ever been beaten by a computer.  He was the first U.S. correspondence Grandmaster.  He helped develop the chess machine/program called Hitech, one of the strongest chess machines in the world.  It was the first computer program to become a US Chess Federation Senior Master.  Berliner wrote a chess program as part of his Ph.D. dissertation at Carnegie-Mellon University.  He won the Golden Knights Postal Chess Championship three times (1955, 1956, 1959).


Berliner - Rott, Montreal 1956

1.d4 d5 2.c4 Nf6 3.cxd5 Nxd5 4.e4 Nb6 5.Nc3 Nc6 6.Nf3 Bg4 7.d5 Ne5? (7...Bxf3) 8.Nxe5! Bxd1 9.Bb5+ c6 10.dxc6 Qb8 11.c7+ Nd7 12.Bxd7 mate  1-0


Berlinsky, Vladimir

Internatioanal Master (1986) from Russia.  In 1986, he was the International Braille Chess Association (IBCA) world champion.  In 2006, he won the 11th World Chess Championship for the Blind.


Bernstein, Ossip (1882-1962)

Russian Grandmaster (1950).  In 1903, he took 2nd (behind Chigorin) in the third Russian Championship.  In 1906, he earned a Doctorate in law at Heidelberg and became a successful financial lawyer.  In 1918 Ossip Bernstein was arrested in Odessa by the Cheka and ordered shot by a firing squad just because he was a legal advisor to bankers.  As the firing squad lined up, a superior officer asked to see the list of prisoners' names.  Discovering the name of Ossip Bernstein, he asked whether he was the famous chess master.  Not satisfied with Bernstein's affirmative reply, he made him play a game with him.  If Bernstein lost or drew, he would be shot.  Bernstein won in short order and was released.  He escaped on a British ship and settled in Paris.  Bernstein's son was President Eisenhower's official interpreter because he spoke almost every European language.  At age 74, he was still playing in international tournaments.


O, Bernstein - Unknown, Berlin 1903

1.d4 d5 2.Nf3 Bg4 3.c4 e6 4.Ne5 Bf5 5.cxd5 exd5 6.Qb3 b6? (6...Nc6) 7.e4 Bxe4 8.Bb5+ Ke7 9.Bc6 (and 10.Bxa8)  1-0


Bernstein, Sidney Norman (1911-2004)

He took 1st place in the Marshall Club Championship in 1930, 1939, 1957, and 1958.  In 1942, he tied with Fred Reinfeld in the Manhattan Chess Club Championship.  He played in the U.S. Championship nine times, from 1936 to 1962.  In 1951, his USCF rating was 2358.


Berry, Jonathan (1953-    )

Canadian chess player, organizer, and author.  International FIDE Aribiter (1975 – at age 21), FIDE Master (1984), and ICCF Grandmaster (1985).  He was Canadian Corresponcence Champion in 1978 and 1980.  He was North American Correspondence Champion in 1982.  He represented Canada in the 1982 Chess Olympiad.  For many years, he was the technical editor for Inside Chess magazine.


Bertin, Joseph (1695-1736)

Chess author.  In 1735 he published The Noble Game of Chess, Containing Rules and Instructions for the Use of those who have already a little Knowledge of this Game.  It was the first worthwhile chess book in English and, at the time, only available at Slaughter’s Coffee House (founded by John Slauter in 1692).  Bertin had 19 rules to follow during play.  One of them was: to free your game, take off some of your adversary’s men, if possible for nothing.


Bertok, Mario (1929-    )

Yugoslav International Master (1957). 


Beshukov, Sergei (1971-    )

Russian Grandmaster.  His FIDE rating is 2470.


Beukes, Reuben (1985-2007)

In 2002, he represented Namibia in the 35th Chess Olympiad, held in Bled, Slovenia, but lost all 6 games.  In 2006, at the age of 21, he was the National Chess Champion of Namibia, the youngest ever for that country.  On April 17, 2007, he died in a car crash.


Bhat, Vinay (1985-   )

In 1995, America’s youngest master at 10 years, 6 months (since broken by Hikaru Nakamura).   Jordy Mont-Reynaud set the old record as youngest master in 1994.  He tied for first place in the 1998 U.S. Cadet Championship (under 16) with national master Dmitry Schneider.  In April 2000, he became an International Master (IM) at age 15, becoming the youngest IM in the United States at the time (since broken by Hikaru Nakamura).


Bhend, Edwin (1931-    )

Swiss International Master (1960).  Swiss Champion in 1966.


Bielczyk, Jacek (1953- )

International Master from Poland.


Bielicki, Carlos (1940-    )

Argentine International Master (1959) who was Junior World Champion in 1959.


Bigelow, Horace Ransom (1898-1980)

In 1923, he took last place in the 9th American Chess Congress in Lake Hopatcong, New York (won by Marshall and Kupchik).  In 1929, he won the Marshall Chess Club Championship.  He was a journalist for the American Chess Bulletin. 


Bilek, Istvan (Aug 11, 1932 -    )

Grandmaster from Hungary, born in Budapest.  He was awarded the International Master title in 1958 and the Grandmaster title in 1962.  He won the Hungarian Championship in 1963, 1965, and 1970.  In 1979 at an international tournament in Slupsk, Poland, he had a bye in the first round, drew his next 10 games in 13, 14, 12, 9, 12, 13, 17, and 9 moves, taking 5, 12, 15, 26, 7, 4, 5, 12, 18, and 5 minutes, respectively.  Thus, he made only 125 moves in 109 minutes in this 11 round master event.  When he won the Hungarian championship in 1970, his wife (Edit Lang) won the Hungarian women's championship (she also won in 1964).  He played in the 1962 and 1964 Interzonals.  He was on nine chess Olympiad teams from 1958 to 1974.  In 1967, at the Sousse Interzonal, GM Milan Matulovic was playing Bilek and made a move that would have lost a piece.  He then took back the move, and then made another move.  Bilek complained to the tournament director, but no action was taken to prove that Bilke made the move, then took it back.  The game ended in a draw that Bilek would have won if the move was not taken back.  In 1962, Bilek lost to Fischer on time, after making only 27 moves in 2.5 hours.  Fischer used up exactly 2 minutes for the whole game.


Bilek - Bachtiar, Beverwijk 1966

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 d6 6.Bc4 g6 7.Nxc6 bxc6 8.e5 Nh5 9.Qf3 e6 10.exd6 Qxd6 11.O-O Bb7 12.Rd1 Qc5 (12...Qb4) 13.Qd3 Qe7 14.Bg5 f6 15.Be3 Kf7 16.Qd7 (16...Bc8 17.Bxe6+ Kg7 18.Qxc6 Bb7 19.Qc4 Rd8 20.Rxd8 Qxd8 21.g4)  1-0


Bilguer, Paul Rudolf von (1815-1840)

Author of the Handbuch des Schachspiels, the most influential chess book for over 90 years.  The first edition was completed in 1843, after his death at the age of 24, by Baron Tassilo Heydebrand von der Lasa .  Von der Lasa also edited the next four editions.  He was an Army Lieutenant and one of the seven German Pleiades.


Binet, Alfred (1857-1911)

French psychologist who began the first intelligence quotient (IQ) tests.  Alfred Binet conducted the first serious psychological study of the game of chess in 1894.  He studied blindfold chess players as a subset of his investigations into memory.   He wrote Psychologie des grands calculateurs et joueurs d’echecs.


Binham, Timothy (1956-    )

Finnish International Master (1983).  Finnish Champion in 1984.


Bird, Henry Edward (1830-1908)

An accountant and strong amateur player from England.  He wrote six different books on chess.  He won the first brilliancy prize (a sliver cup) for his victory over James Mason, New York 1876.  he favored the opening 1.f4, now called Bird’s Opening.  He played chess at the London coffee house, Simpson’s Divan, for over 50 years, from 1846 until it closed in 1903.


Bird - Em Lasker, Newcastle 1892

1.e4 e5 2.d4 exd4 3.c3 dxc3 4.Bc4 cxb2 5.Bxb2 Qg5 6.Nf3 Qxg2 7.Rg1 Bb4+?? (7...Qh3) 8.Ke2 Qh3 9.Bxf7+ Kd8 10.Bxg7 Ne7 11.Ng5 Qh4 12.Ne6 mate  1-0


Birnboim, Nathan (1950-    )

Israeli International Master (1978).  Israeli Champion in 1976 and 1980.


Bischoff, Klaus (1961-    )

German Grandmaster.  His FIDE rating is 2560.  In 2003, he became the first German Internet Champion.


Bisguier, Arthur (1929-    )

American Grandmaster (1956).  Winner of the U.S. Junior Championship in 1946 and 1949, U.S. Championship in 1954, winner of three U.S. Opens (1950, 1956, 1959), and represented the U.S. in five Olympiads.  He won the U.S. Senior Open in 1989, 1997, and 1998.  In 2005, he was named Dean of American Chess.


Donovan - Bisguier, Detroit 1950

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e5 3.dxe5 Ng4 4.Nf3 Nc6 5.a3 d6 6.e3 Bf5 7.exd6 Bxd6 8.Be2 Qf6 9.Nd4?? (9.Nc3) 9...Nxf2 10.Kxf2 Bc2+ 11.Nf3 Bxd1 12.Rxd1 Ne5 13.Nbd2 Ng4+ 14.Kg1 Bxh2+  (15.Nxh2 Qf2+ 16.Kh1 Qxe2)  0-1


Biyiasas, Peter (1950-    )

Canadian Grandmaster (1978) who later moved to the United States.  He has won the Canadian championship twice (1972, 1975).  In 1978 he won the World Open.  In 1981 Bobby Fischer stayed at Biyiasas’s home.  They played hundreds of blitz and bullet chess games.  Biyiasas got one draw and lost all the rest.  He is married to International Master Ruth Haring.


Bjelica, Dimitrije (1935-   )

Yugoslav chess journalist and master that may have played the greatest number of games at  one time.  In 1982 he played 301 games at once, winning 258, drawing 36, and losing 7 in nine hours.  He is a former champion of Bosnia and Herzegovina.  He has interviewed and filmed every world champion since Botvinnik.  He has written over 80 chess books with 190 editions and produced 35 chess videos.  He is the founder of the World Children’s Chess Olympiad.


Blackburne, Joseph Henry (1841-1924)

English player of grandmaster strength.  He learned the game at age 19.  He won the British championship in 1868.  His nickname was the Black Death, given to him by a comment in the tournament book of Vienna 1873.  He was also known for his temper. After losing to Steinitz in a match, he threw him out of a window.  Luckily for Steinitz that they were on the first floor.   From 1870 to 1888 he was one of the top 5 chess players in the world.  He was once arrested as a spy because he sent chess moves in the mail and it was thought the moves were coded secrets.  He tied for first in the British Championship of 1914 at the age of 72.  During a simultaneous exhibition at Cambridge University, the students thought to gain the advantage by placing a bottle of whisky and a glass at each end of the playing oval.  In the end he emptied both bottles and won all his games in record time.  During the temperance movement in England, he declared that whisky drinking improved one's chess because alcohol cleared the brain and he tried to prove that theory as often as possible.  It is estimated he played 100,000 games of chess in his career. 


Blackburne - Fleissig, Vienna 1873

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.Qe2 Bc5 6.c3 b5 7.Bc2 d5 8.exd5 Qxd5? (8...Ne7) 9.d4 Bd6 10.Bb3 Qe4 11.Qxe4 Nxe4 12.Bd5  1-0


Blackmar, Armand (1826-1888)

Music professor, music publisher, and amateur chess player.  He established a music house in New Orleans during the Civil War.  He wrote Southern patriotic music such as the Dixie War Song (1861), the Beauregard Manassas quick-step (1861), Southern Marseillaise (1861), and the Bonnie Blue Flag (1862).  The bonnie blue flag was the first Confederate flag.  He became the major wartime publisher of songs, issuing about half of the songs brought out during the Civil War.  However, the city was captured in 1862 and occupied by Union forces. His brother moved to Augusta, Georgia to carry on music publishing for the Confederacy.  Blackmar was arrested and imprisoned for publishing Confederacy music such as Bonnie Blue Flag..  The Union soldiers burnt his publishing company to the ground and confiscated all his Confederate States’ copyrights.  In 1881-1882 he analyzed and published the Blackmar Gambit (1.d4 d5 2.e4 dxe4 3.f3) in the July 1882 issue of Brentano’s Chess.


Blake, Joseph (1859-1951)

Tie for 1st in the 1909 British Championship, but lost the play-off.  He was British Correspondence Champion in 1922.


Blatny, Pavel (1968-    )

Grandmaster from the Czech Republic.  His FIDE rating is 2533.  In 1998, he tied for 1st (with Cyrus Lakdawala) at the American Open.  In 2002, he tied for 1st (with Yuri Shulman) at the American Open.  In 2003, he tied for 1st (with Atalik and Akobian) at the American Open.


Blau, Max (1918-1984)

Swiss International Master (1953).  Swiss Champion in 1953, 1955, 1956, and 1967. 


Bledow, Ludwig (1795-1846)

German professor of mathematics (PhD).  He founded the first German chess association in 1827. He was the first person to suggest an international chess tournament (in a letter to von der Lasa in 1843).  In 1846, he founded of the first German magazine, Deutsche Schachzeitung.  He was the founder of the German Pleiades.   He was a chess book collector.  When he died, he had over 14,000 volumes of chess books, the largest private chess library in the world.


Horowitz – Bledow, Berlin 1837

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.c3 Bb6 5.d4 Qe7 6.d5 Qe7 7.Be2 d6 8.h3 f5 9.Bg5 Nf6 10.Nbd2 O-O 11.Nh4 fxe4 12.Nxe4 Nxe4 13.Bxe7 Bxf2+ 14.Kf1 Ng3 mate  0-1


Blocker, Calvin (1955-    )

Calvin Blocker was born in Cleveland, Ohio on June 28, 1955.  He learned chess at the age of 14.  In his senior hear at Cleveland Heights High, his chess team won the national high school championship.  He was a music prodigy (performing at age 9 by playing “Prelude in C# minor”)  and spent three and a half years studying piano at the Cleveland Institute of Music before dropping out to devote full time to chess.   He is an International Master (1982) and 12-time Ohio Champion.  His USCF rating has been as high as 2578.  His maximum Elo rating has been 2395 and is currently rated 2372.


Bloodgood, Claude Frizzel (1937-2001)

Claude Frizzel Bloodgood (born Klaus Frizzel Bluttgutt III) was born in La Paz, Mexico on July 14, 1937 (some sources say he was born in 1924).  He was the author of The Tactical Grob, Blackburne-Hartlaub Gambit(1.d4 e5 2.dxe5 d6), and Nimzovich Attack: The Norfolk Gambits.  In the late 1950’s, he was editor of the Viriginia Chess News Roundup and the rating statistician for the Virginia State Chess Association.  In 1958, he started the All Service Postal Chess Club (ASPCC).  In 1970 he was sentenced to death for killing his stepmother by strangulation in 1969, apparently in a fight about an inheritance and bad-check charges.  While on death row (prisoner 99432), he played over 2,000 postal games simultaneously.  The postage was paid by the State of Virginia.  He was scheduled for execution 6 times, but received a reprieve on all occasions.  His death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in 1972 and the state stopped paying postage.  He was allowed to play in chess tournaments outside the prison, accompanied by a guard.  In 1974, Bloodgood escaped after he and another chess player (Lewis Capleaner – a murderer inmate) overpowered a guard (George Winslow) who was escorting them to a chess tournament.  Bloodgood cuffed the guard, stole his guns, and fled to New York.  When he was recaptured after several weeks at large, his correspondence privilege was taken away from him at Virginia State Penitentiary.  His escape led to the resignation of Virginia’s director of prisons, no more prisoners taken to outside chess tournaments, and the Virginia Penitentiary Chess program dismantled.  The guard was also arrested for his involvement in the escape.  In 1996 he was the 2nd highest USCF ranked player in the country (2702), just behind Gata Kamsky.  His actual strength was much less (perhaps weak expert).   He built up a high numerical rating by organizing chess tournaments and matches in prison, and consistently beat the other weaker players.  Each time he won another tournament, he accrued a few more rating points.  From 1993 to 1999, he played 3,174 rated chess games, winning over 91 percent of his games.  His rating pointed out a flaw in the USCF rating system.  He participated in the 15th U.S. Correspondence Championship, which began in June, 2000, scoring 3 wins and 9 losses (he died before finishing his last game).  He died of lung cancer in the hospital of the Powhatan Correctional Center near Richmond, Virginia on August 4, 2001.


Blumenfeld, Beniamin (1884-1947)

Born in Volkovisk, Russia who invented the Blumenfeld Counter Gambit (1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 c5 3.d5 e6 4.Nf3 b5). He became a student of chess psychology and received a doctorate for a thesis on the nature of blunders in chess.  He died in Moscow in 1947.


Blumenfeld – NN, Russia

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Bc5 5.Be3 Qf6 6.Nb5 Bxe3 7.fxe3 Qd8 8.Qg4 g6 9.Qf4 d6 10.Bc4 Ne5 11.O-O Be6 12.Bxe6 fxe6 13.N1c3 Kd7?! (13...Ne7) 14.Rad1 Kc8? (14...Ke7) 15.Qxe5! (15...dxe5 16.Rxd8+ Kxd8 17.Rf8+ Kd7 18.Rxa8)  1-0


Blumin, Boris (1907-1998)

He won the Montreal City Championship in 1933, 1934, 1936, 1937, and 1939.  Canadian Chess Champion in 1936 and 1937.  He moved to New York in 1939.


Bobotsov, Milko (1931-    )

First Bulgarian to be awarded the title of International Grandmaster (1961).  He was Bulgarian champion in 1958.  He played in 8 Bulgarian Chess Olympiads. 


Saborido - Bobotsov, Bulgaria 1969

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4 O-O 5.Be3 d6 6.f3 Nc6 7.Nge2 a6 8.Qd2 Rb8 9.g4 Re8 10.O-O-O b5 11.Ng3 e5 12.Nce2 Nxd4 13.Nxd4 exd4 14.Bxd4 Be6 15.Nf5 Bxf5 16.gxf5 c5 17.Be3 bxc4 18.fxg6 hxg6 19.Bxc4 d5 20.exd5 Nd7 21.b3 Qf6 22.Bf4?? (22.Rde1)  22...Qa1+ (23.Kc2  Qxa2 24.Kc1 Qa1+ 25.Kc1 Qa3+ 26.Kb1 Rxb3+ 27.Bxb3 Qa1+ 28.Kc2 Qb2+ 29.Kd3 Qxb3+ 30.Qc3 Qxc3 mate)  0-1


Boden, Samuel (1826-1882)

English chess player.  In 1858, Paul Morphy declared that Boden was the strongest of all English players.  Against Morphy, he won 1 game, drew 4 games, and lost 6 games.  From 1858 to 1873, he edited a chess column for The Field.  He worked for the railway company and was an amateur painter and art critic.  He died of typhoid fever.


Schulder – Boden, London 1853

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.c3 f5 4.Bc4 Nf6 5.d4 fxe4 6.dxe5 exf3 7.exf6 Qxf6 8.gxf3 Nc6 9.f4 Bd7 10.Be3 O-O-O 11.Nd2 Re8 12.Qf3 Bf5 13.O-O-O d5 14.Bxd5 Qxc3+ 15.bxc3 Ba3 mate  0-1


Boensch, Uwe (1958-    )

German Grandmaster (1986), born in East Germany.  He is the headmaster of the FIDE Trainer Academy.


Boey, Josef (1934-    )

Belgian International Master (1973) and Correspondence Grandmaster (1975).  He took 2nd place in the 7th World Correspondence Championship, 1972-1975.  In the 8th World Correspondence Championship, 1975-1980, he placed 11th-12th.  He did not play in the 9th  World Correspondence Championship, but took 7th place in the 10th World Correspondence Championship, 1978-1984.


Bogart, Humphrey (1900-1957)

Before becoming a movie star, Humphrey Bogart hustled strangers at 5-minute chess for 50 cents a game in chess parlors in New York Times Square during the 1920s and 1930s.  During the 1930s depression, Bogart, Reshevsky, and Denker were in adjacent department store windows playing passerbys for dimes.   In 1943 the FBI prevented him from playing postal chess, thinking the chess notation were secret codes.   He was a USCF tournament director and active in the California State Chess Association.  He once drew a game against Reshevsky in a simultaneous exhibition.  He made 75 films and chess appears in several of his movies.  He and his wife, Lauren Bacall, appeared on the cover of  Chess Review in 1945 playing chess with Charles Boyer.  Bogart rated his friends according to their ability to play chess.


Bogdanovic, Rajko (1931-    )

International Master (1963) from Bosnia.   He played in 10 Yugoslav championships.  His occupation was journalist and radio reporter.


Bogdanovski, Vlatko (1964-    )

Grandmaster from Macedonia.  His FIDE rating is 2443.


Bogoljubow, Efim (1889-1952)

Grandmaster (1951), born in Kiev, who once spent over two hours over his 24th move against Steiner, Berlin 1928, and then chose a move that lost a piece.  In 1928 he defeated Max Euwe in a match in the Netherlands (won 3, lost 2, drew 5).  The match was for the title of FIDE champion, so Bogoljubow was the first FIDE world champion.  This was stated in the minutes of the FIDE’s 5th chess congress at The Hague in 1928.  He played Alexander Alekhine in 1929 and 1934 for the World Chess Championship and lost both matches by a wide margin.  His most famous statement was "When I'm White I win because I'm White.  When I'm Black I win because I'm Bogoljubow."  He died in Triberg, Germany after concluding a simultaneous chess exhibition.  He was USSR Champion in 1924 and 1925.  He left the USSR in 1925 and settled in Germany.  He renounced his USSR citizenship in 1926 and became a German citizen in 1927.  He was then denounced as a political renegade in the Soviet Union.  He won the German championship in 1925, 1931, 1933, and 1949. 


Bogoljubow – Meister, France 1951

1.e4 d6 2.Nf3 Nd7 3.Bc4 g6 4.Bxf7+ Kxf7 5.Ng5+ Kf6 6.Qf3+  1-0


Bogoljubow - Prokes, Baden 1922

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e5 3.dxe5 Ng4 4.e4 h5 5.Nc3 Nc6 6.Nh3 d6 7.Bg5 Qd7 8.exd6 Bxd6 9.Be2 f6 10.Bf4 Nce5 11.f3 Nh6 12.Be3 Qf7 13.Nf4 Nxc4? (13...O-O) 14.Qa4+  (and 15.Qxc4)  1-0


Bogatirchuk, Feodor (1892-1984)

Russian International Master (1954) from Kiev who emigrated from the USSR to Canada in 1949 and was the first persona non grata in Soviet chess.   In 1912, he tied for 2nd in the championship of Czarist Russia.  He was the author of the first chess book in Ukrainian in 1926.  He won the USSR championship in 1927 (tied with Pyotr Romanovsky).  He played in 6 Russian championships.  He was a medical doctor and professor of radiological anatomy.  During World War II he was head of the Ukrainian Red Cross.   He was nominated by Canada for the Grandmaster title, but the Soviet representatives to FIDE protested this title, which he never received but deserved.


Boi, Paolo (1528-1598)

One of the leading players of the 16th century.  He was also a poet, soldier and sailor from Syracuse.  In 1549 he defeated Pope Paul III in a chess match.  The Pope offered to make him cardinal, which he refused.  In 1574 he defeated Ruy Lopez at the court of King Phillip II of Spain.  The King showered him with great rewards including an official appointment in Sicily that paid 500 crowns a year. He was renowned for his ability to play three chess games at once without sight of board.  In 1576 he was taken prisoner and sold as a slave to a Turk.  He played chess for his master that brought in a lot of money.  He later gained his freedom back by teaching his master chess.  In 1598 he played a chess match with Salvio in Naples and lost.   Three days later he died in his lodgings.  Some sources (Murray) say he was poisoned.  Other sources say he caught a cold when hunting and died as a result of it.  He was 70 years old.


Bolbochan, Jacobo (1906-1984)

Former Argentine chess champion (1932 and 1933) who became an International Master in 1965 at the age of 59.  Brother of Julio Bolbochan.


Bolbochan, Julio (1920-1996)

Argentine Grandmaster who received the title in 1977 at the age of 57.  He was Argentina champion in 1946 and 1948.   He played on 7 Argentine Chess Olympiad teams.  Brother of Jacobo Bolbochan.


Bond - Bolbochan, Los Angeles 1991

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 a6 6.Be2 e6 7.Be3 Be7 8.Qd3 Nbd7 9.Nf3 b5 10.b4 Bb7 11.O-O-O (11.a4) 11...Rc8 12.h3 Qc7 13.Kb2 O-O 14.g4 Nb6 15.Bxb6 Qxb6 16.a3 Rxc3 17.Qxc3 Nxe4 18.Qb3 Bf6+ 19.Kc1 Nc3 (20.Rd2 Qb6 21.Re1 Nxe2+ 22.R1xe2 Qxf3)  0-1


Boleslavasky, Isaac (1919-1977)

Soviet International Grandmaster (1950).   He was a Candidate in 1950 (tied for first) and 1953 (10th-11th).   He was Bronstein second in 1951.  He was Smyslov’s second in 1956.  He was Petrosian’s second in 1963, 1966, and 1969.  He played in 11 USSR Championships.  His daughter married Grandmaster David Bronstein.


Boleslavsky – Lilienthal, Moscow, 1941

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d5 3.Nxe5 Qe7 4.d4 f6 5.Nd3 dxe4 6.Nf4 Qf7 7.Nd2 Bf5 8.g4 Bg6 9.Bc4 Qd7 10.Qe2 Qxd4 11.Ne6 Qb6 12.Nxe4 Nd7 13.Bf4 Ne5 14.O-O-O Bf7 15.N4g5 fxg5  16.Bxe5 Bxe6 17.Bxc7  1-0


Bologan, Viorel (1971-    )

Grandmaster (1991) from Moldavia, currently living in Germany.  In 2003, he won the Aeroflot Open in Moscow and the Dortmund supertournament.   He graduated from Moscow Physical Culture and Sports Institute with a PhD.  His doctoral thesis was entitled, “Structure of Special Preparation of High-Level Chess Players.”  He won the New York Open in 1997.


Bolton, James Michael (1928- )

James Michael Bolton was born in New Haven, Connecticut on June 15, 1928.  He is a chess master from Connecticut.  He won the Connecticut State Championship in 1953, 1957, and 1966.


Bonch-Osmolovsky, Mikhail (1919-1975)

Soviet national master (1951).  Soviet chess judge.


Boncourt, M (1770-1845)

Strong French master who drew a match with Szen in 1835.  For a time, he was the hidden operator in Maelzel’s The Turk automaton.  He almost revealed how The Turk worked when he sneezed during a game.  This prompted Maelzel to install a noisy spring to cover up any future coughs and sneezes.


Bondarevsky, Igor (1913-1979)

Soviet Grandmaster (1950) and Correspondence Grandmaster (1961).  He played in the USSR championship 9 times, sharing 1st with Lilienthal in the 1940 championship.   He tied for 6th in the 1948 Saltsjobaden Interzonal, becoming a Candidate.  However, he withdrew from the Candidate’s tournament before it started.  He was Spassky’s trainer in 1961 and his second in 1966 and 1969.   He was an economist.


Sliwa – Bondarevsky, Hastings 1960

1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Be7 4.Nf3 Nf6 5.Bg5 h6 6.Bh4 O-O 7.cxd5 Nxd5 8.Bxe7 Qxe7 9.Qb3 Nxc3 10.Qxc3 b6 11.Rc1 Ba6 12.g3 Nd7 13.Bg2 Rac8 14.Nd2 c5 15.Qa3 cxd4 16.Rxc8 Rxc8 17.b4 Qxb4  0-1


Bonin, Jay (1955-    )

International Master (1985) who has won the New York State Championship, the Manhattan Chess Club Championship, and the Marshall Chess Club Championship, all in the same year (1997).  He also won the New York State Championship in 1982.


Bonner, Gerald (1941-    )

Scottish Champion in 1967, 1970, and 1972.


Book, Eero Einar (1910-1990)

Finnish International Master (1950) and engineer.  He won the Finnish national championship six times (1931, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1945-46, and 1963) and won the Nordic Championship in 1947.  He was given the title Emeritus Grandmaster in 1984.


Book – Heidenheimo, Helsinki 1925

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.Bc4 Nxe4 4.Qh5 Ng5 5.d4 Ne6 6.d5 g6 7.dxe6 gxh5 8.exf7+ Ke7 9.Bg5+ Kd6 10.O-O-O+ Kc5 11.Rd5+ Kxc4 12.b3+ Kb4 13.Rb5+ Ka3 14.Nb1+ Kxa2 15.Ra5+ Ba3+ 16.Rxa3 mate  1-0


Borisek, Jure (1986-    )

International master  from Slovenia.  His FIDE rating is 2509.


Borisenko, Georgi (1922-    )

Ukranian Correspondence Grandmaster (1965).  He played in eight Soviet championships.  He took 2nd place (behind Zagorovsky) in the 4th World Correspondence Championship, 1962-1965.   In 1966 he was awarded the Correspondence Grandmaster title.


Borisenko – Bertholdt, Leningrad 1960

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.Nf3 O-O 5.Bg5 h6 6.Bh4 c5 7.e3 cxd4 8.Nxd4 Nc6 9.Bd3 d5 10.cxd5 exd5 11.O-O Bxc3 12.bxc3 Ne5 13.Rb1 b6 14.Bb5 Bd7 15.f4 Neg4 16.Re1 Re8 17.Qf3 g5 18.fxg5 Ne4 19.g6 f6 20.h3 Nd2 21.Qxd5+  1-0


Borochow, Henry (1898-    )

U.S. Master Emeritus.  He won the California State Championship in 1930 and 1931.  In 1932, he took 6th in the Pasadena International Tournament (won by Alekhine).  He won the Western Championship.  He was a Vice President of the U.S. Chess Federation.


Borochow – Fine, Pasadena 1932

1.e4 Nf6 2.e5 Nd5 3.d4 Nc6 4.c4 Nb6 5.d5 Nxe5 6.c5 Nbc4 7.f4 e6 8.Qd4 Qh4+ 9.g3 Qh6 10.Nc3 exd5 11.fxe5  1-0


Botsari, Anna-Maria (1972-    )

Woman Grandmaster from Greece.  Her FIDE rating is 2297.  She once held the record of most opponents in consecutive chess games.  In 2001, she played 1,102 consecutive games against different opponents, with 1,094 wins and 7 draws.  The event has at Kalavryta, Greece.  In 2004, she tied for 1st in the Greek Women’s championship.  In 2005, Susan Polgar played 1,131 consecutive games.


Botterill, George (1949-    )

British International Master (1978).  Welsh Champion in 1973 and 1974.  British champion in 1974 and 1977.


Botvinnik, Mikhail (1911-1995 )

6th world chess champion (1948-1957, 1958-60, 1961-1963) who was the only man to win the title three times.  He has played every world champion of this century and the early trainer of Karpov and Kasparov. He has a PhD (1951) in Electrical Engineering and now works on computer chess programs.  He received $5,000 for winning his first world championship.  In 1970 he gave up tournament chess in order to concentrate on the development of chess computers.  He learned chess at age 12.  By age 15 he was one of the strongest players in the USSR, taking 5th place in the USSR championship.  In 1931 he won the USSR championship at age 19.  Botvinnik did not play in the 15th USSR championship in 1947 in protest over the cancellation of the world championship.  The match-tournament was held in 1948, and Botvinnik won it, becoming the 6th official world chess champion.


Mazel - Botvinnik, Leningrad 1938

1.c4 Nf6 2.Nc3 e6 3.e4 c5 4.f4 Nc6 5.Nf3 d5 6.e5 Ng4 7.cxd5 exd5 8.Qb3 Nb4 9.a3? (9.h3) 9...c4 10.Qa4+ Bd7 11.Qd1 Qb6 (threatening 12...Qf2 mate; if 12.Qe2 Nd3+ 13.Kd1 Qb3 mate)  0-1


Bourdon, Eli (1907-1980)

Eli Bourdon was born in Claremont, New Hampshire in 1907.  In 1951, he started the Western Massachusetts Championship.  He won the Western Massachusetts Championship in 1957 and 1958.  He tied for 1st place in 1953, 1963, 1965, and 1970.  He was a former president of the New England Chess Association.  He died on January 6, 1980. 


Bourdonnais, Louis-Charles Mahe de La (1795-1840)

French master and strongest chess player of his time.  He learned chess in Paris in 1814 while attending school.  He was undisputed champion of France in the 1820s.  In 1834 he played a series of matches with England’s strongest player, Alexander McDonnell, and won.  In 1836 he became editor of the world’s first chess magazine, Le Palamede.  He died in London and was buried in Kensal Green cemetery and was buried near McDonnell.


Jouy – Bourdonnais, Paris 1836

1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 g4 5.Ne5 Qh4+ 6.Kf1 f3 7.Nxf7 Nc6 8.d4 Bg7 9.c3 Nf6 10.Nxh8 d5 11.exd5 Ne4 12.Qe1 g3 13.Bd3 fxg2+ 14.Kxg2 Bh3+ 15.Kg1 Nxd4 16.Qxe4+ Qxe4 17.Bxe4 Ne2 mate  0-1


Boutteville, Cesar (1917-    )

Born in Vietnam, he was French Champion 6 times (1945, 1950, 1954, 1955, 1959, and 1967).


Bouwmeester, Hans (1929-    )

Dutch International Master (1954) and mathematics teacher.  He was appointed the first official coach of the Royal Dutch Chess Federation.  From 1956 to 1968, he was editor of Losbladige Schaakberichten.  He came in 2nd place in the 1957 and 1967 Dutch Championships.  He later became a Grandmaster in Correspondence Chess.


Donner – Bouwmeester, Amsterdam 1948

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 d6 6.Be2 e5 7.Nb3 Be7 8.f4 O-O 9.f5 Qb6 10.Bg5 Nxe4  0-1


Bouaziz, Slim (1950-    )

First Grandmaster from Tunisia and first Grandmaster from Africa.  His FIDE rating is 2341.  In 1985, he took last place in the Tunis Interzonal.   He withdrew after 6 rounds.  He drew one game and lost the rest.  In 1987, he took 17th out of 18 in the Szirak Interzonal.


Brady, Frank (1934-  )

First editor of Chess Life magazine and business manager of the US Chess Federation.  Author of Profile of a Prodigy.  Editor and publisher of Chessworld magazine.  He has a PhD in  Communications from NYU.  In 2007, he became president of the Marshall Chess Club.


Brekke, Jacob

Norwegian Champion in 1919, 1920, 1923, and 1925.


Breyer, Gyula (Julius) (1893-1921)

Hungarian of Grandmaster strength, he set a new blindfold record of 25 opponents (won 15, drew 7, lost 3) in 1921 in Berlin.  He was one of the pioneering leaders of hypermodern chess.  He was the Hungarian champion in 1912.  He died of a heart attack at the age of 28


Breyer - Ballai, Pistyan 1912

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Nc3 f5 4.d4 fxe4 5.Nxe5 Nf6 6.Bc4 d5 7.Nxd5 Nxd5 8.Qh5+ g6 9.Nxg6 hxg6? (9...Nf6) 10.Qxg6+ Kd7 11.Bxd5 Qe8 12.Bf7 Qe7 13.Bg5 Ne5 14.Qf5+  (14...Kc6 15.Qxe4+  and 16.Bxe7)  1-0.


Brinck-Claussen, Bjorn (1942-    )

Nordic Champion in 1963.  Danish Champion in 1966, 1970, and 1977.


Brinckmann, Alfred (1891-1967)

German International Master (1953).   He authored several chess tournament books.


Brinckmann – Preusse, Germany 1927

1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Nf6 5.Ng3 e5 6.Nf3 exd4 7.Nxd4 Bc5 8.Qe2+ Be7 9.Be3 O-O 10.O-O-O Qc7 11.Ndf5 Be6 12.Nxe7+ Qxe7 13.Bg5 h6 14.Nf5 Qb4 15.Rd4 Qc5 16.Nxh6+ gxh6 17.Bxf6 Qf5 18.Qf3  1-0


Broadbent, Reginald (1906-    )

Took 1st place in the British Championship  in 1947 (lost the play-off) 1948, and 1950.


Brodsky, Michail (1969-    )

Grandmaster from the Ukraine.  His FIDE rating is 2554.


Bronstein, David (1924-2006)

Grandmaster (1950) and winner of the first Interzonal in 1948 at Saltsjobaden  who survived an assassination attack during the tournament.  On the last day Bronstein was playing Tartakover. Suddenly, a Lithuanian made a lunge at Bronstein to kill him.  Several spectators grabbed him.  He wanted to murder all Russians because he claimed the Russians were responsible for sending his sister to Siberia and  murdering her.  Bronstein won the game and the Interzonal with a 13.5-5.5 score.  First place prize for the first interzonal was $550.  He wrote a classic book covering the 1953 Candidates Tournament in Zurich.  Many consider this the greatest chess book ever written.  Bronstein married Grandmaster Isaac Boleslavksy’s daughter.  In 1951 he tied the world championship match 12-12 with Botvinnik.  A tie match meant that the world champion would retain his title.  Thus, Bronstein became the man who came the closest to the world championship without winning it.  He played in 20 USSR championships.


Bronstein - Tomic, Vinkovci 1970

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 g6 4.c3 Qb6 5.Ba4 Bg7 6.O-O e5 7.Na3 Nge7 8.b4 cxb4 9.Nc4 Qc5 10.d3 bxc3 11.Rb1 c2 (11...Nd4) 12.Qxc2 Nd4? (12...a6) 13.Nxd4 (13...Qxd4 14.Be3; 13...exd4 14.Ba3 Qh5 15.Nd6+)  1-0


Bronstein – I. Zaitsev, USSR 1969

1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 d5 4.exd5 Nf6 5.Bc4 Nxd5 6.O-O Be6 7.Bb3 Bd6 8.c4 Ne7 9.d4 Ng6 10.c5 Be7 11.Bxe6 fxe6 12.Re1 O-O 13.Rxe6 Bxc5? 14.Qb3 Bxd4+ 15.Nxd4 Qxd4+ 16.Be3!  1-0


Bronstein, David (1879-1940)

Original name of Leon Trotsky, Russian revolutionary.  He was the commissar for war who created the Red Army and came to power with Lenin.  He spent much of his time during World War I playing chess in Vienna’s Cafe Central.  His main opponent was Baron Rothchild.  He and Lenin played chess together a great deal.


Browne, Walter Shawn (1949- )

Six-time U.S. chess champion (1974, 1975, 1977, 1980, 1981, and 1983).  He became a Grandmaster in 1970 while representing Australia (he was born in Australia and raised in New York).  He is the founder of the World Blitz Chess Association (WBCA).  He was inducted in the US Hall of Fame in 2003.  In 1966 he won the US Junior Championship.  He has won the National Open 11 times and the American Open 8 times (from 1971 to 1997).  He won the first World Open, held in New York, in 1973.  In 1964 he won the New York State Junior Championship with a perfect 5-0 score.  In 1966 he won the first U.S. Junior Championship.  In 1969 he won the Australian championship.  In a Canadian tournament in 1971, one of Browne’s opponents tried to fluster him in a time-pressure scramble by banging an extra Queen down on the side of the board.  The opponent’s pawn was about to make it to the 8th rank and get promoted to a Queen.  Browne picked up the extra Queen and hurled it across the tournament room.  Browne learned the game at age 8.  He made master at age 14.  He dropped out of high school (Erasmus High) to play chess and poker.  His wife, Racquel, is a clinical psychologist from Argentina.  In 2005, he won the US Senior Open in Las Vegas. 


Browne - Polstein, Atlantic City 1972

1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Bf5 5.Ng3 Bg6 6.N1e2 e5 7.dxe5 Qa5+ 8.Bd2 Qxe5 9.Bc3 Qc7 10.Qd2 f6 11.O-O-O Ne7 12.Nf4 Bf7 13.Qe3 Nd7 (13...Qb6) 14.Nf5 Ne5? 15.Bxe5 (15...fxe5 or 15...Qxd5 16.Nd6+; 15...Nxf5 16.Bxc7+ Nxe3 17.fxe3 Bxa2 18.b3)  1-0


V. Bhat – Browne, San Francisco 2000

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.Bb5+ Bd7 4.Bxd7+ Nxd7 5.O-O Ngf6 6.Qe2 e6 7.b3 Be7 8.Bb2 O-O 9.c4 a6 10.d4 cxd4 11.Nxd4 Re8 12.Nc3 Qa5 13.Rad1 Rac8 14.Kh1 Bf8 15.f4 Qh5 16.Qe3 Qxh2+  0-1


Bruce, Rowena (1919-1999)

The only player to have played two world champions in a tournament on the same day.  In the Plymouth 1938 tournament she played world woman champion Menchik in the morning and world champion Alekhine in the afternoon for rounds 2 and 3.  She has won the British Ladies' Championship 11 times, from 1937 to 1969.  She was the World Girls’ Champion in the 1920s (Rowena Dew). 


Bruehl, Hans (John) Moritz von (1736-1809)

Hans (John) Moritz von Bruehl was born on December 19, 1736 in Wiederau, Germany.  He was Minister of Saxony in Germany and Ambassador to England, and lived in London.  He was one of the strongest players of the London chess club.  He gave support to Philidor.  He was a count.  In 1782, at the Parsloe’s, Philidor drew with Bruehl and defeated Dr. Thomas Bowdler blindfolded, simultaneously.  Philidor played several blindfold games against Bruehl throughout the years.  In 1788, Bruehl defeated Cotter and lost to General H. S. Conway in two chess matches in London.  In 1795, Philidor published a third edition of his chess book, L’analyse du jeu des Eschecs, and dedicated it to his friend and chess patron, Count Bruehl.  The count was also interested in music (a patron of musicians) and astronomy (he built his own observatory).  He was a colonel in the French service.  He died in London on June 9, 1809.


Brunner, Lucas (1967-    )

First Swiss Grandmaster.  His FIDE rating is 2480.


Trachsel - Brunner, Bern 1993

1.c4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.Nf3 Nc6 4.e3 Bb4 5.Qc2 O-O 6.Nd5 Re8 7.Be2 e4 8.Ng1 Bd6 9.a3 Nxd5 10.cxd5 Qg5 11.g3 Qxd5 12.f3? (12.Bc4) 12...Nd4 13.exd4 exf3 (14.Nxf3 Qxf3)  0-1


Brustman, Agnieszka (1962-    )

Women’s Grandmaster (1985).   European Junior Women’s Champion in 1980.  World Junior Women’s Champion in 1982. 


Bruzon, Lazaro (1982-    )

Cuba’s youngest grandmaster and the 2000 World Junior Chess Champion.  1n 1999, he became a grandmaster 32 days after becoming an International Master.  He was eliminated in the first round in the 2004 Tripoli FIDE World Championship.  He won the Cuban Championship in 2004 and 2005.


Brynell, Stellan (1962-    )

Grandmaster from Sweden.  His FIDE rating is 2484.


Bryson, Douglas (1957-    )

British Correspondence Champion in 1983, 1984, and 1985.


Bu, Xiangzhi (1985-    )

Third youngest Grandmaster ever.  In 1999, he became a GM at the age of 13 years, 10 months, 13 days.  His FIDE rating is 2645, ranked #64 in the world.  He was born Dec 10, 1985 in China.


Buck, Charles Francis (1841-1918)

Born in Durrheim, Grand Duch of Baden, Germany.  He immigrated to the United States in 1852 with his parents, who settled in New Orleans.  He was the city attorney of New Orleans from 1880 to 1884.  He was a member of Congress from 1895 to 1897.  In 1885 he was president of the New Orleans Chess Club and was selected to be the referee in the Zukertort-Steinitz match. 


Buckle, Henry Thomas (1821-1862)

Winner of the first modern chess tournament, the Ries Divan knockout tourney of 1849.  He spent his time writing History of Civilization in England, which he published in 1857 (volume 1).  He was a British historian who studied 19 languages (he could speak seven languages and read twelve languages).  He had a library of over 22,000 books.  He died of typhoid fever in Damascus at the age of 40.


Buckle - Unknown, London 1840

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.Nc3 e5 4.Bc4 Nc6 5.d3 Nge7 6.Bg5 Bg4 7.Nd5 Nd4 8.Nxe5 Bxd1?? (8...dxe5) 9.Nf6+ gxf6 10.Bxf7 mate  1-0


Bukic, Enver (1937-    )

Yugoslav Grandmaster (1976).   In 1975, he tied for 1st place at the Kostic Memorial in Vrsac.


Bukic – Damjanovic, Skopje 1967

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 b6 4.g3 Bb7 5.Bg2 Be7 6.Nc3 Ne4 7.Bd2 O-O 8.d5 f5 9.Qc2 Bf6 10.Nxe4 fxe4 11.Qxe4 exd5 12.Qc2 Re8 13.O-O a5 14.cxd5 Rxe2 15.Rfe1 Rxe1+ 16.Rxe1 d6 17.Ng5 Bxg5 18.Bxg5 Qxg5 19.Qxc7 Nd7 20.Qxd7  1-0


Buoncompagni (Boncompagni), Giacomo (1548-1612)

Duke of Sora and Arce, and leading patron of chess in the 17th century.  He was the illegitimate son of Pope Gregory XIII (Ugo Buoncompagni of Bologna).  It was Pope Gregory who adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1582.  Most of the great players of the period (such as Ruy Lopez and Polerio) played in his palace and were liberally rewarded for doing so.   The King of Spain appointed Giacomo general in his army.  Giacomo was made a cardinal and his father tried to make him king of Ireland.


Burger, Karl (1933-2000)

International Master (with two GM norms)  who took last place in the 1969 U.S. Chess Championship, with 4 draws and  7 losses.  He was a medical doctor and a former chess teacher to Bobby Fischer at the Manhattan Chess Club.  He played chess in over 20 countries and 47 of the 50 states.  In 1993 he won the Georgia State Championship.


Burger – Suttles, New York 1965

1.e4 d6 2.d4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.f4 Nf6 5.Nf3 c5 6.Bb5+ Bd7 7.e5 Ng4 8.e6 fxe6 9.Ng5 Bxb5 10.Qxg4 Bd7 11.Nxh7 Kf7 12.Ng5+ Kg8 13.Nxe6 cxd4 14.Qxg6 Bxe6 15.Qxe6+ Kf8 16.Ne4  1-0


Burgess, Graham (1968-    )

FIDE master.  In 1994, he set a world record for playing marathon blitz chess.  He played 500 games in three days.


Burmakin, Vladimir (1967-    )

Grandmaster from Russia.  His FIDE rating is 2590.


Burn, Amos (1848-1925)

One of the world’s top ten chess players between 1886 and 1912.  He was a cotton broker and a sugar broker from Liverpool and remained an amateur chess player.  He started his international chess career at the late age of 37.  He edited a chess column in The Field from 1913 to 1925.  He was a member of the Liverpool Chess Club from 1867 to 1925, serving as its president for many years.  His nickname was Bulldog or “The Highwayman.”  In 1871, he tied for 1st in the British Championship, but lost the play-off to Wisker.  He was analyzing a chess game for his chess column when he died of a stroke.


Burn – Owen, Liverpool 1874

1.e4 d6 2.d4 Nf6 3.Nc3 g6 4.Be3 Bg7 5.Be2 O-O 6.h4 Nc6 7.h5 e5 8.hxg6 fxg6 9.Nf3 Ng4 10.Bc4+ Kh8 11.Ng5 Bh6 12.Qxg4 Bxg4 13.Rxh6 Kg7 14.Rxh7+  1-0


NN – Burn, England 1866

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Nge7 4.c3 d5 5.Nxe5 dxe4 6.Qa4 Qd5 7.f4 Bd7 8.Nxd7 Kxd7 9.O-O Nf5 10.b4 a5 11.Kh1 axb4 12.Bxc6+ bxc6 13.Qxa8 Bc5 14.Qxh8 Ng3+ 15.hxg3 Qh5 mate  0-1


Butnorius, Algimantas (1946-    )

International Master (1983) from Lithuania.  In 2007, he won the 17th World Senior Chess Championship, held in Gmunden, Austria.  His maximum Elo rating has been 2449.


Bykhovsky, Avigdor (1955-    )

Russian Grandmaster.  His FIDE rating is 2457.


Bykova (Bikova), Yelizavyeta (1911-1989)

Women’s World Champion from 1953 to 1956, and from 1958 to 1962.  From 1956 to 1958 she lost her title to Olga Rubtsova.  In 1962 she lost her title to Nona Gaprindashvili.  She was USSR Women’s champion in 1947, 1948, and 1950.  She earned the Women’s Grandmaster title in 1976. 


Byrne, Donald (1930-1976)

Winner of the 1953 US Open.  He was on three US Olympiad teams (1962, 1964, 1968).  He was an associate professor of English at Penn State University.  He was inducted in the US Chess Hall of Fame in 2003.  He became an International Master in 1962.    He died of lupus at the age of 45.


Byrne, Robert (1928-    )

Grandmaster (1964) and a graduate of Yale who became a philosophy teacher, then gave it up to become a chess professional.  He won the 1972 U.S. Championship and was third place finisher at the 1973 Leningrad Interzonal (behind Karpov and Korchnoi).  As a result, he became only the third American (after Fischer and Benko) to ever qualify for the Candidates.  He was 45 at the time.  He is a chess correspondent for the New York Times.


R. Byrne - Hurst, New York 1947

1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Nd7 5.Nf3 Ngf6 6.Bd3 b6 7.Qe2 Be7 8.Bf4 Bb7 9.O-O-O Qc8 10.Ne5 h6 11.h4 a6 12.Rh3 Bd6 13.Rg3 Bf8 14.Re1 Qd8? (14...Nd5) 15.Nxf7! (15...Kxf7 16.Ng5+  Ke8 17.Bg6+  Ke7 18.Qxe6 mate)  1-0


Cabot, Godfrey Lowell (1861-1962)

Godfrey Cabot was born in Boston, Massachusetts on February 12, 1861.  He went to M.I.T. and graduated from Harvard with a degree in chemistry.  He became a leading industrialist and philanthropist.  For many years he was President of the Boston Chess Club and of the Massachusetts State Federation.  He played chess until he was 85, when he gave it up because he found it was too exciting.  He received an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Harvard at the age of 90.  He died on November 2, 1962.


Cabrilo, Goran (1958-    )

Grandmaster from Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia).  His FIDE rating is 2469.  He took 40th-47th at the 1990 Manila Interzonal.


Cafferty, Bernard (1934-    )

British Boys’ Champion in 1952 and British Junior Champion in 1954.  He was British Correspondence Champion in 1960 and 5-time British Lightning Champion from 1964 to 1969.   He took part in every British championship from 1957 to 1970.  Former editor of the British Chess Magazine.


Cafferty – Corbin, Birmingham, England 1963

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.b4 Bxb4 5.c3 Ba5 6.d4 exd4 7.Qb3 Qe7 8.O-O Bb6 9.Ba3 d6 10.Bb5 Be6 11.Qa4 Bd7 12.cxd4 a6 13.Nc3 Qf6 14.e5 Qg6 15.exd6 cxd6 16.Rfe1+ Kd8 17.Nd5 Ba5 18.Bxc6 Bxe1 19Rxe1  1-0


Calvi, Ignazio (1797-1872)

Italian chess master and chess problem composer who stayed in France for 4 years as a political refugee.  He was a leading player and teacher at the Cafe de la Regance.  In 1845 he drew a match with Kieseritzky (7 wins, 7 losses, 1 draw) in one of the first chess matches ever held.  He contributed a chess course to Le Palamede magazine.  He returned to Italy in 1848 and joined the Army.  He retired in 1862 as a major.


Calvo Minguez, Ricardo (1943-2002)

 Spanish journalist, chess historian, medical doctor and International Master (1973) who was censured by FIDE for writing articles that were critical of the world chess federation.   He played for Spain in 5 chess Olympiads.  He died of cancer of the esophagus.


Calvo - Korchnoi, Havana 1966

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 e6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 a6 5.Bd3 Bc5 6.Nb3 Ba7 7.c4 Na6 8.O-O Qh4 9.N1d2 Nge7 10.c5 Ne5 11.Be2 b6 12.f4 N5c6 13.Nc4 bxc5 14.g3 Qh6? (14...Qh3) 15.f5 Qf6 16.fxe6 Qxe6 17.Nd6+ Kf8 18.Bc4  1-0


Campomanes, Florencio (1927-    )

First non-European elected FIDE President (1982-1995).  He played Board 2 for the Philippines in the 1956 Olympiad in Moscow, the 1958 Olympiad in Munich, and was the top board for the Philippines in the 1960 Chess Olympiad.  When he was elect FIDE President in 1982 the entire FIDE staff and FIDE secretary resigned in protest.  His biggest controversy was the stopping of the Karpov-Kasparov match in February 1985.  He graduated from Brown University.


Campora, Daniel (1957-    )

Argentine Grandmaster (1986).  He was Argentinian champion in 1986 and 1989.  He led the Argentine team at the 1984 Chess Olympiad.


Campora – Eslon, Argentina 1991

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bb5 d6 5.d4 Bd7 6.O-O Be7 7.Re1 exd4 8.Nxd4 O-O 9.Bxc6 bxc6 10.Qf3 Re8 11.e5 Ng4 12.e6  1-0


Canal, Esteban (1896-1981)

Peruvian International Master (1950) who received an honorary Grandmaster title in 1977 at the age of 81.  Canal lived in Venice, Italy since 1923, yet represented Peru as late as 1950 in the chess Olympiad.


Canal - Unknown, Leipzig 1916

1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.exd5 exd5 4.Nc3 Nf6 5.Bg5 Bb4 6.Bd3 Nc6 7.Ne2 O-O 8.O-O Be7 9.Re1 Nb4 10.Ng3 Nxd3 11.Qxd3 c6 12.Nh5 Be6 13.Nf4 h6 (13...Ng4) 14.Bxh6 gxh6 15.Rxe6 fxe6? (15...Nd6) 16.Qg6+ Kh8 17.Nxe6  1-0


Canute (995-1035)

King of Denmark, Norway, and England from 1016 to 1035.  He learned the game of chess during a visit to Rome in 1027.  The king had a Danish earl murdered when the earl overturned a chessboard after the King made a bad move and tried to take it back.


Capablanca y Graupera, Jose Raoul (1888-1942)

Cuban-born, Capablanca was American-educated and sent to a private school (Woodycliff School of South Orange) in New Jersey when he was 16 in 1904.  He joined the Manhattan Chess Club at that time and impressed many of the players.  In 1906 he went to Columbia University in New York to study chemical  engineering, he spent most of his time at the Manhattan Chess Club.  Two years later he dropped out of Columbia University and dedicated most of his time to chess.  In 1908-09 he toured the U.S. and lost only one game in hundreds of games played during simultaneous exhibitions, winning all the others. He won the New York state chess championship in 1910.  In 1913 Capablanca obtained a post in the Cuban Foreign Office with the title of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary General from the Government of Cuba to the World at Large.  After his divorce from his first wife, her family had him demoted to the post of Commercial Attaché.   He once had the mayor of Havana clear a tournament room so that no one would see him resign a game (against Marshall in 1913).  He once refused to pose with a beautiful film star, saying, "Why should I give her publicity?"  Capablanca lost only 36 games out of 567 in his whole life.  He did not lose a single game from 1916 to 1924.  Capablanca never had a chess set at home.  On March 7, 1942, he was seated at a chess board at the Manhattan Chess Club, watching a skittles game, when he suddenly toppled backwards from his char.  He had suffered a massive stroke (cerebral hemorrhage) and died later that night in a New York hospital.  At the time of his death, he was the commercial attaché of the Cuban Embassy in New York.  General Batista, President of Cuba, took personal charge of the funeral arrangements.  Capablanca may be the youngest player of a published game.  In 1893, at the age of 4 years and 10 months, Capablanca (receiving queen odds) defeated a chess player in Havana.  This game was recorded and published.


Reti - Capablanca, Berlin 1928

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 d6 4.c3 a6 5.Ba4 f5 6.d4 fxe4 7.Ng5 exd4 8.Nxe4 Nf6 9.Bg5 Be7 10.Qxd4 (10.Bxc6+) 10...b5 11.Nxf6+ gxf6 12.Qd5 bxa4 13.Bh6 Qd7 14.O-O Bb7 15.Bg7 O-O-O 16.Bxh8 Ne5 17.Qd1 Bf3! 18.gxf3 Qh3  (threatening 19...Rg8+)  0-1


Cardoso, Ruth (1934-2000)

Ruth Cardose was born in Salvador, Brazil  on February 9, 1934.  She held the title of Woman International Master (WIM) from FIDE.    She won the South American Women’s Championship in 1966, 1969, and 1972.  She won the Brazilian Women’s Championship eight times in a row.  She played four time in the Woman’s Interzonal Championship.  She played in five World Chess Olympiads, playing first board for the Brazilian team each time.  She died on Feb 11, 2000.


Carlsen, Magnus (1990-    )

Norwegian child prodigy, born Nov 30, 1990, who gained the Grandmaster title (2004) at the age of 13 years, 3 months and 27 days.   He became the 2nd youngest GM in chess history, behind only  Sergey Karjakin.  He was trained by Simen Agdestein, Norway’s top chess player.  He took 10th in the 2005 FIDE World Cup, becoming the youngest player ever to qualify for the Candidates.  He learned chess at the age of 8.  His FIDE rating is 2625, ranked #89 in the world.


Carlsen – Ibraev, Calvia 2004

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.Qc2 c5 5.dxc5 Bxc5 6.Nf3 Qb6 7.e3 Qc7 8.b3 b6 9.Bb2 Bb7 10.Nb5 Qd8 11.O-O-O O-O 12.Ng5 Re8 13.h4 e5 14.Nd6 Bxd6 15.Rxd6 h6 16.Qf5 Nc6 17.Rxf6  1-0


Caro, Horatio (1862-1920)

Horatio Caro (KAH-ro) was an was born in Newcastle, England .  H later moved to Berlin, Germany.  He was the editor of the German chess magazine Bruderschraft.  In 1886 he published analysis of the Caro-Kann (1.e4 c6) that he had analyzed with Marcus Kann (1820-1886).  He lost matches to Simon Winawer and Jacques Mieses, drew two matches with Curt von Bardeleben, and defeated M. Lewitt.


Caro – Emanuel Lasker, Berlin 1890

1.Nf3 d5 2.d4 Bf5 3.c4 c6 4.Qb3 Qc8 5.cxd5 cxd5 6.Nc3 e6 7.Bf4 a6 8.Na4 Ra7 9.Nb6 Qd8 10.Bxb8 Qxb8 11.Qa4+ Ke7 12.Rc1 g5 13.Ne5 Nh6 14.Nc8+  1-0


Carr, Neil (1968-    )

Youngest player to beat a grandmaster in a clock simultaneous exhibition.  In 1978 at the age of 10 he beat a grandmaster.  He won the World under-14 championship.


Carroll, Charles (1737-1832)

The last survivor of the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence (he represented Maryland), and the only Roman Catholic signer.  At age 89 he played the Turk automaton at Baltimore in 1827 and won.  An “adjustment” to the machine and the Turk’s queen, which otherwise could have checkmated the next move, helped Carroll to win.  Carrol died at the age of  95.


Carroll, Lewis (1832-1898)

Author of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and  Through the Looking-Glass (1872), the story of Alice and her journey as a pawn across the chessboard, eventually to become a Queen.  The 32 pieces are identified as ‘Dramatis Personae’ at the start of the book.  Each of them has some part in the story.  Lewis Carroll referred the chess pieces as red and white, the usual colors of an ivory chess set.  The illustrations were by John Tenniel, who based his illustrations on the St. George’s pattern, not the Staunton pattern.  Carroll’s diaries mention chess on several occasions.  His diaries indicate that he beat Lord Tennyson’s sons at chess and that he played chess on the train during his journey to Russia.    His real name was Charles Lutwidge Dodgson.  He was a mathematician and lectured at Oxford.


Cassel, Hartwig (1850-1929)

Born in Konitz, West Prussia and later moved to Scotland, where he was a member of the Glasgow Chess Club.  From 1882 to 1889, he was the chess editor of the Bradford Observer Budget in England.  He was a journalist for the New York Staats Zeitung, New York Tribune, Sun, The Times, The World, and the Associated Press.  He was the editor, along with Hermann Helms, of the American Chess Bulletin, which was first published in 1904.


Caxton, William (1438-1491)

The first English printer.  He is the publisher of the second book to be printed in English, The Game and Playe of  the Chesse, in 1475.  The book consisted of 72 pages, with no illustrations and printed in Bruges, Belgium.  It also became the first printed book in English to make extensive use of woodcuts.  The book was dedicated to George, Duke of Clarence, oldest brother of King Edward.  It is a translation of a book by Jacobus de Cessolis. An original book is worth over $100,000.  The first printed book in English is The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye, published by Caxton in 1474.


Caze, M. (1650-1710)

Author of the first manuscript on the King’s Gambit, in 1706.  It was his opinion that accepting the King’s Gambit would lead to a forced draw.  He was the first to propose a type of random chess, by moving the king and queen around in the back rank.  He also wanted to take away the advantage of the first move by playing the pawn only one square up.  He was the first to record chess games played by other players, then reprint them.  He recorded the games of the best chess players in Paris in the 1680s.


Cebalo, Miso (1945-    )

Yugoslav (now Croatia) Grandmaster (1985).  He tied for 1st place in the 1985 Yugoslav championship, but lost the play-off to Marjanovic.  He tied for 6th-7th in the 1985 Taxco Interzonal.  He is currently rated 2511.


Cessolis, Jacobus de (1275-1322)

Dominican monk who wrote De Moribus Hominum ed de Officiis Nobilium Super Ludo Scaccorum (On the Customs of Men and Their Noble Actions with Reference to the Game of Chess).  This is the best known of all chess moralities, written around 1300.  The moralities deal with all sorts and conditions of men, allegorically represented in their various ranks by chess pieces.   In 1474 William Caxton translated the French version into English and printed it under the title The Game of Chess.  It was the second book printed in the English language (Caxton translated and published a history of Troy a few months earlier).


Chadwick, Henry (1824-1908)

Born in England, he later came to the USA as a journalist and sportswriter.  He became one of the foremost authorities on baseball.  In 1860 he edited The Beadle Baseball Player, the first baseball guide on public sale.  He is considered the father of baseball.  He was enshrined in baseball’s Hall of Fame in 1938, the only writer elected to the Hall itself.  He was an avid chess player and was a member of every chess club in Brooklyn.  He wrote a chess column in his own newspaper, the American Chronicle.  He wrote Chess for Novices. 


Chajes, Oscar (1873-1928)

Oscar Chajes (KHAH-yes) was born in Brody, Russia on December 14, 1873.  In 1909 he was the winner of the US Open in Excelsior, Minnesota.  He became secretary of the Isaac L. Rice Progressive Chess Club.  In 1911, he took last place at Carlsbad.  In 1916 he defeated Capablanca in New York (round 2) in 66 moves at the Rice Memorial tournament.    Chajes took 3rd place, after Capablanca and Janowski.  Capablanca would not lose another game until the 1924 New York tournament, where he lost to Reti.  In 1917 he won the New York State championship in Rochester.  He died on February 28, 1928.


Chandler, Murray (1960-    )

Grandmaster (1983).  He won the 1975-76 New Zealand championship, then settled in England.  In 1981, he edited Tournament Chess.  In 1984 he was joint Commonwealth Champion.  In 1986, he was joint British Champion.  From 1991 to 1999 he was editor of the British Chess Magazine.  In 1975, at the age of 15, he wrote A White Pawn in Europe, about his games at the World Junior Championship  in Yugoslavia and English tournaments.


Fedorowicz – Chandler, Brighton 1979

1.e4 d6 2.d4 Nf6 3.Nc3 g6 4.Bc4 Bg7 5.Qe2 Nc6 6.e5 Nd7 7.e6 fxe6 8.Nf3 d5 9.Bb5 Nxd4 10.Nxd4 Bxd4 11.h4 c6 12.Bd3 e5 13.h5 e4 14.hxg6 hxg6 15.Rxh8+ Bxh8  0-1


Charbonneau, Pascal (1983-    )

Grandmaster (2006) from Canada.  He is a two-time Canadian champion (2002 and 2004).  He was Quebec champion at the age of 16 and Canadian Champion at the age of 18.  In 2005, he was mugged at gunpoint at the World Open in Philadelphia.


Charles, Ray (1930-2004)

Blind musician (born Ray Charles Robinson) who learned chess in 1965 after being busted twice and hospitalized for heroin addiction.  He learned chess in the hospital where he went cold turkey after 17 years of drug use.  He used a peg set made for the blind.  He appeared on the cover of Chess Life in September 2002 and was interviewed by Larry Evans.  Ray Charles stated that chess was his favorite game.  One of  his chess opponents was Willie Nelson, who mentioned  Ray Charles’ chess skills at his funeral.  He also played chess with Dizzy Gillespie.  In the film, Ray, there is a scene of Ray Charles playing chess in the hospital with the doctor while recovering from his addiction.  He died of liver disease.


Ray Charles – Larry Evans, Reno 2002

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.d4 exd4 5.Nxd4 Bc5 6.Nxc6 bxc6 7.Qe2 O-O 8.Be3 Bxe3 9.Qxe3 Re8 10.f3 d5 11.Qd3 a5 12.O-O-O Ba6 13.Qd2 Bxf1 14.Rhxf1 dxe4 15.Qxd8 Raxd8 16.Rxd8 Rxd8 17.Rd1 Rxd1+ 18.Kxd1 exf3 19.gxf3 Kf8 20.Kc1 Be7 21.Kd2 Ke6 22.Ke3 Nd5+ 23.Kd4 Nxc3 24.Kxc3 Kd5  0-1


Charlick, Henry (1845-1916)

Henry Charlick was born in London on July 8, 1845.  In 1887, he won the first championship of Australia, held in Adelaide.  From 1887 to 1893, he was champion of South Australia.  In the early 1890s,  he introduced the moves 1.d4 e5, known as the Charlick Gambit or Englund Gambit.  He died on July 26, 1916.


Charousek, Rudolf (1873-1900)

Chess master born in Prague and raised in Hungary.  He learned to play chess in his early teenage years.  He tied for 1st (with Chigorin) at  Budapest in 1896 and won at Berlin in 1897.  He died of tuberculosis at the age of 26.


Charousek – Makovets, Budapest 1893

1.e4 e5 2.f4 Bc5 3.Nf3 d6 4.b4 Bxb4 5.c3 Ba5 6.Bc4 Bb6 7.d4 Bg4 8.fxe5 dxe5 9.Bxf7+ Kf8 10.Ba3+ Ne7 11.O-O exd4 12.Qb3 g6 13.Bxg6  1-0


Chaucer, Geoffrey (1342-1400)

His romantic poem, Book of the Duchesse, written in 1369, has many references to chess.  Chaucer was the first person to use the word checkmate, derived from Arabic.  He introduced the word “fers” as the name for the queen chess piece.


Chaude de Silans, Chantal (1919-2004)

French chess player and countess.  In 1934, at the age of 15, she won the ladies championship of France.  In 1949-50, she was a Women’s World Championship Challenger.  In 1950, she was awarded the Women’s International Master title.  She was the first female to play in a men’s Olympiad.  She played on the men’s French team in 1950 at Dubrovnik.  She won 1 game, drew 1 game, and lost 4 games.  She managed the Caissa chess club in Paris for many years.


Chauvenet, Louis Russell “Russ” (1920-2003)

U.S. Amateur Champion in 1959.  In 1991, he won the fourth National Deaf Championship.  He won the National Tournament of the Deaf in 1980, 1983, and 1987.  In 1992, he was awarded the Grandmaster title in Silent Chess.


Chekhov, Valery (1955-    )

Russian Grandmaster .  In 1975 he won the World Junior Championship.  He became an IM in 1975 and a GM in 1984.  He teaches chess at a children’s center in Moscow.


Chekhov – Razuvaev, Moscow 1982

1.Nf3 c5 2.c4 g6 3.d4 Bg7 4.e4 Nc6 5.dxc5 Qa5+ 6.Bd2 Qxc5 7.Nc3 Nf6 8.Be2 d6 9.O-O O-O 10.h3 Be6 11.Na4  1-0


Chekhover, Vitaly (1908-1965)

Soviet International Master (1950).  He played in the USSR championship five times.  He won the Leningrad championship in 1937 and 1949. 


Cheparinov, Ivan (1986-    )

Grandmaster (2004) from Bulgaria.  His FIDE rating is 2634.  He won the Bulgarian championship in 2004 and 2005 and was Topalov’s second.  In 2005, he played games of 155 and 150 moves in consecutive rounds in the Corus (B) Tournament of 2005.


Chernev, Irving (1900-1981)

Chess master and author of 18 chess books.  He learned chess at the age of 12 from his father.  He played in the U.S. Championship in 1942 and 1944 and played in numerous New York state championships.  He first chess book (with Fred Reinfeld) that he wrote was Chess Strategy and Tactics in 1933.  He claimed he read more about chess and played over more chess games than anyone in history.  He was employed in the paper industry.  He died at the age of 81.


Chernin, Alexander (1960-    )

Russian Grandmaster.  He was European Junior Champion in 1979-1980.  He tied for 1st place in the 1985 USSR Championship, but lost the play-off.   In 1985, he tied for 4th-5th at the Tunis Interzonal.  He became an IM in 1984 and a GM in 1985.


Cheron, Andre (1895-1980)

French champion in 1926, 1927, and 1929 and one of the great endgame analysts and study composers of all time.  He played Board 1 for France in the 1927 Olympiad.  He created the longest problem solution to have all checks in it, taking 69 moves.  He was an International Master in Chess Composition (1959).


Cheron - Polikier, Chamonix 1927

1.d4 g6 2.e4 Bg7 3.Nf3 d6 4.Nc3 Nd7 5.Bc4 Nf6? (5...Nb6) 6.e5 dxe5 7.dxe5 Nh5 8.Bxf7+ Kxf7 9.Ng5+ Kg8 10.Qd5+ (10...e6 11.Qxe6+ Kf8 12.Qf7 mate)  1-0


Chevalier, Frederick (1907-    )

In 1927, he won the Boston Chess Championship.  He was a former Harvard College Champion.  He wrote a chess column in The Christian Science Monitor. 


Chiburdanidze, Maya (1961- )

Six-time World’s women champion for 13 years, from 1978 until her defeat by Xie Jun of China in 1991.  Her coach had been Eduard Gufeld.  She was USSR women’s champion at 15, won the women’s Interzonal at 16, defeated three of the best women in the world (Alexandria, Akhmilovskaya, and Kusnir) in matches at 17, and world champion (defeating Gaprindashvili) at age 17, the youngest of any world champion in chess.   She was awarded the title of International Woman Master in 1974 at the age of 13, making her the youngest title holder in the history of chess up to that time.  She didn’t even have a FIDE rating.


Muara - Chiburdanidze, Argentina 1978

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 e6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 Bb4 6.f3 O-O 7.Be3 e5 8.Nb3 d5 9.Bc5? (9.Bd2) 9...Bxc5 10.Nxc5 d4 11.Ne2 Qa5+ (and 12...Qxc5)  0-1


Chigorin, Mikhail (1850-1908)

Founder of the Russian school of chess.  He was the first public chess worker, organizer, and journalist in Russia.  His first chess magazine, Chess Sheet, only had 250 subscribers in all of Russia.  From 1878 to 1907 he was considered the best Russian chess player. In 1889 he unsuccessfully challenged Steinitz for the world championship in Havana, which ended after 17 games and only one draw (the last game).  Steinitz had won 10 and lost 6.  A month later Chigorin won America's first international tournament, New York 1889.  He took second place in the Hastings 1895 tournament (behind Pillsbury) and won the first three All-Russia tournaments (1899, 1900-01, 1903).  At Hastings 1895 he won a ring and a copy of Salvoli's The Theory and Practice of Chess for winning the most Evans Gambits.  In 1958 the USSR issued a chess stamp with a portrait of Chigorin.  He learned chess at age 16 (some sources say he learned chess in his early 20s).


Schlezer - Chigorin, St Petersburg 1878

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 f5 3.exf5 Nc6 4.Bb5 Bc5 5.Bxc6 dxc6 6.Nxe5 Bxf5 7.Qh5+ g6 8.Nxg6 hxg6 9.Qxh8 Qe7+ 10.Kd1 Bxf2 11.Qxg8+ Kd7 12.Qc4 Re8 (threatening 13...Qe1+ 14.Rxe1 Rxe1 mate)  0-1


Chigorin – Walbrodt, Budapest 1896

1.e4 e5 2.f4 d5 3.Nf3 dxe4 4.Nxe5 Bd6 5.Qe2 Qe7 6.Qxe4 f6 7.d4 fxe5 8.fxe5 c6 9.Bc4 Bc7 10.O-O Be6 11.Bg5 Qxg5 12.Bxe6 Nh6 13.Bc8  1-0


Chikvaidze, Alexander (1932-    )

Replaced former cosmonaut Vitaly Sevastianov in 1986 as President of the Soviet Chess Federation.  He was a Georgian career diplomat who served as former Ambassador to Kenya and the Netherlands.  He was assigned to the Soviet consulate in San Francisco and embassies in London and New Delhi.


Christiansen, Larry (1956-    )

Larry Christiansen was born in Riverside, California on June 27, 1956.  He become an International Grandmaster without ever being an International Master first.  In 1977 he was awarded the title after winning an international tournament in Torremolinos, Spain (he took 2nd place in the same tournament a year before).  He is also the first junior high school player to win the National High School Championship in 1971. He won it again in 1973.  He won the U.S. Junior Championship in 1973, 1974, and 1975.  He won the US Chess Championship in 1980, 1983, and 2002 (defeating Nick deFirmian in the playoff).  He took 2nd place in the World Junion Championship in 1975 (won by Valery Chekhov).  He has been runner-up to the US championship four times.  In the 1980s he was sponsored by Church’s Fried Chicken to play simultaneous and blindfold exhibitions throughout the United States.  He now resides in Cambridge, Massachusetts with his wife, Natasha.


Christiansen - Karpov, Wijk aan Zee 1993

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 b6 4.a3 Ba6 5.Qc2 Bb7 6.Nc3 c5 7.e4 cxd4 8.Nxd4 Nc6 9.Nxc6 Bxc6 10.Bf4 Nh5 11.Be3 Bd6? (11...Bc5) 12.Qd1 (threatening 13.Qxd6 and 13.Qxh5)  1-0


Chuchelov, Vladimir (1969-    )

Grandmaster from Russia who now lives in Belgium.  His peak Elo rating has been 2608.


Churchill, Lord Randolph (1849-1895)

Winston Churchill's father was elected vice president of the British Chess Federation in 1885.  Lord Tennyson was the President of the British Chess Federation.  He took chess lessons from Zukertort and William (Wilhelm) Steinitz.  He was the co-founder of the Oxford University Chess Club.  He was one of the financial backers of the great 1883 London tournament, won by Zukertort.  In 1891 he was the first president of the Johannesburg Chess Club in South Africa.  He was a member of Parliament and served as the Chancellor of the Exchequer. 


Cifuentes-Parada, Roberto (1957-    )

Grandmaster from Chile.   He was the champion of Chile in 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, and 1986.  He now plays for Spain.


Ciocaltea, Victor (1932-1983)

Romanian chess player who became an International Master in 1957 and took 21 years to become a Grandmaster in 1978.  He won the Romanian championship 8 times during 1952-1979.


Hutemann - Ciocaltea, Dortmund 1974

1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 g6 4.h3 Bg7 5.Nf3 Nh6 6.Bd3 O-O 7.O-O f6 8.Bf4 Nf7 9.e5 fxe5 10.Bxe5 Nxe5 11.dxe5 Nd7 12.Re1 Nc5 13.b4 Ne6 14.Ne2 Rxf3 15.gxf3 Ng5 16.f4 Nxh3+ 17.Kg2 Qf8 18.Kg3? (18.Qd2) 18...Bxe5 (19.fxe5 Qxf2 mate)  0-1


Ciric, Dragoljub (1935-    )

Yugoslav (now Croatia) Grandmaster (1965). 


Ciric – Velimirovic, Yugoslavia 1963

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 a6 6.Bc4 e6 7.a3 b5 8.Ba2 Bb7 9.Qe2 Nbd7 10.O-O Rc8 11.Bg5 h6 12.Bh4 Qb6 13.Rad1 Be7 14.Kh1 g5 15.Bg3 Ne5 16.f4 gxf4 17.Rxf4 Rg8 18.Bh4 Ng6 19.Rxf6 Nxh4 20.Rxf7 Rxc3 21.bxc3 Rxg2 22.Qh5 Bxe4 23.Rxe7+  1-0


Clarke, Peter (1933-    )

English player who placed 2nd in five British Championships.  He played on 8 English Chess Olympiad teams.  He was British Correspondence Champion in 1977.  He became a Grandmaster in Correspondence Chess in 1980. 


Clarke – Toran, Hastings 1956

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 a6 6.f4 e5 7.Nf3 Nbd7 8.Bc4 Be7 9.a4 O-O 10.Qe2 b6 11.O-O Bb7 12.fxe5 dxe5 13.Bg5 Nh5 14.Rad1 Bc5+ 15.Kh1 Qc7 16.Rxd7 Qxd7 17.Nxe5 Qc7 18.Nxf7 g6 19.Nd5 Bxd5 20.Bxd5 Ra7 21.Nd6 Kg7 22.Rxf8  1-0


Cochrane, John (1798-1878)

Scottish master and lawyer who spent half his life in India.  He played chess in London while on vacation.   In 1815 he was a second lieutenant on the HMS Bellerophon, which transported Napoleon to his last exile on the island of Helena.  In 1822 he published his Treatise on Chess.  In 1824, just before he went to India, he suggested that the London team play 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 (Scotch Opening) in their correspondence match with Edinburgh.  In 1829 he wrote a book on the Muzio Gambit, published in India.   Cochrane is credited with the Cochrane Gambit (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.Nxe5 d6 4.Nxf7).


Cochrane – Staunton, London 1842

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 Nxd4 4.Nxe5 Ne6 5.Bc4 c6 6.O-O Nf6 7.Nc3 Bb4 8.f4 Qa5 9.Nxf7 Kxf7 10.f5 Qc5+ 11.Kh1 Qxc4 12.fxe6+ Qxe6 13.Qh5+ g6 14.Qh4 Bxc3 15.bxc3 Rf8 16.Bh6  1-0


Cohen, Lewis

 Lewis Cohen never lost a game in the National Elementary Championships, scoring 40-0.  He was the 1974 and 1975 Junior High School champion.


Colle, Edgar (1897-1932)

Six time Belgium champion between 1922 and 1929.  He died after an operation for a gastric ulcer.  The Colle System is 1.d4 d5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.e3.


Collijn, Ludwig (1878-1939)

Swedish author and organizer.  He was President of the Swedish Chess Association from 1917 to 1939.  He organized and directed the 1937 Stockholm Chess Olympiad.  He, and his brother Gustaf (1880-1968), wrote Larobok i Schack, a book on openings and endings.


Collins, John (Jack) W. (1912-2001)

Chess teacher to Bobby Fischer, Robert Byrne, William Lombardy, Donald Byrne, Sal Matera, Ray Weinstein, Lisa Lane, and Rachel Crotto.  He has won the U.S. Correspondence Chess Championship (1943), the Marshall Chess Club Championship (1953), and the New York Championship (1952).  He was the first postal chess editor of Chess Review.  He reached the finals of the first ICCF World Chess Championship in 1953.  His first house was on Hawthorne Street in Brooklyn, so he named his chess club that met at his house, the Hawthorne Chess Club.  He kept that name when he moved to 91 Lenox Road.


Commons, Kim (1951-    )

1971 California State Chess Champion.  He won the American Open in 1974 and 1975.  In 1976 he became an International Master.  He taught chess to Mel Brooks and to all the band members in Jefferson Airplane.  He became a real estate agent.


Conquest, Stuart (1967-    )

Grandmaster from England.  In 1981, he won the World Under 16 Championship.   He won the 76th Hastings International Chess Congress in 2000/2001.  His FIDE rating is 2503.


Cook Eugene Beauharnais (1830-1915)

The foremost American problemist of his day.   He had many of his chess problems published in Staunton’s The Chess Player’s Chronicle, and The Illustrated London News.  Cook served as President of the New Jersey Chess Association and assumed the post for problem department in The Chess Monthly.  At the time, Paul Morphy was the editor of the games section.  In 1859 he wrote American Chess-Nuts, a major work of chess problems in America.  He personally composed around 800 problems.


Cook, Nathaniel

Designer (along with John Jacques) of the Staunton chessmen in 1835.  He registered his design in 1849.  Howard Staunton recommended the use of these chessmen six months later and it was offered to the public by the company of John Jaques of London.  Cook did not renew his registration, valid for only three years.  In 1852 Staunton made a deal with Cook to authorize Staunton's signature as a trademark to attach to the boxes in which his sets were sold.  Cook was Staunton’s editor at the Illustrated London Times.  Cook's firm was absorbed by John Jaques and Son, Ltd in 1900.


Cooke, H. I.

Author of the first chess book written by a woman, The ABC of Chess, by a Lady.  It appeared in England in 1860 and went into 10 editions.


Corzo, Juan (1873-1941)

Juan Corzo was born in Madrid and was Cuban chess champion in 1902.  In 1901, Jose Capablanca, age 12, beat Juan Corzo, age 28, in an informal match in Havana.


Cox, James R.

Winner of the first New York State Championship in 1878.


Cozio, Carlo Francesco (1715-1780)

Italian Count of Montiglio and Count of Salabue.  He was the author of a two volume chess book, Il giuoco degli scacchi o sia Nuova idea di attacchi, difese e partiti del Giuoco degli Scacchi, published in 1740.  The Ruy Lopez variation 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Nge7 is called Cozio’s Defense.


Cramer, Fred (1912-1989)

Former USCF Membership chairman and USCF President (1961-1964).  In the 1970s, he was the FIDE vice-president.  He was Bobby Fischer’s manager during the 1972 World Championship Match.   He was a lighting contractor.  He got involved in chess when he provided better lighting to the 1953 US Open in Milwaukee.  When Cramer died in 1989, he bequeathed $250,000 to the American Chess Foundation.


Cramling, Pia (1963-    )

Grandmaster from Sweden.  From 1983 to 1985 she was the world number one female chess player.  Her brother, Dan, is a former Swedish national champion.  She won the Women’s Chess Oscar in 1983.  She is married to Juan Bellon and they live in Spain.  She was awarded the WGM title in 1982, the IM title in 1983, and the GM title in 1992.  


Skripchenko - P. Cramling, Belgrade 1996

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 e6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 Qb6 6.e5 Bc5 7.Be3 Nd5 8.Nxd5 exd5 9.Nf5 Qxb2 10.Bxc5 Qc3+ 11.Ke2 Qxc5 12.Nd6+ Kf8 13.f4 Nc6 14.Kf3 (14.Qd3) 14...f6 15.Nxc8 (15.c4) 15...fxe5 16.fxe5 Nxe5+ 17.Kf4?? (17.Ke2) 17...Rxc8 18.Kxe5 Re8+ 19.Qf3 Qe7 (threatening 29...g6 mate)  0-1


Crisan, Alexandru (1962-    )

Grandmaster (1997) from Romania.  His FIDE rating is listed as 2588.  He is President of the Romanian Chess Federation.    In 2001, he was accused of faking his Elo rating of 2635 (number 33 in the world).   He was accused of bribing other players for Elo points.   He was accused of fixing matches for his own benefit and falsifying chess tournament results.  He played in one tournament, the Vidmar Memorial in  Slovakia, and score only ½ point out of 9.


Crittenden, Kit (1935-    )

On August 29, 1948 Kit Crittenden won the North Carolina state championship at age 13, becoming the nation's youngest state champion.  The year before, he finished in last place in the state championship.


Crotto, Rachel (1958-    )

In 1972 she was one of the youngest girls ever to play in the U.S. Women's championship, at age 13.  She was U.S. Women’s Champion from 1977 to 1979.  She took 12th-13th place at the 1979 Rio de Janeiro Women’s Interzonal.  She took last place in the 1982 Bad Kissingen Interzonal for the Women’s World Chess Championship.


Crum, John (1842-1922)

First Scottish chess champion.  He won the event, held in Glasgow, in 1884.  He edited a chess column in The Glasgow Weekly Herald. 


Csom, Istvan (1940-    )

Istvan Csom (Chom) was born in Hungary and became a Hungarian Grandmaster in 1973.  He won the Hungarian championship in 1972 and, jointly, in 1973.  His FIDE rating is 2463.  In 1976, he took 9th-11th at the Biel Interzonal Tournament (won by Larsen).


Cunningham, George (1909-1993)

George Cunningham was born in Maine on March 25, 1909.  He was a college professor in Maine.  In 1978, he was Executive Director for the United States Chess Federation (USCF).  In 1980, he was the ratings statician for the USCF and introduced the bonus points, feedback points, and fiddle points.  He died in Maine on December 19, 1993.


Curdo, John Anthony (1931- )

John Anthony Curdo was born on November 14, 1931 in Lynn, Massachusetts and now lives in Auburn, Massachusetts.  He is a FIDE master (current Elo rating  2275, maximum Elo rating 2305).  He has won the Massachusetts state championship 18 times [1948 (age 16), 1949 (tied with Gerhard Katz), 1955, 1957, 1958 (tied with Siff and Popovich), 1959, 1960, 1961, 1963, 1966, 1969 (tied with Ed Formanek), 1970, 1975 (tied with John Peters), 1976, 1979, 1980, 1982, 1985].  He won the New England Open championship in 1956, 1959, 1961, 1966, 1973, and 1976 (losing on tie-break in 1963 and 1974).  He was won the U.S. Senior Open twice (1982 (tied with Larry Evans) and 1986).  He has been one of the top players in the New England area for over 50 years, winning 795 tournaments in his career as of September, 2007 (perhaps a world record).


Cvitan, Ognjen (1961-    )

Yugoslav Grandmaster (1987).  In 1981 he won the World Junior (Under 20) Championship, ahead of Nigel Short and Salov.    His name is pronounced Og-nhien Cvhie-than.   His highest rating has been 2633, ranked 69th in the world in 1994.


Cvitan – Short, Mexico City 1981

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 b6 4.a3 c5 5.d5 Ba6 6.Qc2 exd5 7.cxd5 Bb7 8.e4 Qe7 9.Bd3 Nxd5 10.O-O Nc7 11.Nc3 Qd8 12.Nd5 Ne6 13.Ne5 Nc6 14.f4 Nxe5 15.fxe5 Be7 16.Qe2 h6 17.Qh5 Rf8 18.Bxh6 gxh6 19.Rxf7 Rxf7 20.Rf1 Ng5 21.Bc4 Kf8 22.Rxf7+ Nxf7 23.Nf6  1-0


Czerniak, Moshe (1910-1984)

International Master (1952) and Israel’s first professional chess player.   He was born in Poland, immigrated to Palestine, lived in Argentina after World War II broke out, and finally settled in Israel in 1950.  He won the championship of Palestine in 1936 and the championship of Israel in 1955.  He won the championship of Israel in 1974 at the age of 64.


Czerniak - Constantinou, Lugano 1968

1.e4 c5 2.b3 Nf6 3.e5 Nd5 4.Bb2 d6 5.exd6 exd6 6.Na3 Nc6 7.Nc4 Nf6 8.Nf3 Be7 9.d4 O-O 10.d5 Nb4 11.Ne3 Re8 12.Be2 Bd7 13.O-O Bf8 14.Re1 Ne4 15.a3 Na6 16.Bxa6 bxa6 17.Qd3 Rb8 18.Nf1 Bf5 19.Qxa6 c4 (19...Re7) 20.Qxc4 Rc8 21.Qd4 Rxc2? (21...Qd7) 22.Ne3 (23...Rxb2 24.Nxf5, threatening 25.Qxb2 and 25.Rxe4)  1-0


Dadian (Salome Dadian de Mingrelie) (1848-1913)

Prince of Mingrelia and sponsor of the 1903 Monte Carlo tournament.  He invited Tchigorin to play but later paid him 1,500 francs (greater than 3rd prize money) not to play because Tchigorin had published analysis of one of the Prince's games, pointing out he had made gross errors.  A valuable art object was to go to the winner of a short match between the 1st and 2nd place finishers (Tarrasch and Maroczy).  The players wanted a play for money also.  This annoyed the Prince who gave the art object to the 3rd place finisher (Pillsbury).


Dake, Arthur (1910-2000)

Arthur Dake became a bridge toll collector, then a highway auto controller, and finally an automobile inspector for the state of Oregon after serving in the merchant marines when he was 16.  He and Humphrey Bogart used to make a living hustling chess at Coney Island.  In three chess Olympiads, he won 27 games and only lost four games, winning a gold medal and the best result of any individual player at Warsaw 1935.  He was given the International Master title in 1954.  He received the honorary Grandmaster title in 1986 in recognition of his results in the 1930s.  He was the oldest competitive chess grandmaster in history.  He learned chess at 17.  At 20 he won the Marshall Chess Club Championship.


Dake - Schmitt, Seattle 1949

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.f3 d5 4.cxd5 Nxd5 5.e4 Nb6 6.Be3 Bg7 7.Nc3 O-O 8.f4 Nc6 9.d5 Nb8 10.Nf3 e6 11.Bc5 Re8 12.d6 N6d7 13.Ba3 cxd6 14.Bxd6 Qb6 15.Qd2 e5 16.Bc4 exf4? (16...Bh6) 17.Bxf7 Kxf7 18.Ng5+  (18...Kg8 19.Qd5+ Kh8 20.Nf7+  Kg8 21.Nh6+ Kh8 22.Qg8+ Rxg8 23.Nf7 mate)  1-0


Dal Verme, Giancarlo (1908-1985)

Count Giancarlo dal Verme was born in Italy on May 8, 1908.  He was president of the Italian Chess Federation from 1958 to 1980.  He was treasurer and auditor of FIDE from 1947 to 1966.  In 1951, Dal Verme and FIDE Vice President Marcel Berman composed the music of the FIDE anthem.  He died on November 13, 1985.


Daly, Harlow Bussey (1883-1979)

Harlow Daly was born in Dorchester, Massachusetts on December 2, 1883,  He is perhaps the oldest person to win a state chess championship.  In 1959 and 1960, he won the Maine championship.  In 1968 he won the Championship of Maine at age 85.  He tied for 1st in 1970 and was 2nd in 1971 and 1972.  He had previously won in 1961 at the age of 77 and in 1965 at the age of 81.  He played in the New England Open every year from 1908 (when he won it) to 1971.  He won the Massachusetts State Championship in 1940 and 1942.   He was still playing chess in his late 80s and early 90s.  At 90, in 1973, he won a New Hampshire Open tournament with a perfect 5-0 score.  In 1975, he was designated Master Emeritus by the USCF.  He died on July 8, 1979 in Framington, Massachusetts at the age of 95.  He played chess for 75 years (1900 to 1974).  He won the championships of Massachusetts, New Hampshire (1962), Vermont, and Maine (9 times).  He competed in 280 tournaments and matches, not counting correspondence events.


Damiani, Petrus (Peter) (1007-1072)

Cardinal bishop of  Ostia, Italy who wrote to Pope Alexander II in 1061 urging the pope to forbid chess from the clergy and to punish a bishop in Florence for wasting his time playing chess in the evenings.  Damiani associated the game with frivolity and the sin of gambling.


Damiano, Pedro (1480-1544)

Portuguese apothecary (pharmacist) from Odemira who came from a Jewish background.   He may have left Portugel for Italy in 1497 when King Manuel the First persecuted the Jewish community in Portugal.  He was the author of Questo Libro e da imparare giocave a scachi et de li partiti, the first chess (modern chess) book in Italy.  It was published in Rome and written in Italian and Spanish in 1512.  It was the first bestseller of the modern game of chess.  It went through eight editions in 50 years, first being published in Rome.  The book has ten chapters and 124 pages, 89 of which deal with 72 problems and studies.  The book contained chess advice and introduced the smothered mate.  In the book, Damiano suggested that chess was invented by Xerxes, and called the game of chess Axedrez, which is the Spanish word for chess today.  1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 f6 is called Damiano’s Defense.  There were no new chess works from Damiano’s book until Ruy Lopez wrote his book in 1561, almost 50 years later.  The discovery of Damiano’s chess book and its mistakes encouraged Ruy Lopez to write his own chess book.  Pedro Damiano may have been a pseudonym to hide his real name.  In 1560, Gruget translated Damian’s book into French.  In 1562, J. Rowbowen translated Damiano’s book into English.


Damjanovic, Mato (1927-    )

Croatian Grandmaster, born on March 3, 1927 in Djeletovci, Yugoslavia.   In 1960, he represented Yugoslavia at first reserve board (+6 -2 =2) at the 14th Chess Olympiad at Leipzig.  There, he won the individual silver medal for first reserve board and the team bronze medal.   In 1961, he won the Yugoslav championship.  In 1962, he was awarded the International Master title, and the Grandmaster title in 1964.  In 1964, he became the second Croatian grandmaster, after Mijo Udovcic.  He was 1st at Zagreb 1969, Bad Pyrmont 1970, Firenze 1972, Catanzaro 1972, and Vironvitica 1976. In 2005, FIDE banned him from tournament play for one year because of a fake Kali Cup chess tournament held in Mindzentkalla, Hungary in 2004.  He may have been paid to take part in this scheme.  His highest ELO rating was 2475 in 1978.


Damjanovic – Tudev, Sochi 1964

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Ba4 d6 5.Bxc6+ bxc6 6.d4 exd4 7.Nxd4 c5 8.Ne2 Bb7 9.Nbc3 f5 10.exf5 Bxg2 11.Rg1 Bb7 12.Nf4 Qf6 13.Ne6 Rc8 14.Qe2 Kd7 15.Be3 Qxf5 16.Nxc5+ dxc5 17.O-O-O+ Bd6 18.Rxg7+ Kc6 19.Qc4 Qf6 20.Rf7 Qg6 21.Ne4 Rb8 22.Bxc5  1-0


Damljanovic, Branko (1961-    )

Branko Damljanovic was born in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia on June 17, 1961.  In 1979, he won the Yugoslav junior championship.  In 1989, he was awarded the Grandmaster title.  He was the Yugoslav champion in 1991 and 2001 and joint champion in 1989 and 1990.  His FIDE rating is 2612.   In 1996, he was awarded the bronze medal for best individual performance at board 2 in the 1996 Chess Olympiad.  He is the highest rated player from Serbia and Montenegro.  His highest Elo rating was 2665 in 2006.


Damsky, Yakov (1934-    )

Chess journalist, chess master, and international chess arbiter.  He is the author of The Batsford Book of Chess Records.


Danek, Libor (1969- )

Czech Correspondence Grandmaster (1999). 


Danielian, Elina (1978-    )

Woman Grandmaster from Armenia.  In 1991, at the age of 11, she earned her first  International Master norm.


Danielian, Oganes (1974-    )

Armenian Grandmaster (1999).  In 1992, he took 2nd place in the World Under 18 championship.  He is rated 2530.


Danielsen, Henrik (1966-    )

Grandmaster (1996) from Denmark, now living in Iceland.  In 1997, he tied for 1st in the Danish championship.  His highest Elo rating was 2526 in 2001.


Dann, Stephen

Former Massachusetts Chess Association (MACA) President (1971-72, 1974-75, 1977-78, 1982-83), former editor of Chess Horizons, and columnist for the Worcester Telegram & Gazette.


Dao Thien Hai (1978-    )

Grandmaster (1996) from Vietnam.  His highest Elo rating was 2609 in 2005.  He won the Vietnames championship in 2002.  He won the World Under-16 championship in 1993.  He won the World Under-18 championship in 1994.


Darga, Klaus Viktor (1934-    )

Klaus Darga was born on February 24, 1934 in Berlin.  In 1951, he became German Junior Chess Champion.  In 1953 he tied with Oscar Panno of Argentina in the 2nd World Junior Championship, held in Copenhagen.  West German champion in 1955 and 1961.  He became an International Master in 1957 and a Grandmaster in 1964.  In the 1964 Amsterdam Interzonal, he took 11th place, beating Spassky.  In 1967, he tied for 1st with Bent Larsen at Winnipeg.  From 1989 to 1997, he was the chief coach of the German Chess Union (German national chess team).  He participated in ten Chess Olympiads for West Germany from 1954 to 1978.  He works as a computer programmer for IBM.


Darin, Bobby (1936-1973)

Born Walden Waldo Cassotto, he was one of the most popular rock and roll American teen idols of the late 1950s.   In late 1972, he planned the Bobby Darin International Chess Classic.  It would have been the richest chess tournament ever, and he was putting up $25,000 of his own money, but he died before it could take place.  Darin was a chess enthusiast.  The Bobby Darin Show featured a weekly chess problem.  He played chess his whole life, including the day before he died on the operating table during surgery to replace a heart valve.  He taught his wife, Sandra Dee, to play chess.  While he worked, she played chess with the cast or crew, and was very good, defeating most of her opponents.


Dato’ Tan Chin Nam (1926-    )

Chess philanthropist.  Former Malaysian Chess Association President and first chess sponsor in China.  FIDE Deputy President from 1982 to 1986.  Since 2004, he has been financing a chess festival organized every year in Kuala Lumpur.


Dautov, Rustem Hazitovic (1965-    )

Grandmaster from Germany, born in Ufa, Russia on November 28, 1965.  In 1983, he was the USSR Under-18 champion.  In 1986, he won the Belarusian Chess Championship.  In 1989, he was awarded the International Master title.  In 1991, he was awarded the Grandmaster title.  He moved to Germany in 1992.  In 1996, he tied for 1st with Artur Yusupov in the German Chess Championship.  In 1999, he took 2nd in the German championship.  In 2000, he and his German team won the silver medal at the 34th Chess Olympiad in Istanbul.  He also won the bronze medal for his rating performance and a bronze medal for individual score on third board.  His best Elo rating was 2636 in 2002.  He married Petra Stadler, who once may have been involved with a relationship with Bobby Fischer.  He now works as an instructor in an online poker company.


David, Alberto (1970-    )

The first Luxembourg Grandmaster (1998).  In 2003, he was awarded a gold medal for the best individual performance at board 1 of the European Team Championship.  He has played board 1 for Luxembourg in six Chess Olympiads from 1994 to 2006.  In 2002, he won the individual silver medal for board one, with 10 wins, 2 draws, and 1 loss.  His best Elo rating was 2603 in 2009.


Davidson, Jacques (1890-1969)

Dutch chess player, considered the first Dutch chess professional.  For awhile, he was a traveling salesman for a publisher of encyclopedias.  In 1921 and 1924, he took 2nd place in the Dutch championship, behind Max Euwe.  In 1921, he finished 1st at Amsterdam. 


Davies, Nigel Rodney (1960-    )

Nigel Davies was born on July 31, 1960 in Southport, England.  In 1979, he was British Under-21 champion.  In 1982, he was awarded the International Master title.  In 1987, he won the British Rapidplay Chess Championship.  In 1993, he was awarded the Grandmaster title.  His highest Elo rating was 2540 in 1995.    He has written at least 10 chess books. 


Dawson, Thomas (1889-1951)

British problemist who composed over 6,000 chess problems.  He specialized in fairy chess and, in 1912, he invented the grasshopper (upside down queen) – it moves like a queen but must hop over a piece and land on the next square beyond.  In 1915, he wrote Retrograde Analysis, the first chess book on the subject.  In 1925, he invented the Nightrider.  He was president of the British Chess Problem Society from 1931 to 1943.  He worked in the rubber industry and was the head of the Intelligence Division of the British Rubber Manufacturers.  He died of a stroke on December 16, 1951.


Day, Lawrence (1949-    )

Canadian International Master (1972).  In 2004 he won the first Canadian Senior (over 50 years old) Chess Championship with a perfect 5-0.


Day – Grimshaw, Ontario 1965

1.Nf3 d5 2.e4 c6 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Ng5 Nf6 5.Bc4 e6 6.O-O Qd4 7.Qe2 Nbd7 8.d3 exd3 9.Bxd3 Ne5 10.Rd1 Nxd3 11.Be3 Nf4 12.Qf3 Nh3+ 13.gxh3 Qe5 14.Rd8+ Ke7 15.Rad1  1-0


De Armas, Asela (1954)

Woman International Master (1978)  from Cuba.


De Blasio, Massimo (1960-    )

In 2001, Massimo De Blasio of italy was awarded the Correspondence Grandmaster title.


de Firmian, Nicholas (Nick) Ernest (1957-    )

American Grandmaster.  In 1979, he was awarded the International Master title.  In 1985, he was awarded the Grandmaster title.  In 1983, he won the Canadian Open Championship.  In 1986, he won the World Open and $21,000, at that time a record for a Swiss system tournament.  He was U.S. chess champion in 1987 (tied with Joel Benjamin), 1995, and 1998.  In 2002, he tied for 1st in the U.S. championship, but lost the playoff to Larry Christiansen.  He has a degree in physics from the University of California, Berkeley, and worked with the IBM Deep Blue team in 1997, preparing the computer’s openings for its winning efforts over world champion Garry Kasparov.  The U.S. Chess Federation awarded him with “the 1999 Grandmaster of the Year” title.  He played on the U.S. Olympiad team in 1980, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1996, 1998, and 2000.  His best Elo rating was 2610 in 1999.  He currently resides in Denmark.


De Firmian - Meyer, New York 1991

1.e4 d6 2.d4 Nf6 3.Nc3 g6 4.f4 Bg7 5.Nf3 c5 6.Bb5+ Bd7 7.e5 Ng4 8.e6 fxe6 9.Ng5 Bxb5 10.Nxe6 Bxd4 11.Nxb5 Qa5+ 12.Qd2 Bf2+ 13.Kd1 Qa4 (13...Ne3+) 14.Qe2 Kf7 15.b3 Qa6 16.Ng5+ Kg7 17.Qxe7+ Kh6 18.Nf7+ (18...Kg7 19.Nxd6+ Kh6 20.Nf5+ gxf5 21.Qg5 mate)  1-0


de Groot, Adrian (1914-2006)

Dutch psychologist and chess master who did the first psychological enquiry into the minds of chess players.  His 1965 book, Thought and Choice in Chess, showed the different abilities of masters and amateurs.  He found that masters can recall 93% of all the pieces on a board of a chess position from a game (not random) after looking at it for 4 seconds.  Experts remembered 72% and weaker chess players were able to recall only 51% of the pieces.  When random positions were shown, all levels of players recalled the same percentage of pieces.  This suggested that masters were able to use some form of chunking, or pattern-matching, that allowed them to recall the positions.  He played on the Dutch Olympiad team in 1936, 1937, and 1939.


De la Paz Pardomo, Frank (1975-    )

Cuban Grandmaster (2004).  His best Elo rating was 2495 in 1999.


De la Riva Aguado, Oscar (1972-    )

Oscar de la Riva Aguado was born in Bracelona, Spian on July 15, 1972.  He won the Spanish Under-16 championship in 1986, 1987, and 1988.  He won the Andorran championship in 2000, 2001, and 2007.  He won the Spanish championship in 2003.  He was awarded the Grandmaster title in 2004.  His best Elo rating was 2556 in 2004.


De la Villa Garcia, Jesus Maria (1958-    )

Spanish Grandmaster (1999).  In 1985 and 19988, he won the Spanish Chess Championship.  From 1997 to 2003 he was the technical director of the Spanish Chess Federation.  His best Elo rating was 2525 in 1996.


de Riviere, Jules (1830-1905)

Leading French master of his day.  He was a frequent opponent of Morphy and they were good friends.  Morphy pawned his watch that was given to him by the Brooklyn Chess Club to de Riviere, who loaned Morphy  a large sum of money.  Morphy never paid de Riviere back.  Morphy and de Riviere set out to write a book on chess openings, but they never completed or published the book.


de Vere, Cecil (1845-1875)

Cecil Valentine Brown, later known as Cecil de Vere, was born in February 14 (Valentine’s Day), 1845.  In 1857, at the age of 12, he was taught who to play chess by a strong London player, Francis Burden (1830-1882).  In 1859, he joined the City of London Chess Club.  In 1860, at the age of 15, he was a regular at Simpson’s Divan.  In 1864, he played a number of games against Reverend George A. MacDonnell, winning the majority of them.  In 1865, he won a match against Steinitz (+7-3=2), with Steinitz playing odds of a pawn and a move.   In November, 1866, at the age of 21, he won the 1st British Chess Association Challenge Cup, held in London, becoming the first official British Chess Champion.  He remained the youngest titleholder for over a century (until Nigel Short).  In June 1867, he took 5th at Paris France, won by Kolisch.  In September 1867, he took 3rd-4th at the 3rd Congress of the British Chess Association at Dundee, Scotland, won by Gustav Neumann.  While he was in Dundee, he learned that he had tuberculosis (consumption).  He worked at Lloyds Bank, but gave up his employment when he discovered he had tuberculosis.   In 1868-69, he tied for 1st place at the 2nd British Chess Association Challenge Cup, held in London.  He lost the play-off to Joseph Blackburne.  In 1870, he took 6th-7th at Baden-Baden, Germany.  In 1872, he took 3rd-5th at the 2nd British Chess Federation Congress in London.  In 1872, he was the chess editor of the Field, but lost it after 18 months through inattention to work (he had become an alcoholic).  In 1874, he lost a match against Zukertort in London.   He died of tuberculosis and a penniless alcoholic at the age of 29 on February 9, 1875 at Torquay.


Burn - de Vere, London 1868

1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.exd5 exd5 4.Bd3 Bd6 5.Nf3 Nc6 6.O-O Nf6 7.Re1+ Be6 8.Bf5 O-O 9.Bxe6 fxe6 10.Rxe6 Ne4 11.c4 Rxf3 12.gxf3 Qh4 13.Rxd6? (13.fxe4) 13...Qxf2+ 14.Kh1 Nxd6 15.cxd5 Re8 16.Bd2 Re2  0-1


Dean, George

Medical doctor.  Founder and President Emeritus of Chess Collectors International.    He is the owner of the largest collection of chess sets in the world.  He owns the only Faberge chess set in existence, perhaps the most valuable chess set in the world.   His chess sets were exhibited at the Karpov-Kasparov World Championship match at the Macklowe Hotel in New York.


Deepan, Chakkarvarthy (1987-    )

Deepan Chakkravarthy J is a Grandmaster (2006) from India.  In 2004, he was awarded the silver medal at the Asian Under-18 championship.  He is rated 2506.


Degraeve, Jean-Marc (1971-    )

French Grandmaster (1998).  In 1987, he won the French junior championship and was the European Under-16 champion.  He represented France in the 2000, 2002, and 2004 Men’s Chess Olympiads.  His best Elo rating was 2602 in 2001.


Del Rio Angelis, Salvador G. (1978-    )

Grandmaster from Spain.  His peak Elo rating was 2509.


Delchev, Alexander (1971-    )

Bulgarian Grandmaster (1997).  He was the Bulgarian Under-20 champion in 1990 and 1991.  He won the Bulgarian championship in 1994, 1996, and 2001.


Delmar, Eugene (1841-1909)

Eugene Delmar was born in New York City on September 12. 1841.  In 1874, he won the Brookyn Chess Club championship.  In 1876, he tied for 2nd place in the New York Clipper tournament, behind James Mason.  In 1879, he defeated Sam Loyd in a match in New York (+5-1=2).  In 1885, he won the 7th and 8th Manhattan Chess Club championship.  In 1888, he defeated Samuel Lipschuetz in a match in New York (+5-3=0).  In 1890, 1891, 1895, and 1897, he won the New York State Chess Association championship.  In 1904, he took last place at Cambridge Springs (+3-9=3).  For over 50 years, he was a leading chess player in America.  He died on February 22, 1909 in New York City.


DeMaro, Barbara

Managing director of the United States Chess Trust, the charitable arm of the United States Chess Federation.  She administers the Samford Fellowship (current US chess champion Hikaro Nakamura is the 2005 Samford Chess Fellow).  She was the USCF Executive Assistant from 1995 to 2000 and worked for the USCF for over 20 years.


Denker, Arnold Sheldon (1914-2005)

A onetime boxer and boxing manager (won three successive Golden Gloves bouts by knockouts).  He won the New York State championship in 1938 and 1939.  He won the Manhattan Chess Club Championship in 1939/40 and in 1943/44.  He won the 1944 U.S. Chess Championship with 14 wins, a record.  He also won it in 1946 when he defeated Herman Steiner in a match.  In 1942 he beat Reshevsky on time in the U.S. Championship.  While spectators watched, the tournament director (Walter Stephens) mistakenly declared  that Denker's time had expired.  He was looking at the clock backwards  and refused to change is decision, which ultimately gave Reshevsky the title. Denker once appeared in an advertisement for Camel cigarettes.  He set a world record of playing 100 opponents in 7.33 hours.  He won the Manhattan Chess Club Championship six times.  During World War II, he gave simultaneous chess exhibitions at military bases and on board aircraft carriers.  Like Reuben Fine, he was invited by the US government to help crack enemy codes.  He received an Honorary Grandmaster title in 1981 (he was awarded the International Master title in 1950).  He authored The Bobby Fischer I Knew and Other Stories.  He died of brain cancer at the age of 90.  He was inducted in the US Chess Hall of Fame in 1992.    In 2004 he was proclaimed Dean of American Chess, a title given earlier to Hermann Helms and George Koltanowski.  In 1984 he sponsored the national championship of high school state chess champions, known as the Denker Championship.


Denker - MacMurray, New York 1932

1.Nf3 Nf6 2.c4 c5 3.Nc3 Nc6 4.d4 cxd4 5.Nxd4 d5 6.Qa4 Qd7 7.cxd5 Nxd5 8.Nxd5 Qxd5 9.Nb5 Qd7 10.Bd2 e5 (10...a6) 11.O-O-O Bc5? (11...a6) 12.Bg5 Qf5 13.Nc7+ Kf8 14.Rd8+ Nxd8 15.Qe8 mate  1-0


Dervishi, Erald (1979-    )

Albania’s first and only Grandmaster (1998).  His FIDE rating is 2502.  He has been Albanian chess champion.


Deschapelles, Alexandre Louis Honore Lebreton (1780-1847)

Probably the strongest player in the world from 1800 to 1824. He claimed to have mastered chess in four days of study.  He lost his right arm fighting the Prussians in Napoleon’s army.  He gave up chess and took up whist when he could no longer beat his opponents at odds.  George Perigal, after interviewing him, wrote: "M. Deschapelles is the greatest chess player in France; M. Deschapelles is the greatest whist player in France; M. Deschapelles is the greatest billiards player in France; M. Deschapelles is the greatest pumpkin-grower in France; M. Deschapelles is the greatest liar in France."  He gave up chess when he was defeated by La Bourdonnais, then became an expert at whist.


DiCamillo, Attilio (1917-1962)

He played in three U.S. Chess Championships.  He took 10th-11th place in 1944.  He took 13th-16th place in 1946.  He took 12th-13th place in 1957-58.


Didier, M

In 1900, Didier finished in last place out of 17 players at Paris with 1 win, 13 losses, and 2 draws.  In 1901, he finished last place out of 14 players at Monte Carlo with no wins, 12 losses, and 1 draw.  At this tournament, draws were counted as a quarter-point.


Diemer, Emil Josef (1908-1990)

German master who contributed to the Blackmar-Diemer Gambit, 1.d4 d5 2. e4 dxe4 3.f3 or 1.d4 Nf6 2.Nc3 d5 3.e4.  In 1935/36 and 1936/37 he took first place in the Premier Reserves Major Tournament at Hastings.  In 1965 he was committed to a psychiatric clinic and was told not to play chess.  He returned to chess in the 1970s.  He had been a member of the Nazi party and was a chess reporter in the 1930s and 1940s.  He became preoccupied with Nostradamus, with interpreting the past and foretelling the future. 


Diemer – NN, Germany 1948

1.d4 d5 2.a3 a6 3.Nc3 e6 4.e3 c5 5.dxc5 Bxc5 6.b4 Be7 7.Bb2 Bf6 8.Nf3 b5 9.e4 Qc7 10.e5 Bxe5 11.Nxb5   1-0


Diesen, Mark (1957-    )

International Master (1976), U.S. Co-Junior Champion (with Michael Rohde) and World Junior Champion in 1976 (played in Groningen, Holland).  He became the first U.S. player to win the World Junior Championship since Bill Lombardy did it in 1957.  At 19, he was the youngest U.S. International Master since Fischer.  In 1980 he played in the U.S. Championship, but fell and got hurt after 3 rounds, then withdrew.  In 2003 he won the Texas State Championship.


Diez del Corral, Jesus (1933-    )

Spanish Grandmaster (1974).  He won the Spanish Chess Championship in 1955 and 1965.  He is an accountant by profession. 


Dimitrov, Vladimir (1968-    )

Grandmaster from Bulgaria.  His FIDE rating is 2418.


Ditt, Egon (1931-2005)

FIDE Vice President from 1990 to 1994.  FIDE Executive Council from 1994 to 1998.  Honorary President of the German Chess Federation.    He was treasurer of the European Chess Union.


Divinsky, Nathan (1925-    )

Canadian mathematician, chess master, and author.  In 1945, he was 3rd in the Canadian Championship.  He played on the 1954 and 1966 Canadian Olympiad chess team.  He was the editor of Canadian Chess Chat, Canada’s chess magazine, from 1959 to 1974.   His wife, Kim Campbell, was the 19th Prime Minister of Canada.  They were married from 1972 to 1983.  He served as assistant dean of science at the University of British Columbia.  He served as president of the Canadian Chess Federation.


Dizdar, Goran (1958-    )

Grandmaster from Croatia.  His FIDE rating is 2518.


Dizdarevic, Emir (1958-    )

Yugoslav (Bosnia and Herzegovina) Grandmaster (1988).  He is rated around 2520.


Philippe – Dizdarevic, Arandelovac 1985

1.d4 Nf6 2.Nc3 d5 3.Bg5 c6 4.f3 Qb6 5.Na4 Qa5+ 6.c3 Nbd7 7.Nh3 e5 8.Bd2 b5  0-1


Djurhuus, Rune (1970-    )

Grandmaster from Norway.  His FIDE rating is 2461.


Djuric, Stefan (1955-    )

Yugoslav (Serbia and Montenegro) Grandmaster (1982) from Belgrade.  He won the 2001 Australian Open.


Djuric – Szabo, Oberwart 1979

1.Nf3 Nf6 2.c4 c5 3.Nc3 e6 4.g3 b6 5.e4 Bb7 6.d3 Be7 7.Bg2 O-O 8.O-O d6 9.b3 Nc6 10.d4 d5 11.exd5 exd5 12.cxd5 Nb4 13.dxc5 Nbxd5 14.Nxd5 Nxd5 15.Bb2 Bxc5 16.Ne5 f6 17.Nd3 Rf7 18.Nxc5 bxc5 19.Qh5 Nb4 20.Bxb7 Rxb7 21.Qxc5 Rc8 22.Rad1 Qe8 23.Qf5 Nxa2 24.Rfe1 Qc6 25.Rd6  1-0


Dlugy, Maxim (1966-    )

Maxim Dlugy was born in Moscow on January 29, 1966.  He emigrated with his family to New York in 1979.  He became a master in 1980, and International Master in 1982, and a Grandmaster in 1986.  In 1984, he tied for 3rd at the U.S. chess championship.  In April 1985, at the age of 19, he advanced to the interzonals (he played in the Tunis Interzonal), the youngest U.S. player since Fischer.  He tied for 6th-8th place (won by Yusupov). In 1985, he won the World Junior Chess Championship.  In 1985, he took 2nd in the New York Open.  In 1986 he played first board on the U.S. Olympiad chess team in Dubai.   In 1987, he won the National Open in Las Vegas.  In 1987 he tied for 3rd in the U.S. Championship.  In 1988, he won the $32,000 Samford Chess Fellowship.  In 1988, he won the World Open in Philadelphia.  In 1988 and 1990, he won the US Open blitz championship. From 1988 to 1993, Dlugy was ranked number 1 in the world in the World Blitz Chess Association.  In 1989, he tied for 1st at the American Open.  He was elected President of the USCF (the first Grandmaster to be elected President) in 1990 and was USCF president from 1990 to 1993.  In 1991, he won the 2nd Harvard Cup man-machine tournament.  In 1992, he was the 3rd highest rated player in the USA, behind Kamsky and Kaidanov.  In the 1990s he worked for Bankers Trust on Wall Street as a securities trader.  In 2002, he was the investment manager to Russian Growth Fund (based in the Virgin Islands), which invested in a magnesium plant in Solikamsk (Russia’s second biggest magnesium plant; the USA buys 60% of its production).  Garry Kasparov once served as a senior advisor at the Russian Growth Fund.  From June 2003 to August 2003 he was the plant’s chairman of the board.  In April 2005, he was arrested in Moscow on fraud charges.  He had been wanted since November, 2004.  He was charged with attempting to defraud the company of $9 million worth of bonds.  He was transferred to a prison in Perm, central Russia.  He faced up to 10 years in a Russian prison.  All the charges against him were later dropped.


Shamkovich - Dlugy, New York 1983

1.d4 d5 2.c4 dxc4 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.e3 e6 5.Bxc4 c5 6.O-O a6 7.Qe2 cxd4 8.exd4 Be7 9.Nc3 b5 10.Bb3 Bb7 11.Bg5 O-O 12.Rfe1 Nc6 13.Rad1 Nd5 14.Nxd5 Bxg5 15.Nb6? (15.Nc3) 15...Nxd4 16.Nxd4 Qxb6 17.Qg4 Bf6 18.Nxe6 Bc8  0-1


Dokhoian, Yuri (1964-    )

Russian Grandmaster (1988).  He took 1st at Plovdiv 1988, Wijk aan Zee 1989, and Lulin 1993.  He served a a coach to Garry Kasparov.


Dokhoian – Taimanov, Belgrade 1988

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 Bb4+ 4.Bd2 a5 5.g3 d5 6.Qc2 Nc6 7.a3 Bxd2+ 8.Nbxd2 dxc4 9.Qxc4 Qd5 10.Bg2 Ne4 11.Qd3 Nxd2 12.Qxd2 O-O 13.Rd1 Ra6 14.O-O Rb6 15.Qc1 Qb5 16.Rd2 f5 17.Rfd1 h6 18.Rc2 Kh7 19.e3 Rd8 20.Ne1 e5 21.d5 Na7 22.Rxc7 e4 23.Qc3 Qxb2 24.Rxg7+ Kh8 25.Qc7  1-0


Dolmatov, Sergei (1959-    )

Russian Grandmaster (1982).  In 1978 he won the World Junior Championship.  He was a former student of Botvinnik.  In 1989, he tied for 2nd place in the USSR Championship.  He took 1st place at Hastings in 1989/1990.  He has been Kasparov’s second.


Kasparov – Dolmatov, Moscow 1977

1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.e3 Be7 5.Bd3 O-O 6.O-O dxc4 7.Bxc4 c5 8.Qe2 cxd4 9.exd4 Nc6 10.Rd1 b6 11.Nc3 Nb4 12.Bg5 Bb7 13.Ne5 Nfd5 14.Bxe7 Qxe7 15.a3 Nf4 16.Qg4 Nbd5 17.Nxd5 Nxd5 18.Re1 Rad8 19.Bd3 f5 20.Qg3 Nf6 21.Rac1 Rxd4 22.Nc6 Bxc6 23.Rxc6 Qd7 24.Bb5 Ne4 25.Qb3 a6  0-1


Donaldson, John Walter (1958-    )

International Master (1983) and one of the nicest guys in chess.   In 1983 he was the captain of the US team at the Greece Olympiad when he eloped with one of the top Russian lady players, Elena Akhmilovskaya.    He is director of the San Francisco Mechanics Institute Chess Club.  He has a BA in history from the University of Washington.    He has been captain of the U.S. Chess Olympic team six times.  He edited Northwest Chess from 1983 to 1984, The Players Chess News from 1984 to 1985.  He was a staff member for Inside Chess for 11 years.  He has written over 20 chess books.


Fricano – Donaldson, Milwaukee 2001

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 g6 5.c4 Bg7 6.Be3 Nf6 7.Nc3 O-O 8.Be2 b6 9.O-O Bb7 10.f3 Nh5 11.f4 Nxf4 12.Rxf4 Nxd4 13.Bxd4 e5 14.Rf3 exd4 15.Nd5 Re8 16.Qf1 Bxd5 17.exd5 Qe7 18.Re1 Bh6 19.d6 Qxd6 20.c5 Qxc5 21.Bc4 d3+  0-1


Donchev, Dimitar (1958-    )

Grandmaster from Bulgaria.  His FIDE rating is 2452.  He was Bulgarian champion in 1983.


Dondis, Harold (1922- )

Harold Dondis was born on October 1, 1922 in Rockland, Maine.  He has been a writer for the Boston Globe’s chess column for over 40 years, first appearing in 1964.  On March 2, 1964, he defeated Bobby Fischer is a simultaneous exhibition.  He is considered the Dean of New England Chess Journalists.  He is a former president of the Massachusetts State Chess Association (MSCA).  In 1967, he co-founded the U.S. chess Trust with Ed Edmondson.  He is a lawyer, graduating from Harvard Law School in 1945.


Donner,  Johannes (Jan) Hein (1927-1988)

Dutch grandmaster (1959) who won the Dutch championship in 1954, 1957, and 1958.  Donner was the first grandmaster that a Chinese player defeated.  At the Chess Olympiad in Buenos Aries in 1978, Liu Wen Che defeated Donner in 20 moves, putting China on the chess map.  He suffered a stroke in 1984 and was confined to a nursing home in Amsterdam until he died.


Enklaar - Donner, Netherlands 1976

1.e4 d6 2.d4 Nf6 3.Nc3 g6 4.f4 Bg7 5.Nf3 O-O 6.Be3 Nbd7 7.e5 Ng4 8.Bd2 c5 9.exd6 cxd4 10.Nxd4 Nf2 11.Qe2 e5 12.Qxf2 exd4 13.Nd5 Nc5 14.Ne7+ Kh8 15.Nxc8 Rxc8 16.O-O-O Qb6 17.Re1? (17.Qf3)  17...d3  (18.Kd1 dxc2+ 19.Ke2 Qxd6)  0-1


Dorfman, Josif (Iosif ) (1952-    )

Ukrainian trainer and Grandmaster (1978) who was Kasparov’s second for four World Championships.  He tied for 1st place (with Gulko) in the USSR championship in 1977.  He later moved to Cannes, France.


Dorfman - Santos, St. Barbara 1992

1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 c6 4.Qc2 Nf6 5.g3 Nbd7 6.Bg2 Bd6 7.O-O O-O 8.Nbd2 b5 9.c5 Bc7 10.e4 e5 11.dxe5 Nxe5 12.Nxe5 Bxe5 13.Nf3 Qe7 (13...Re8) 14.exd5 Nxd5 15.Re1 f6 16.Bf4 Qc7 17.Bxe5 fxe5 18.Nxe5 Bf5 19.Qb3 Rad8 20.Rad1 Rfe8 21.Bxd5+ Rxd5 22.Rxd5 Be6 23.Nxc6 (23...Qxc6 24.Rxe6 Qxe6 25.Re5 Qxb3 26.Rxe8 Kf7 27.axb3 Kxe8 28.b4)  1-0


Down, Nick

A former British Junior Correspondence Champion.  In the 1985-86 British Ladies Correspondence Chess Championship, Nick Down entered as Miss Leigh Strange and won the event.  He was later caught and admitted his deception was a prank that got out of hand.  He was later banned from the British Correspondence Chess Association.


Drasko, Milan (1962-    )

Grandmaster from Serbia and Montenegro.  His FIDE rating is 2516.


Dreev, Alexei (1969-    )

Russian Grandmaster (1990) who was World Under-16 champion (1983-84).  He began to play and study chess at age 6.  He was European Junior Champion in 1988.   His peak Elo reating was 2705.  In 2004, he finished 3rd in the Russian championship.


Dreev - Agnos, Arnhem 1989

1.e4 d6 2.d4 Nf6 3.Nc3 g6 4.Bg5 Nbd7 5.f4 h6 6.Bh4 Nh5 7.f5 Bg7 8.Bc4 Nhf6 9.fxg6 fxg6 10.Nf3 g5 11.Bg3 Nh5? (11...Nb6) 12.Ne5 Nxg3 13.Nf7 Nxh1 14.Nxd6+ Kf8 15.Qh5 (threatening 16.Qf7 mate)  1-0


Dubeck, Leroy (1939-    )

United States Chess Federation Secretary from 1966 to 1969, and President from 1969 to 1972.    He has a Ph.D. in Physics.   He was President, Vice-President or Secretary of the New Jersey State Chess Federation for over 20 years.  He has been a physics professor at Temple University for over 30 years.


Dubois, Serafino (1817-1899)

Italy’s leadng player in the mid 19th century.  In 1847, he edited the first chess column (L’Album) in Italy. 


Duchamp, Marcel (1887-1968)

Renowned artist (one of the founders of Dadaism, surrealism, and cubism) and chess player who used chess themes in many of his paintings.  He gave up work as an artist in 1923 to concentrate on chess.  In 1927 his bride, Lydie, glued all his chess pieces  to the board because he spent his honeymoon week studying chess.  They were divorced four months later.  He was a French chess master and played for France on four Olympiads.  His three most famous chess paintings are: The Chessplayers (1910), Portrait of a Chessplayer (1911), and King and Queen Surrounded by Swift Nudes (1912).  He died at the age of 81 near Paris.


Duchamp - E. Smith, Hyeres 1928

1.d4 d5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.c4 e6 4.Bc3 b6 5.cxd5 Nxd5 6.Bd2 Ba6 7.Ne5 Nxc3 8.Bxc3 f6 9.e3 fxe5 10.Bxa6 Nxa6 11.Qa4+ Qd7 12.Qxa6 Be7 13.dxe5 O-O 14.O-O c5 15.Rad1 Qc7 16.Qc4 Qc6 17.a4 Rad8 18.f4 Rxd1 g6 (19...a5) 20.Rd6! Bxd6 21.Qxe6+ Rf7 22.exd6 Qd7 23.Qe5 (23...Rf8 24.Qh8+ Kf7 25.Qxh7+ Ke8 26.Qxg6+)  1-0


Dufresne, Jean (1829-1893)

German chess player and newspaper editor in Berlin.  He wrote novels under the pseudonym E.S. Freund, an anagram of his real name.  He was a pupil of Adolf Anderssen.


Dufresne – Von Der Lasa, Berlin 1850

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.Bc4 Nc6 4.Ng5 d5 5.exd5 Na5 6.Bb5+ c6 7.dxc6 bxc6 8.Ba4 h6 9.Nf3 e4 10.Qe2 Be6 11.Ne5 Qd4 12.Bxc6+ Nxc6 13.Qb5 Bc5 14.Qxc6+ Ke7 15.Qb7+ Kd6 16.f4 Qf2+ 17.Kd1 Qxf4 18.Qc6+ Kxe5 19.d4 Bxd4 20.Qc7+  1-0


Dunst, Theodore (1907-1985)

New York master who popularized the opening 1.Nc3, which is sometimes called the Dunst Opening.


Durao, Joaquim (1938- )

Portuguese chess player; awarded the International Master title in 1975. He has won the Portuguese championship 13 times.  He served as Vice President of FIDE. 


Durao - Horta, Lisbon 1954

1.e4 e6 2.d4 Nf6 3.Bg5 Be7 4.Bd3 O-O 5.Nc3 Nxe4? (5...Nc6) 6.Bxe7 Nxc3 7.Bxh7+ Kh8 8.Qh5 (8...Kg8 9.Bxd8)  1-0


Duras, Oldrich (1882-1957)

Czech champion (1905, 1907, and 1909) and grandmaster (1950) who was one of the world’s top 10 players from 1906 to 1914.  During World War I he served in the Austrio-Hungarian army.  He gave up chess in 1918 to pursue his career as a civil servant.


Duras - Jes, Pisek 1912

1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 d5 4.exd5 Qxd5 5.Nc3 Qh5 6.d4 Bg4 7.Bxf4 Bxf3 8.Qxf3 Qxf3 9.gxf3 Nc6 10.Bxc7 Nxd4 11.O-O-O Ne6?? (11...Bc5) 12.Bb5+ Ke7 13.Nd5 mate  1-0


Dus-Chotimirsky, Fedor (1879-1965)

Russian International Master (1950).  In 1909 he defeated the eventual winners Lasker and Rubinstein at St. Petersburg, but took 13th place.  He claimed he was Alekhine’s first chess teacher, in 1900.  He played in five Soviet Chess Championships.  He once took a move back against David Bronstein in a tournament as spectators watched his game.  In response to the crowd and the tournament director who tried to intervene, he shouted, “Hey, I just made a bad move and now I an changing it to a good one.  To hell with the rules, this is chess.”  The game continued as nothing happened.  Dus-Chotimirisky may have been the person who coined the name “Dragon Variation” of the Sicilian Defense.


Dus-Chotimirsky – Sharov, Moscow 1901

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Nf6 4.O-O d6 5.d4 Nd7 6.Nc3 Be7 7.Be3 O-O 8.Qd2 Bf6 9.Ne2 Qe7 10.Ng3 exd4 11.Nxd4 Nxd4 12.Bxd4 Ne5 13.f4 Ng4 14.Be2 Bxd4+ 15.Qxd4 Nxh2 16.Nh5 f5 17.Kxh2 g6 18.Bc4+  1-0


Dvoirys, Semen (1958-    )

Grandmaster from Russia.  His FIDE rating in 2589.  He once threw his shoe through the tournament hall in Holland after a defeat.  Another time, he beat his head on the floor after a loss.


Dyckhoff, Eduard (1880-1949)

German chess club activist and one of the most enthusiastic propagators of correspondence chess.  In 1930, he won the Internationaler Fernschachbund (IFSB) world correspondence championship.  He took second place in 1929, 1931 and 1936.  In 1954, a giant Dychkhoff Memorial Correspondence Tournament was organized with 1,860 chess players from 33 countries.  As many as 8,856 games were played in this event.  The event was won by Lothar Schmid, who later became a grandmaster in correspondence and over-the-board play.


Dydyshko, Viacheslav (1949-    )

Grandmaster from Belarus.  His FIDE rating is 2551.


Dyner, Israel (1903-1979)

Belgian Chess Champion in 1932 and 1935.


Dzindzichashvili, Roman Yakovlevich (1944-    )

Soviet-born (Tbilisi) player and Grandmaster (1977). He won the U.S. Championship in 1983 and 1989.   He played in two USSR championships (1971 and 1972) before immigrating to Israel in 1976.  He was Israeli Champion in 1977.  He came to the United States in 1980.  He won Lone Pine in 1980.  He led the U.S. Olympiad team in 1984.


Grigorian - Dzindzichashvili, USSR 1969

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Bc5 4.c3 f5 5.d4 fxe4 6.Ng5 Bb6 7.d5 e3 8.dxc6 bxc6 9.h4 exf2+ 10.Kf1 cxb5 11.Qd5 Nh6 12.Qxa8 c6 13.Ne4 O-O 14.Bg5? (14.b4) 14...b4 (threatening 15...Ba6  and mate)  0-1


Eade, Jim (1957-    )

Chess writer, editor, publisher, and organizer.  Author of Chess for Dummies in 1996.  He is a FIDE master (1993). 


Eastman, George (1903-1975)

He won the Canadian Championship in 1925, 1926, 1927, 1929, 1930, and 1931.  He won the Michigan State Championship in 1933, 1938, 1939, 1941, 1946, 1948, 1949, and 1952.


Eaton, Vincent Lanius (1915-1962)

Vincent Eaton was born in Venezuela.  He graduated from Harvard at the age of 18.  He was considered one of America’s greatest chess composers.  He worked as a scholar at the Library of Congress. From 1939 to 1941 he was the Problem Editor of Chess Review.  He published over 400 chess problems.


Ebralidze, Archil Silovanovich (1909-1960)

International Master from Soviet Georgia.  He was Tigran Petrosian’s first trainer.  He was a former champion of Georgia.  In 1937, he took last place in the 10th USSR Championship (won by Levenfish) without winning a single game


Edmondson, Edmund Broadley Jr. (1920-1982)

Former president (1963-1966) and executive director (1966-1977) of the U.S. Chess Federation.  From 1970 to 1977, he was a member of the FIDE Bureau.  In 1969, he arranged the merger of Chess Life and Chess Review magazines to form Chess Life & Review.  He suffered a heart attack while playing chess on the beach at Waikiki, Hawaii. The Edmondson trophy goes to the winner of the National Open.  He retired from the U.S. Air Force as a Lieutenant Colonel, serving as an aircraft navigator on tanker and bombers.


Edward I (1239-1307)

King of England.  In 1270 he was playing chess against a soldier in a room with a tiled roof.  He had just left his chair when suddenly an immense rock fell on the very spot where he had been sitting.  His brother-in-law, Alphonso of Castile, commissioned one of the most important manuscripts on chess.


Efimenko, Zahar (1985-    )

Grandmaster (2002).  In 1999, he was the World Under-14 Chess Champion.  In 2006, he won the championship of the Ukraine.  His best Elo rating was 2666 in 2005.


Efimov, Igor (1960-    )

Grandmaster (1992), born in Soviet Georgia and later moved to Italy.  He won the championship of Italy in 1998 and 1999.  He won the championship of Monaco in 2008.  His best Elo rating was 2540 in 1997.


Ehlvest, Jaan (1962-    )

Grandmaster (1987) born in Tallinn, Estonia.   In 1980, he won the USSR Junior Chess Championship.  In 1981, he took 2nd in the World Junior Chess Championship.  He won the European Junior Championship in 1982-83.  In 1986, he won the Estonian Championship.  In 1987 and 1989 he was Estonian sportsman of the year.  He won the New York Open in 1994 and the World Open in 2003.  In 1987, he won the Zagreb Interzonal.  He was a Candidate in the World Chess Championship in 1988, but got knocked out by Arthur Yusupov (1.5-3.5).  He was once banned from playing chess by the Estonian Sports Committee after a drinking incident in Tallinn.  He moved to the United States in 2006.  He studied psychology at Tartu State University.  His highest Elo rating was 2660 in 1996.  He is the author of Dutch Defense (1990) and The Story of a Chess Player (2004).


Landenbergue - Ehlvest, New York 1993

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 e6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 d6 6.f4 Be7 7.Bb5+ Bd7 8.e5 dxe5 9.fxe5 Nd5 10.Nxd5 exd5 11.e6 fxe6 12.Nxe6 Bb4+ 13.Bd2 (13.c3) 13...Qh4+ 14.g3 Qe4+ 15.Kf2 Rf8+ (16.Bf4 Qxe6)  0-1


Eichborn, Louis (1812-1882)

Louis Eichborn was born in 1812.  He was a fellow professor and collegue of Adof Anderssen.  In 1851, Eichborn won 2 games against Anderssen.  In 1852, he won 8 games and drew one game in a match against Adolf Anderssen in Breslau.  In 1853, Eichborn won 9 games and lost one game against Anderssen.  In 1854, Eichborn won 4 games against Anderssen.  In 1855, Eichborn won 2 games and lost one game against Anderssen.  In 1857, he won 4 games against Anderssen.  In 1858, he won one game against Anderssen.  In 1859, he won one game against Anderssen.  From 1851 to 1859, Eichborn won 31 games, lost 2 games and drew one game against Anderssen.  Eichborn died on May 9, 1882 in Breslau.  His games were found among his papers after he died.  He had kept his wins and some draws.  He played 34 games that we know of against Adolf Anderssen.  The games were published in Adolf Anderssen, der Altmeister Schachspielkunst, by Gottschall in 1912.  About 15 other Eichborn’s games with other opponents were published by Deutsche Schachzeitung during his lifetime.


Eidelson, Rakhil (1958-    )

Woman Grandmaster from Belarus.  Her FIDE rating is 2165.


Eingorn, Vereslav (Viacheslav) (1956-    )

Grandmaster (1986) from the Ukraine.  He won the Odessa championship in 1977 and 1979.  In 1984, he took 3rd place in the USSR Chess Championship, held in Lvov.  He played for Ukraine in the 1992, 2000, and 2002 Chess Olympiads.  In 2007, he was awarded the title of FIDE Senior Trainer.  His best Elo rating was 2611 in 2003.


Einstein, Albert (1879-1955)

Albert Einstein was a good friend of World Chess Champion Emanual Lasker and they shared  an apartment together in Berlin in the 1930s.  In an interview with the New York Times in 1936 Albert said, "I do not play any games.  There is no time for it.  When I get through work I don't want anything which requires the working of the mind."   He did play chess with friends, however.


Ekstrom, Folke (1906-2000)

International Correspondence Master (1971) and International Master (1950) from Swden.  In 1945-46, he took 2nd place at Hastings, behind Tartakower.  He was Swedish champion in 1947 and 1948.  He was European correspondence champion in 1967-1972. 


El Arousy, Abdul Hameed (1963-    )

Egyptian IM.  His highest FIDE rating is 2391.


El Gindy, Essam (1966-    )

Grandmaster (2008) from Egypt.  In 2007, he took 2nd in the African championship and the Arab championship.  His best Elo rating was 2526 in 2008.


Eliskases, Erich Gottlieb (1913-1997)

Austrian champion (1929 – at the age of 16), International Master (1950), and Grandmaster (1952) that remained in Argentina during a chess Olympiad after World War II broke out.  He won the Hungarian Championship in 1934.  In 1937, he was Alekhine’s second during the Alekhine-Euwe world championship match.  He won the German championship in 1938 and 1939.  For a time, he was considered a likely contender for the world title.  During his career, he beat three world champions: Capablanca, Euwe, and Fischer.  He played chess for three different countries in Olympiads: Austria (1930, 1933, 1935, 1936), Germany (1939), and Argentina (1952, 1958, 1960, 1964).  He lived in Brazil for awhile and could have played for Brazil, but turned it down. 


Kozelen - Eliskases, Correspondence 1932

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d5 3.exd5 e4 4.Qe2 Nf6 5.Qb5+ c6 6.dxc6 bxc6 7.Qe5+ Be7 8.Ng5 Nbd7 9.Qf4 O-O 10.Nxe4 Nd5 11.Qf3 Re8 12.d3 Ne5 13.Qg3? (13.Qd1)  13...Bh4 14.Bg5 Bxg5 15.Qxg5 Qxg5 16.Nxg5 Nf3+ 17.Kd1 Re1 mate  0-1


Eljanov, Pavel (1983-    )

Grandmaster (2000) from the Ukraine.  In 2000, he took 2nd in the Ukraine Under-18 championship.  In 2007, he won Corus B in Wijk aan Zee.  His father, Viktor, is an International Master.  Pavel’s best Elo rating was 2720 in 2008.


Elkies, Noam (1966-    )

Chess master and mathematician.  He was the youngest professor ever tenured at Harvard (age 26).  In 1981 and 1982 he placed first in the USA Math Olympiad.  He had a perfect score in 1981.     At age 18, he graduated from Columbia University as class valedictorian, majoring in mathematics and music.  He earned his PhD from Harvard in mathematics at age 20.   He won the world chess solving championship in 1996 and 2001.  In 2001, he was awarded the title of Grandmaster for Chess Solving.


Elo, Arpad Emrick (Aug 25, 1903- Nov 5, 1992)

Born in Egyhazaskeszo, Hungary, he moved to the United States with his parents in 1913.  He played in 37 consecutive state championships in Wisconsin, from 1933 to 1969, winning the title 7 times (1935, 1937, 1940, 1941, 1945, 1950, and 1961).  He was a professor of physics and astronomy at Marquette University in Milwaukee for 30 years (1935 to 1965) and president (1935-1937) of the American Chess Federation before it merged and came part of the U.S. Chess Federation (USCF) in 1939.  He is considered the father of scientific chess ratings and his Elo rating system was adopted by the USCF in 1960 and by FIDE in 1970.  The original chess rating system was developed by Kenneth Harkness in 1950.  He died of a heart attack in 1992 in Milwaukee at the age of 89.


Elwert, Hans-Marcus (1962-    )

Correspondence Grandmaster (1996) from Germany.  He took 2nd in the 18th World Championship. 


Emery, Thomas (1896-1975)

Principal benefactor of the American Chess Foundation.  He sponsored the Armed Forces Championship (the Thomas Emery Trophy) beginning in 1960, which continues today.  He donated over one million dollars to chess during his lifetime.


Emms, John (1967-    )

Grandmaster (1995) from England.  His best Elo rating was 2586 in 1999.  In 1997, he tied for 1st in the British Championship.  He has written at least 28 chess books.


Enders, Peter (1963-    )

Grandmaster (1997) from Germany.  In 1994, he won the German championship.  His best Elo rating was 2535 in 1997. 


Endzelins, Lucius (1909-1981)

Correspondence Grandmaster (1959).  He tied for 2nd place (with Lothar Schmid) in the 2nd World Correspondence Championship, held from 1956 to 1959.  He won the Australian championship in 1961.  He was born in Estonia.


Enevoldsen, Jen (1907-1980)

International Master (1950) and International Arbiter (1960) from Denmark.  He won the championship of Denmark 5 times (1940, 1943, 1947, 1948, 1960).   He played for Denmark in 10 Chess Olypiads.  He was the author of several books on bridge and chess.  His historical Elo rating was 2430.


Englisch, Berthold (1851-1897)

Austrian chess master of grandmaster strength.  He won the German championship at Leipzig in 1879.  He was one of the early pioneers of the Orangutan Opening, 1.b4.   He took ill from a brain infection while playing in a chess tournament in Berlin in September 1897 and withdrew after 12 rounds.  He then returned to Vienna and died on October 19, 1897,  two weeks after the tournament ended.  He was 46.


Englisch – Gifford, Paris 1878

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.d3 d6 6.Nc3 Bd7 7.O-O Ne7 8.Bb3 Ng6 9.Ng5 d5 10.Nxd5 Be6 11.Nxe6 fxe6 12.Nxf6+ Qxf6 13.Qg4 Kd7 14.Bg5 Qf7 15.d4 exd4 16.f4 Ne7 17.f5  1-0


Englund, Fritz (1871-1933)

Swedish master who analyzed and played the moves 1.d4 e5, known as the Englund Gambit.


Ensor, Albert (1833- )

In 1873, he won the first complete Canadian Chess Championship.  He had the ill fortune of being arrested and imprisoned in various countries.  In Germany, he was arrested for gambling.  In France, he was arrested for forgery.  In the United States, he was arrested for counterfeiting in 1875.  He later began a chess column in the Buffalo Morning Express and a correspondent to the chess column of the New York Clipper. 


Eon de Beaumont, Charles D' (1728-1810)

French chess player and male transvestite who was a diplomat for Louis XV.  He once beat Philidor in one of Philidor’s blindfold exhibitions.


Epishin, Vladimir (1965-    )

Grandmaster (1990) from Russia.  He won the St. Petersberg championship twice.  He was Karpov’s second from 1987 to 1996.  In 1989, he won the U.S. Open.  His best Elo rating was 2675 in 1994.


Epstein, Esther (1954-    )

USSR Women’s Vice Champion in 1976 and US Women’s Champion in 1991 and 1997.  In 1972, she was a Women’s International Master (WIM) in chess at 18.  Her husband is Grandmaster Alexander Ivanov.  She works as a Systems Manager for the Bio-Molecular Engineering Research Center at Boston University.


Erenska-Barlo (Radzewska), Hanna (1946-    )

Woman Grandmaster from Poland.  Her FIDE rating is 2247.


Ercole del Rio, Domenico (1718-1802)

Italian lawyer who, in 1750, wrote an 110-page chess book called Sopra il giuoco degli scacchi osservazioni pratiche d’anonimo autore Modenese (Practical observations on the game of ches by an anonymous author of Modena).  He was a leading member of the Modena School of chess theorists in Italy and a chess problem composer.


Erdos, Viktor (1987-    )

Grandmaster (2007) from Hungary.  His best Elo rating was 2583 in 2009.


Erenburg, Sergey (1983-    )

Grandmaster (2003) from Israel, born in Russa.  In 2003, he tied for 3rd in the World Under-20 championship.  In 2004, he won the championship of Israel.  His best Elo rating was 2595 in 2005.


Ermenkov, Evgenij Petkov (1949-    )

Grandmaster (1977) born in Bulgaria.  He became an International master in 1974 and a Grandmaster in 1977.  He won the Bulgarian Chess Championship in 1973, 1975, 1976, 1979, and 1984.   He is now playing for the Palestine Federation.  He represented Bulgaria in the Chess Olympiads from 1978 to 1992, taking the individual bronze in 1990.  He represented Palestine in the Chess Olympiads from 2004-2008.   In 2004, he was awarded the gold medal for best individual performance (10.5 out of 12) on board one in the Chess Olympiad in Calvia.  His best Elo rating was 2520 in 1978.  In 2006, he was awarded the silver medal for individual performance on board one in the Chess Olympiad in Turin.


Ermenkov – Miagmarsuren, Valetta 1980

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.Nc3 a6 4.d4 cxd4 5.Nxd4 e6 6.f4 Qc7 7.Be2 Nc6 8.Be3 Nf6 9.O-O Bd7 10.Qe1 Nxd4 11.Bxd4 Bc6 12.Bf3 Be7 13.Qg3 O-O 14.Rae1 Ne8 15.Kh1 Rc8 16.Qh3 b5 17.a3 a5 18.e5 b4 19.axb4 axb4 20.Ne4 d5 21.Nf6+ gxf6 22.Qh6 Bb5 23.exf6 Bc5 24.Be4  1-0


Ernst, Sipke (1979-    )

Grandmaster (2007) from the Netherlands.  His best Elo rating was 2598 in 2009.


Ernst, Thomas (1960-    )

Grandmaster (1991) from Sweden.  He was Swedish champion in 1992 and 1993.  His best Elo rating was 2570 in 1992.  He has a PhD in mathematics.


Eslon, Jaan (1952-2000)

Swedish master who was the first winner at Linares, Spain, in 1978.


Eslon – Clarke, Islington 1972

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 f6 4.d4 Nxd4 5.Nxd4 exd4 6.O-O a6 7.Bc4 b5 8.Bxg8 Rxg8 9.Qh5+ g6 10.Qd5  1-0


Espig, Lutz (1949-    )

German Grandmaster (1983).  He won the East German Chess Championship in 1969, 1971, and 1988.  His best Elo rating was 2505 in 1990.


Espig – Mohring, Potsdam 1974

1.Nf3 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.g3 d5 4.Bg2 Be7 5.O-O O-O 6.d4 Nbd7 7.Qc2 c5 8.cxd5 Nxd5 9.Nc3 Nb4 10.Qb3 cxd4 11.Nxd4 Qb6 12.Be3 Nc5 13.Qc4 Bd7 14.a3 Nc6 15.b4 Ne5 16.Qa2 Ng4 17.bxc5 Bxc5 18.Rab1 Qd8 19.Nc6 Bxc6 20.Bxc5 Bxg2 21.Kxg2  1-0


Estrin, Yakov (1923-1987)

In 1962, Estrin tied for 1st place in the USSR Correspondence Championship.  Estrin took 3rd in the 6th World Correspondence Championship (1968-1971) and was the 7th Correspondence Chess World Champion (1972-1975).  He was awarded the Correspondence Grandmaster title in 1966 and the Grandmaster title in 1984.  He was a paratrooper, lawyer, and chess professional.  He played in the World Correspondence Championship finals five times. 


Estrin - Okley, Correspondence 1966

1.e4 Nf6 2.e5 Nd5 3.c4 Nb6 4.d4 d6 5.f4 dxe5 6.fxe5 Nc6 7.Be3 Bf5 8.Nc3 e6 9.Nf3 Qd7 10.Be2 Rd8 11.O-O bg4 12.Ng5 Nxc4 13.Bf2 Bxe2 14.Qxe2 Be7 15.Qh5 g6 16.Qh6 Nxd4 17.Qg7 Rf8 18.Nxh7 Qc6? (18...Nxb2) 19.Bxd4 Rxd4 20.Nxf8  (20...Nxe5 21.Nxg6 fxg6 22.Qxe5)  1-0


Euwe, Machgielis (Max) (1901-1981)

Former FIDE President (1970-1978) who was twice world champion - 1935-37 (5th official world champion) and for one day in 1947.  In July 1947, the FIDE Congress, held in The Hague, voted for Euwe to be world champion since Alekhine died. However, the Soviet delegation, which joined FIDE in 1947, was late for this vote.  They later showed up and had the title rescinded in favor of a match-tournament.  Euwe was world champion again for two hours in 1947.  He was once the former amateur heavyweight boxing champion of Europe.  In the world championship match-tournament in 1948, Euwe wore gloves while playing his games. When he was asked why, he said the feeling of gloves on his hands psychologically induced in him a fighting spirit.  He was a professor of mathematics (Ph.D. in mathematics in 1926) and mechanics.  From 1930 to 1940 he was a schoolmaster at a girls’ school in Amsterdam.  Euwe learned chess from his mother, who once played in the Dutch Women’s Championship.   In 1921 he won the Dutch championship for the first time.  Euwe won the Dutch championship 13 times (1921, 1924, 1926, 1929, 1933, 1938, 1939, 1942, 1947, 1948, 1950, 1952, 1955).  In 1928 he won the Amateur World Championship.  He played in seven Chess Olympiads from 1927 to 1962 as board one for the Netherlands.  He could speak 5 languages.  Max was involved in computer research in the late 1970s and was convinced that grandmasters would not have to worry about computers beating them for another 100 years.  Euwe won 102 first place prizes during his career.  He wrote over 70 chess books.


Euwe - Abrahams, England 1939

1.d4 b5 2.e4 Bb7 3.f3 a6 4.c4 bxc4 5.Bxc4 e6 6.Nc3 d5 (6...Nf6) 7.Qb3 Nc6 8.exd5 Nxd4 9.Qxb7 Rb8 10.Qxa6 Ra8 11.Bb5+ Ke7 12.d6+ (12...cxd6 13.Bg5+  Nf6 14.Qb7+ Qd7 15.Qxd7 mate)  1-0


Evans, Larry Melvyn (1932-    )

American Grandmaster (1957).   Best Blackjack player of any Grandmaster.  He lives in Reno, Nevada. He has won the U.S. championship five times (1951, 1962, 1968, 1979, and 1980) and the U.S. Open four times (1951, 1952, 1954, and 1955).  In 1947, at the age of 15, he was the Marshall Chess Club champion.  In 1948, at the age of 16, he won the New York State Championship.  In 1949, he tied with Arthu Bisguier for 1st place in the U.S. Junior Championship.  In 1950, he won a gold medal in the Dubrovnik Chess Olympiad for best individual performance on board 5.  In 1951, at age 19, he was the U.S. Open Champion, the U.S. Closed Champion, and the U.S. Speed Champion.  In 1952 he played and won the last match for the U.S. Championship.  He defeated Herman Steiner, 10-4.  He won the Canadian Open in 1956 and 1966.  In 1956 the U.S. State Department appointed him as a “chess ambassador.”  Evans once gave a simultaneous exhibition at an insane asylum, winning 39 and losing 1.  When he went to congratulate the winner, the winner said, "You don't have to be crazy to play chess, but it sure helps!"  He played on 8 US Olympiad teams between 1950 and 1976.  He won the first Lone Pine tournament in 1971.  He has written over 25 chess books.  He has written his national syndicated chess column, Evans on Chess, since 1971.  He learned chess at the age of 12.  In 1994, he was inducted into the US Chess Hall of Fame.  In 2000, he won the USCF Chess Journalist of the Year award.  His best Elo rating was 2555 in 1977.  His best USCF rating was 2631 in 1968. 


Evans - Bisquier, New York 1963

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 d5 4.Bg5 c5 5.cxd5 cxd4 6.Qxd4 Be7 7.e4 Nc6 8.Qe3 exd5 9.Bxf6 Bxf6 10.exd5+ Ne7 11.d6 Qxd6 12.Bb5+ Bd7 13.Rd1 Bxc3+ 14.bxc3 Qxd1+ 15.Kxd1 Bxb5 16.Nf3 O-O-O+ (16...Bc4) 17.Kc1 Nc6 18.Qc5 Bd3 19.Ne5 Rhe8 20.Nxf7 (20...Rd7 21.Nd6+, winning the exchange)  1-0


Evans, William Davies (1790-1872)

A captain in the mercantile marine and amateur chessplayer.  He went to sea in 1804 at the age of 14, and later became a  steamer ship captain in 1819.  He discovered the Evans Gambit (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.b4) in 1824 while at sea.   He first played it against Alexander McDonnell in 1826 and won.    In 1845 Evans took part in the first chess game played by telegraph.    He may have also founded the first chess club in Ireland.   He was active in London chess events and Howard Staunton chose  Evans to be his second at chess matches.   Later, Harrwitz chose Evans to be his second.  In 1871 he invented the system of white, green, and red lights signal lights at sea to prevent collisions.  He died in 1872 and was buried in Ostend.  His age is wrong on his grave.


Evdokimov, Alexander (1985-    )

Grandmaster (2005) from Russia.  His best Elo rating was 2569 in 2008.


Evseev, Georgy (1962-    )

Grandmaster in Chess Solving (1991).  He won the world championship in chess solving in 1989, 1990, 1991, and 1999.


Ezra, Abraham ibn (1092-1167)

Spanish rabbi of Toledo who wrote the earliest Hebrew poem on chess.   The Latin title of the poem is Carmina Rhythmica de Ludo Schahmat and is 76 lines long.  It is the oldest source of chess rules.


Factor, Samuel (1892-1949)

Samuel Factor (Faktor) was born September 22, 1892 in Lodz, Poland.  He was one of the strongest chess players in Lodz.  He was a former Chicago (1922, 1937) and Illinois (1936, 1938) chess champion.   He won the 23rd Western Chess Association (U.S. Open) in 1922, held in Louisville, Kentucky.  In 1928, he represented the USA at third board in the 2nd Chess Olympiad, held in The Hague.  The USA team won the silver medal.  He tied for 1st with Norman Whitaker in  the U.S. Open in 1930, held in Chicago.  He died in Chicago on January 11, 1949.


Fagan, Louisa Matilda (1850-1931)

Winner of a chess tournament in Bombay, India in which 12 men took part.  She won all her games.  She was disqualified because she was a woman playing in a club whose membership was confined to men.   She appealed this decision in court and won.  In 1897, she took 2nd place (behind Mary Rudge) in the Ladies’ International tournament in London.  She became an emancipation activist.


Fahrni, Hans (Oct 1, 1874 – May 28, 1939)

Fahrni was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1874.  In 1892 he was joint Swiss chess champion (with Corrodi).  He was the first master to play 100 opponents simultaneously.  It took place in 1911 at Munich.  His score was 55 wins, 39 draws, and 6 losses in seven and a half hours. He took 1st place at San Remo in 1911.  In 1916, suffering from psychosis, he was hospitalized.  He was released, but following a relapse, he was hospitalized again.  In 1921 he was diagnosed with catatonic schizophrenia.  He spent the rest of his life traveling between hospitals and chess tournaments.  In 1922, he was the first to write a chess monograph on the opening 1.e4 Nf6, calling it Alekhine’s Defense.  He died in 1939 in Ostermundingen, Switzerland.


Fahrni – Post, Barmen 1905

1.d4 d5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.c4 e6 4.Bf4 c5 5.Nc3 a6 6.cxd5 exd5 7.e3 Nc6 8.Bd3 Bg4 9.Be5 Nxe5 10.dxe5 Nd7 11.Be2 Bxf3 12.Bxf3 Nxe5 13.Bxd5 Qd7 14.O-O Be7 15.f4 Nc6 16.Bxf7+ Kd8 17.Qb3 Kc7 18.Nd5+ Kb8 19.Nb6 Qf5 20.Be6  1-0


Fairhurst, William Albert (1903-1982)

Editor of the Chess Amateur.  Scottish Champion 11 times between 1932 and 1962.  British Champion in 1937.  Commonwealth Champion in 1951.  He was awarded the International Master title in 1951.  He moved to New Zealand in 1970.  He played for Scotland and New Zealand in the chess Olympiads.  He was an eminent civil engineer (PhD in Civil Engineering) and bridge designer.


Falkbeer, Ernst (1819-1885)

Austrian player who contributed to the King’s Gambit.  In 1855 he gave the game between Anderssen and Kieseritzky played in 1851 its name of the Immortal Game.  In 1856 he was one of the top five players in the world.  From 1857 to 1859, he wrote a chess column for the London Sunday Times.  From 1863 to 1867 he edited The Chess Player’s Magazine with Lowenthal.  From 1877 to 1885, he wrote a chess column for the Neue Illustrierte Zeitung. 


Falkbeer – Zytogorski, London 1856

1.e4 e5 2.d4 exd4 3.Bc4 Qh4 4.Qe2 Bb4+ 5.c3 dxc3 6.bxc3 Bc5 7.Nf3 Qh5 8.g4 Qxg4? 9.Bxf7+ Kf8 10.Rg1 Qh3 11.Rg3  1-0


Farago, Ivan (1946-    )

Hungarian Grandmaster (1976).  In 1981 he tied for 1st (with Portisch) in the Hungarian championship.  In 1986 he won the Hungarian championship.  He has a degree in economics.



British women’s chess champion at Hastings in 1933 (in 1932, she took 12th place).  She was a servant of maharaja Sir Umar Hayat Khan.  The British men’s champion was Mir Sultan Khan, also a servant of  Sir Umar Khan.


Federov, Alexei (1972-    )

Grandmaster from Belarus.   His FIDE rating is 2611.


Fedorowicz, John (1958-    )

American Grandmaster (1986) who was U.S. Junior co-champion in 1977 and champion in 1978.  He won the U.S. Open in 1981 and the New York Open in 1989.  He took 3rd in the 1984 and the 1987 US Championship.  He is a four-time World Open champion.  He is known as “the Fed.”


Fedorowicz - Gomez, Candas 1992

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 Bb4+ 4.Bd2 c5 5.Bxb4 cxb4 6.g3 O-O 7.Bg2 d6 8.O-O Qe7 9.a3 bxa3 10.Rxa3 Nc6 11.Nc3 Nb4 12.Qd2 b6 13.Na4 Na6 14.Rfa1 Ne4 (14...d5) 15.Qe3 f5 16.Nc3 Nxc3 17.Qxc3 Nb8 (17...Nc7) 18.Ne1 (18...d5 19.cxd5 Bb7 20.Rxa7)  1-0


Feigins, Movsa (1908-1950)

Latvian Champion in 1932.


Ferrantes, Giovanni (1903-1995)

Editor of the Italian monthly chess magazine L’Italia Scacchistica for 46 years (1946 to 1992).  He died in 1995.


Fernandez Garcia, Jose (1954-    )

Spanish Grandmaster (1986).  His FIDE rating is 2456.


Fernandez Garcia – Torres, Seville 1994

1.e4 c5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.Nf3 e6 4.d4 cxd4 5.Nxd4 Be7 6.Bf4 a6 7.Nxc6 dxc6 8.Qxd8+ Bxd8 9.O-O-O Ne7 10.Bd6 O-O 11.Ba3 Re8 12.Rxd8  1-0


Field, Ted (1953-    )

Sponsor of the New York leg of the 1990 Kasparov-Karpov world championship match.  He produced THREE MEN AND A BABY, COCKTAIL, OUTRAGEOUS FORTUNE, and CLASS ACTION.  He bought Panavision for $52.5 million and sold it for $150 million.  He is heir to the Marshall Field department store fortune and founder and chairman of Interscope Records.  His worth is estimated to be over $600 million.  In 1991 he won the Koltanowski medal.


Filip, Miroslav (1928-    )

Czech grandmaster (1955).  He won the championship of Czechoslovakia in 1950, 1952, and 1954.   He was a Candidate in 1956 and 1962, the first Czech to make it to the Candidates.  He played on 12 Czech Chess Olympiad teams.  He is a lawyer with a doctor in jurisprudence.


Filippov, Valerij (1975-    )

Grandmaster from Russia.  His FIDE rating in 2621.


Fine, Reuben (1914-1993)

US Grandmaster (1950) and one of the best chessplayers in the U.S. in the 1930s.  He took first place in 23 of the 27 important events in his chess career.  During World War II he was employed by the Navy to calculate where enemy submarines might surface based on positional probability.  He was also a translator who could speak French, Spanish, Italian, Dutch, Yiddish, and German.   He later did research on Japanese Kamikaze attacks.  He gave up chess to become a psychoanalyst (PhD in psychology).  In 1956 the National Psychological Association for Psychoanalysis published his work, The Psychology of the Chess Player.  The book is a Freudian account of the game of chess.  The king is held to represent the father, while the queen is the mother.  The other pieces are taken to be phallic symbols.  Fine won 8 U.S. Opens but never the U.S. Closed Championship.  He was the only player to have a total plus score in his games against world champions without being a world champion himself.


Buerger - Fine, Margate 1937

1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 e6 3.c4 d5 4.Bg5 Bb4+ 5.Nc3 dxc4 6.Qa4+ Nc6 7.e4 Bd7 8.Qc2 h6 9.Bh4 g5 10.Bg3 g4 11.O-O-O? (11.Nd2) 11...gxf3 12.d5 exd5 13.exd5 Ne7 14.Bxc4 Bd6 15.Rhe1 fxg2 16.Rd3 Kf8 17.Rf3 Ng6 18.Rfe3 Kg7 19.f4 Bxf4 20.Qf2 Ng4  (and 21...Nxe3)  0-1


Finegold, Benjamin (1969-    )

International Master from Michigan.  In 2005, he tied for 1st at the National Open.  He is a former U.S. Junior Champion.   He is the highest rated IM in the United States and now has three GM norms.  His USCF rating is 2649.  Ben’s father played Bobby Fischer in 1963.  His brother, Mark, is a USCF master.  His wife, Kelly, qualified for the 2006 US Championship.   Ben became a master at the age of 14,a Life Master at the age of 15, a Senior Master at 16, and an International Master at 20. 


Finegold – Gelfand, Amsterdam 1989

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.Qc2 c5 5.dxc5 Qc7 6.Nf3 Bxc5 7.Bg5 a6 8.e3 Be7 9.Be2 b6 10.O-O Bb7 11.Rfd1 d6 12.Rd2 Nbd7 13.Rad1 O-O-O 14.b4 h6 15.Bf4 e5 16.Bg3 g5 17.a4 Rdg8 18.a5 bxa5 19.c5 g4 20.cxd6 Bxd6 21.Rxd6 gxf3 22.Bxa6 Bxa6 23.Rxa6 axb4 24.Ra8+ Nb8 25.Qf5+  1-0


Fink, Adolf Jay (1890-1956)

Chess problem composer and landmark figure in California chess.  He became interested in chess after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.  He played chess while camping on the hills and seeking refuge from the earthquake and fires.  He won the California State Championship in 1928, 1929, and 1945.


Finkel, Alexander (1975-    )

Grandmaster from Israel.  His FIDE rating in 2453.  He is a leading chess author and a leading contirbuter to ChessBase magazine.  He graduated from Tel-Aviv Univerisity law school in 2004.


Finkelstein, Milton (1920-2001)

Former President of the Marshall Chess Club. 


Finn, Julius (1871-1931)

New York State chess champion in 1901 (first prize was $40), 1907, and 1908 (winning the Rice Trophy for winning the State Chess Championship three time).  At one time, he was director of the Manhattan Chess Club.  In 1921, he was the referee for the Lasker-Capablanca World Chess Championship in Havana.  In 1924, he was one of the organizers of the New York International of 1924.  In 1927 he was President of the 1927 New York International.  He performed many blindfold exhibitions (as many as 12 boards) and demonstrations in the early 20th century. 


Finn, Kate (1870-1932)

First British ladies champion, which she won in 1904 at Hastings, and won again in 1905 at Southport.


Firdausi (934-1020)

One of Persia’s greatest poets.  In 1011 he finished the great epic poem Shah -nameh (Book of Kings) which recounted the history of chess.  In this poem, he tells of the arrival of envoys of an Indian rajah at the court of the Persian Shah Chosroes I bringing gifts which uncluded a gme depicting a battle of two armies.  This massive poem took 35 years to write and has 60,000 verse-lines.  It is the only pre-Islamic source which gives such details as the names of the chess pieces.  The poem was presented to the Sultan of Iran, who rewarded Firdausi with a pitiful amount of money.   Firdausi tossed the money to a bath attendant and left for Afghanistan.


Fischer, Robert (Bobby) (1943-2008)

11th world chess champion (1972-1975).  The youngest national junior champion (13), the youngest American chess champion ever (14), the youngest grandmaster up to that time (15 years, 6 months, 1 day), and the youngest Candidate  for the World Championship ever (15).  Fischer once withdrew from a chess tournament because a woman was playing in the event (she was Lisa Lane and U.S. woman champion).  His I.Q. has been recorded to be over 180.  He received $3.65 million for defeating Spassky in the Fischer-Spassky II match in Yugoslavia in 1992.  He now lives in Japan and is no longer interested in traditional chess.  In 1962 he boasted, "Women are weakies.  I can give Knight odds to any woman in the world!"  His performance rating against Larsen in 1971 was 3060 after a 6-0 victory.  In 1970 he won the Blitz Tournament of the Century in Herceg Novi, Yugoslavia by a score of 19 out of 22.  After the tournament he called off from memory the moves of all his 22 games, involving more that 1,000 moves.  In 1981 he was arrested in Pasadena under suspicion of a bank robber.  He later wrote of this incident in a book entitled, I WAS TORTURED IN THE PASADENA JAILHOUSE.  In 1956 13 year old Bobby Fischer beat Donald Byrne after a brilliant queen sacrifice.  This game has been dubbed the “Game of the Century.”  In 1996 Fischer launched a new game called “Fischerrandom Chess” in which the major pieces on the back rank are randomly shuffled behind their pawns.  This would be a better test of a player’s skill rather than relying on opening theory and memorizing opening lines.  In 1970-71 he won 20 straight games.  At Palma de Mallorca in 1970 he won his last 7 games.  He then defeated Taimanov 6-0 (performance rating of 3040).  He then defeated Larsen 6-0 (performance rating of 3080).  He then won his first game against Petrosian in the Candidates final.  He lost his 2nd game match against Petrosian.  He won the US chess championship eight times.  When Fischer won his 8th title in 1966, his first place prize was $2,500.  Iceland granted him residency after eight months in a Japanese jail.  He died of kidney failure on January 17, 2008.  He was 64 years old.


Donald Byrne - Bobby Fischer, New York (Rosenwald), Rd 8, Oct 17, 1956  Gruenfeld

1.Nf3 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.d4 O-O 5.Bf4 d5 6.Qb3 dxc4 7.Qxc4 c6 8.e4 Nbd7 9.Rd1 Nb6 10.Qc5 Bg4 11.Bg5 Na4 12.Qa3 [12.Nxa4 Nxe4] 12...Nxc3 13.bxc3 Nxe4! 14.Bxe7 Qb6 15.Bc4 Nxc3 16.Bc5 Rfe8+ 17.Kf1 Be6! 18.Bxb6 Bxc4+ 19.Kg1 Ne2+ 20.Kf1 Nxd4+ 21.Kg1 Ne2+ 22.Kf1 Nc3+ 23.Kg1 axb6 24.Qb4 Ra4 25.Qxb6 Nxd1 26.h3 Rxa2 27.Kh2 Nxf2 28.Re1 Rxe1 29.Qd8+ Bf8 30.Nxe1 Bd5 31.Nf3 Ne4 32.Qb8 b5 33.h4 h5 34.Ne5 Kg7 35.Kg1 Bc5+  36.Kf1 [36.Kh1 Ra1+ 37.Kh2 Bg1+ 38.Kh3 Na7] 36...Ng3+ 37.Ke1 Bb4+ [or 37...Re2+ 38.Kd1 Bb3+ 39.Kc1 Ba3+ 40.Kb1 Re1 mate] 38.Kd1 Bb3+ 39.Kc1 Ne2+ 40.Kb1 Nc3+ 41.Kc1 Rc2 mate  0-1


Ghitescu-Fischer, Leipzig 1960

1.d4 nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.e3 O-O 5.Bd3 d5 6.Nf3 Nc6 7.O-O dxc4 8.Bxc4 Bd6 9.Bb5 e5 10.Bxc6 exd4 11.exd4 bxc6 12.Bg5 Re8 13.Qd3 c5 14.dxc5? (14.Rfe1) 14...Bxh2+ (and 15...Qxd3)  0-1


Fischer Pustan, Regina Wender (1913-1997)

Mother of Bobby Fischer who was born in Switzerland.  She was a  riveter and welder in a defense plant during World War II, became a grade school teacher, registered nurse, physician, translator, and political activist.  From 1933 to 1938 she studied medicine at the First Moscow Medical Institute in the Soviet Union.  Her medical degree was not valid in the United States.  She chained herself to the White House gate in 1960 to protest the government's refusal to send a chess team to East Germany.  In 1968, at the age of 55, she received a medical degree from the Friedrich Schiller University in East Germany and a Ph.D. in hematology.  She spoke 8 languages.


Fishbein, Alexander (1968-    )

Grandmaster from New Jersey.  His FIDE rating is 2516.


Fiske, Daniel Willard (1831-1904)

Daniel Willard Fiske was born in New York in 1831.  From 1852 to 1859, he was the librarian to the Astor Library in Manhattan.  In 1857, he was the champion of the New York Chess Club.  He organized the First American Congress in 1857 and published the first American chess magazine Chess Monthly (co-edited by Paul Morphy).   The magazine began in January, 1857, and ended in May, 1861.  In 1861 he was appointed as an Attaché to the American Embassy in Vienna.    In 1859, he was elected General Secretary of the American Geographical Society.  He had a fascination with Iceland and donated his 1,200 chess books to the National Library of Reykjavik.  He wrote The Book of the First American Chess Congress (1859) and Chess in Iceland (1905).  In 1868, he became the first librarian of Cornell University and was also professor of North European Languages (he taught Old Icelandic, German, Swedish, and Danish).  In 1880, he married Jennie McGraw, daughter of multi-millionaire John McGraw, lumber merchant.  She died a year later from tuberculosis.  In her will, she gave Daniel Fiske $300,000, her brother $550,000, and much of the rest of the money (several million dollars) to Cornell University.  Due to University by-laws, Cornell could not accept the full amount of McGraw’s gift.  When Fiske realized that the University had failed to inform him of this restriction, he launched a legal assault to reacqire the money, known as The Great Will Case.  In 1883, he severed all connections with Cornell University and moved to Florence, Italy. He became a book collector and dealer.   He first visited Iceland in 1885.  In 1900, he founded the Reykjavik Chess Club.  He was the editor of the first Icelandic chess magazine in 1901.  It was published in Venice, Italy.  On September 17, 1904, he died at Frankfort-on-theMain, Germany. 


Flamberg, Alexander (1880-1926)

Polish master.  In 1910 he won the Warsaw championship ahead of Rubinstein.  He also defeated Bogoljubov in a match with 4 wins and 1 draw.  In 1914 he was interned during the Mannheim tournament by Germany after the declaration of war against Russia.  Flamberg was not Russian and was probably released in 1916.


Flamberg – Bogoljubov, Triberg 1915

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.f4 d5 4.fxe5 Nxe4 5.Nf3 Bb4 6.Be2 c6 7.O-O Qb6+ 8.d4 Nxc3 9.bxc3 Bxc3 10.Ba3 Bxa1 11.Qxa1 h6 12.Bd6 Na6 13.Nh4 Nc7 14.a4 Ne6 15.Nf5 Rg8 16.a5 Qd8 17.Qa3 Ng5 18.Bxe7 Qc7 19.Nd6+ Kxe7 20.Nb5+  1-0


Flear, Glenn (1959-    )

English Grandmaster (1987).   He now lives in France.


Maclean – Flear, Oxford 1979

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.O-O b5 6.Bb3 Bb7 7.d4 Nxd4 8.Nxe5 Nxb3 9.axb3 Nxe4 10.Re1 Bd6 11.Qd4 O-O 12.Nc3 Bc5  0-1


Fleischmann, Leo (1881-1930)

Hungarian chess master.  When playing chess, he used his Hungarian surname Forgacs.  He won the 1907 Hungarian Championship. 


Forgacs – Leussen, Barmen 1905

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 Nd7 4.Bc4 c6 5.c3 Be7 6.Qb3 Ngf6 7.Bxf7+ Kf8 8.Ng5 Nb6 9.dxe5 Nfd5 10.Ne6+ Bxe6 11.Bxe6 Bg5 12.f4 Bxf4 13.O-O dxe5 14.g3 Qf6 15.gxf4 exf4 16.Na3 h5 17.Be3 f3 18.Bc5+ Ke8 19.Bf5  1-0


Flesch, Janos (1933-1983)

In 1960 he played 52 games simultaneously blindfolded in Budapest – a world record.  He won 31 games, lost 18 games, and drew 3 games in 12 hours of play.  He became an International Master in 1963 and an Honorary Grandmaster in 1980.  While returning from the Kasparov-Korchnoi match in London to a chess tournament in Rams gate, he became involved in a car accident.  He and his wife died in the crash.


Flesch – Humor, Budapest 1960

1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.d4 g4 5.Bxf4 gxf3 6.Qxf3 Qf6 7.Nc3 Ne7 8.Nb5 Na6 9.Bxc7 Bg7 10.Nd6+ Kf8 11.Qxf6 Bxf6 12.Bxa6 bxa6 13.Rf1 Ng8 14.e5  1-0


Flohr, Saloman (1908-1983)

Czech/Soviet Grandmaster (1950).  In 1937 Salo Flohr was nominated by FIDE to be the official candidate to play Alekhine for the World Championship.  Arrangements were started for a match with Alekhine, but the plans were dropped when Flour’s adopted homeland of Czechoslovakia was annexed by Germany in 1938.  Flohr became a refugee for a second time and went to Russia.  He was orphaned  in World War I and was taken as a child refugee to Bohemia.  He won the Hungarian championship 9 times and played in 11 Olympiads for Hungary.  He married a ballerina.


Flohr - Gig, Liberia 1934

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.Qc2 d5 5.cxd5 Qxd5 6.e3 O-O 7.Nge2 c5 8.Bd2 Qd8 9.a3 cxd4 10.Nxd4 Ba5 11.Be2 Bb6 12.Nf3 Nc6 13.O-O Qe7 14.Rfe1 e5 15.Ng5 h6?? (15...Qd8) 16.Nd5! (16...Q any 17.Nxf6+ and 18.Qh7 mate)  1-0


Flores, Rodrigo (1913-    )

Born in  Santiago, Chile.  At 12 he played in the Chilean Championship and finished fourth.  He won the Chilean championship 3 times.  He was the winner of the 1946-47 Marshall Chess Club championship.


Foleys, Jan (1908-1952)

Czech International Master (1950).  He won the Czechoslovakian championship in 1940 and 1943.  In 1951 he qualified for the interzonal tournament to be held at Saltsjobaden in 1952, but died of leukemia before it took place.


Fominyh, Alexander (1959-    )

Grandmaster from Russia.  His FIDE rating is 2518.


Foot, Eliza Campbell

First president of the Women’s Chess Club of New York, the only women’s chess club in America in the 19th century.  It was organized in January, 1894 with 30 members (including Mrs. Showalter and Harriet Worrall).  In 1909 she advertised her availability to give chess lessons and issued chess puzzles (making her the first American woman chess author).  She was one of the first to promote chess for women.  She died in a motoring accident.  The Women’s Chess Club lasted until 1949.


Forbes, Duncan (1798-1868)

Scottish professor of Oriental languages and the author of various articles and books on chess history.  He taught in Calcutta for several years before returning to England in 1826.  From 1837 to 1861, he was  Professor of Oriental Languages at King’s College in London.  During this time, he also worked at the British Museum cataloging their collection of Persian mansuscripts.  In 1860 he wrote A History of Chess (he dedicated his 400-page book to Howard Staunton).   He advanced the theory that a four-handed dice-chess game was played in India as far back as 3000 BC.  Today’s chess historians says that chess originated in India around 500AD, and that the four-handed dice-chess games was just an unsuccessful variant.


Forgacs, Leo

See Fleischmann


Forintos, Gyozo (1935-    )

Hungarian Grandmaster (1974).  Forintos (pronounced Four’-in-tot) won the Hungarian championship in 1968-69.  He is an economist.  His daughter married English GM Tony Kosten.


Forintos – Adorjan, Budapest 1968

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5 4.Nf3 Bg7 5.Qb3 dxc4 6.Qxc4 O-O 7.e4 Na6 8.Qa4 c5 9.d5 Qb6 10.Bxa6 bxa6 11.O-O e6 12.Bg5 Bd7 13.Qc2 Rab8 14.Rab1 exd5 15.Bxf6 Qxf6 16.Nxd5 Qd6 17.Rfd1 Rfe8 18.b3 a5 19.a4 Qc6 20.Qc4 Bc8 21.Nd4  1-0


Forsberg, Bruno Christian (1892-1961)

Marshall Chess Club Champion in 1920-21.


Foster, Ursula (1927-2004)

Very active correspondence and tournament chess player in northern California (I played her several times) and had been ranked among the top 50 female players in the country.  She was a Jewish survivor of the Holocaust and was mentioned by name in Anne Frank’s Diary of a Young Girl.   She had been a classmate of Anne Frank.  Her older brother died in the gas chambers at Auschwitz. 


Fox, Albert Whiting (1881-1964)

Former champion of the Manhattan Chess Club and the Brooklyn Chess Club.  He took 10th-11th place at Cambridge Springs in 1904.


Fox, Maurice (1898-1988)

Ukrainian born chess player who moved to England, then Canada in 1923.  In Canada he won the Canadian championship 8 times (1927, 1929, 1931, 1932, 1935, 1938, 1940, 1949).


Foygel, Igor (1947- )

Igor Foygel was born in Kiev in 1947.  He represented the republic of Ukraine in national youth chess competitions.  He became a master in 1974 and later became an International Master of Correspondence Chess.  He immigrated to the United States in 1991.  He won the championship of Massachusetts in 1992, 1997, 2000, and 2001.  He is an International Master with a maximum 2483 Elo rating.


Fraenkel, Henrich (1897-1986)

Chess author, who wrote under the pen name of Assaic (Caissa spelled backwards).  He wrote a weekly chess column for the New Statesman. 


Franco Ocampos, Zenon (1956-    )

Grandmaster from Paraguay.  His FIDE rating is 2526.  He now lives in Spain.


Franklin, Benjamin (1706-1790)

Wrote the first chess article published in America, The Morals of Chess. Franklin wrote it in London in 1779 and reproduced in a refined version in the Columbian Magazine in Philadelphia in December 1786.  In 1791 a translation from the French reprint was published in St. Petersburg.  This was the first book on chess published in Russia.  On one of his visits to France, he was playing a chess game with the Duchess of Bourbon.  She made a king move next to Franklin’s king and Franklin mentioned that was an illegal move,  She responded, “We do not take kings so.”  Franklin responded, “We do in America.”  Franklin played Thomas Jefferson a lot of chess with an even score.  In Franklin’s autobiography, he described using chess as a way to learn foreign languages.


Fred, Autos (1917-2003)

Champion of Finland in 1946-47 and 1955.  He represented Finland in several chess Olympiads.


Frederick the Great (1712-1786)

King of Prussia and an enthusiastic chess player who played a correspondence game with his early tutor, Voltaire, by royal courtier between Berlin and Paris.  He may have also played The Turk chess automaton in 1785.  Philidor gave chess exhibitions for Frederick the Great in 1750.


Frenklakh, Jennie (1980- )

USCF chess master at 16.  In 1991 she won the California Elementary Scholastic Championship.  In 1993, she won the U.S. Junior Championship for players under 13 and represented the United States in four World under-12, under-14, and under-20 championships.  She has represented the U.S. six time at the World Junior Chess Championships, finishing 2nd in 1997.


Fressinet, Laurent (1981-    )

Grandmaster from France.  His FIDE rating is 2627.


Frey, Kenneth (1950-    )

Born in Paris.  Finnish citizen.  Has lived in Mexico since 1959.  International Master (1975).  Mexico’s top chess player for the past 10 years.  Represented Mexico six times in the Chess Olympiad.


Hernandez – Frey, Bled 2002

1.c4 e6 2.Nf3 d5 3.cxd5 exd5 4.d4 Nf6 5.Nc3 c6 6.e3 Bf5 7.Bd3 Bxd3 8.Qxd3 Bd6 9.O-O O-O 10.Bd2 Nbd7 11.h3 Qe7 12.Rfe1 Ne4 13.Rac1 f5 14.Na4 g5 15.Re2 g4 16.hxg4 fxg4 17.Ne5 Bxe5 18.dxe5 Nxe5 19.Qc2 Nf3+  0-1


Freymann, Sergey von (1882-1946)

Four-time Uzbekistan champion.  He finished 2nd in the 1929 USSR championship.


Friedel, Frederick

In 1987, he founded the softare company ChessBase. 


Fries, Victor (1956-2005)

American International Master (1982) from New York, born in Chile.  He was the chess coach of Patrick Wolff and Ilea Ureic, both becoming Grandmasters.  He was unable to make a living as a chess player and supported himself by driving a taxi in New York and Los Angeles.  He was a chess teacher in many Westchester schools.


Friedman, Larry (1930- )

Winner of the first Junior Chess Championship in the U.S. (Chicago, 1946).  Hans Berliner and Philip Lucerne tied for 2nd place.  He won it again in 1947.  In 1945, he won the junior championship of Cleveland, Ohio.  He then disappeared from chess.


Friend, Bernard (1920-    )

Chess player from New Jersey who first became a chess master at the age of 71, in 1991.  He started playing chess in 1939.


From, Martin (1828-1895)

Danish player who popularized 1.f4 e5, From’s Gambit.  He was a prisoner inspector by profession.


Mollastrom – From, Copenhagen 1862

1.f4 e5 2.fxe5 d6 3.exd6 Bxd6 4.Nf3 Nh6 5.e4 Ng4 6.g3 Nxh2 7.Rxh2 Bxg3+ 8.Ke2 Bxh2 9.Nxh2 f5 10.Bg2 fxe4 11.Bxe4 Qh4 12.Qh1 O-O 13.Bd5+ Kh8 14.Qg1 Qh5+ 15.Bf3 Rxf3 16.Nxf3 Bg4 17.d3 Nc6 18.Bf4 Rf8 19.Bg3 Rxf3 20.Ke1 Qh6 21.Nc3 Nb4  0-1


Frydman, Achilles (1905-1940s)

Polish master from Lodi.  He took 5th place in the 1935 Polish championship, behind Tartakower, Nadir, Pauline Frydman, and H. Friedman.   He also played in the 1937 Poland chess championship in Curate.  He had just been released from a mental asylum and had been warned not to play chess for awhile.  In the 15th round of the 21 round event, he lost his game to Miguel Nadir and suffered a nervous breakdown. Frydman could not finish the tournament.  Reuben Fine, in his book, The Psychology of the Chess Player, stated that Achilles Frydman had run through the hotel without any clothes, shouting “Fire!”  George Koltanowski, in one of his columns, wrote that Frydman insisted in walking around in the lobby naked.   A Polish newspaper column reported that A. Frydman had caused many difficulties for the tournament management and for the players.  Gideon Stahlberg had the room next to Frydman and could not sleep because Frydman would yell “check” and “checkmate” all night long.  Najdorf blamed two losses on Frydman’s interruptions (Frydman would run to the phone after every move and make a long distance phone call).  Xavier Tartakower took first place in this event and Achilles Frydman finished in 20th place (out of 22) with 6.5 points.  In 1938, during a tournament in Lodz, Achilles Frydman showed up naked to play Tartakower.  A. Frydman was later put in a mental asylum in Kocborowo.  Achilles Frydman died in the 1940s, probably a victim of the Holocaust.


Achilles Frydman – Schaechter, Jurata, Poland 1937

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Ba4 g6 5.d4 exd4 6.Bg5 f6 7.Bf4 Bb4+ 8.c3 dxc3 9.Nxc3 Bxc3+ 10.bxc3 d6 11.Rb1 Qe7 12.Qd5 Qd7 13.Bb3 Ne5 14.Bg3 Nh6 15.Rd1 Qe7 16.O-O Nhf7 17.Nxe5 Nxe5 18.f4 Nc6 19.e5 dxe5 20.fxe5 f5 21.Bh4  1-0


Frydman, Paulin(o) (1905-1982)

Polish International Master (1955) from Warsaw who played in seven Chess Olympiads for Poland (1928, 1930, 1931, 1935, 1937, 1939).  After participating in the chess Olympics in Buenos Aires, he stayed in Argentina after the outbreak of World War II.  In 1936, he took equal 6th at Bad Podebrady, Czechoslovakia, behind Flohr, Alekhine, Foltys, Pirc, and Stahlberg.  He won the Warsaw championship in 1931, 1932, 1933, and 1936.  He took 2nd place in the 1926 Polish championship (behind Przepiorka) and 2nd-4th  (with Najdorf and H. Friedmann) in the 1935 Polish championship (won by Tartakower).  Achilles Frydman took 5th place.


P. Frydman – Guimard, Buenos Aires 1941

1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg5 dxe4 5.Nxe4 Nbd7 6.Nxf6+ gxf6 7.Bh4 c6 8.Qh5 Bb4+ 9.c3 Be7 10.Nf3 Nf8 11.Bc4 Ng6 12.Bg3 O-O 13.h4 Kh8 14.Ng5  1-0


P. Frydman – Vidmar, Ujpest 1934

1.d4 d5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.c4 c6 4.cxd5 cxd5 5.Nc3 Nc6 6.Bf4 e6 7.e3 Be7 8.Bd3 O-O 9.O-O a6 10.Rc1 Bd7 11.Ne5 Rc8 12.a3 Na5 13.Qf3 b5 14.Qh3 Nc4 15.Nxd5 g6 16.Nxe7+ Qxe7 17.Bxc4 Rxc4 18.Rxc4 bxc4 19.Bg5  1-0


Ftacnik, Lubomir (1957-    )

Slovak Grandmaster (1980).  He has a degree in solid state physics.  In 1976 he took 2nd place in the World Junior Championship.  Czech champion in 1981, 1982, 1983, and 1985. 


Hertweck - Ftacnik, Baden-Baden 1987

1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 g6 3.Bg5 Bg7 4.Nbd2 d5 5.e3 O-O 6.Be2 c5 7.c3 Qb6 8.Qb3 Nc6 9.Bxf6 Bxf6 10.Qxd5 Qxb2 11.O-O cxd4 12.cxd4 Be6 13.Qc5 Rac8 14.Qc1? (14.Qb5) 14...Nxd4 (15.Qd1 Qxa1 16.Qxa1 Nxe2+ 17.Kh1 Bxa1)  0-1


Furman, Semyen (1920-1978)

Soviet Grandmaster (1966) and coach who was Karpov’s chief trainer since 1969.  He played in 13 USSR Championships.  He was 3rd in 1948.  He died three months before Karpov’s world championship match with Korchnoi in 1978.  He was 57.  He learned chess when he was 15.


Khalilbeili - Furman, Tbilisi 1956

1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 c5 4.cxd5 exd5 5.Nf3 Nc6 6.g3 c4 7.e4 dxe4 8.Ng5 Qxd4 9.Bf4 Bb4 10.Ngxe4?? (10.Qxd4)  10...Qxe4+   0-1


Fuster, Geza (1910-1990?)

Hungarian chess champion in 1941 and International Master in 1969.  He later moved to Canada and represented  Canada in the interzonal at Portoroz in 1958.  He took last place win 1 win, 2 draws, and  17 losses.  He almost beat Fischer at Portoroz, but lost during time pressure.  He played for Canada in two Chess Olympiads in 1958 and 1970.    His highest rating was 2530, ranked #62 in the world in 1943.


Fuster – Negyesy, Budapest 1947

1.d4 d5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.c4 c6 4.cxd5 cxd5 5.Nc3 Nc6 6.Bf4 e6 7.e3 Be7 8.Bd3 O-O 9.O-O Nh5 10.Be5 f6 11.Ng5 fxe5 12.Bxh7+ Kh8 13.Nf7+  1-0


Gabriel, Christian (1975-    )

Grandmaster from Germany.  His FIDE rating is 2531.


Gaige, Jeremy (1927-    )

Newspaperman from Philadelphia, chess archivist and author of Chess Tournament Crosstables (four volumes), Chess Tournaments- A Checklist (two volumes), Chess Personalia A Biobibliography, and other books.


Galkin, Alexander (1979-    )

Russian chess player and the 1999 World Junior Chess Champion.  He won the 37th World Junior Championship in Yerevan, Armenia.


Gallagher, Joseph (1964-    )

British-born Grandmaster from Switzerland.  His FIDE rating is 2544.  He won the British championship in 2001.  He  won the Swiss championship in 2005.


Gaprindashvili, Nona (1941-    )

The first woman to achieve the men's International Grandmaster title, in 1978.  She became the first woman to win a "men's" chess tournament when she tied for first place at Lone Pine in 1977.   She has had a perfume named after her in Russia.  A Tbilisi perfume factory sold the perfume in a bottle shaped like a chess Queen.  She maintained her maiden name after marrying her husband Chichikadze.  She was the Women’s World Chess Champion for 16 years, from 1962 to 1978.  In 1962 she won the title by defeating Elizaveta Bykova with a score of 9-2.  In 1978 she lost to Maya Chiburdanidze, who as 17.


Mardle - Gaprindashvili, Hastings 1964

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 e6 5.Be3 Nf6 6.Nd2 e5 7.Nxc6 dxc6 8.f3 Be7 9.Bc4 O-O 10.O-O Nh5 11.Nb3 Bg5 12.Bc5 Qf6 13.Bxf8 Be3+ 14.Kh1?? (14.Rf2) 14...Ng3+ (15.hxg3 Qh6 mate)  0-1


Garcia, Gildardo (1954-    )

Grandmaster from Columbia.  His FIDE rating is 2453.


Garcia Gonzales, Guillermo (1953-1990)

Cuban Grandmaster (1976) and three-time Cuban champion (1974, 1976, 1983) who took 2nd place in the 1988 New York Open. His $10,000 prize was confiscated by the Department of Treasury, invoking the Trading With the Enemy Act of 1917, because he was Cuban.  He died in an automobile accident near Havana.


Garcia Marinez , Silvino (1944-    )

Cuba’s first FIDE grandmaster (1975).  He was Cuban champion in 1968, 1970, 1973, and 1979-80.


Garcia Palermo, Carlos (1953-    )

Argentine Grandmaster (1985).   His highest rating was 2550.


Fischer – Garcia-Palermo, Buenos Aires Simul, 1971

1.e4 e5 2.f4 d5 3.exd5 e4 4.Bb5+ c6 5.dxc6 Nxc6 6.d3 Nf6 7.dxe4 Qa5+ 8.Nc3 Bg4 9.Qd4 Be7 10.Qa4 Qb6 11.h3 O-O-O 12.Bxc6 Nxe4 13.Bd7+ Rxd7 14.Qxd7+ Bxd7 15.Nxe4 Bc6  0-1


Gashimov, Vugar (1986-    )

Grandmaster from Azerbaijan.  His FIDE rating is 2594.


Gausel, Einar (1963-    )

Grandmaster from Norway.  His FIDE rating is 2522.


Gavrikov, Viktor (1957-    )

Russian Grandmaster (1984).  He took 4th-5th in the 1985 Tunis Interzonal.  He took 1st in the 1985 USSR Championship.  He took 2nd in the 1986 USSR Championship.   His FIDE rating is 2565.


Gelfand, Boris (1968-    )

Grandmaster (1989) from Belorussia who moved to Israel.  In 1988 he tied for first in the World Junior Championship.  In 1995 he lost to Karpov in the Candidates final match.  He has won two Interzonals (1990 at Manila and 1993 at Biel).  His rating is 2722.


Geller, Efim (1925-1998)

One of the top 10 players in the world for over 20 years.  He was a six time Candidate between 1953 and 1971.  He became a Grandmaster in 1952.  He played in the USSR championship 23 times, from 1949 to 1985.  He won the USSR championship in 1955.  24 years later he won it again in 1979 (47th USSR Championship) at the age of 54.


Geller - Hansen, 1978

1.c4 c5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.d4 e6 5.d5 exd5 6.cxd5 Na5 7.e4 b6 8.e5 Ng8 9.d6 f6 (9...Bb7) 10.Nd5 Rb8?? (10...Bb7) 11.Nc7+ Kf7 12.Qd5+ Kg6 13.Nh4+ Kh5 14.Qf3+ (14...Kxh4 15.Qh3 mate)  1-0


Georgadze, Tamas (1947-    )

Grandmaster (1977) from Soviet Georgia.


Gofstein – Georgadze, Rostov on Don 1976

1.Nf3 Nf6 2.c4 c5 3.Nc3 g6 4.g3 Bg7 5.Bg2 O-O 6.d4 cxd4 7.Nxd4 Nc6 8.O-O d6 9.Bxc6 bxc6 10.Nxc6 Qc7 11.Qa4 Bb7 12.Nd5 Rfe8  0-1


Georgiev, Kiril (1965-    )

Bulgarian Grandmaster (1985).  He won the Bulgarian championship in 1984, 1986, and 1989.  In 1983 he was the World Junior Champion. 


Georgiev, Krum (1958-    )

Bulgarian Grandmaster (1988).  His FIDE rating is 2468.


K. Georgiev – Velimirovic, Athens 2001

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 Bd7 6.Bc4 e6 7.Bb3 Nc6 8.Ndb5 Qb8 9.Bf4 Ne5 10.Bg5 Nxe4 11.Nxe4 Bxb5 12.f4 Ng6 13.f5 d5 14.fxg6 hxg6 15.c4 dxe4 16.cxb5 Rxh2 17.Rxh2 Qxh2 18.Be3 Qxg2 19.Rc1 Bb4+  0-1


Georgiev, Vladimir (1975-    )

Grandmaster from Macedonia.  His FIDE rating is 2532.


Gerzadowicz, Stephan (1945- )

Correspondence chess master.  He played in five USCF Absolute Championships and one U.S. Correspondence Chess Championship.  He has been president of both the Massachusetts Chess Association (1972-1974) and the New England Chess Association.  He is the author of five chess books.


Geshev, Georgi

First Bulgarian chess champion (1933).  He also won in 1934, 1935, and 1936.


Charamian, Tigran (1984-    )

Armenian IM now living in France.  His highest FIDE rating is 2420.


Gheorghiu, Florin (1944-    )

First Romanian Grandmaster (1965).  He was world junior champion in 1963.  He was won the Romanian championship 9 times.   He won the US Open three times in a row (1979 to 1981).   He is a lecturer in languages at Bucharest University and speaks 10 languages.


Ghitescu, Theodor (1934-    )

Romanian International Master (1961) and honorary Grandmaster (1986).   He was Romanian champion in 1963.   In the 1960 Chess Olympiad in Leipzig, he lost to Bobby Fischer in 14 moves.


Ghitescu – Fischer, Leipzig 1960

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.e3 O-O 5.Bd3 d5 6.Nf3 Nc6 7.O-O dxc4 8.Bxc4 Bd6 9.Bb5 e5 10.Bxc6 exd4 11.exd4 bxc6 12.Bg5 Re8 13.Qd3 c5 14.dxc5 Bxh2+  0-1


Gianutio, Horatio (1566-1610)

Author of the first chess pamphlet (57 pages) by a player from the Italian school.  He had it published in Turin in 1597.


Gibaud, Amedee (Aime) (1885- )

French champion in 1928 (6th French Championship, held in Marseilles), 1930, 1935, and 1940.  He tied for 1st place in the 1937 French Championship (16th French Championship) with Gromer.  He supposedly lost a game in 4 moves.


Gibaud – Lazard, Paris 1924

1.d4 Nf6 2.Nd2 e5 3.dxe5 Ng4 4.h3 Ne3  0-1


Gibson, William (1873-1932)

Nine times Scottish chess champion.  He was a lawyer by profession.  He first won the Scottish championship in 1907.  He won the West of Scotland Championship 14 times.  He won the Glasgow championship 15 times.


Gilberg, Charles Alexander (1835-1898)

Amateur chess player and managing partner of an importing firm (West India House).  He was president of the Brookyn Chess Club, the Manhattan Chess Club, and the New York Chess Association.  He helped organize the 5th American Chess Congress in New York in 1880.  He owned a chess library of over 1,500 volumes, the second largest in the country after that of John G. White of Cleveland, Ohio.  In 1868 he wrote American Chess Nuts.  In 1881, he wrote The Book of the Fifth American Chess Congress.


Gilbert, Ellen E. (1837-1900)

American correspondence player from Connecticut, also known as Mrs. J. W. Gilbert.  In 1879 she participated in a U.S. vs. British correspondence match (International Postal Card Chess Tournament) with one of the strongest correspondence players in the world, George Gossip, and announced mate in 21 moves and mate in 35 moves in their two games.  Ellen Gilbert (born Ellen Strong) married John W. Gilbert.  From 1875 to 1879, she was known as the Queen of Chess.  She died at the age of 63.


Gilman, Arkady (1913-    )

One of  the strongest active chess players in the world over age 90.  He has a FIDE rating of 2237.   He still competes in Canadian chess tournaments.


Giorgadze, Giorgi (1964-    )

Grandmaster from Georgia.  His FIDE rating is 2601.


Giorgadze, Tzmaz (1947-    )

Grandmaster from Georgia.  His FIDE rating is 2504.


Gipslis, Aivars (1937-2000)

Latvian grandmaster (1967).   He won the Latvian championship 8 times (1955, 1956, 1957, 1960, 1961, 1964, 1966).  He took 3rd place in the USSR chess championship in 1966/67.  At the Sousse Interzonal in 1967, Bobby Fischer asked for a free day to ease his tough chess schedule due to postponements.  After his demand was not met, Fischer did not show up for his game against Gipslis, and was forfeited.  Gipslis did not want to win on forfeit and wanted to play Fischer at Fischer’s convenience.  But Soviet officials told Gipslis he was not to play Fischer and to take the win on forfeit.  This caused Fischer to withdraw from the tournament.  He was playing for a local Berlin chess club when he collapsed from a stroke during the chess game.  He died in a German hospital after being in a coma for several weeks.  He was 63.  He held the grandmaster title in FIDE (over the board) and ICCF (correspondence).  He had been editor of the chess magazine Sahs/Shakmaty.  He was an economist.


Klasup – Gipslis, Riga 1953

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.Qc2 c5 5.dxc5 O-O 6.Nf3 Na6 7.a3 Bxc3+ 8.Qxc3 Nxc5 9.e3 a5 10.Be2 a4 11.Nd2 b6 12.O-O Ba6 13.Rd1 Rc8 14.Qb4 Nd5   0-1


Gleizerov, Evgeny (1963-    )

Grandmaster from Russia.  His FIDE rating is 2572.


Glek, Igor (1961-    )

Grandmaster from Germany.  His FIDE rating is 2575.


Glennie, Alick E. (1926-    )

First person to beat a computer program at chess.  He defeated Alan Turing’s chess program, TurboChamp, in 1952 in Manchester, England.   Glennie wrote the first real compiler (autocode) for a computer in 1952.  It translated symbolic statements into machine language for the Manchester Mark I computer.  Autocoding later came to be a generic term for assembly programming.  Glennie did computational work for the British atomic bomb.


Gligoric, Svetozar (1923-    )

Yugoslav Grandmaster (1951).  In 1938, at the age of 15, he won the Belgrade Chess Club championship.  At the age of 16, he was a master.  During World War II he saw action as a partisan against the Nazis.  In 1957, he was part of a 11-member Yugoslav chess team that gave the first U.S. coast-to-coast tour of a great European chess team.  In 1959 he became Yugoslavia's Sportsman of the Year, the first chess player in Yugoslavia to be so honored.  He is also considered one of Yugoslavia's best war heroes and the best soccer-playing Grandmaster.  He was once rated the strongest European chess player outside the Soviet Union.  He was a candidate for the World Championship three times.  He was won the Yugoslav championship 12 times.  His nickname is Gliga.  In 1980, Gligoric was attacked in his sleep by masked burglars, who tied him up and took money, jewelry, and chess trophies.


Gligoric - Toran, Havana 1952

1.e4 c6 2.Nc3 d5 3.Nf3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Nd7 5.d4 Ndf6 6.Nc5 g6 7.Bc4 Nh6 8.Ne5 e6 9.Qf3 Nf5 10.c3 Bg7 (10...Bxc5) 11.Bg5 O-O 12.Ne4 h5 13.g4 c5 (13...hxg4 14.Nxg4) 14.gxf5  1-0


Godena, Michele (1967-    )

Grandmaster from Italy.  His FIDE rating is 2562.  He was Italian champion in 1993, 1994, and 1995.


Goebbels, Paul Joseph (1897-1945)

In 1933 Dr. Goebbels, German Minister of Propaganda and Enlightenment, wanted an "All-German Chess League."  He created the Grossdeutsch Schachband, a new German Federation and was its honorary president.  In 1933, he barred all Jewish chess players from official tournaments of the German Chess League, and barred then from chess clubs and chess playing cafes.  Goebbels sought out players who were of strong National Socialist persuasion.  Otto Zander, President of the new league, said all Jews would be excluded unless they proved themselves at the front line of a war.  In 1939 Goebbels barred the German women’s champion, Sonja Graf, from playing chess for Germany.  During World War II, Dr. Goebbels included chess in its program called Truppenbetreuung (Pastimes for soldiers).  German chess masters were to visit hospitals and barracks to play exhibition tournaments and give simultaneous displays.


Goering, Carl Theodor (1841-1879)

Carl Goering was born in Bruheim, Germany on April 28, 1841.  In 1870, he took 3rd in the first Austrian Chess Federation Congress, held in Graz.  In 1871, he won at Wiesbaden, Germany (+4-0=0).  In 1872, he took 3rd in the 3rd North German Chess Congress in Altona, Germany.  In 1876, he tied for 1st in the 2nd Middle German Chess Congress in Leipzig, Germany.  The opening gambit 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.c3 is known as the Goering (Goring) Gambit.  Goering played it against Louis Paulsen in 1877 at Leipzig and was the first to introduce it into master play.  Goering  was a professor in Germany.  He died in Eisenach, Germany on April 2, 1879.  


Gofshtein, Zvulon (1953-    )

Grandmaster from Israel.  His FIDE rating is 2531.


Goichberg, William (Bill ) (1942-    )

Chess organizer and Fide Master (1983).  From 1964 to 1967, he was the USCF Rating Statistician.  From 1966 to 1967, he was co-editor of Chess Life magazine.  He founded the New York City Chess Association in 1964, which became the  Continental Chess Association (CCA) in 1968.  In 1966, he directed the first USCF rated scholastic tournament.  In 1969, hed was the first to have rated chess quads.  In 1969, he created the National High School Championship.  In 1973, he organized the first World Open in New York.  He was the first to ban smoking from chess tournaments (1973).  He was appointed USCF Executive Director in 2004.  He was elected President of the United States Chess Federation on August 14, 2005.


Goldberg, Grigory (1908-1976)

Soviet chess master who was Botvinnik’s second from 1950 to 1953.  He founded the chess facility at the Moscow Sports Academy.  He took last place in two USSR chess championships (1945 and 1949).


Goldin, Alexander (1965-    )

USA Grandmaster (1989) who was born in Russia.  His peak FIDE rating is 2630.  He won the World Open in 1998.


Goldwater, Walter Delmar (1907-1985)

Former President of the Marshall Chess Club.  He was a veteran antiquarian book dealer who owned and operated the University Place Bookshop in New York.


Goletiani, Rusudan (1980 -   )

Winner of the World Chess Championship for Girls Under 14 (1994), Under 16 (1995), and Under 18 (1997).  She was born in Soviet Georgia and won the Soviet Junior Championship for Girls Under 12 in 1990 at the age of 9.  She was awarded the International Woman’s Grandmaster (WGM) title when she was 17.   She immigrated to the United States in 2000.  She won the US Women’s Championship in 2004 and $12,500 when she beat WFM Tatev Abrahamyan in their playoff.  She was the winner of the 18th annual Frank P. Samford chess fellowship in 2004.


Golmayo De La Torriente, Manuel (1883-1973)

First Spanish chess champion.  He was Spanish champion from 1902 to 1928.  He was born in Havana.


Becker – Golmayo, The Hague 1928

1,d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.g3 Bg7 4.Bg2 d5 5.cxd5 Nxd5 6.e4 Nb6 7.Ne2 e5 8.d5 O-O 9.Nbc3 f5 10.Qb3 Kh8 11.h4 h6 12.f4 c6 13.fxe5 fxe4 14.Nf4 Qe8 15.h5 gxh5 16.Nxh5 e3 17.Nxg7 Qxe5 18.Ne2 Kxg7 19.Bxe3 Re8 20.Kd2 Qxe3+ 21.Qxe3 Nc4+  0-1


Golombek, Harry (1911-1995)

Three times British Champion (1947, 1949, and 1955).  Awarded the Order of the British Empire (O.B.E.) in 1966 for his services to the game of chess, the first one so honored.   He was a pilot in the Royal Air Force during World War II.  He represented England in 9 Olympiads.  He officiated 6 World Championship matches.  He was awarded the International Master title in 1951 and International Judge in 1954.  He was made an honorary Grandmaster in 1985.  He was the first British player to qualify for an Interzonal.


Golombek – Hallmark, England 1959

1.c4 Nf6 2.Nc3 d5 3.e3 e5 4.cxd5 Nxd5 5.Nf3 Nxc3 6.bxc3 Bd6 7.d4 Nd7 8.e4 Qe7 9.Bd3 exd4 10.cxd4 c5 11.e5 cxd4 12.O-O Bb4 13.Bg5 Qc5 14.Rc1 Bc3 15.Bd2 h6 16.Nxd4 Qxd4 17.Bxc3 Qb6 18.e6 Nf6 19.Rb1 Qc7 20.Bb5+ Kf8 21.e7  1-0


Golod, Vitali (1971-    )

Grandmaster from Israel.  His FIDE rating in 2582.


Golubev, Mikhail (1970-    )

Grandmaster from the Ukraine.  His FIDE rating is 2517.


Gonzalez, Juan (1917- )

Former champion of Cuba.  He won the US Speed Championship in 1946.  He was a medical doctor in New York.


Goodman, David (1958-    )

David Goodman won the World Under-18 Championship in 1975.  He was awarded the International Master title in 1983.  He is currently an AP reporter.  He is the author of several chess books.


Gormally, Daniel (1976-    )

Grandmaster from England.  His FIDE rating is 2557.


Gosselin, Gilbert “Gus” F. (1926-2007)

Gus Gosselin was born on November 25, 1926 in New Bedford, Massachusetts.  He was one of the greatest contributers to the promotion of chess in Massachusetts and the New England area.  He was the scholastic coordinator for the Massachusetts Chess Association (MACA).  In 1984, he was the recipient of the Governor’s Points of Light Award for his volunteer chess activities, presented to him by governor Mitt Romney.  This is the highest honor given to a volunteer in Massachusetts.  He was president of the New England Chess Association for a number of years.  He organized, directed, promoted, and sponsored more chess events than any individual in New England.  In 2006, he received the Outstanding Career Achievement Award from the USCF.  He died on May 21, 2007, at the age of 80.


Gossip, George Hatfeild Dingley (1841-1907)

George Gossip was born in New York on Decmber 6, 1841.  He was winner of the Correspondence Tournament of the Chess Players Chronicle in 1873-1874.  In 1874, he published The Chess-Players’ Manual, a 900 page opening book.  In 1885, he took 2nd place in the 1st Australian championship.  In 1887, he took 3rd place in the 2nd Australian championship.  In 1889, he took last place in the 5th British Chess Federation championship.  In 1889, he took last place in the 6th German Chess Federation championship.  In 1890, he took last place in the 6th British Chess Federation Congress.  In 1892, he took last place in the 7th British Chess Federation Congress.  In October 1893, he took last place in New York.  He died on May 11, 1907 in Liphook, England.


Gottschall, Hermann von (1862-1933)

German chess author and player of International Master strength.  He took 2nd at Nuremberg in 1888.


Von Gottschall – Noa, Hamburg 1885

1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bd3 Nc6 5.Nf3 Bb4 6.Bg5 h6 7.Bxf6 Qxf6 8.O-O Bxc3 9.bxc3 O-O 10.Nd2 dxe4 11.Nxe4 Qd8 12.f4 Ne7 13.Qh5 Qd5 14.Nf6+ gxf6 15.Qxh6 Nf5 16.Bxf5  1-0


Gracia, Delfin Burdio (1934-2005)

Spanish player.  President of the International Braille Chess Association (IBCA) from 1992 to 2005.  He became an International Arbiter in 1979.


Graf Nenashev, Alexander (1962-    )

German Grandmaster.  His peak FIDE rating is 2661 and current FIDE rating is 2605.


Graf-Stevenson, Sonja (1914-1965)

Winner of four U.S. Women's Opens and two Closed Championships (1957 – tied with Gresser, 1964).   She was woman champion of her native Germany until the outbreak of World War  II.  At the world women’s  championship tournament in Buenos Aires in 1939, she was prevented from playing for Germany by a Nazi edict.  She went on to play at large under the banner of "Liberty."  She took 2nd place with a 16-3 score, behind Menchik (who had an 18-1 score).  In the 1930s she was considered the second best woman chess player in the world, after Vera Menchik.  Both Vera Menchik and Sonja Graf married a chess player named Stevenson.  She learned the game at age four and was a pupil of Dr. Siegbert Tarrasch.  In 1957, she won the California Women’s Chess Championship.


Granda-Zuniga, Julio Ernesto (1967-    )

Grandmaster (1986) from Peru.  In 1981, at the age of 13, he won the world Junior Chess Championship.  In 1988, he was Latin America’s top chess player.  In 1992 he won the New York Open.  He retired from chess in 1998 to become a farmer.  He announced he was retiring because “chess is an effrontery to the eyes of God.  …One should live in accordance with divine law, which orders us to till the earth.”  He returned to chess in 2002.  He has won the championship of Peru several times.    He learned chess at the age of 5 from his father, a schoolteacher.


Grau, Roberto (1900-1944)

Argentine chess champion in 1926, 1927, 1928, 1934, 1935, 1936, and 1939.  He was South American Champion in 1921-22 and 1928.


Greco, Gioacchino (Joachino) (1600-1634)

Italian chess player and the best known of the wandering chessmen in the early 17th century. Greco learned chess from earlier books and kept a notebook of tactics, and short and clever games.  He made a living selling chess manuscripts of openings and traps to wealthy patrons (also Cardinals and Archbishops), first in Italy (around 1619), then to France, then to England, then back to France.  In 1622 he was robbed of all his money while on his way to London.  In 1624 he lived in Paris and rearranged his chess manuscripts, eliminating the longer and less attractive games and adding new brilliancies.  From 1624 to 1626 he sold his manuscripts to French patrons.  In late 1624, he went to Madrid, Spain and defeated all other chess players at the court of King Philip IV.  He was taken to the West Indies by a Spanish nobleman where he died, leaving his fortune to the Jesuits.  He was born in Celico, Calabria and became known as the Calabrese (Il Calabrese) in later life.  After his death, a game collection was published in 1656 by Henry Herrington containing over 150 games with his own annotations.  This book, The Royall Game of Chess-Play, Sometimes The Recreation of the late King, with many of the Nobility.  Illustrated with almost an hundred Gambetts.  Being the study of Biochimo the famous Italian. This was the most important English-language chess book up to its day


Grefe, John (1947-    )

International Master (1975) from Berkeley who tied for first (with Kavalek) in the 1973 U.S. Chess Championship in El Paso, Texas.  He attributed his success by his complete devotion to the Guru Maharaj-Ji, a 15 year-old prophet from India.  In 1974 he came equal second at Lone Pine.  He tied for first at the 1980 American Open.  He won the California State Championship in 1980, 1981, 1982, and 1995.


Grefe - Burger, San Francisco 1969

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d5 3.exd5 e4 4.Qe2 Nf6 5.Nc3 Be7 6.Nxe4 O-O 7.Nxf6+ Bxf6 8.Qd1 Re8+ 9.Be2 Qe7 10.d4 Bf5 11.a3 Be4 12.O-O Bxd5 13.Be3 Nc6 14.c3 h6 15.h3 Na5 16.Nd2 Bg5 17.Bxg5 Qxe2 18.Be3 Rxe3! (19.fxe3 Qxg2 mate)  0-1


Greenblatt, Richard D. (1945-    )

Computer programmer.  In late 1966, as an MIT undergraduate, he began to develop a computer chess program of his own.  He had been challenged by Hubert Dreyfus, who criticized the usefulness of Artificial Intelligence and was an anti-computer opponent,  that computers would not be able to play chess or be good enough to beat a ten-year-old.  An early version was up and running by the end of 1966.  MIT was using a computer time-sharing grand called Project MAC (Multiple Access Computing).   Greenblatt’s program ran on a PDP 6.  He called his creation MAC HACK 6 and programmed it in assembly language.  His program was able to beat Greenblatt’s critic, Hubert Dreyfus, which checkmated him in the middle of the board.  In 1967, It was the first computer chess program to play in chess tournaments with human players.  Greenblatt was offered an MIT degree if he would write a thesis about his chess program, but he never got around to writing a thesis.  Greenblatt was the main designer of the MIT Lisp machine.  In 1980, Greenblatt founded LMI (Lisp Machines, Inc) to market Lisp machines.  


Greenfeld, Alon (1964-    )

Israeli Grandmaster (1989), born in New York.  His FIDE rating is 2549.


Korchnoi – Greenfeld, Biel 1986

1.Nf3 Nf6 2.c4 c5 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 e6 5.Nb5 d5 6.cxd5 a6 7.N5c3 exd5 8.Be3 Nc6 9.Bd4 Nxd4 10.Qxd4 Qc7 11.e3 Bc5 12.Qa4+ b5 13.Bxb5+ axb5 14.Qxa8 O-O 15.b4 Bxb4 16.O-O Ng4 17.g3 Bb7 18.Nxb5 Qc6 19.Qa4 d4 20.f3 Qh6 21.Qc2 d3 22.Qg2 Nxe3  0-1


Gresser, Gisela (1906-2000)

Winner of the U.S. Women's Championship 9 times (1944, 1948, 1955, 1957, 1962, 1965, 1966, 1967, and 1969).  She won the 1969 U.S. Women's Championship at the age of 63.   Second place went to 55 year-old Mona Karff (6 times former Champion).  She was the first woman in the U.S. to achieve a master's rating.  She learned how to play chess after she borrowed a chess book  while on a cruise from France to New York in 1937.  She became interested in chess tournaments as a spectator at the 1938 U.S. Women’s Championship at the Rockefeller Center in New York.  She played in her first U.S. Women’s Championship in 1940.  She was born Gisela Kahn.  She was awarded the International Woman Master title in 1950.


Rather - Gresser, New York 1946

1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.Nc3 d5 5.exd5 Nxd5 6.Nxd5 Qxd5 7.d4 Be7 8.Bxf4 Qe4+ 9.Be2 Qxf4 10.O-O O-O  0-1


Gretarsson, Helgi Ass (1977-   )

Icelandic grandmaster (1994) who won the 1994 World Under-20 Junior Chess Championship, held in Brazil.  He won the Icelandic championship in 1999.


Griffith, Richard Clewin ( 1872-1955)

British chess champion in 1912.  He was the co-author (along with J. H. White) of the early editions of Modern Chess Openings.


Grigoriev, Nikolai (1895-1938)

Soviet endgame analyst.  In 1936 the French magazine, La Strategie, promoted an end-game competition.  Of the 12 awards he shared 1st and 2nd prizes, won 3rd, 4th and 5th prizes; shared 1st and 2nd honorable mentions, and was awarded 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th honorable mentions.  He died after an operation to remove his appendix.


Grimshaw, Walter

19th century chess problem composer.  In 1854, he won the first chess problem competition, held in London.


Grischuk, Alexander (1983-    )

Russian Grandmaster from Moscow.  He reached the semifinals of the 2000 FIDE world championship at the age of 16.  In 2002, he took 2nd at the Corus Chess Tournament.  In 2004, he was 2nd in the 2004 Russian Championships, behind Kasparov.  His FIDE rating is 2716.


Arizmendi – Grischuk, Reykjavik 2000

1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.h4 g4 5.Ne5 Nf6 6.Bc4 d5 7.exd5 Bd6 8.d4 Nh5 9.Nc3 O-O 10.Nxg4 Ng3 11.Rh2 Qe7+ 12.Kd2 Re8  0-1


Grivas, Efstratios (1966-    )

Grandmaster from Greece.  His FIDE rating is 2515.


Grob, Henri (Jun 4, 1904 – Jul 5, 1974)

Swiss International Master (1950).  He was Swiss champion in 1939 and 1951.  He pioneered eccentric chess openings, such as 1.g4, sometimes knows as Grob’s Attack.  He was an artist and painter.  Between 1946 and 1972, Grob played 3,614 correspondence chess games.  He won 2,703, lost 430, and dres 481 games.  All of the games were played against readers of Neuern Zurcher Zeitung, a Zurich newspaper. 


Grob – W. Fischer, Postal 1966

1.g4 d5 2.Bg2 e5 3.c4 c6 4.cxd5 cxd5 5.Qb3 Ne7 6.Nc3 e4 7.d3 exd3 8.Bf4 a6 9.Rd1 dxe2 10.Ngxe2 Nbc6 11.Bxd5 Nxd5 12.Nxd5 Na5 13.Qe3+ Be6 14.Nc7+ Qxc7 15.Bxc7  1-0


Grossman, Nat (1910-    )

New York State Champion in 1932.


Groszpeter, Attila (1960-    )

Hungarian Grandmaster (1986).  He took 2nd in the 1984 Hungarian championship.  His FIDE rating is 2524.


Groszpeter – Burger, New York 1988

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 b6 4.g3 Ba6 5.Nbd2 Bb7 6.Bg2 d5 7.O-O Be7 8.cxd5 exd5 9.Qc2 O-O 10.Ne5 c5 11.dxc5 bxc5 12.Ndc4 Nc6 13.Nxc6 Bxc6 14.Bg5 Nd7 15.Bxe7 Qxe7 16.Na5 Bb5 17.Bxd5 Rae8 18.Rfe1 Bxe2 19.Bc6  1-0


Gruenfeld, Ernst (1893-1962)

Austrian chess player and Grandmaster (1950).  He was one of the top 10 players in the world in the 1920s.  He lost a leg in early childhood.  He was supposed to have one of the best memories for chess openings than any other player.  He introduced the Gruenfeld Defense in 1922.  He was German champion in 1923.


Grunfeld - Nagy, Debreczen 1924

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.g3 d5 4.cxd5 Qxd5 5.Nf3 Bg7 6.Bg2 O-O 7.Nc3 Qh5 8.h3 Nc6 9.Ng5 Rd8 10.Bf3 Rxd4 11.Qb3  1-0


Gruenfeld, Yehuda (1956-    )

Israeli grandmaster (1980), born in Poland.  In 1982 he was the champion of Israel.  He is a deaf mute.


Grumette, Lina (1908-1988)

Popular West Coast chess organizer who ran The Chess Set chess club in her Hollywood home.  She competed in the US Women’s championship of the 1940s and was one of the strongest females in the United States.  It may have been her influence that Bobby Fischer continued his world championship match in Iceland in 1972.


Grundy, James (1855-1919)

Responsible for the most infamous scandal in U.S. championship history.   Grundy needed a win in the last round to tie for first place at the 5th American Chess Congress in New York in 1880.  Grundy bribed his opponent, Preston Ware, $20 during the game to let Ware's advantage slip into a draw so that Grundy could make sure of second place.  When Ware agreed and took the money, Grundy tricked him and played for a win which he did.  Grundy tied for 1st place in the 5th American Chess Congress with George Mackenzie, but was subsequently disqualified.


Gufeld, Eduard (1936-2002)

Ukrainian Grandmaster (1967), chess coach and trainer, who played in 8 USSR championships from 1959 to 1972.  He moved to Hollywood in 1995 and opened up a chess club in 1998.  He won the American Open in 1999.  He guided Maya Chiburdanidze to the women’s world championship.  He authored over 80 books on chess.  In 1960 he won the championship of the USSR Armed Forces.


Gufeld - Klovans, Moscow 1956

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.O-O d6 6.c3 Bd7 7.Re1 Be7 8.a3 O-O 9.h3 Qc8 10.d4 exd4 11.cxd4 d5 12.Nc3 dxe4 13.d5 Rd8 14.dxc6 Bxh3 15.cxb7 Qg4 16.Nh4 Qxh4 17.bxa8=Q Rxa8 18.g3  1-0


Guimard, Carlos (1913-    )

Argentinian grandmaster (1960).  He was chess champion of Argentina in 1936, 1937, and 1941, .    He played in the 1955 Goteborg Interzonal and placed 12th-13th (with Najdorf) out of 21.  He was still playing chess in his 80s.


Guliev, Sarhan (1968-    )

Grandmaster from Azerbaijan.  His FIDE rating is 2481.


Gulko, Boris (1947-    )

Grandmaster (1976) and former Soviet champion (1977) who tried to emigrate from the Soviet Union for over 7 years and was finally allowed to do so in 1986.  We went on a 40 day hunger strike.  His wife is one of the strongest women chessplayers in the world, Anna Akhsumarova.  She won the Soviet women's championship twice and was cheated out of a third victory in 1982 when the result of a game she won was reversed.  Boris refused to sign a form letter denouncing the defection of Victor Korchnoi in 1979.   He was arrested for demonstrating in front of the Moscow Interzonal in 1982 and beaten up by KGB agents.  He was denied entrance to the tournament even as a spectator.  In 1987 he won the World Open.  In 1991 Gulko had to be smuggled into Yugoslavia to act as a second to Irina Levitina in the 1991 Women's Interzonal.  He was unable to get a passport from the tournament delegation so they smuggled him in from Hungary.  He tied for first with Judit Polgar in the 1998 US Open.  He is the only person to win the USSR and US championship.  He won the U.S. Championship in 1994 and 1999.  He was born in Germany.


Colin - Gulko, St. Martin 1992

1.c4 e5 2.e4 Bc5 3.Nc3 d6 4.g3 Nc6 5.Bg2 f5 6.d3 Nf6 7.Nh3 O-O 8.O-O h6 9.Qd2 (9.Na4) 9...fxe4 10.Nxe4 Nxe4 11.dxe4 Be6 12.Kh1 Qd7 13.Ng1 Bxc4 (and 14...Rxf2)  0-1


Friedmann – Gulko, Philadelphia 1993

1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.e5 c5 5.Bd2 Ne7 6.a3 Bxc3 7.Bxc3 b6 8.b4 Qc7 9.Nf3 cxb4 10.Bxb4 a5 11.Bd2 O-O 12.Bd3 Ba6 13.Bxh7+ Kxh7 14.Ng5+ Kg8 15.Qh5 Qxc2 16.g4 Qd3  0-1


Gumpel, Charles Godfrey (1835-1921)

Inventor of the chess automation Mephisto, in 1876, but first displayed in 1878.   Gumpel was a manufacturer of artificial limbs.


Gunsberg, Isidor Arthur (1854-1930)

In 1890-1891, Gunsberg played Steinitz for the world’s championship and lost after 4 wins, 9 draws, and 6 losses.  Gunsberg began his chess career as the player inside the chess automaton Mephisto.  He started playing chess at the Café de la Regence at the age of 12.  He took 3rd place at the 6th American Chess Congress.  In 1916, he sued the Evening News (Alfred William Foster) for libel when they said that his chess column in the London Daily Telegraph contained blunders and unsound chess problems.  He won the suit (and 250 pounds in dmages) after the British High Court accepted a submission that in chess matters, eight oversights did not make a blunder.


Bird – Gunsberg, Hastings 1897

1.f4 e5 2.fxe5 d6 3.exd6 Bxd6 4.Nf3 g5 5.c3 g4 6.Nd4 Nc6 7.Qa4 Qh4+ 8.Kd1 g3 9.b3 Qxh2  0-1


Gunsberg - Unknown, England 1900

1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.h4 g4 5.Ng5 h6 6.Nxf7 Kxf7 7.d4 d5 8.Bxf4 Nf6 9.Nc3 Bb4 10.Be5 Nxe4 11.Bd3 Nxc3 12.O-O+ Kg8 13.Qe1 Ne4 14.Qxe4 dxe4 15.Bc4+ Kh7 16.Rf7+ Kg6 17.Rg7+ Kh5 18.Bf7+ Kxh4 19.Kh2 (threatening 20.g3 or 20.Bg3 and mate)  1-0


Gurevich, Dmitry (1956-    )

Grandmaster (1983) who was born in Moscow and immigrated to the United States in 1980.  He won the US Open in 1988 and 1994.  In 2005, he won the National Open.


Gurevich, Ilya (1972-    )

Ilya Mark Gurevich was born in Kiev on February 6, 1972.  He later moved to Worcester, Massachusetts.  He is an American Grandmaster (1986).  He was U.S. National Elementary Champion (1983), World Under-14 Champion (1985), U.S. Junior Champion (1990), and World Junior Champion (1990).  He quit competitive chess in 1994 and is a stock exchange options trader.  He became a chess master at age 12 years, 3 months in 1984.  His current Elo rating is 2586.


Gurevich, Mikhail (1959-    )

Soviet grandmaster (1986).  In 1985 he won the Soviet championship.  In 1991 he immigrated to Belgium.


M. Gurevich – Geller, Moscow 1987

1.c4 e6 2.Nc3 d5 3.d4 Be7 4.cxd5 exd5 5.Bf4 c6 6.Qc2 g6 7.e3 Bf5 8.Qd2 Nf6 9.f3 h5 10.Bd3 Bxd3 11.Qxd3 Nbd7 12.Nge2 O-O 13.e4 dxe4 14.fxe4 Nc5 15.Qf3 Ne6 16.O-O-O Nxf4 17.Nxf4 Nh7 18.Kb1 Bb4 19.Nce2 Qe7 20.h4 Rae8 21.e5 Qd7 22.Ka1 Ba5 23.Qb3 Bb6 24.Nxg6  1-0


Gurgenidze, Bukhuti (1933-    )

Soviet Grandmaster (1970) from Soviet Georgia.  He was a trainer to several women grandmasters in the Soviet Union.  He played in eight USSR chess championships.  He may be the lowest rated Grandmaster, with a FIDE rating of 2225.  He is a geologist by profession.


Gurgenidze – Dzindzichashvili, Tbilisi 1966

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 d6 6.Bg5 e6 7.Be2 Be7 8.Nb3 a6 9.Qd2 b5 10.a3 Bb7 11.Rd1 Na5 12.Nxa5 Qxa5 13.e5 b4 14.axb4 Qxe5 15.f4 Qf5 16.g4 Ne4 17.gxf5 Nxd2 18.Kxd2 Bxg5 19.fxg5 Bxh1 20.Rxh1 h6 21.g6  1-0


Guseinov, Aidyn

Grandmaster from Azerbaijan.  His FIDE rating is 2489.


Guseinov, Gadir (1986-    )

Grandmaster from Azerbaijan.  His FIDE rating is 2585.


Gustafsson, Jan (1979-    )

Grandmaster from Germany.  His FIDE rating is 2614.


Gutman, Lev (1945-    )

Latvian-born Grandmaster (1986).  He was Latvian champion in 1972.  He moved to Israel, then to Germany.  His FIDE rating is 2465.


Igor Ivanov – Gutman, Riga 1975

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5 4.Bf4 Bg7 5.e3 O-O 6.Be5 c6 7.Nf3 Bg4 8.Qb3 Nbd7 9.Bg3 dxc4 10.Qxb7 Bxf3 11.gxf3 c5 12.d5 Ne8 13.Bxc4 Nd6 14.Qa6 Rb8 15.Bb3 Rb4 16.O-O c4 17.Bxd6 exd6 18.Qxd6 Rb6  0-1


Gutmayer, Franz (1857-1937)

German chess player who wrote a chess book (Turnierpraxis, published in Leipzig) and a series of articles in 1921 on how to become a chess master, but he never became one himself.  He never won a Hauptturnier first prize (but did take 2nd place ½ point behind the winner), which was required in Germany for the title of chess master.   Richard Reti read the articles, became a master, and wrote Modern Ideas in Chess in 1922, showing the proper way to play chess and become a master.  However, Gutmayer’s  historical chess rating was over 2400 in 1885, ranking him in the top 25 players in the world.  Gutmayer wrote over 20 popular chess books between 1898 and 1928.


Gyimesi, Zoltan (1977-    )

Grandmaster from Hungary.  His FIDE rating is 2628.


Hahn, Anna (1976-    )

Women’s International Master (1995) and Women’s US Champion for 2003.  She won a playoff  between Irina Krush and Jennifer Shahade.  She won the Latvian’s Women’s Championship in 1992.  She tied for 2nd place in the World Girls’ Championship in 1993.  She was born in Latvia and her hobbies include kick boxing.


Halkias, Stelios (1980-    )

Grandmaster from Greece.  His FIDE rating is 2548.


Hallmark, A. M.

British Correspondence Champion in 1952.


Hamarat, Tunc (1946-    )

Winner of the 16th International Correspondene Chess Federation (ICCF) World Championship in 2004.  In 1997, he was awarded the title of Grandmaster of Correspondence Chess.


Hamdouchi, Hichem (1972-    )

Grandmaster from Morocco.  He was Africa’s 2nd grandmaster, after Bouaziz.  His FIDE rating is 2567.


Hanauer, Milton Loeb (1909-1988)

Vice President of the Marshall Chess Club where he had been a member for over 60 years.  He was one of the top 25 chess players in America in the early 1950s.  He authored Chess Made Easy.  He graduated from college at 17 and was the youngest person to win the New York State Chess Championship (1926).  He was the Marshall Chess Club Champion in 1950-51.


Handoko, Edhi (1960-    )

Grandmaster from Indonesia.  His FIDE rating is 2407.


Hanham, James Moore (1840-1923)

James Moore Hanham was born in Woodville, Mississippi on January 4, 1840.  He fought on the side of the North during the Civil War and was promoted to major in the U.S. Army.  He saw action at Fort Pickens and Baton Rouge.  After the Civil War, he moved to Manhattan.  In 1885, he took 2nd place at the 7th Manhattan Chess Club championship.  In 1885, he took 2nd in the 8th Manhattan Chess Club championship.  In 1888, he tied for 2nd-3rd in the 1st United States Chess Association tournament in Cincinnati, won by Showalter.  In 1891, he won the New York State Chess Association championship.  He died on December 30, 1923 in Manhattan.  At his death at age 84, he was the oldest chessplayer of master rank in the United States. 


Hansen, Curt (1964-    )

Grandmaster (1985) and the strongest Danish player in the 1990s.  He won the European Junior Championship in 1982 and the junior World Championship in 1984.   He won the Nordic championship in 1983.  He won the Danish championship in 1932, 1984, and 1985. 


Hansen – Wicker, Esbjerg 1981

1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nd2 c5 4.Ngf3 Nf6 5.exd5 Nxd5 6.c4 Nf6 7.dxc5 Bxc5 8.Be2 Nc6 9.O-O Qc7 10.a3 a5 11.b3 O-O 12.Bb2 e5 13.Qc2 Re8 14.Ne4 Nxe4 15.Qxe4 Bd4 16.Nxd4  1-0


Hansen, Lars Bo (1968-    )

Grandmaster from Denmark.  His FIDE rating is 2567.


Hansen, Sune Berg (1971-    )

Grandmaster from Denmakr.  His FIDE rating is 2568.


Hanstein, Wilhelm (1811-1850)

German chess player who was one of the Berlin Pleiades.  He helped found Berliner Schachzeitung, later to become Deutsche Schachzeitung.  He was a civil servant.


Hanstein – Jaenisch, Berlin 1842

1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 g4 5.O-O gxf3 6.Qxf3 Bh6 7.d4 d5 8.exd5 Qf6 9.c3 Ne7 10.Nd2 Bf5 11.d6 Nec6 12.dxc7 Nd7 13.Re1+ Kf8 14.b3 Rc8 15.Ne4 Bxe4 16.Rxe4 Re8 17.Rxe8+ Kxe8 18.c8=Q+  1-0


Har-Zvi, Ronen (1976-    )

Grandmaster from Israel.  His FIDE rating is 2515.


Harikrishna, Pentela  (Pentyala) (May 10, 1986-    )

In 1996, he was the World Under-10 chess champion.  In 2004, he was the World Junior Chess Champion.  His Internet Chess Club (ICC) handle is TomCruise.  He became a Grandmaster in 2001, at the age of 15.  He became India’s youngest Grandmaster (Anand was 18 when he became a GM). 


Harkness, Kenneth (Nov 12, 1896- Oct 4, 1972)

First business manager of the US Chess Federation.  He was a radio engineer.  He helped standardize chess rules, the Swiss system, and the rating system.   From 1952 to 1960, he was the business manager of the US Chess Federation.  In 1972, he became an Intenational Arbiter.  He was inducted in the US Chess Hall of Fame in 1997.  He was born in Scotland.  He died of a heart attack on a train in Yugoslavia, on his way to a FIDE meeting in Skopje, Yugoslavia.  He was 74.


Harmonist, Max (Feb 10, 1864 – Oct 16, 1907)

German chess master who earned his living as a ballet dancer for the Royal Ballet.


Harmonist – NN, Berlin 1897

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.f4 d5 4.fxe5 Nxe4 5.Nf3 Nxc3 6.bxc3 Be7 7.d4 Be6 8.Bd3 O-O 9.h4 f6 10.Ng5 fxg5 11.Bxh7+ Kxh7 12.hxg5+ Kg8 13.Qh5 Rf5 14.g4 Rxg5 15.Bxg5 Bxg4 16.Qxg4 Qd7 17.e6 Qd6 18.Qh3  1-0


Harrington, Dan (1945- )

Dan Harrington was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts on December 6, 1945.  He is lawyer and a former champion backgammon player (World Cup of Backgammon Champion in 1980), U.S. chess master, and professional poker player.  In 1971 he won the Massachusetts State Chess Championship.  He is a former club champion of the Bolyston Chess Club.


Harris, Walter

In 1963 he was the first African-American master.  He was a scientist at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. for several years, then moved to Northern California.


Harrow, Martin

Martin Harrow is a PhD, professor, and Director of Psycholgy at the University of Illinois in Chicago.  In 1967, he won the New England Chess Championship.


Harrwitz, Daniel (Apr 29, 1823 – Jan 9, 1884)

German master (born in Breslau, Silesia) and world’s best active player in the mid 1850s.  He played matches against Staunton, Anderssen, Lowenthal, and lost to Morphy.  He became a professional chess player at the Cafe de la Regence in Paris.   In 1852, his match with Lowenthal was the first chess match that introduced a time limit.  The time limit was 20 minutes per move.  In 1853-1854  he founded and edited the British Chess Review.   In 1862 he wrote Lehbuch des Schachspiels.  He retired in the Austrian Alps (Tyrol), living off his inheritance.


Gocher - Harrwitz, France 1868

1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.h4 g4 5.Ne5 Nf6 6.Nxg4 Nxe4 7.d3 Ng3 8.Bxf4 Qe7+ 9.Kf2 Nxh1+ 10.Kg1 Bg7 11.Nc3 h5 12.Nd5 hxg4 13.Nxe7 Bd4+ 14.Kxh1 Rxh4+ 15.Bh2 g3 (and 16...Rxh2 mate)  0-1


Hartston, William (Aug 12, 1947 -    )

British International Master (1973) who won the British men's chess championship while his wife, Jana Malypetrova, won the British women's  championship in 1974.  He won or tied in the British championship in 1973, 1974, 1975, and 1980.  At Hastings 1972-3, he turned down a draw offer against Uhlmann and lost the game.  If he had accepted the draw, he would have become England’s first grandmaster.  He has written many chess books.  His highest Elo rating was 2515.


Hartston - Basman, England 1968

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 Nd7 4.Bc4 c6 5.O-O h6 6.dxe5 dxe5 7.Bxf7+ Kxf7 8.Nxe5+ Kf6 9.Qd4 Ke6 10.Ng6 Rh7 11.Qc4+ Kf6 12.Nf4 g5? (12...Qe8) 13.Qxg8 gxf4 14.Qxh7 Bg7 15.Bxf4 Nf8 16.Be5+ Kxe5 17.Qxg7+ Qf6 18.f4+ Ke6 19.f5+ (19...Ke5 20.Qg3+ Kxe4 21.Nc3+ Kd4 22.Qf4+ Kc5 23.Ne4+ and 24.Nxf6)  1-0


Hayes, Rea Bruce (1915-2001)

Winner of the first U.S. Senior Open (open to players age 50 and older), held in 1981 in Sun City, Arizona..  In 1998, at the age of 83, he was the oldest player to play in the event.  He was born in Canada, then later moved to South Carolina.  He won the South Carolina championship in 1953 and 1954.  He later moved to Cincinnati, Ohio.  He won the Ohio championship in 1963 and the Tennessee championship in 1992, at the age of 76.


Hazeltine, Miron James (Nov 13, 1824 – Feb 24, 1907)

Newspaper chess columnist (New York Clipper) for more than 50 years (from 1856 to 1907) without missing a single issue until shortly before his death.  He began his first chess column in the New York Saturday Courier on February 3, 1855.  This was probably the first chess column in the United States.  He was the first  person to omit the "to" from recorded moves - making "P to K4" into "P-K4."  He was a principal of a classical private school and a justice of the peace and notary public for the state of New Hampshire.  At the time of his death, he had one of the largest collection of chess books in the country (over 600 volumes).


Hebden, Mark (Feb 15, 1958 -    )

Grandmaster from England.  In 1996, he won the Hastings tournament.  His highest FIDE rating is 2510.


Hecht, Hans-Joachim (Jan 29, 1939 -    )

German grandmaster (1973).   He was West German chess champion in 1970 and 1973.  He was on the German team that won the gold medal in the 1st World Senior Team Chess Championship in 2004.  Uhlmann played board 1 and Hecht played board 2.


Hecht – Velimirovic, Budapest 1973

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 b6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Bb7 5.Nc3 e6 6.Ndb5 d6 7.Bf4 e5 8.Nd5 Na6 9.Be3 Be7 10.Bc4 Nf6 11.Nxf6+ gxf6 12.Qh5 O-O 13.Nc3 Nc5 14.Bh6 Ne6 15.O-O-O Qc8 16.Bxe6 fxe6 17.Rd3  1-0


Hector, Jonny (Feb 13, 1964 -    )

Grandmaster from Malmo, Sweden.  His FIDE rating is 2537.  Hector is Swedish, but has lived in Denmark over 10 years after marrying a Danish woman.


Heemsoth, Hermann (Dec 21, 1909 – Jan 20, 2006)

German correspondence champion in 1954 and 1969.  He became a grandmaster of Correspondence Chess in 1987 at the age of 77.


Heidenfeld, Wolfgang (May 29, 1911 – Aug 3, 1981)

German-born (Berlin) Jewish chess author who was forced to emigrate to South Africa in the 1930s and then settled in Ireland in 1957.  He was South African Champion in 1939, 1945-46, 1947, 1949, 1951, 1955, 1957, and 1959.  He was Irish Champion in 1958, 1963, 1964, 1967, 1968, and 1972.  During World War II, he helped decode German messages for the Allies.  He died in Germany.  In 1959, he was champion of Ireland and South Africa while living in Germany.  FIDE awarded him the title of International Master, but he declined to accept the award from FIDE.  His son, Mark (born in 1968), became and International Master.


Heidenfeld – Driman, Johannesburg 1942

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.f4 d5 4.fxe5 Nxe4 5.Nf3 Bg4 6.Qe2 Bxf3 7.Qxf3 Nxc3 8.bxc3 c6 9.d4 Nd7 10.Bd3 Be7 11.O-O O-O 12.Qh3 g6 13.Bh6 Re8 14.Rxf7 Nxe5 15.Rg7+ Kh8 16.dxe5  1-0


Heisman, Dan (1950-    )

Philadelphia chess master.  Author of several books on chess.


Hellers, Ferdinand (Jul 28, 1969 -    )

Swedish grandmaster (1989).  He won the 1984-1985 European Junior Championship.  His FIDE rating is 2605.


Hellsten, Johan (1975-    )

Grandmaster from Sweden.  He won the Swedish championship in 2006.  His FIDE rating is 2582.


Helms, Hermann (Jan 5, 1870-Jan 6, 1963)

First dean of American chess.  In 1904, at the Cambridge Springs International, he was the first person to issue daily chess bulletins.  He wrote a chess column for 62 years, from 1893 to 1955 in the Brooklyn Daily Eagle.  This is the record for the longest-running uninterrupted chess column under the same authorship.  He published the American Chess  Bulletin from 1904 to 1963, a period of 59 years.  He also wrote weekly chess columns in the New York World Telegram, the New York Evening Sun, and the New York Times.  He died in Brooklyn, one day after he reached his 93rd birthday.  He was instrumental in directing Bobby Fischer to the Brooklyn Chess Club.  He won the New York State championship in 1906 and 1925.  In 1936, at age 66, he took 2nd place in the New York State championship, behind Isaac Kashdan.  He was the first to broadcast chess games over the radio (WNYC).   In 1943, he was voted as Dean of American Chess.  In 1954, he was awarded the International Arbiter title at the age of 84.  He edited the book of the 1924 New York International.


Helms - Tenner, New York 1942

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.b4 Bb6 5.a4 a6 6.a5 Ba7 7.b5 axb5 8.Bxb5 Nf6 9.Ba3 Nxe4 10.Qe2 Nxf2  11.Nxe5 Nd4 12.Nxd7+ Nxe2 13.Nf6 mate  1-0


Henley, Ronals Watson (Dec 5, 1956 -    )

American Grandmaster (1982) from Houston, Texas.  He is the only American selected as a second to a Soviet player.  He served as second to Anatoly Karpov in the 1990 World Championship match.  He was Karpov’s chief trainer for 6 years.  He has been a member of the American Stock Exchange since 1985.  He won the Texas state championship in 1975 and 1976.


Henley - Gruenfeld, Lone Pine 1981

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 c5 4.d5 exd5 5.cxd5 d6 6.Nc3 g6 7.e4 Bg7 8.Be2 O-O 9.O-O Re8 10.Nd2 Nbd7 11.a4 Ne5 12.h3 g5 13.Nf3 Nxf3+ 14.Bxf3 Nd7 15.Bg4 Ne5 16.Bxc8 Rxc8 17.Qh5 Nd3 18.Bxg5 Qd7 19.Qf3 (threatening 20.Qxf6 and 20.Qxd3)  1-0


Henry I (1068-1135)

King of England who, in 1106, imprisoned his brother Richard, Duke of Normandy, in Cardiff Castle for 28 years.  Richard's only activity was playing chess.


Hernandez Guerrero, Gilberto (Feb 4, 1970 - )

Grandmaster (1995) from Mexico.  His FIDE rating is 2551.  He has won the Mecian Championship three times.  He is married to WGM Claudia Amura of Argentina.


Hernandez, Roman (Nov 23, 1949 -    )

Cuban Grandmaster (1978).  He was Cuban Champion in 1981/2.  His FIDE rating is 2373.


Tal - Hernandez, Las Palmas 1977

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 g6 5.c4 Bg7 6.Be3 Nf6 7.Nc3 O-O 8.Be2 b6 9.O-O Bb7 10.Qd2 Nxd4 11.Bxd4 e5 12.Bxe5 Nxe4 13.Nxe4 Bxe5 14.Nc3 Re8 15.Rae1 Qf6 16.Qxd7 Re7 17.Qd2 Rae8 18.Nd5 Bxd5 19.cxd5 Qf4 20.Qxf4 Bxf4 21.d6 Rxe2  0-1


Hertneck, Gerald (Sep 18, 1963 -    )

Grandmaster from Germany.  His hisghest FIDE rating is 2539.


Hickl, Joerg (Apr 16, 1965 -    )

German Grandmaster (1988).  His peak FIDE rating is 2605.  In 1987, he took 16th out of 17 at the Zagreb Interzonal.


Hillarp Persson, Tiger (Oct 28, 1970 -    )

Grandmaster from Sweden.  His FIDE rating is 2511.  He lives in Malmo.


Hirschel, Moses (1754-1823)

Chess author from Breslau who wrote the first work in German on the chess writings of Greco and Stamma.  His book was entitled Das Schach des Herrn Gioachino Greco Calabrois und.die Schachspiel-Geheimnisse des Arabers Philipp Stamma.  In his 1784 edition, he introduced the modern form of algebraic notation, using the initial of the piece to designate it and small letters for the files.  In his notation, the square of departure was given, as well as the square of arrival (1.Nf3 would be 1.Ng1-f3).  He also introduce the symbols for castling, O-O and O-O-O.  Prior to this, the notation for castling kingside was K. G. 1 and for castling queenside was K. C. 1.  If no notation was used for castling, it was just spelled out, Castle.


Hjartarson, Johann (1963-    )

Icelandic grandmaster (1985).  He was Icelandic champion in 1980 and 1984.   In 1989 he lost to Anatoly Karpov (3 draws, 2 losses, no wins) in the World Quarterfinals Chess Championship match, held in Seattle. 


Frois – Hjartarson, Groningen 1981

1.d4 Nf6 2.g3 e6 3.Nf3 c5 4.c4 cxd4 5.Nxd4 d5 6.Bg2 e5 7.Nf3 d4 8.O-O Nc6 9.e3 Bc5 10.exd4 exd4 11.Re1+ Be6 12.Ng5 O-O 13.Nxe6 fxe6 14.Rxe6 d3 15.Bxc6 bxc6 16.Be3 Bd4 17.Nc3 Qd7 18.Qxd3 Qxe6 19.Qxd4 Ng4 20.Re1 Ne5  0-1


Hoang Thang Trang (1980-    )

Woman Grandmaster from Vietnam who won the 1998 Women’s World Under-20 Championship, held in India.


Hochberg, Burt (1933-2006)

Former Chess Life editor, from 1966 to 1979.  He died on May 13, 2006 in New York.  He was the longest-serving Chess Life editor in USCF history.


Hodges, Albert Beauregard (1861-1944)

Former U.S. Champion.  His first job was a hidden operator of Ajeeb, the chess automaton, at the Eden Musee in New York..  He played chess and checkers.  He won the US championship in 1894 after defeating Jackson Showalter (5 wins, 3 losses, 1 draw).  He never defended his title due to business pressures (he was an accountant). Pillsbury challenged him in 1895 but Hodges declined for business reasons and announced his retirement from the title in 1896.  He was the only American master to play against 5 world chess champions over  a period of 60 years.  He played Zukertort, Steinitz, Lasker, Capablanca, and Alekhine.  He won the Manhattan Chess Club Championship and the New York championship (1892, 1893, 1894).  He played in all 13 Anglo-American cable matches without losing a game.  He founded the Staten Island Chess Club and was its president for 12 years.  From 1893 to 1913, he was secretary of the Sailors Snug Harbor.  He died of a heart attack.


Michelsen – Hodges, New York 1915

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Nf6 4.d3 Be7 5.O-O d6 6.c3 O-O 7.Bb3 Qe8 8.h3 Be6 9.Bxe6 fxe6 10.Qb3 Nd8 11.Ng5 d5 12.f4 exf4 13.Bxf4 Nh5 14.Be3 Rxf1+ 15.Kxf1 Bxg5 16.Bxg5 Qg6 17.Be3 Qg3 18.Qa4 Nc6 19.Bc5 Nf4 20.Qd1 Qxg2+ 21.Ke1 Ne5  0-1


Hodgson, Julian (1963-    )

British Grandmaster (1989).  Winner of the 1992 British Championship with an all-time record of 10 out of 11 points.  He was the winner of the 1991 British Championship as well.  He won the British championship again in 2000.  In 1995 and 1998 he won the National Open in Las Vegas.


Hugne - Hodgson, London 1987

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 c5 3.Nf3 cxd4 4.Nxd4 e5 5.Nb5 d5 6.cxd5 Bc5 7.d6 Ne4 8.Nc7+? (8.Be3)  8...Qxc7 9.Qa4+ Qc6  0-1


Hoesslinger, Anton (1875-1959)

Born in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, he introduced the first modern grading system.  In 1948, he published his grading list (the Ingo system) based on collected tournament results in the periodical Bayerische Schacht.  He worked as a postal supervisor. 


Hoffer, Leopold (1842-1913)

Hungarian-born English chess journalist.  He founded (along with Zukertort) and edited the Chess Monthly from September 1879 to 1896.  He wrote for the Standard and the Westminster Gazette.  In 1882, he took over Steinitz’s chess column in The Field when Steinitz moved to America.  He founded the British Chess Club in 1895.


Holland, Kirk

Chicago chess player who is perhaps the oldest active chess player in the United States.   He is still playing in rated tournaments at age 94.  He chaired the meeting that merged the American Chess Federation (Holland was President) with the National Chess Federation to form the United States Chess Federation in 1939.


Hooper, David (1915-1998)

British correspondence chess champion in 1944 and London champion in 1948.  Author of 10 chess books.   He played in the British Championship 5 times, taking 3rd place in 1954.  He was an architect by profession.


Hope, Bob (1903-2003 )

Got World Chess Champion Bobby Fischer to appear on one of his television specials in 1972.  Bob Hope stated that Fischer was the worst guest he ever had to deal with when he (Fischer) appeared on his special.  Hope did a skit where he was an annoying kibitzer while Fischer was playing chess.


Horowitz, Israel Albert  (1907-1973)

Chess publisher, author, promoter and International Master (1950).   He won or tied three U.S. Open titles (1936, 1938, 1943).  He was one of the founders of Chess Review magazine in 1932 and the author of more than 20 chess books.  In 1940 he survived a car crash that killed his chess partner, Harold Morton (1906-1940).  The two had been giving simultaneous chess exhibitions throughout the country.  On February 17, 1940, a truck collided with the car in which Morton was driving near Carroll, Iowa.  Morton, New England chess champion since 1929, was killed instantly and Horowitz had a brain concussion and other injuries.  In 1944, Horowitz made a spectacular move in a tournament in Kansas City.  His opponent literally dropped dead of a heart attack.  Horowitz was inducted in the US Chess Hall of Fame in 1989.


Horowitz - Unknown, Los Angeles 1940

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.Qg4 Qf6 5.Nd5 Qxf2+ 6.Kd1 Kf8 7.Nh3 Qd4 8.d3 Bb6 9.Rf1 Nf6 10.Rxf6 d6 11.Qxg7+ Kxg7 12.Bh6+ Kg8 13.Rg6+ hxg6 14.Nf6 mate  1-0


Hort, Vlastimil (1944-    )

Czech grandmaster (1965) and former world championship candidate who immigrated to Germany in 1985.  In the mid-1970s he was ranked no.4 in the world.  In April 1977 he played 550 opponents, 201 simultaneously, and lost only 10 games after 30 hours of play in Iceland.  In 1984 he played 663 games in a simultaneous exhibition in 32 and a half hours at Porz, West Germany.  He worked for a general-interest magazine as a translator.


Damjanovic – Hort, Sarajevo 1964

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4 d6 5.Be2 O-O 6.Nf3 e5 7.d5 Nbd7 8.Bg5 h6 9.Bh4 g5 10.Bg3 Nh5 11.h4 Nxg3  0-1


Hort - Shelandinov, Havana 1967

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Bxc6 dxc6 5.O-O f6 6.d4 exd4 7.Nxd4 c5 8.Nb3 Qxd1 9.Rxd1 Bd6 10.Na5 Bg4 11.f3 O-O-O? 12.e5  1-0


Horvath, Adam (1981-    )

Grandmaster from Hungary.  His FIDE rating is 2545.


Horvath, Csaba (1968-    )

Grandmaster from Hungary.  His FIDE rating is 2542.


Horvath, Jozsef (1964-    )

Grandmaster from Hungary.  His FIDE rating is 2512.


Horwitz, Bernard (1807-1885)

German born painter and chess study composer.  He won the first study-composing chess tournament,  held in 1862.  Along with Josef Kling, he wrote Chess Studies and End-Games in 1851, reprinted in 1884 with 208 endgame studies.  He was one of the Berlin Pleiades.  He lent his name to the Horwitz Bishops, which are two bishops working in tandem on adjacent diagonals.


Schulten - Horwitz, London 1846

1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 Nf6 3.Nc3 b5 4.Bxb5 Bc5 5.d3 c6 6.Bc4 Qb6 7.Qe2 d5 8.exd5 O-O 9.Ne4 Nxe4 10.dxe4 Bxf2+ 11.Qxf2 Qb4+ 12.Bd2 Qxc4 13.Qf3 f5 14.exf5 Bxf5 15.Qb3 Qf1+ 16.Kxf1 Bd3+ 17.Ke1 Rf1 mate  0-1


Howard, Kenneth Samuel (1882-1972)

Chess problem composer.  He won the New York State Championship in 1918.


Howell, James (1967-    )

Grandmaster from England.  His FIDE rating is 2495.


Hracek, Zbynek (1970-    )

Grandmaster from the Czech Republic.  His FIDE rating is 2591.


Hromadka, Karel (1887-1956)

Czech chess champion in 1913 and 1921.  He was one of the chief pioneers of the Modern Benoni.  His lifetime Elo rating was about 2440.


Abonyi – Hromadka, Prague 1908

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bb5 Nd4 5.Ba4 c6 6.O-O Bc5 7.Nxe5 d6 8.Nd3 Bg4 9.Qe1 Nf3+ 10.gxf3 Bxf3 11.e5 O-O 12.exd6 Ng4 13.Qe7 Bxd6  0-1


Huebner, Robert (1948-    )

German Grandmaster (1971) and strongest German player since World War II.  In 1967 he won the German championship.  In 1971 he was playing in a candidates match with Petrosian when he made a mistake in his 7th game.  He overlooked a winning move, became demoralized after he saw the mistake, resigned, burst into tears, and withdrew from the match.  He said he was bothered by street noises.  Petrosian merely turned his hearing aid down.  In 1982 he tied in a match with Smyslov in a Candidates match.  To break the tie, both players agreed to use a roulette wheel to select a winner.  Huebner’s color was black and Smyslov’s color was red.  The wheel was spun and it came up green (0).  A second spin came up red (3) in Smyslov’s favor.  Huebner is a papyrologist and has a PhD.  He is also a world-class player in Chinese chess (Xiangqi).  He learned how to play chess from his father at the age of 5.


Huebner - Siaperas, Athens 1969

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Bxc6 bxc6 5.O-O d6 6.c3 e5 7.cxd4 Qc7 8.Na3 Ne7 9.Nc4 Ng6 10.Nc4 Ng6 11.Bd2 a5 12.Qa4 Ba6 (12...Bg4) 13.Rfc1 Bb5 14.Qc2 Be7 15.Nxa5 Rxa5 16.Bxa5 Qxa5 17.a4 Ba6 18.Qxc6+ (18...Kd8 19.b4 Qxb4 20.Rab1)  1-0


Hug, Werner (1952- )

Swiss International Master (1971).  He won the 11th World Junior Champion in 1971 (played in Athens) and was Swiss champion in 1975.  In 1979 he set a world record, playing 560 simultaneous games, winning 365, drawing 126, and losing 49.  He was the first Swiss player to hold a world title.


Hulak, Krunoslav (1951-    )

Croatian Grandmaster (1976).    He was Yugoslav chess champion in 1976.


Hulak – Tratar, Pula 2001

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 d6 3.Nf3 g6 4.g3 Bg7 5.Bg2 O-O 6.O-O Nbd7 7.Nc3 e5 8.e4 a6 9.d5 Qe7 10.Bd2 Kh8 11.Ne1 Ng8 12.Nd3 f5 13.Qc2 Ngf6 14.Rae1 Qf7 15.f4 fxe4 16.Nxe4 Nxe4 17.Bxe4 Qg8 18.Bc3 exf4 19.Nxf4 Ne5 20.Bxg6  1-0


Humpy Koneru (1987-    )

In 2002, she won the girls’ world junior chess championship and was the British Ladies Champion..    In 1997, she was the girls’ World Under-10 chess champion.   In 1998, she was the girls’ World Under-12 chess champion.  In 1999, she was Asia’s youngest International Women Master.  In 2000, she won the British Ladies Championship, becoming the youngest winner of the British Ladies title.  In 2001, she was the girls’ World Under-14 champion.  At age 14, she became Asia’s youngest Woman Grandmaster.  She was India’s second Woman Grandmaster (the first was Subbaramen Vijayalakshmi).  In 2002, she became the first woman chess player from India to receive the Men’s Grandmaster title, at the age of 15 years, 4 months, and 27 days.  She is the youngest female grandmaster.


Hund, Barbara (1959-    )

West Germany's first woman Grandmaster (1982).  She was born 13 days after her mother, Juliane, played in the German Women's Chess Championship.  She won the German Women’s Championship in 1978.  She now lives in Switzerland.


Hund – Vuji, Leon 2001

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 a6 6.f4 Qc7 7.Bd3 g6 8.Nf3 Nc6 9.O-O Bg7 10.Qe1 b5 11.Qh4 b4 12.Nd1 Qb6+ 13.Be3 Qc7 14.Kh1 Ng4 15.f5 gxf5 16.exf5 h5 17.Bg5 Bf6 18.Bxf6 Nxf6 19.a3 Rb8 20.Ne3 Rg8 21.Rae1 Kd8 22.Bc4 Rg7 23.Nd5 Nxd5 24.Bxd5 Bb7 25.f6  1-0


Huzman, Alexander (1962-    )

Grandmaster from Israel.  His FIDE rating is 2577.


Hyde, Thomas (1634-1703)

Author of De Ludis Orientalibus (the Book of Oriental Games) in 1694.  This book documented correspondence games between Venetian and Croation merchants as early as 1650.  He  also wrote Mandragoria,s seu, Historia Shahiludi: vis ejusdem origo, antiquitas, ususque per totum Orientem cereberrimusi (The Mandragoriad or History of the Chess game: that is to say its origin, age and use, most famous throughout the whole orient) in 1694,  the first scientific contribution to the history of chess.  He was the first person to establish beyond doubt that chess originated in India.  He was one of the first Oriental scholars of his age.   He was a professor of Hebrew and Arabic at Oxford University and librarian-in-chief of the Bodleian Library.   He was Eastern interpreter under Charles II, James II, and William III.   He mastered the Turkish, Arabic, Syriac, Persian, Hebrew, Malay, and Chinese languages.


Ibragimov, Alibek

Grandmaster from Kazakhstan.  His FIDE rating is 2509.


Ibragimov, Iidar (1967-    )

Grandmaster now living in the United States.  His FIDE rating is 2605.


Iliesco, Juan (1898-1968)

Player born in Romania.  He won the Argentine Championship in 1943.


Ilincic, Zlatko (1968-    )

Grandmaster from Serbia and Montenegro.  His FIDE rating is 2470.


Ilivitsky, Georgy (1921-1989)

Russian International Master (1955).  He took 3rd in the 1955 USSR Championship.   He committed suicide in 1989.


Illescas Cordoba, Miguel (1965-    )

Spanish Grandmaster (1988).  His FIDE rating is 2624.  In 2004, he was the Spanish Champion.


Ilyin-Genevsky, Alexander (1894-1941)

The Russian master who had to learn the game twice.  He was gassed, then shell-shocked in World War I, which took away his memory.  Irving Chernev wrote that a bullet entered Ilyin-Genevsky’s brain, which caused the memory loss.  He had previously been champion of Geneva where he added the city's name to his own .  He had to learn the game all over again, starting from how each piece moved.  He was a member of an underground Bolshevik organization in high school, which led to his expulsion.  Forbidden to re-enter any Russian school, he went to Geneva where he performed party work for Lenin.  During the October Revolution and Russian Civil War he was the head of the Moscow Reservists.  Alexander held the post of Chief Government Commissar for General Military Education.  He actively encouraged and organized chess activities as part of the campaign to promote education and culture in the Red Army.  His older brother was Fyodor Raskolnikov who was involved in a naval uprising at Kronstadt.  Alexander started and edited a chess column in the Red Army magazine K Novai Armii.  He organized the first USSR chess championship in 1920.  He later became the editor of Shakhmatny Listok.  He was Leningrad chess champion in 1925, 1926, and 1929.  He won the first Trade Unions Championship of the USSR in 1927.  In 1941, while trying to escape from Leningrad on a barge with dozens of other passengers, the Germans bombed the barge. Alexander was the only one killed.


Rauzer - Ilyin-Genevsky , Tbilisi 1937

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.f3 d5 6.e5 Nfd7 7.f3 Nc6 8.Nxc6 bxc6 9.Bd3 Qh4+ 10.g3 Qh3 11.Qf3 Bc5 12.Be3 O-O 13.Nd2 f6 14.exf6 Re8 15.Nf1 Nxf6 16.Kd2 Bg4 17.Qf2 d4 18.Bxd4 Re2+ 19.Bxe2 Ne4+  0-1


Ilyumzhinov, Kirsan (1962-    )

Elected President of  the International Chess Federation (FIDE) in 1995.  He is also the President of the Russian Republic of Kalmykia, the youngest president of a sovereign country.  He was elected President of his country at the age of 30 in 1993.  He made chess a compulsory subject in school.


Inkiov, Ventzislav (1956-    )

Bulgarian Grandmaster (1982).  He won the Bulgarian championship in 1982.  His FIDE rating is 2472.  In 1987, he took 13th in the Zagreb Interzonal.


Ionov, Sergey (1962-    )

Grandmaster from Russia.   His FIDE rating is 2522.


Ioseliani, Nana (1961-    )

Former World Women’s Championship challenger.  She is a woman’s international grandmaster (1980) from the Republic of Georgia and was once ranked no. 2 in the world for women chess players.  She was USSR Women’s Champion in 1981 and 1982.


Nemet - Ioseliani, Biel 1989

1.d4 d5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.c4 e6 4.Nc3 Be7 5.cxd5 exd5 6.Bg5 c6 7.e3 Bf5 8.Bd3 Bxd3 9.Qxd3 Nbd7 10.O-O O-O 11.Rab1 Ne4 12.Bf4 g5 13.Bg3 f5 14.Ne5 f4 15.exf4 gxf4 16.Bxf4 Rxf4 17.Nxe4 Nxe5  (18.dxe5 dxe4)  0-1


Ippolito, Dean (1979-    )

International Master (1999).  In 1988, he was the U.S. Junior Open Under-13 Champion (the youngest ever).   In 1992, he was the U.S. Amateur Champion.  In 1994, he was the U.S. Cadet Champion.  In 1996, he was the National High School Champion.  In 1997, he was the Marshall Chess Club Champion.   He was the New Jersey Open Champion in 2001 and 2002. 


Irzhanov, Ruslan (1976-    )

Grandmaster from Kazakhstan.  His FIDE rating is 2494.


Iskov, Gert (1948-    )

Danish International Master (1979).  He won the Danish Championship in 1975.


Istratescu, Andrei (1975-    )

Grandmaster from Romania.  His FIDE rating is 2624.


Iturralde, Maria Teresa Mora (1907-    )

Women’s World Championship Challenger in 1939 and 1949.  She was awarded the Women’s International Master title in 1950.  She was born in Cuba.


Iuldachev, Saidali (1968-    )

Grandmaster from Uzbekistan.  His FIDE rating is 2541.


Ivan IV Vasilyevich “the Terrible” (1530-1584)

Tsar of Russia and keen chess player.  In 1547 he was the first formally proclaimed tsar (from the Roman imperial title Caesar) of Russia.   In 1551, Ivan IV banned chess and labeled it a pastime of Hellenic deviltry, even though he played chess himself.  On March 18, 1584, he died, probably of a heart attack, while preparing for  a game of chess against his advisor, Boris Godunov (1551-1605).   A Soviet forensic examination of his remains revealed that he had taken mercury as medicine, but no signs that he had been poisoned.


Ivanchuk, Vasily (1969-    )

Grandmaster (1988) from the Ukraine.  Winner of the 1988 New York Open.  He has been one of the top players in the world.  He played in the finals of the men’s FIDE world chess championship in 2002, but lost to Ruslan Ponomariov in the championship match.


Ivanchuk - S. Polgar, Roquebrune 1992

1.d4 d5 2.Nf3 c5 3.c4 dxc4 4.d5 e6 5.Nc3 Nf6 6.e4 exd5 7.e5 Nfd7 8.Bg5 f6 9.exf6 gxf6 10.Qe2+ Kf7 11.Nxd5 Bg7 12.Be3 b5 13.O-O-O Qa5 (13...Bb7) 14.Bd2 Qd8 15.Ng5+ fxg5 16.Qh5+ Ke6 17.Bxg5 Qa5 18.Nf4+ (18...Kf5 19.g4+ Ke4 20.Bg2+ Ke5 21.Rd5 mate)  1-0


Ivinisevic, Ivan (1977-    )

Grandmaster from Serbia and Montenegro.  His FIDE rating is 2577.


Ivanov, Alexander (1956-    )

Grandmaster (1991) born in Omsk in the former USSR.  He arrived in the United States in 1988.  He is married to Esther Epstein, a top woman chess player.  He shared the US championship in 1995 with Patrick Wolff and Nick deFirmian.


Seltzer – A. Ivanov, Philadelphia 1993

1.e4 g6 2.d4 Bg7 3.Nf3 d6 4.c4 Bg4 5.Be2 Nc6 6.Be3 e5 7.Nxe5 dxe5 8.Bxg4 exd4 9.Bf4 h5 10.Be2 d3  0-1


Ivanov, Igor Vasilievich (1947-2005)

Grandmaster (2004) who defected from the Soviet Union to Canada in 1980.  He had been part of a Soviet team which went to Cuba to play in the Capablanca Memoria.  On the way back to Russia, during a refueling stop in Gander, Newfoundland, he left the aircraft (and KGB officers) and defected.  His first game in the West was drawn after 14 moves, thinking his opponent was a strong master.  His opponent's rating was later found out to be 1651.  In 1982, while representing Canada in the Toluca Interzonal, Ivanov missed the Grandmaster title and qualifying for the Candidates by a half-point.  He tied for 1st place at the American Open in 1984, 1985, 1990, 1995, and 1997.  He was won the U.S. Grand Prix championship 9 times and has won the Canadian nationals championship 5 times.  He learned English by watching television (his favorite show was the Untouchables).  He died of cancer of the esophagus on November 17, 2005, in St, George, Utah.  He was born in Leningrad on January 8, 1947.  He was an accomplished musician on the piano and cello.


Vorotnikov - I. Ivanov, Vilnius 1977

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.g3 Bb4 4.Bg2 O-O 5.Nge2 c6 6.O-O d5 7.d4 exd4 8.Qxd4 c5 9.Qd1 dxe4 10.Nxe4 Nxe4 11.Bxe4 Qe7 12.Qd3 Re8 13.Bxh7+ Kh8 14.c3 c4 15.Qc2 Qxe2 16.cxb4 Qxf1+ (17.Kxf1 Bh3+ 18.Kg1 Re1 mate)  0-1


Ivanov, Mikhail (1969-    )

Grandmaster from Russia.  His FIDE rating is 2462.


Ivanov, Sergey (1961-     )

Grandmaster from Russia.  His FIDE rating is 2538.


Ivanovic, Bozidar (1946-    )

Yugoslav (Serbia and Montenegro) Grandmaster (1977).  He was Yugoslav champion in 1973, 1981 and 1983. 


Ivins, Walter (1870-1968)

Chess master Emeritus from Tucson, Arizona.  He started playing chess at 10.  In 1895 he won the championship of Philadelphia.  He won the championship of Tucson several times.  He died at the age of 98.  He played chess for 85 years, perhaps a record.


Ivkov, Borislav (1933-    )

Yugoslav (Serbia and Montenegro) Grandmaster (1955).  Winner of the first World Junior Championship, held in England, in 1951. In 1965 he lost to Bent Larsen in the Candidates match quarterfinals.  He is married to a former "Miss Argentina."


Raditsch - Ivkov, Yugoslavia 1948

1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 d5 3.c4 dxc4 4.a4 c5 5.Nc3 cxd4 6.Qxd4 Bd7 7.Qxc4 Nc6 8.Bf4 Rc8 9.Rd1 e5 10.Bg3 Nb4 11.Qb3 Qb6 12.Kd2 Be6 13.Qa3 Rxc3 (14.bxc3 Ne4+ 15.Kc1 Na2+; 14.Qxc3 Ne4+; 14.Kxc3 Ne4 mate)  0-1


Izeta Txabarri, Felix (1961-    )

Grandmaster from Spain.  His FIDE rating is 2459.


Izmailov, Pyotr (1906-1937)

In 1928, he was the first champion of the Russian Republic.  In 1929, he tied for 1st place (defeating Botvinnik) in the 1st semi-final of the 6th USSR championship in Odessa, but could not play in the finals (won by Verlinksy) because he was taking final exams at school.  He became a geophysicist and led major geological expeditions.  In 1936, he was arrested and sentenced to death, accused of plotting to kill Stalin.  In was executed in April, 1937.  He wife was sentenced to eight years at Lolyma (the Arctic Death Camp) simply because she was a member of the family of a traitor.


Izmukhambetov, Salauat

Grandmaster from Kazakhstan.  His FIDE rating is 2431.


Jacimovic, Dragoljub (1964-    )

Grandmaster from Macedonia.  His FIDE rating is 2438.


Jackson, E. Schuyler (1897-1987)

His chess career spanned over 70 years.  He played in his first chess tournament in 1913.  He won the U.S. Amateur championship in 1942 and 1944.   He was a Wall Street broker.


Jackson, Sheila (1957-    )

She finished 1st in the British Women’s Champion in 1975, 1977 (lost the play-off), 1978, 1980, and 1981. 


Jaenisch, Karl (Carl) Friedrich von (1813-1872)

Russian chess player and analyst.  In 1842 he gave the name to the French Defense (1.e4 e6) and the Center Game (1.e4 e5 2.d4) in his book Analyse Nouvelle des ouvertures du jeu des Echecs.  He was a major in the Russian army, but resigned his commission to devote himself to chess.


Janjgava, Lasha (1970-    )

Grandmaster from Georgia.  His FIDE rating is 2472.


Janosevic, Dragoljub (1923-    )

Yugoslav Grandmaster (1965).    He is only one of three players (the other two are Tal and Geller) who as a plus record against Fischer.  He has one win, two draws, and no losses against Fischer.


Tagirov – Janosevic, Belgrade 1953

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.f4 d5 4.fxe5 Nxe4 5.Nxe4 dxe4 6.d4 exd3 7.Bxd3 Nc6 8.Nf3 Bc5 9.Bf4 Bg4 10.Qe2 Nd4 11.Qf1 Qd5 12.Nd2 O-O-O 13.Be4 Qxe4+ 14.Nxe4 Nxc2 mate  0-1


Janovsky, Sergey (1960-    )

Grandmaster from Russia.  His FIDE rating is 2496.


Janowski, Dawid Markyelovich (1868-1927)

Polish chess player of Grandmaster strength and addicted gambler.  In 1901 he won an international tournament at Monte Carlo and lost all his first place money in the casino the same evening the tournament ended.  The casino management had to buy his ticket home.  In another event he handed his money to a friend and made him promise not to return it until after the chess tournament.  However, the lure of gambling proved too strong and he begged for the return of his money.  His friend refused. Janowski was so infuriated that he sued his friend.  Janowski had a chess patron, the Dutch painter Leo Nardus who, for many years, supported him in chess.  He lost his support when Janowski called Nardus a chess idiot when Nardus suggested an alternate move during an analysis of one of Janowski's games.  Janowski was famous for his complaints which served as alibis when he lost.  At one tournament every one of his requests was granted and for the first he had nothing to complain about.  When he lost the tournament he said, "You have deprived me of any alibi.  How did you expect me to play good chess?"  He died of tuberculosis, the night before he was to start play in a small chess tournament in Hyeres, France.  A subscription was raised to prevent his being buried in a pauper's grave.


Ettlinger - Janowski, New York 1898

1.e4 e5 2.f4 Bc5 3.Nf3 d5 4.Nxe5 dxe4 5.Nc3 Nf6 6.Qe2 Nc6 7.Nxf7 Qe7 8.Nxh8 Nd4 9.Qd1 Nf3+ 10.Ke2 Bg4 11.h3 Nd4+ 12.Ke1 Bxd1  0-1


Jansa, Vlastimil (1942-    )

Czech Grandmaster (1974) and Czech champion in 1964, 1974, and 1984.  He has also played in the Czech national junior soccer team.


Jansa - Ziegler, Gausdal 1990

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 e6 3.Nc3 a6 4.d4 cxd4 5.Nxd4 d6 6.Be2 Nf6 7.O-O Be7 8.a4 O-O 9.Be3 b6 10.Bf3 Bb7 11.e5 Bxf3 12.Qxf3 dxe5 13.Nxe6 (13...fxe6 14.Qxa8)  1-0


Jarecki, Carol

One of the most active international chess arbiters in the world.  She is a former anesthesiologist and avid pilot.  She is the mother of John Jarecki.  She was the first woman to serve as chief arbiter for any world-championship-cycle match (Karpov-Hjartarson, Seattle 1989).


Jarecki, John (1969-    )

The first person to win the National Elementary and National Junior High Chess Championship in the same year (1980).  He won the National Elementary championship in Minneapolis with a perfect 8-0 score.  A week later, he won the National Junior High Championship in Philadelphia with a perfect 8-0.  In 1980, at the age of 11, he played on Board 2 for the British Virgin Islands, perhaps the youngest player to play in a chess olympiad.  In 1981 he repeated as the National Junior High champion.  In 1981, he became a chess master at age 12 years, 6 months.  At the time, he became the youngest master ever in the United States.


Jefferson, Thomas (1743-1826)

Avid chess player and collector.  He collected dozens of chess sets when he visited Europe or had them sent to his home in Monticello.  He also gave away chess sets as presents.  His favorite book was Philidor’s treatise on chess.  He played any visitor who knew how to play chess at his home in Monticello.   Jefferson played Franklin a lot and said he was equal to him at the game in his memoirs.  Another one of his opponents was James Madison.  Jefferson once visited a Paris chess club and lost all his games very quickly.  He said there was no use playing chess with players who spend several hours every evening in a chess club playing chess.  Jefferson taught and played chess with his grandchildren in the West Lawn of Monticello.  His nickname was “The King Chess Player.”


Jenni, Florian (1980-    )

Grandmaster from Switzerland.  His FIDE rating is 2494.


Jobava, Baadur (1983-    )

Grandmaster from Georgia.  His FIDE rating is 2621.


Johannessen, Leif Erlend (1980-    )

Grandmaster from Norway.  His FIDE rating is 2543.


Johansen, Darryl (1959-    )

One of two Australian grandmasters (the other is Ian Rogers).  He has won the Australian championship 5 times (1984, 1988, 1990, 2000, 2002).


Farrand – Johansen, Hastings 1980

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.f4 exf4 4.Nf3 g5 5.Bc4 g4 6.O-O gxf3 7.Qxf3 Qg5 8.Nd5 Nd4 9.Qd1 Nf6 10.Nxc7+ Kd8 11.d3 Rg8 12.g3 Nh5 13.Bxf7 Nxg3 14.Bxg8 Nxf1+ 15.Kxf1 d5 16.Kf2 Bc5 17.c3 Bg4 18.cxd4 Qh4+  0-1


Johner, Hans (1889-1975)

Swiss International Master (1950) who won the Swiss championship 12 times from 1908 (tied with his brother, Paul) to 1950 (at the age of 61, 42 years after hisr first championship).  He won in 1908, 1923, 1928, 1929, 1931, 1932, 1934, 1935, 1937, 1938, 1947, and 1950.  Hans was once a director of the Zurich Philharmonic Orchestra.  He was still playing chess in international tournaments in his 70s.


Johner, Paul F. (1887-1938)

Brother of Hans Johner.  In 1911, he won the New York State Chess Championship.  In 1916, he won the Nordic Championship.  He won the Swiss championship 6 times.  He won in  1907, 1908 (with his brother), 1925, 1928 (with his brother), 1930, and 1932 (with his brother).  He was a noted violinist.


Jolson, Al (1886-1950)

Al Jolson formed a chess club called the Knight Riders of the Air, consisting of radio stars.   Al Jolson was the first movie actor to star in the first, full-length, talking picture, The Jazz Singer, in 1927.


Jones, Ernest (1879-1958)

Psychoanalyst who wrote, The Problem of Paul Morphy, the most famous example of a single case study in the psychoanalytic discipline.  It was delivered to the British Psychoanalytical Society in 1930, dealing with the unconscious motives of chess players.  His conclusion was that the game of chess was a disguised method of gratifying hostile impulses.


Jones, Stephen L. (1942-    )

Stephen Jones was born in Austin, Texas on September 26, 1942.  He is a Los Angeles attorney and FIDE master and a correspondence Senior International Master.  He had been a professor of mathematics at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst.  He has a Ph.D. in mathematics and a law degree.  In 1958, he won the Southwest Open at the age of 15.  In 1968, he tied for 1st in the U.S. Amateur Championship with Michael Shahade.  In 1973, he won the Massachusetts Championship.  In 2002, he tied for 1st in  the U.S. Senior Open with Anthony Saidy.  He won the 9th  (1991-1993) and the 11th  (1995-1997) U.S. Correspondence Chess Championship.


Jones, William (1746-1794)

Judge and linguist who composed the poem Caissa in 1763 and published in 1772.  Jones based his poem on Hieronymus Vida’s Scacchia ludus, published in 1527.  In the poem Caissa, Mars becomes infatuated with a nymph called Caissa.  He gives her a board and chess set, and they play chess together.  Jones translated the first Sanskrit reference to chess.  In 1790 he wrote On the Indian Game of Chess.


Judd, Max (Maximilian Judkiewich) (1851-1906)

Max Judd (Maximlian Judkiewich) was born in Cracow on December 27, 1851 and emigrated to America  in 1862.  He was an American cloak manufacturer, consul-general in Vienna, and chess master.  In 1881, he lost a chess match with George Mackenzie for the US chess championship (+5-7=3), held in St. Louis.  In 1887 Judd defeated Albert Hodges (+5-2=2) in a non-title match, held in St, Louis.  In 1888, Judd took last place in the 1st Unites States Chess Association tournament, held in Cincinnati (won by Jackson Showalter).  In 1890, Judd defeated US chess champion Showalter in a match in St. Louis (+7-3=0), but did not claim the title.  In 1892, Judd lost to Showalter in a match in St, Louis (+4-7=3).  In 1899, he lost a match against Harry Pillsbury in St. Louis (+1-4=0).  In 1903 he won the Western Chess Congress (US Open) in Chicago.   At one time he was offered to play in Ajeeb, the Automaton in New York, but he did not want to leave St. Louis.  The job was then offered to Albert Hodges.  He had the habit of sucking on a lemon when it was his opponent’s move.  He was founder and president of the St. Louis Chess Club.  He was appointed by President Cleveland as the U.S. Consul General to Austria.  He played in six American Chess Congress tournaments.  He took 4th place in the 2nd American Chess Congress in Cleveland in 1871.  He took 3rd place in the 3rd American Chess Congress in Chicago in 1874.  He took 2nd place in the 4th American Chess Congress in Philadelphia in 1876.  He took 5th place in the 5th American Chess Congress in New York in 1880.  He took 8th place in the 6th American Chess Congress in New York in 1889.  He took 2nd place in the 7th American Chess Congress in St, Louis in 1904.  In 1904, Judd tried to arrange the Seventh American Chess Congress in St. Louis, with the stipulation that the US title be awarded to the winner.  Pillsbury objected to Judd’s plans, so the stipulation was not accepted.  Frank Marsahll won the 7th American Congress in St. Louis in 1904.  He died on May 7, 1906.


Junge, Klaus (1824-1945)

German player who was born in Chile and moved to Germany in the 1930s.  In 1941, at the age of 17, he tied for first place in the German championship.  In Prague 1942, he tied for first with Alekhine.  In Salzburg 1942 he tied for 3rd place, behind Alekhine and Keres.  He was drafted into the German army in 1943.  He was Lieutenant in the German army (12th SS-battalion) and was shot and killed on April 17, 1945 (one day before World II ended in Europe) trying to defend Hamburg, Germany.   He was given a chance to surrender, but came charging out shouting, “Sieg Heil!” and was shot.  He was 21.  George Koltanowski claimed that Junge was stabbed to death in a chess club fight, which is wrong.  Some sources say he was killed by a shell.


Kaenel, Hans (1952-    )

Swiss player who set the world blitz (5-minute game) continuous play record  in 1981 after playing 60 hours and 39 minutes.  He played 420 games and made  17,286 moves.  We won 320 games, lost 79, and drew 31.  The average rating of his opponents was 2222.  He had played an average of 7.1 games per hour.  The most prominent opponent was Victor Kortchnoi whom he won 1, drew 1, and lost 4 games.


Kaidanov, Gregory (1959-    )

Grandmaster (1988) who was Russian Boys under-14 champion in 1972.  He won the New York Open in 1990.  In 1992 he won the World Open, the US Open, the National Open, and the Novag Grand Prix.  He now lives in Kentucky.  His first experiences in the United States were not good.  In the first week, as a tourist in New York city, all his and his wife’s luggage were stolen from the trunk of a car while he was having dinner at a restaurant.  The next day, he was attacked by a gang, and robbed of all his money and airline tickets.  To make money from his losses, he began to give simuls and play in chess tournaments.  He was invited to Louisville, Kentucky to teach chess and made the decision to emigrate and live there.


Klotz - Kaidanov, 1992

1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.e3 Nf6 4.Nc3 c5 5.Nf3 a6 6.a4 Nc6 7.Rb1 Be7 8.Na2 cxd4 9.Nxd4 O-O 10.Nc3 e5 11.Nf3 d4 12.exd4 exd4 13.Nd5 Nxd5 14.cxd5 Bb4+ 15.Bd2 Re8+ 16.Be2 d3 17.dxc6 Bxd2+ 18.Nxd2 Rxe2+ 19.Kf1 Qd4 (threatening 20...Qxf2 mate)  0-1


Kalish, John (1937-    )

International Master postal player.  Kalish has won the championship of Okinawa 25 consecutive times (from 1959 to 1984).  In 1976 he tied for first with Victor Palciauskas in the 2nd North American Invitational Correspondence Chess Championship.  He took last place in the 10th World Chess Correspondence Championship (1978-1984).  The event was won by Palciuskas.  He learned chess at the age of 16.


Kalish – Dunphy, Okinawa 1966

1.e4 e5 2.f4 Bc5 3.Nf3 d6 4.Nc3 Nf6 5.Bc4 Nc6 6.d3 O-O 7.f5 Na5 8.Bg5 Nxc4 9.dxc4 c6 10.Qd3 Qc7 11.Bxf6 gxf6 12.O-O-O Rb8 13.h4 b5 14.cxb5 cxb5 15.Nd5 Qd8 16.Qd2 Bb7 17.Qh6 Bxd5 18.Ng5 Be3+ 19.Kb1  1-0


Kallai, Gabor (1959-    )

Grandmaster from Hungary.  His FIDE rating is 2504.


Kalme, Charles (1939-2002)

U.S. Junior Champion in 1954 and 1955.  In 1957 he was the U.S. Intercollegiate Chess Champion.  In 1960 he was on the winning U.S. Student Olympiad team (Lombardy, Kalme, R Weinstein, Mednis, Saidy, and Hearst).  He won a gold medal as a team member and a gold medal for his individual result on board two.  He was a chess master at age 15.  He later gave up chess and got a Ph.D. in Mathematics.  He was associate editor of Mathematical Reviews.  He was a professor of mathematics at the University of California at Berkeley.


Kaminski, Marcen (1977-    )

Grandmaster from Poland.  His FIDE rating is 2449.


Kamsky, Gata (1974-    )

Grandmaster (1990) who was born in Siberia, Gata Kamsky won the USSR Junior Championship (under 18)  at the age of 12.  Gata and father Rustam defected from the Soviet Union after playing in the 1989 New York International.  He became a grandmaster at 16.  He won the U.S. Championship in 1991 at age 17.  He was one of the top 6 players in the world in the 1990s.  In 1996 he was a finalist in the FIDE world chess championship after defeating Anand, Salov, Short, and Kramnik.  In 1997 he lost to Karpov for the FIDE world chess championship.  He entered medical school but quit and entered law school.   He is awaiting his bar tests and has resumed playing chess after a layoff of 8 years when he was one of the top 10 in the world (2717 FIDE rating).  In the 2005 US Chess Championship in San Diego, Kamsky was rated the highest at 2777, but ended in 9th-17th place.  He won 2 games , lost none, and drew 7 games.  His highest USCF rating was 2762.  In 2005, he won the 127th New York State Chess Championship.  In 2006, he won the World Open on tie-breaks.  In 2007, he won the World Chess Cup, defeating Alexei Shirov.


D. Gurevich – Kamsky, Chicago 1989

1.Nf3 Nf6 2.c4 c6 3.Nc3 d5 4.d4 e6 5.Qb3 Nbd7 6.g3 Qb6 7.Bg2 Be7 8.O-O O-O 9.Re1 Ne4 10.Nxe4 dxe4 11.Ng5? Qa5  0-1


Kamsky - Zarnicki, Buenos Aires 1993

1.c4 e6 2.Nc3 Bb4 3.e4 c5 4.f4 d6 5.Nf3 Nf6 6.Bd3 O-O 7.O-O Nc6 8.b3 Bxc3 9.dxc3 Ne8 10.f5 exf5 11.exf5 Ne5 12.Bc2 f6 13.Be4 Nc7 14.Nxe5 fxe5 15.Qh5 Qe8 16.Qh4 Qf7 17.Bg5 d5 18.cxd5 Nxd5 19.f6 g6 20.Bxd5 Qxd5 21.f7+ Rxf7 22.Rfd1 Qc6 23.Rd8+ Rf8 24.Bh6 (24...Rxd8 25.Qxd8+ Kf7 26.Rf1 Ke6?? 27.Rf6 mate)  1-0


Karaklajic, Nikola (1926-    )

Serbian International Master (1955), chess trainer and journalist.  He was Yugoslav champion in 1955.  He was a disc jockey for Belgrade radio. 


Karaklajic – Fuderer, Belgrade 1955

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 Nd7 4.Bc4 Be7 5.dxe5 Nxe5 6.Nxe5 dxe5 7.Qh5  1-0


Karff, Mona May Ratner (1914-1998)

Played in 18 U.S. Women’s championships, winning 7 times , from 1938 to 1974.  She spoke 8 languages fluently and became a millionaire playing the stock market.  She married her cousin, but later divorced and was romantically linked with Dr. Edward Lasker.  In 1937 she played in the women’s world chess championship in Stockholm representing Palestine.  She took 6th place.  In the 1939 women’s world championship in Buenos Aires, she represented the United States and took 5th place.


Karff - Lugatsch, Berlin 1937

1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.e5 c5 4.Qg4 cxd4 5.Nf3 f5 6.Qg3 Nc6 7.Be2 Bd7 8.Nxd4 Nxd4 9.Bh5+ Ke7 10.Qa3 mate  1-0


Karjakin, Sergey (1990-    )

Ukrainian Grandmaster, born in Kramatorsk, Ukraine on January 12, 1990.   On August 20, 2002, at the age of 12 years and 7 months, he was the youngest grandmaster in history.  He was the world champion under 12.  In 2002 he served as one of Ruslan Ponomariov’s seconds during his world championship match with Ivanchuk  His name is pronounced car-yack-kin.  In 2005, he won the Geller Memorial in Odessa.  His FIDE rating is 2660, making him ranked #42 in the world.


Sinzhuk – Karjakin, Alushta 2000

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5 4.cxd5 Nxd5 5.e4 Nxc3 6.bxc3 Bg7 7.Nf3 c5 8.Rb1 O-O 9.Be2 Qa5 10.Bd2 Qxa2 11.O-O Qe6 12.Qc2 b6 13.d5 Qd6 14.c4 e5 15.dxe6 Bxe6 16.e5 Qc7 17.Bf4 Nc6 18.Rbd1 Rad8 19.Rd6 Nxe5 20.Nxe5 Rxd6 21.Bd3 Rd4  0-1


Karlsson, Lars (1955-    )

Swedish Grandmaster (1982).  His FIDE rating is 2472.  In 1982, he took 11th-13th at the Las Palmas Interzonal.


Karpov, Anatoly (1951-    )

The 12th World Chess Champion (1975-1985).  The first world champion to win the title without playing a chess match.  He got the title in 1975 when Fischer refused to defend his title. Anatoly became a Candidate Master at the age of 11, a Master at 15, an International Grandmaster at 19, and world champion at 23.  In 1978 he was named Soviet Union Sportsman of the Year and was personally decorated by President Brezhnev.  Karpov became World Champion before he became USSR Champion.   He never scored worse than 4th place while world champion.  No Soviet opponent has ever beat him outside the Soviet Union.  He became the first millionaire playing chess.  He is a member of the Supreme Soviet Commission for Foreign Affairs and the President of the Soviet Peace Fund.  He is the first world champion to be born in Asia.  He has the most complete collection of postage stamps on the topic of chess and specializes in stamps with reproductions of paintings.  In 1989 a poll in the British Chess Magazine showed the Karpov was the world's most boring player, followed by Sammy Reshevsky.  Karpov's diploma thesis at the Leningrad State University was entitled: "Spare time and its economic significance under Socialism."  There is no mention of chess.  He was FIDE champion from 1993 to 1999.  He has won more chess tournaments (over 160) than anyone in the history of the game.  He won the World Junior Championship in 1969.  The tournament was held in an ancient debtor’s prison in Stockholm.  He has opened over 50 Karpov schools of chess around the world.  Karpov lost 23 games while world champion.


Hostalet - Karpov, Groningen 1968

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.e3 O-O 5.Qc2 c5 6.a3 Bxc3+ 7.Qxc3 Nc6 8.Bd3 cxd4 9.exd4 d5 10.Ne2 dxc4 11.Bxc4 e5 12.Be3 Ne4 13.Qb3 Qa5+ 14.Kf1 Nxd4 15.Nxd4 exd4 16.f3 dxe3 17.fxe4 Qd2  (threatening 18...Qf2 mate)  0-1


Kashdan, Isaac (1905-1985)

Grandmaster (1954) who founded Chess Review in 1933.  He once appeared on Groucho Marx's "You Bet Your Life" and Groucho called him "Mr. Ash Can" throughout the show.  Isaac Kashdan's wife was asked to join a harem for 150 English pounds by Umar Khan at an Olympiad.  He edited a chess column in the Los Angeles Times from 1955 to 1982.  At the 1928 Hague Olympiad, he took the gold medal for the best score on board 1.  He won the New York State championship in 1936.  He won the US Open in 1947.  His nickname in the 1930s was “the little Capablanca.”  He worked as an insurance agent for Prudential.  In the 1960s, he was the President of the California State Chess Federation.  He played on five US Olympiad teams between 1928 and 1937.  In 1942, he tied for 1st in the US Championship, but lost the playoff to Reshevsky.  He directed the two Piatigorsky tournaments (1963 and 1968).


Kashdan - Polland, New York, 1938

1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nc3 dxc4 4.e4 e5 5.Nf3 exd4 6.Bxc4 Bc5 7.Ne5 Qf6 8.Nxf7 dxc3 9.O-O Be6 10.Bg5 Qxg5 11.Nxg5 Bxc4 12.Qh5+ g6 13.Qh3 cxb2 14.Rad1 Nf6 15.Qc3  1-0


Kasimdzhanov, Rustam  (1979-    )

World FIDE champion from Uzbekistan who won the FIDE knockout in Tripoli in 2004.   His FIDE rating is 2670.  He has been rated as high as 2706.  He won the Asian Championship in 1998.  He took 2nd place in the World Junior Championship in 1999.  He currently resides in Germany.


Belkin – Kasimdzhanov, Uzbekistan 1993

1.c4 e6 2.Nc3 d5 3.d4 c6 4.Nf3 Nf6 5.Bg5 h6 6.Bxf6 Qxf6 7.e3 Nd7 8.Qc2 Qd8 9.cxd5 cxd5 10.Bd3 Be7 11.O-O O-O 12.Rac1 a6 13.Rfd1 b5 14.e4 Bb7 15.exd5 b4 16.dxe6 bxc3 17.exd7 cxb2 18.Qxb2 Bxf3 19.gxf3 Bd6 20.Qb7 Qh4 21.Qxa8 Qxh2+ 22.Kf1 Qh3+ 23.Ke2 Rxa8  0-1


Kasparian, Genrikh (1910-1995)

International Grandmaster for Chess Compositions (1972).  He was considered the world’s leading expert at endgame studies.  He won the first Amenian championship in 1934.  He won the Armenian chess championship 11 times (1934, 1938, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956) and participated in a few USSR chess championships.  He took last place (18 players) in the 7th USSR Championship in 1931.  In 1974 he wrote Domination in 2545 Endgame Studies.


Kasparov, Garry (1963-    )

Originally named Weinstein.  In 1976, he was the strongest player in the world under age 13.  He became a grandmaster at 17, the youngest Soviet champion at 18 and the youngest world champion  at 22 years, 210 days.  In his first international tournament, Baku 1979, he exceeded the Grandmaster norm and took first place as an unrated player. His first FIDE rating was 2500.  He became the World Junior Champion in 1980 and co-champion of the USSR in 1981. In 1987 he wrote his autobiography, Child of Change.  In 1993 he founded the Professional Chess Association (PCA), which he said later was his biggest mistake.  He was the first Soviet to do a Western commercial.  In May, 1997 he lost a match with the chess computer. DEEP BLUE.  In 1993 he broke away from FIDE and defeated Nigel Short for the PCA World Championship.  In 2000 he lost his title to Vladimir Kramnik in the Braingames World Chess Championship, but continues to be the highest rated chess player in the world.  His FIDE rating has been as high as 2849.  He has been the world’s #1 rated player since 1984.  In 1989 he was the first person to top 2800.  From 1981 to 1991 he did not lose a single chess event.  He successfully defended his world chess championship title more times than any champion.  His Pepsi ad, shown in the 2002 Superbowl, was nominated for an Oscar.  From 1981 to 1990, Kasparov won 15 straight tournaments in a row.  After winning Linares (but losing his last game to Topalov) in 2005, he announced his retirement from chess on March 10, 2005.  His last FIDE rating was 2812.


Kasparov - West, Telex 1977

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.Nc3 e6 4.d4 cxd4 5.Nxd4 Bb4 6.e5 Nd5 7.Bd2 Nxc3 8.bxc3 Bf8 9.Bd3 d6 10.Qe2 Nd7 11.Nxe6 Qb6 12.Nc7+  1-0


Magerramov – Kasparov, Baku 1979

1,d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 c5 4.g3 cxd4 5.Nxd4 d5 6.Bg2 e5 7.Nf3 e4 8.Nd4 dxc4 9.Nc3 Bc5 10.Qa4+ Bd7 11.Qxc4 Qb6 12.Be3 Nc6 13.Nc2 Bxe3 14.Nxe3 Na5  0-1


Kass, Carmen (1978-    )

In 2004 she was elected President of the Estonian Chess Federation.   She happens to be a  super-model.  She is one of the top ten earning super-models in the world.  She has been on the cover of dozens of fashion magazines in the world. 


Katz, Gerhard S. (1906-1975)

Gerhard Katz was born in Berlin on March 31, 1906.  He won the Massachusetts Championship in 1943, 1946, and 1949 (tied with John Curdo).  He died on May 7, 1975 in London.


Kaufman, Larry (1947-    )

International Master (1980).  Winner of the American Open in 1966.  He has won state championships in Virginia, Florida, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Southern California.  He is the strongest Shogi player in the United States.  He graduated from M.I.T. with a degree in Economics and became a successful stock broker and trader.  He is the author of Chess Advantage in Black and White.


McCormick-Kaufman, Nebraska 1975

1.e4 c5 2.c3 Nf6 3.e3 Nd5 4.d4 cxd4 5.Qxd4 e6 6.Nf3 Nc6 7.Qe4 d6 8.Nbd2 Bd7 9.Bd3 dxe5 10.Bb1 f5 11.Qe2 e4 12.Nd4 Nxd4 13.cxd4 Nf4 14.Qf1 Rc8 15.Nb3 Rxc1+ 16.Nxc1 Bb4+ 17.Kd1 Ba4+ 18.b3 Qxd4+  0-1


Kavalek, Lubomir (1943-    )

Winner of an international tournament (Caracas) representing the United States without ever setting foot in the U.S. at the time.  Grandmaster (1965) who won the Czech championship in 1962 at the age of 19, and won it again in 1968.  He earned the International Master  in early 1965 and then the Grandmaster title 7 months later.  He won or tied in the US Championship in 1972, 1973, and 1978.  In 1979 he dislocated his knee while playing tennis and had to withdraw from the Interzonal.  He speaks 7 languages.  He writes a chess column for the Washington Post.  Kavalek left Czechoslovakia after the Soviet invasion ion 1968.  He settled in the United States in 1970.  He was inducted in the US Chess Hall of Fame in 2001. 


Kavalek - Bilek, Europe 1966

1.e4 d6 2.d4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.Be3 Nd7 5.Nf3 c6 6.a4 Ngf6 7.b3 e5 8.dxe5 dxe5 9.Nd2 O-O 10.Nc4 Ne8? 11.Bc5  1-0


Kazantsev, Alexander (1906-2002)

International Master, Soviet endgame composer, Army colonel, mechanical engineer, and chemical engineer.  He was also a popular science fiction writer.  He was President of the Composition Committee of the USSR Chess Federation.  He published his first chess composition in 1926, at the age of 20.  He published his last composition in 1996, at the age of 90.  In 1946, he proposed a hypothesis that the Tunguska event in Siberia was not caused by a meteorite fall, but in fact been the catastrophe of a nuclear-powered alien spaceship.  He was a former director of the Rocket Nozzle Studies Institute.  He died at the age of 96.


Keeble, John Frederick (1855-1939)

Chess player from Norwich, England.  He was the chess champion  of Norfolk and Norwich Chess Club in 1884, at the age of 29, and 1933, at the age of 78 (49 years apart).


Keene, Raymond (1948-    )

British Grandmaster (1976), author of over 100 chess books, and organizer of many international chess matches.  He received the Order of the British Empire (OBE) for his chess services in 1985.  He was British Champion in 1971.  He was the first British player to achieve a FIDE Grandmaster norm (but the second to become a British Gradmaster, after Tony Miles).  He has organized three World Chess Championships.  He may have written more chess books than any other chess author.


Keene - Fries Nelson, Berlin 1980

1.d4 g6 2.c4 Nf6 3.Nc3 d5 4.Nf3 Bg7 5.cxd5 Nxd5 6.e4 Nb6 7.h3 O-O 8.Be3 Nc6 9.Bb5 Na5 10.Qe2 a6 11.Bd3 Nc6 12.d5 Nb4 13.Bb1 f5 14.Bxb6 cxb6 15.a3 fxe4 16.Bxe4 Bxc3+ 17.bxc3 Nxd5 18.Rd1 e6 19.c4 (19...Nf4 20.Rxd8 Nxe2 21.Rxf8+ Kxf8 22.Kxe2)  1-0


Kempelen, Farkas (1734-1804)

Inventor of the first automation, The Chess Playing Turk, in 1769.  He built it for the sole purpose of entertaining and mystifying the Empress Maria Theresa  of Austria.  It was not a true machine but was the first “cabinet illusion.”  For years he labored to improve the science of hydraulics, designing fire engines and hydraulic pumps.  But nobody was interested in those.  They were all interested in the Turk.  Eventually, he became so annoyed by the continuous stream of visitors that he dismantled the Turk, announcing that it had been damaged and could no longer be exhibited.  In 1783 Emperor Joseph II commanded him to display the Turk once again.  In 1790 he built the world’s first “talking machine” (he called it a voice imitator).


Kempinski, Robert (1977-    )

Grandmaster from Poland.  His FIDE rating is 2619.  He is the highest rated Polish player.


Kengis, Edvins (1959-   )

Grandmaster from Latvia.  His FIDE rating is 2534.


Kennedy, Hugh Alexander (1809-1878)

Former British army captain and leading London chess player.  In 1843 he founded the Brighton Chess Club, which attracted Howard Staunton and Henry Buckle.  In April 1845, he teamed up with Howard Staunton and played two telegraph games against Walker, Evans, Perigal, and Tuckett in London while they were in Portsmouth.   In 1846, he lost a match to Elijah Williams (+2-4).  In 1849, he lost a match to Eduard Loewe (+6-7=1).  He played in the great International Tournament in London in 1851.  He knocked out Carl Mayet in round 1 with two wins.  In round two, he lost to Marmaduke Wyvill (+3-4=1).   In round 3, he defeated James Mucklow with 4 wins.   He then lost to Jozsef Szen with 1 draw and 4 losses.  He finished in 6th place at the 1851 London tournament.   In 1862, he lost perhaps the first international telegraphic game, against Serafino Dubois. 


Loewe – Kennedy, London 1849

1.e4 c5 2.Bc4 e6 3.Nc3 Nc6 4.f4 a6 5.a4 Nge7 6.Nf3 d5 7.Ba2 b5 8.axb5 axb5 9.Nxb5 Nb4 10.Na3 dxe4 11.Ng5 Nf5 12.Qe2 Rxa3 13.bxa3 Nxc2+ 14.Kd1 Nfe3+ 15.Qxe3 Nxe3+ 16.Ke2 Qd3+ 17.Kf2 Ng4+ 18.Kg1 Ba6  0-1


Keres, Paul (1916-1975)

Estonian Grandmaster (1950).  He was Estonian chess champion in 1935.  In the 1930s he played in the tennis championship of Estonia.  In 1938 he tied for 1st (with Fine) in the famous AVRO tournament, which earned him the right to challenge Alexander Alekhine for the world championship.  He participated in German tournaments during World War II.  When the Red Army liberated the country, Soviet authorities planned initially to execute Keres.  Botvinnik interceded by talking to Stalin and Keres was spared. In 1953 Paul Keres became the first sportsman of the year in chess in the Soviet Union.  He was Estonian Sportsman of the Year in 1959 and 1962.  He never became world champion but defeated nine world champions in his career.  He defeated Alekhine, Capablanca, Smyslov, Euwe, Petrosian, Tal, Botvinnik, and Fischer.  In San Antonio 1973, he drew his game with future world champion Karpov.  When asked why he never became world champion, he replied: "I was unlucky, like my country."  He had over 100,000 people at his funeral in Tallinn, Estonia. The National Bank of Estonia issued a 5 krooni (5 crowns) note with a portrait of Paul Keres.  He is the only chess player whose portrait is on a banknote.  Newly opened KGB files show that the Soviets made him throw games.  It also shows that the KGB wanted to execute Keres for treason after the Soviet Union acquired Estonia.  The 1948 Hague-Moscow tournament-match for the world championship had Keres losing the first 4 games to Botvinnik.  Many think that Keres was forced to throw these games to save himself and his family.  At one time he was professor of mathematics in Tallinn, Estonia.   His nickname in chess was “great stone face.”  He won over 30 major tournaments in his life.


Keres - Arlamowski, Szawno Zdroj 1950

1.e4 c6 2.Nc3 d5 3.Nf3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Nf6 5.Qe2 Nbd7?? 6.Nd6 mate  1-0


Dvorzynski - Keres, Moscow 1956

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Ba4 d6 5.d4 b5 6.Bb3 Nxd4 7.Nxd4 exd4 8.Qxd4 c5 9.Qd5 Be6 10.Qc6+ Bd7 11.Qd5 c4  0-1


Kevitz, Alexander (1902-1981)

Manhattan Chess Club Champion in 1927, 1928-29, and 1935-36. 


Keyser, Charles (    -1970)

Former Treasurer and President of the New Jersey Chess Association who suffered a heart attack and died while playing chess at the Montclair Chess Club in New Jersey.


Khachiyan, Melikset (1970-    )

International Master (1995) and Southern California Champion who made his third and final GM norm in Los Angeles in 2005.  He is a former member of the Armenian national chess team (1996, 1997).  He came to the United States in 2001.  He won the American Open in 2001.  He started playing chess at the age of eight.  At the age of 10 he was the Baku Junior Champion.  He was a master at the age of 12.  He was coached by former world champion Tigran Petrosian.  He has coached three Junior World Champions: Almira Skripchenko (1992), Elina Danielian (1992 and 1993), and Levon Aronian (1994-1996).


Khairallah, Faisal (1975-    )

FIDE master and champion of Lebanon in 2002, 2003, and 2004.


Khalifman, Alexander (1966-    )

Russian Grandmaster (1990) who became the 1999 FIDE World Champion.  In 1999 he defeated Vladimir Akopian in Las Vegas for the title.  Both players reached the finals after all other of the 100 players were eliminated in the knockout event.  Khalifman became the 14th world chess champion and held it for one year.  His check for the world championship bounced when he tried to cash it.  In 2000, Anand won the FIDE world championship.  In 1982 he was the USSR youth champion.  In 1984 he won the USSR championship.  In 1990 he won the New York Open.   In 1996, he won the Russian championship.  He runs the St. Petersburg Chess School.


Khalifman - Wahls, Groningen 1990

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4 Nf6 5.e5 d5 6.Bb5 Ne4 7.Nxd4 Bc5 8.O-O O-O 9.Bxc6 bxc6 10.Nxc6 Qh4 11.Be3 Bxe3 12.fxe3 Qg5 13.Rf4 Bb7 14.Qxd5 Rad8 15.Qxe4 Rd1+ 16.Kf2 Bxc6 17.Qxc6 Qxe5 18.Qc3 Qb5 19.Na3  1-0


Kharitonov, Andrei (1959-    )

Grandmaster from Russia.  His FIDE rating is 2578.  He won the championship of Moscow in 2002.


Kharlov, Andrei (1968-    )

Grandmaster from Russia.  His peak Elo rating is 2637.  He tied for 1st place in the 1990 Russian championship.  He has been a Grandmaster since 1992.


Khasin, Abram (1923-    )

During World War II, Khasin lost both legs fighting in the Battle of Stalingrad.  He played in five USSR Championships from 1956 to 1965.  He became an IM in 1964 and Grandmaster of Correspondence Chess in 1973.


Khasin, Alexander (1951-    )

Grandmaster from Russia.  His FIDE rating is 2516.


Khenkin, Igor (1968-    )

Grandmaster from Germany.  His FIDE rating is 2610.


Kholmov, Ratmir (1925-    )

Soviet Grandmaster (1960) and Lithuanian champion 10 times.  He was once suspended for a year from tournament play because of conduct unbecoming a chess master (excessive drinking).  His nickname by Soviet players was Central Defender.   He tied for 1st place (with Spassky and Stein) in the 1963 USSR Chess Championship.   He was never allowed to play in Western Europe, the USA, or Canada for political reasons.


Pedersen - Kholmov, Katowice 1993

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Bc5 5.Be3 Qf6 6.c3 Nge7 7.Bc4 b6 8.O-O Bb7 9.b4 Nxd4 10.cxd4 Bxb4 11.Qb3 Ba5 12.f3 O-O 13.a4 d5 14.Bd3 c5 15.e5 Qe6 16.dxc5 Qxe5 17.Bc1 bxc5 18.Qxb7 Qd4+ (19.Kh1 Qxd3 20.Rg1 Ng6 or 20...Rfe8)  0-1


Kieseritzky, Lionel (1806-1853)

Former mathematics teacher in Estonia who became a chess regular at the Cafe de la Regence in Paris and was of International Master strength.  He gave chess lessons at the Cafe for 5 francs an hour.  He was not well liked.  He died penniless at a charity hospital for the insane and was buried in a pauper’s grave.  Only one person came to his funeral - a waiter at the Cafe.


Schulten - Kieseritzky, Paris 1847

1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Bc4 Qh4+ 4.Kf1 b5 5.Bxb5 Nf6 6.Nc3 Ng4 7.Nh3 Nc6 8.Nd5 Nd4 9.Nxc7+ Kd8 10.Nxa8 f3 11.d3 f6 12.Bc4 d5 13.Bxd5 Bd6 14.Qe1 fxg2+ 15.Kxg2 Qxh3+ 16.Kxh3 Ne3+ 17.Kh4 Nf3+ 18.Kh5 Bg4 mate  0-1


Kindermann, Stefan (1959-    )

Grandmaster (1988) from Germany who now lives in Austria.   His FIDE rating is 2546.


King, Daniel (1963-    )

English Grandmaster (1989).   His FIDE rating is 2526.


Kirov Ivanov, Nino (1945-    )

Bulgarian Grandmaster (1975).  He was Bulgarian champion in 1973 and 1978.


Kishnev, Sergey (1956-    )

Grandmaster from Russia.  His FIDE rating is 2485.


Klaric, Zlatko (1956-    )

Grandmaster (1983) from Croatia.  His FIDE rating is 2418.


Klein, Ernest Ludwig (1910-1990)

British champion in 1951. 


Klinger, Josef (1967-    )

Austrian Grandmaster (1988).  In 1985, he won the Austrian championship.  In 1985, he took 3rd in the World Junior Championship.  His FIDE rating is 2440.  He has become a professional poker player.


Kmoch, Hans (1894-1973)

Chess author and International Master (1950) and International Judge (1951).   He was the referee in the Alekhine-Euwe World Championship match in 1935.  Euwe chose him as his second in the 1937 rematch.  He authored Pawn Power in Chess and about a dozen other chess books.  He was the one that coined the D. Byrne-Fischer game in 1956 “the game of the century.”  He was a Latin scholar and editor of a literary magazine.  He died at the age of 76.


Kmoch – NN, Vienna 1934

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Nge7 4.O-O g6 5.d4 Bg7 6.dxe5 Nxe5 7.Nxe5 Bxe5 8.Bh6 Bxb2 9.Nd2 c6 10.Rb1 Bd4 11.Nc4 Bc5 12.Qd4  1-0


Knaak, Rainer (1953-    )

German Grandmaster (1975) who was East German champion in 1973, 1974, 1978, 1982, 1983, and 1984.


Knaak - Shiroki, Czechoslovakia 1972

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5 4.Nf3 Bg7 5.Bg5 Ne4 6.cxd5 Nxg5 7.Nxg5 e6 8.Qa4+ Bd7 9.Qb3 Qxg5 10.Qxb7 O-O 11.Qxa8 Nc6 12.h4 Qg4 13.Qb7 Rb8 14.dxc6 (14...Rxv7 15.cxb7 and 16.b8=Q)  1-0


Knezevic, Milorad (1936-    )

Serbia/Montenegro Grandmaster (1976).


Knoppert, Erik (1959-    )

On September 13-16, 1985, Erkc Knoppert, a FIDE chess master from the Netherlands, played 500 games of 10-minute chess in 68 hours.  He score 82.6% against an average 2000 rating of his opponents.


Kobalija, Mikhail

Grandmaster from Russia.  His FIDE rating is 2573.


Kochyev, Alexander (1956-    )

Russian Grandmaster (1977).  He was European Junior Champion in 1975/76.  His FIDE rating is 2417.


Kogan, Boris (1940-1993)

International Master (1981).  Soviet Junior Champion in 1956 and 1957.  He was a full time chess teacher in the Soviet Union before emigrating and coming to the United States in 1981.  He played in the U.S. Championship three times.   He was Georgia, USA champion seven years in a row (1980-1986) and won it 8 times.


Kolev, Atanas (1967-    )

Grandmaster from Bulgaria.  His FIDE rating is 2523.


Kolisch, Ignatz (1837-1889)

In his early years he was the private secretary of the Russian Prince Urusov.  He later became a wandering chess professional and was one of the top 4 chess players in the world in the 1860s.  In 1867, he won at Paris, ahead of Steinitz.  He moved to Vienna and met Albert Rothschild in 1868.  He became involved in banking and became a millionaire and chess patron, organizing and sponsoring many chess tournaments in the 1870s and 1880s.  In 1881 he was made a baron of the Austrian Empire.  He died at the age of 52.


Geake - Kolisch, Cambridge 1860

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Nf6 4.Nc3 Bc5 5.O-O d6 6.d3 Bg4 7.Bxf7+? (7.Na4)  7...Kxf7 8.Ng5+ Ke8 10.Nf3 Nd4 11.Bg5 Qd7 12.Nd5 Nxd5 13.exd5 Bxf3 14.gxf3 Qh3 (threatening 15...Nxf3+)  0-1


Koltanowski, George (1903-2000)

Chess editor for the San Francisco Chronicle for 52 years and author of over 19,000 chess columns.  He moved to San Francisco after World War II.  In 1949 he helped in the formation of the California State Chess Federation.  He was an International Master (1950), honorary International Grandmaster (1988), International Arbiter (1960), and past President of the United States Chess Federation (1975-1978).  In 1937 he played 34 opponents simultaneously, blindfolded, winning 24 games and drawing 10.  In 1949 he played 271 simultaneous games in an exhibition.  In 1960 he played 56 consecutive blindfold games in a row, winning 50 and drawing 6 during an event held in San Francisco,  He was well known for his blindfold knight’s tour.  He won the Belgian Championship 4 times (1923, 1927, 1930, and 1936) and was a founding member of FIDE in 1924.  He directed the U.S. Open 16 times.  He was considered the greatest chess showman and promoter that chess has ever known.  He introduced the Swiss System of pairings to national events when he directed the 1947 US Open in Corpus Christi, Texas using the Swiss System instead of a round robin.  Many of Koltanowski’s relatives died in the Holocaust, but he was in Guatemala promoting chess when World War II broke out.  The United States Consul in Cuba saw Koltanowski giving a chess exhibition in Havana in 1940 and granted him a US visa.  He authored over 20 chess books in four languages.   He directed the US Open 20 times.  He died at the age of 96.  He learned chess at the age of 14.


Koltanowski –Vogel, San Mateo 1968

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 Bg4 4.dxe5 Bxf3 5.Qxf3 dxe5 6.Bc4 Nf6 7.Qb3 b6 8.Bxf7+ Kd7 9.Qe6 mate  1-0


Koltanowski - Dunkelblum,Antwerp 1923

1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Bf5 5.Bd3 Qxd4 6.Nf3 Qd8 7.Qe2 Nf6 8.Nxf6+ gxf6 9.Bxf5 Qa5+ 10.Bd2 Qxf5 11.O-O-O Qe6 12.Qd3 Qxa2 13.Qd8+ Kxd8 14.Ba5+ Kc8 15.Rd8 mate  1-0


Komarov, Dimitri (1968-    )

Grandmaster from the Ukraine.  His FIDE rating is 2521.


Komliakov, Victor (1960-    )

Grandmaster from Moldova.  His FIDE rating is 2445.


Konig, Imre (1901-1992)

International Master (1951).  He was born in Hungary and  represented Yugoslavia in the Chess Olympiads in 1931, 1935, and 1936.  He later lived in France, England, and the United States.  He wrote Chess from Morphy to Botvinnik in 1950.


Konstantinopolsky, Alexander (1910-1990)

Soviet International Master (1950) and Honorary Grandmaster (1983) and winner of the first USSR Correspondence Championship (1951).  He was one of the leading trainers in the USSR during the 1950s and 1960s.  He played in the Soviet championship 6 times and took 2nd place in 1937.


Kopec, Danny (1954-   )

Danny Kopec was born Israel on February 28, 1954,  He is an American International Master (1985) and one of the world’s foremost authorities on artificial intelligence and its application to chess.  He holds a Ph.D. in Machine Intelligence and is an Associate Professor in the Department of Computer and Information Systems at Brooklyn College.  He was Scottish Champion in 1980-81. 


Kopec - Winston, Columbus 1972

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 f5 4.Nc3 Nf6 5.d4 exd4 6.Nxd4 fxe4 7.O-O Bb4 8.Nd5 O-O 9.Bg5 Be7 10.Nf5 Kh8 11.Bxc6 Nxd5 12.Nxe7 Nxe7 13.Bxe4 Qe8 14.Re1 c6? (14...h6) 15.Bd3 Rf7 16.Qh5 (16...g6 17.Bxg6; 16...h6 17.Bg6; 16...Qg8 17.Bxe7)  1-0


Korchnoi, Viktor (1931-    )

Grandmaster (1956) and four times Soviet champion (1960, 1962, 1964, 1970).  He was the Dutch champion in 1977 and the Swiss champion in 1982, 1984, and 1985.  He played on six of the USSR's Olympic teams.  In the 1970 Chess Olympiad in Skopje, Yugoslavia, Victor overslept and missed his round against Spain lost be default.  The round started at 3 pm.  He defected to the West in July 1976, after a tie for 1st place (with Tony Miles) at a tournament in Amsterdam (IBM 1976).  Victor Korchnoi's son, Igor, was sent to a Siberian labor camp for 30 months for refusing military service.  In 1987 he won the Zabreb Interzonal Tournament (11/16).  In 1991 Korchnoi was granted Swiss citizenship after 14 years of residency.  He has  appeared in eight Candidates Matches.  During his world championship match with Karpov, he claimed that he was “hypnotized” by KGB agents to play badly.  In 1999, at the age of 68, he took first place at an international tournament in St. Petersburg.  After his defection in 1976, it wasn’t until 1984 that a Soviet player was allowed to play a games against Korchnoi.  The first Soviet player to play Korchnoi in a tournament was Alexander Beliavasky, at Wijk aan Zee in 1984.


Korchnoi - Mestrovic, Sarajevo 1969

1.d4 d5 2.c4 dxc4 3.e4 e5 4.Nf3 exd4 5.Bxc4 Bb4+ 6.Nbd2 Nc6 7.O-O Nh6 8.Nb3 Bg4 9.Bd5 Ne5 10.Qxd4 Nxf3+ 11.gxf3 Bxf3 12.Bxh6 Qd7 13.Qe5+ (13...Qe7 14.Bxf7+ Kxf7 15.Qxg7+ Ke6 16.Nd4+ Kd7 17.Qxe7+  and 18.Nxf3)  1-0


Korn, Walter (1908-1997)

Editor of  Modern Chess Openings and chess contributor to chess publications for 50 years.  He was the first  FIDE International Judge for Chess Endgame Compositions in North America.   He fled Czechoslovakia during World War II.  After the war he directed the U.N. Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, helping to relocate concentration camp survivors.  He later immigrated to the United States in 1950. 


Korneev, Oleg (1969-    )

Grandmaster from Russia.  His FIDE rating is 2594.


Kosashvili, Yona (1970-    )

Grandmaster from Israel and medical doctor.  In 1997, he won the 12th AEGON human vs. computer tournament in the Netherlands.  In 1999, he married to Sofia Polgar.


Koshnitsky, Grigory (Garry) (1907-1999)

Born in Russia and moved to Australia in 1926.  He was Australian champion from 1932 to 1934 and from 1939 to 1945.  During World War II, he was an anti-tank gunner.  He died at the age of 91.  In 1966 he won the championship of South Australia.  His wife Evelyn took the women’s title.


Kosic, Dragan (1970-    )

Grandmaster from Serbia and Montenegro.  His FIDE rating is 2489.


Kosten, Anthony (1958-    )

Grandmaster now living in France.  His FIDE rating is 2522.


Kostic, Borislav (1887-1963)

Yugoslav Grandmaster (1950).  He won the Baltic Championship in 1913.  He won the US (Western) Championship in 1916.  He won the Romanian Championship in 1934.  He won the Yugoslav championship in 1935 (with Pirc) and 1938.  In 1916, he played 30 games blindfolded simultaneously.


Kotov, Alexander (1913-1981)

Russian Grandmaster (1950) who was awarded the Order of Lenin for an important invention relating to mortar during World War II.  He was Moscow champion in 1941.  He was joint USSR champion (with Bronstein) in 1948.  He was a Candidate in 1950 and 1953.  He played in 9 USSR Championships.  He wrote Think Like a Grandmaster in 1971.


Kotov – Kalmanok, Moscow 1936

1.d4 e6 2.e4 d5 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg5 dxe4 5.Nxe4 Be7 6.Bxf6 gxf6 7.Nf3 Nd7 8.Bc4 c6 9.Qd2 b6 10.Qh6 Bf8 11.Qf4 Bb7 12.O-O-O h5 13.Kb1 Be7 14.Qg3 Nf8 15.Rhe1 f5 16.d5 cxd5 17.Bb5+ Nd7 18.Ne5 Qc7 19.Bxd7+ Kd8 20.Qg7 Rf8 21.Ng5 Qb8 22.Bxe6  1-0


B. Gurgenidze - Kotov, USSR 1954

1.e4 c5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.Nfe2 Nf6 4.g3 d5 5.exd5 Nd4 6.Bg2 Bg4 7.d3 Nxd5 8.Bxd5? (8.Qd2)  8...Qxd5 9.f3 Qxf3 10.Rf1 Qg2 11.Bd2 Nf3+ 12.Rxf3 Qxf3 13.Ne4 Qh1+ (14.Kf2 Qxh2+ 15.Ke1 f5 wins)  0-1


Kosteniuk, Alexandra (1984-    )

She became a Woman Grandmaster at age 14 and International Master at age 16.  She became an International Grandmaster (WGM) for women in 1998.  She is a former world women’s vice-champion. 


Kotronias, Vasilios (1964-    )

Grandmaster from Greece.  His FIDE rating is 2587.


Kouatly, Bachar (1958-    )

French Grandmaster (1989).  He is the first native Frenchman to be awarded the GM title.  He was joint French Champion in 1979.  He took last place at the 1982 Toluca Interzonal with 2 wins, 1 draw, and 10 losses.  His FIDE rating is 2475.


Kovacevic, Vlatko (1942-    )

Croatian GM (1976) and mathematics teacher.  His FIDE rating is 2512.


Fischer – Kovacevic, Rovinj-Zagreb 1970

1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.a3 Bxc3+ 5.bxc3 dxe4 6.Qg4 Nf6 7.Qxg7 Rg8 8.Qh6 Nbd7 9.Ne2 b6 10.Bg5 Qe7 11.Qh4 Bb7 12.Ng3 h6 13.Bd2 O-O-O 14.Be2 Nf8 15.O-O Ng6 16.Qxh6 Rh8 17.Qg5 Rdg8 18.f3 e3 19.Bxe3 Nf8 20.Qb5 Nd5 21.Kf2 a6 22.Qd3 Rxh2 23.Rh1 Qh4 24.Rxh2 Qxh2 25.Nf1 Rxg2+ 26.Ke1 Qh4+ 27.Kd2 Ng6 28.Re1 Nfg4 29.Bxf4 Nxf4 30.Qe3 Rf2  0-1


Kovalev, Andrei (1961-    )

Grandmaster from Belarus.  His FIDE rating is 2548.


Kozul, Zdenko (1966-    )

Croatian Grandmaster (1989).  His FIDE rating is 2585.  In 1982, he became world under-16 champion.  In 1989 and 1990 he won the championship of Yugoslavia.  He has led the Croatina team on five Olympiads.


Kraidman, Yair (1932-    )

Israeli Grandmaster (1976).  He works in the ministry of finance as an accountant.  His FIDE rating is 2320.


Kramer, George (1929-    )

U.S. Senior Master.  In 1945, he won the New York State Chess Championship.  In 1949, he won the U.S. Speed Championship.


Kramnik, Vladimir (1975-    )

Russian Grandmaster (1992) and world champion who defeated Garry Kasparov in 2000 in the Brain Games World Championship in London.  This was the 14th World Chess Championship.  This was the first occasion in world championship history that the defending champion was not able to win a single game.  Kramnik won 2 games and drew 10.  He was world youth champion under 18 in 1991.  He was the winner of the first “Intel Speed Chess Grand Prix” in 1994.  He won the Chess Oscar in 2000.  He drew a chess match in 2002 with the Deep Fritz chess program in Bahrain and collected $800,000 for his efforts.


Timman - Kramnik, Hoogovens 1999

1.Nf3 d5 2.g3 Bg4 3.Bg2 Nd7 4.c4 e6 5.b3 Ngf6 6.Bb2 c6 7.O-O Bd6 8.d4 O-O 9.Nbd2 a5 10.Ne5 Bh5 11.Re1 a4 12.bxa4 Qa5 13.Qb3 Qxd2 14.Bc3 Qh6 15.Qxb7 Rab8 16.Qxc6 Rb6 17.cxd5 exd5 (18.Qxd7 Nxd7 19.Nxd7 Rc6 20.Nxf8 Rxc3)  0-1


Krasenkow, Michal (1963-    )

Polish Grandmaster (1989).  His peak FIDE rating is 2702, number 10 in the world.


Kreiman, Boris (1976-    )

A refugee from Russia who gained a green card based on his chess accomplishments by the U.S. government in 1991.  US Junior champion (1993) and former recipient of the Samford Scholarship, awarded to the best young player in the United States..  Tied for 3rd place in the 2002 US Championship and gaining his last norm for Grandmaster.


Krejcik, Josef (1885-1957)

Viennese chess author, player, and journalist.  In 1910, he game a 25-game simultaneous display at Linz and lost every game.


Kreymborg, Alfred (1883-1966)

American Poet, poetic dramatist, and anthologist who wrote over 40 books.  In his earlier years. He supported himself as a chess professional for eight years.  He later founded a puppet theater.


Kritz, Leonid (1984-    )

Grandmaster from Germany.  His FIDE rating is 2544.


Krogius, Nikolai (1930-    )

Russian Grandmaster (1964) and a sports psychologist (he has a doctorate in psychology).  He served as a second to Boris Spassky.  He was president of the USSR Chess Federation.  His FIDE rating is 2485.  He captained the Soviet tem in the 1970 USSR vs Rest of the World match.  In 1976, he wrote Psychology in Chess.


Kruppa, Yuri (1964-    )

Grandmaster from the Ukraine.  His FIDE rating is 2525.


Krupski, Jan (1799-1856)

Author of, Chess Strategy,  the first Polish textbook on chess.


Krush, Irina (1983- )

Participated in the 1995 U.S. Women’s Championship at age 11.  This is the youngest player ever to compete in a non-age restricted national chess championship.  At the age of  9, she beat a master, the youngest ever to beat a master in rated play.  She took the bronze medal in the 1998 World Girls’ Championship, held in India.  She won the U.S. Women’s Championship in 1998 at the age of 14.  She was the Gold Medallist in the 1998 Pan-American Youth Championships in Brazil with a perfect 7-0 score.  She tied for top woman in the 2003 U.S. Chess Championship, but lost in the playoff to Anna Hahn.


Krylenko, Nikolai (1885-1938)

Chess enthusiast responsible for persuading the Soviet government o support chess.  He was Commissar for War in the first Bolshevik government, then Commander-in-Chief of the Russian armed forces, chief prosecutor for the revolutionary tribunals, and later  Commissar for Justice for the USSR.  His chess title was Chairman of the Chess Section of the Supreme Council for Physical Culture of the Russian Federal Republic, and later, Secretary of the Soviet Chess Federation.  In 1937 he was arrested and charged with retarding the development of chess, cutting it off from the social and political life of the Soviet Union.  He was ordered executed by Stalin as an enemy of the people.


Kubbel, Avrid (1889-1938)

Chess composer and player.  He sent some of his chess compositions to the foreign press outside of the USSR in 1938.  He was arrested by the secret police because they thought he was sending out cryptic state secrets.  He later died of nephritis (inflammation of the kidney).


Kubbel, Leonid (1891-1942)

One of the greatest Russian chess composers.  He composed over 300 endgame studies and 2,784 chess studies and problems overall.  He died during the siege of Leningrad.


Kubbel, Yevgeny (1893-1942)

Chess composer and youngest brother of Avrid and Karl Kubbel.  He died during the siege of Leningrad.


Kuczynski, Robert (1966-    )

Grandmaster from Poland.  His FIDE rating is 2485.


Kudrin, Sergey (1959-    )

Grandmaster (1984) who has won the National Open 7 times, the New York Open twice, and the North American Open twice.  He has a B.A. in computer science and an M.B.A. in finance.  Kudrin grew up in Siberia.


Kudrin - Jukic, Graz 1987

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 e6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 a6 5.Bd3 Nf6 6.O-O Qc7 7.Qe2 d6 8.Nc3 Be7 9.Kh1 O-O 10.f4 b5 11.e5 Ne8 12.Bd2 Nd7 13.Qe4 g6 14.Qxa8 Bb7 15.Ncxb5 axb5 16.Qa5  1-0


Kuhns, Maurice (1859-1949)

Organizer and president of the National Chess Federation (NCF) from 1926 to 1939.  In 1939, the NCF merged with the American Chess Federation (ACF) to form the US Chess Federation (USCF).  Kuhns was made president emeritus of the USCF.  He was also a vice-president of FIDE.  In the 1920s, he devised a special telegraph cable code for the transmission of chess moves.  It was called the Kuhns Cable Chess Code and was used in the 1926 London-Chicago Inter-city cable match.  He was one of the first Certified Public Accountants in the U.S.  In 1933, he directed an outdoor chess match on a giant chessboard at the New York World’s Fair.  32 men and women in medieval costume served as pieces.


Kujoth, Richard

Wisconsin chess champion in 1947, 1948, 1949, 1952, 1953, and 1958.


Kulaots, Kaido (1976-    )

Grandmaster from Estonia.  His FIDE rating is 2570.


Kuligowski, Adam (1955-    )

Polish Grandmaster (1980).  His FIDE rating is 2430.  He was Polish champion in 1978.


Kunte, Abhijit (1977-    )

In 2000, he won the championship of India.  In 2003, he won the Smith & Williamson British Championship. 


Kupchik, Abraham (1892-1970)

Former U.S. Open champion (1925), New York State champion twice (1915, 1919), and winner of the Manhattan Chess Club at least 15 times.  In 1923, he tied with Frank Marshall in the 9th American Chess Congress, held in Lake Hopatcong, New York.  He played in the U.S. chess championship in 1936, 1938, and 1940. 


J. Corzo – Kupchik, Havana 1913

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.c3 d5 4.Qa4 Qd6 5.Bb5 Bd7 6.exd5 Qxd5 7.O-O O-O-O 8.Bc4 Qd6 9.Ng5 Nh6 10.d3 Qg6 11.Be3 Be7 12.Ne4 f5 13.Nc5 f4 14.Nxd7 Rxd7 15.Bd2 f3 16.g3 Qg4 17.Qd1 Rf8 18.Be6 Qxe6  0-1


Kupreichik, Viktor (1949-    )

Belorussian Grandmaster (1980) from Minsk.  He took last place in the 1969, 1974, and 1976 USSR championships.


Razuvev - Kupreichik, Erevan 1970

1.c4 e5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.Nf3 f5 4.d4 e4 5.Bg5 Nf6 6.d5 exf3 7.dxc6 fxg2 8.cxd7+ Nxd7 9.Bxd8 gxh1=Q  0-1


Kurajica, Bojan (1947-    )

Yugoslav Grandmaster (1974).  Winner of the 1965 World Junior Championship.  The title is an automatic award to the International Master title, yet he was not even a master.  He thus became an International Master without ever being a master.


Kurajica - Nikolic, Yugoslavia 1984

1.d4 d5 2.c4 dxc4 3.e3 e5 4.Bxc4 exd4 5.exd4 Nf6 6.Nc3 Be7 7.Nf3 O-O 8.O-O Nc6 9.h3 Na5 10.Bd3 Be6 11.Re1 Bc4 12.Bxc4 Nxc4 13.Qe2  1-0


Kushnir, Alla (1941-    )

One of the top women’s chess players in the 1960s and 1970s.  At one time she was the second-best woman in the world (behind Gprindashvili).  She left the Soviet Union and settle in Israel in 1973.  She was awarded the Women’s Grandmaster title in 1976.  She was Women’s World Championship Challenger in 1965, 1969, and 1972.  She was USSR Women’s Champion in 1970.


Kutirov, Rolando (1962-    )

Grandmaster from Macedonia.  His FIDE rating is 2375.


Kuzmin, Alexei (1963-    )

Grandmaster from Russia.  His FIDE rating is 2539.


Kuzmin, Gennady (1946-    )

Russian Grandmaster (1973).  He played in 9 USSR championships.  He took 2nd place in 1973. 

Skatchkov - Kuzmin, Pardubice 1995

1.e4 e5 2.d4 exd4 3.Bc4 Nf6 4.Nf3 c6 5.Qxd4 d5 6.exd5 cxd5 7.Bb5+ Nc6 8.Bg5 Be7 9.O-O O-O 10.Qh4 h6 11.Bd3 hxg5 12.Nxg5 g6 13.Qh6 Ne5 14.Nc3 Neg4 15.Qh4 Nh5 16.f4 Kg7 17.h3 Bc5+ 18.Kh1 Rh8 19.f5 Qxg5! (20.Qxg5 Ng3 mate)  0-1


Kuzubov, Yuri (

In 2004, he became a Grandmaster at the age of 14 years, 7 months, 12 days.  He was born in the Ukraine on January 26, 1990. 


Kveinys, Aloyzas (1962-    )

Grandmaster from Lithuania.  His FIDE rating is 2510.


Lahno, Kateryna (1989-    )

International Master and Woman Grandmaster from Ukraine.  In 1998, she was the world girls’ under-10 champion.  In 2002, at the age of 12 years, 4 months and 2 days, she became both the European Girls’ under-14 Champion and the world’s youngest Woman Grandmaster in history.   In 2005, she won the European Individual Women’s Chess Championship.  Her Elo rating is 2500 and she is ranked #7 in the world among female chess players.


Lalic, Bogdan (1964-    )

Croatian Grandmaster (1988).  He is now playing in England and married to Susan Arkell Lalic.


Landa, Konstantin (1972-    )

Grandmaster from Russia.   His FIDE rating is 2609.


Landey, Benjamin M. (1912-1981)

Ben Landey was a former president of the Massachusetts Chess Association and the New England Chess Association.  He was president of the Boylston Chess Club.  He was a pioneer in the promotion of chess in New England.  In the 1960s, he was the first person to lose a USCF-rated game to a computer.  He lost to the MIT MacHack computer.


Lane Hickey, Lisa (1938-    )

Lisa Lane was born in Philadelphia.  Former U.S. women's champion (1959-62, 1966).   In 1960 she appeared on "What's My Line" and was featured in Look magazine.  In 1961, she was on the cover of  Sports Illustrated.   In 1961, she took 12th-14th place at the Women’s Candidates Tournament in Vrnjacka Banja.  She played four games in the Hastings Reserve tournament in 1961-62,  then withdrew after one draw, two losses, and an adjourned game.  She said she could not concentrate because she was "homesick and in love."  In 1963 she opened up her own chess club, Queen’s Pawn Chess Emporium, in New York.  In 1964, she took 12th place at the Women’s Candidates Tournament in Sukhumi.  In 1966, she tied for 1st place with Gisela Gresser in the U.S. Women’s Chess Championship.  She married Neil Hickey, editor-at-large of the Columbia Journalism Review, who was a friend of Bobby Fischer and assisted Bobby Fischer in some chess articles.  Lisa owns a natural food business, Amber Waves of Grain, in New York.


Lange, Max (1832-1899)

German chess player and inventor of the helpmate in 1865 and the Max Lange Attack (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Nf6 4.d4 exd4 4.O-O Bc5 5.e5) in 1854.  From 1858 to 1864, he was the editor of Deutsche Schachzeitung, the oldest chess magazine still around.


Lange - Mayet, Berlin 1853

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.O-O d6 5.b4 Nxb4 6.c3 Nc6 7.d4 exd4 8.cxd4 Bb6 9.h3 Na5 10.Bd3 d5 11.exd5 Qxd5 12.Nc3 Qh5 13.Re1+ Kd8 14.Ng5! Qxd1 15.Nxf7+ Kd7 16.Bf5+ Kc6 17.Nd8+ Kd6 18.Bf4 mate   1-0


Lanka, Zigurds (1960-    )

Grandmaster from Latvia.  His FIDE rating is 2531.


Larsen, Bent (1935-    )

Danish Grandmaster (1956) who now lives in Buenos Aires with his Argentinean wife. In 1954 at the age of 19, he won the Danish championship and became an International Master.  Larsen won the Danish championship every time he entered for the next 10 years.  In 1956 he played first board of the Danish team at the chess Olympiad in Moscow and got the Gold medal for his +11 =6 –1 on board one.   In 1966 when Larsen beat Geller in a match, it was the first time in a match that a Soviet Grandmaster had ever lost to a foreigner.  Bent Larsen was the first GM to lose to a computer in a tournament competition, 1988.  To supplement his income, he translates detective stories into Danish.  In 1953 Larsen labored all night on an adjourned game to find a winning line.  Then he tried to get a few hours sleep.  He lost the game because he had overslept and failed to appear on time.  He has won the Interzonal 3 times (1964 in Amsterdam, 1967 in Sousse, and 1976 in Biel) and is the only player to do this.  In 1967 he was awarded the Chess Oscar as player of the year.  In 1988 Larsen lost a game to Deep Thought, becoming the first Grandmaster to be defeated by a computer in tournament play.  The opening 1.b3 is sometimes called Larsen’s Opening.  His nickname is “The Great Dane.”  He won the Canadian Open and the U.S. Open in 1968 and 1970.  He won the second Annual World Open in 1974.


Sursock - Larsen, Siegen 1970

1.d4 e6 2.e4 c5 3.Nf3 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nc6 5.Nc3 d6 6.Bc4 Nf6 7.Bg5 Qb6 8.Bxf6 gxf6 9.Ndb5 Ne5 10.Bb3 Rg8 11.O-O a6 12.Nd4? Qxd4! (13.Qxd4 Nf3+ and 14...Nxd4)  0-1


Larsen, Ingrid (1909-    )

Women’s World Championship Challenger in 1937, 1939, and 1949-50.  She was awarded the Women’s International Master title in 1950.  She won the Danish Women’s National Championship 17 times (1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1948, 1949, 1953, 1956, 1957, 1960, 1965, 1969, and 1983).


Lasa, Tassilo von Heydebrand und der (1818-1899)

Prussian diplomat (part of the Diplomatic Service until 1864), baron, and ambassador who never played in a tournament or match.  Yet, in offhand games he beat some of the world’s best players, including Staunton, Anderssen, and Lowenthal.  He may have been the second strongest chess player in the world from 1845 to 1855.  In 1843 he completed the Handbuch des Schachspiels, the first complete review of openings in any language.  This book was begun by Bilguer.  He helped begin the German chess magazine Deutsche Schachzeitung.  In the 1850s he proposed that each player’s time should be limited by way of separate clocks.  He had one of the largest chess libraries in the world.  His chess library is now housed in Kornik Caslte, near Poznan, Romania.


Von der Lasa – Bledow, 1839

1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 Bg7 5.d4 Qe7 6.O-O h6 7.Nc3 c6 8.e5 Qb4 9.Ne4 Bf8 10.Qe2 g4 11.Nd6+ Bxd6 12.exd6 Kd8 13.Ne5 Rh7 14.c3 f3 15.Qe4 Nf6 16.Qxh7 Nxh7 17.Nxf7+  1-0


Lasker, Berthold (1860-1928)

Older brother of Emanuel Lasker who taught Emanuel how to play when Emanuel was 11 years old.  He was known as a chess hustler in Berlin in the early 1880s.  As a medical doctor who lived in Berlin, he saved Emanuel Lasker’s life in 1894 when Emanuel Lasker had gastric fever and a broken blood vessel while living in England.  Berthold married Else Schuler (1869-1945), a famous poet, writer, and artist, in 1894.  She later divorced him in 1903.    In 1902 he won the New York State chess championship. 


Lasker, Edward (Dec 3, 1885 – Mar 25, 1981)

Edward  Lasker was born in Kempen, Germany (now Poland) in 1885.  He became an International Master at the age of 75.  FIDE awarded him the official IM title in 1961.  He was an International Master in 1913, a title given to him by the German Chess Federation.  Edward Lasker won the championship of Paris in 1912 (defeating Frederic Lazard in a 4-game match), the London championship in 1914, the New York City championship in 1915, and the championship of Chicago in 1916.  He won the U.S. Open five times (1916, 1917, 1919, 1920, 1921).  In 1923 he played a match (and lost by one point) with Frank Marshall for the U.S. Championship.  During that match, one of the spectators had a heart attack and died.  In the 1940s he founded and became president of the Association of American Chess Masters (AACM).  His mother and brother died in Nazi Germany.  Edward Lasker had degrees (but no Ph.D.) in mechanical and electrical engineering.  He invented and patented a breast pump to secure mother's milk.  He was a safety engineer for Sears Roebuck.  On September 11, 1976, at the age of 90, he played in a telex match between New York and London.  He was a seventh cousin to Emanuel Lasker (some sources say they were not related).  He learned chess at the age of six from his father.  He was a Go player and founded the American Go Association in 1915.  He died at the age of 95.


Ed Lasker - George Thomas, London 1912

1.d4 f5 2.e4 fxe4 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg5 e6 5.Nxe4 Be7 6.Bxf6 Bxf6 7.Nf3 b6 8.Ne5 O-O 9.Bd3 Bb7 10.Qh5 Qe7 11.Qxh7+ Kxh7 12.Nxf6+ Kh6 13.Neg4+ Kg5 14.h4+ Kf4 15.g3+ Kf3 16.Be2+ Kg2 17.Rh2+ Kg1 18.Kd2 mate  1-0


Lasker, Emanuel (1868-1941)

Second world chess champion, from 1894 to 1921, who played in 8 world championship matches.  Emanuel Lasker took first place at Breslau in 1889 by accident.  Another competitor, needing a draw or win for first place, had a won adjourned game.  After adjournment he lost.  It was later discovered that one of his pawns was knocked off the board between sealing and resumption of the game, which would have given him the winning advantage.  As a result Lasker, who was considering giving up chess, won the event and the title of national master.  Five years later he was world champion.   He once tried to breed pigeons for poultry shows.  He tried for many months and failed.  He learned later that all the pigeons were male.  Between 1901 and 1914 he played in only three tournaments. He published Lasker’s Chess Magazine from 1904 to 1906.  In 1908 he married at the age of 48 and became husband, father, and grandfather all at once.  His wife, a few years older than he, was already a grandmother.  He tried to have the tournament rules changes for the older player at the international level.  He proposed that play should be stopped after 2 hours for a half hour adjournment.  His theory was that gentle exercises or turning to other thoughts for awhile would reinvigorate the older brain.  During World War I he invested his life savings in German war bonds and lost it all.  He wrote a book declaring that Germany had to win World War I if civilization was to be saved.  His Ph.D. dissertation of 1902 on ideal numbers became a cornerstone of 20th century algebra.  He believed that one of his opponents, Tarrasch, had hypnotic powers and wanted to play him in a separate room.  In 1933 the Hitler regime confiscated his Berlin apartment, his farm at Thyrow, and all of his savings.  Destitute, he moved to England and took up chess again to earn a living.  He was invited to Moscow for an international tournament (he took 6th place at the age of 68) and was encouraged to stay on Moscow after the event.  He was invited to become a member of the Moscow Academy of Science, which he accepted, and took permanent residence in Moscow.   In October, 1937 he moved to Manhattan, New York.


Burn - Emanuel Lasker, Hastings 1895

1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.Nc3 c5 5.e3 Nc6 6.cxd5 exd5 7.Bd3 a6 8.dxc5 Bxc5 9.O-O O-O 10.Bd2 Re8 11.Rc1 Ba7 12.Ne2 Bg4 13.Bc3 Ne4 14.Ng3 Nxf2 15.Rxf2 Rxe3 16.Nf5 Rxf3 17.gxf3 Bxf5 18.Bxf5 Qg5+ 19.Bg4 h5 20.Qd2 Be3  0-1


Lau, Ralf (Oct 19, 1959 -    )

German Grandmaster (1986).  He played on the West German Chess Olympiad teams in 1984, 1986, and 1988.  His Elo rating is 2468.


Laucks, E. Forry (1897-1965)

Founder (1934) and patron of the Log Cabin Chess Club, based in West Orange, New Jersey.  He collapsed and died after the 6th round of the 66th U.S. Open in San Juan, Puerto Rico.


Lautier, Joel (1973-    )

Canadian-born French Grandmaster (1990) who was the youngest ever World Junior Champion in 1988.  His father is French and his mother is Japanese.  He is President of the Association of Chess Professionals (ACP).  He is the highest rated player in France.


Lautier - Sokolov, Correze 1992

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.d4 exd4 5.Nxd4 Bb4 6.Nxc6 bxc6 7.Bd3 d5 8.exd5 cxd5 9.O-O O-O 10.Bg5 c6 11.Na4 h6 12.Bh4 Be7 13.Re1 Be6 14.c3 Re8 15.Bc2 Rb8 16.Qd4 a5 17.Re3 Qc7 18.Rae1 c5 19.Qd3 g5 20.Rxe6! (20...fxe6 21.Qg6+; 20...gxh4 21.Rxf6 Bxf6 22.Qh7+)  1-0


Lawrence, Al

Former executive director of the US Chess Federation.  He works at the World Chess Hall of Fame in Miami.


Lawson, David (1886-1980)

Author of Paul Morphy The Pride and Sorrow of Chess, published in 1976 when Lawson was 89 years old.  His real name was Charles Whipple.


Lazic, Miroljub (1966-    )

Grandmaster from Serbia and Montenegro.  His FIDE rating is 2485.


Leary, Timothy (1920-1996)

Used chess sets as visual props for preparing classes at Harvard to receive the impact of LSD.  He said, "Life is a chess game of experiences we play."


Lebel-Arias, Julia (1946-    )

Woman International Master (1985) from Monaco, formerly of France.


Lechtynsky, Jiri (1947-    )

Czech Grandmaster (1982).  His FIDE rating is 2442.


Lees, David M. (1943-1996)

David M. Lees was born on February 12, 1943 in Springfield, Massachusetts.  He was a National Master.  He won or tied in the Western Massachusetts Championship five times (1961, 1962, 1963, 1965, 1967).  He won the Central New England Championship twice.  In 1964, he won the Texas Junior Championship.  In 1965, he won the Texas State Championship.  In 1965, he won the U.S. Armed Forces Championship (he was an Air Force enlisted person).  He won the Connecticut Valley Championship in 1962, 1963, 1967, 1977, 1987, 1988, and 1989.  In 1993, he published The Chess Games of David Lees.  He died on October 19, 1996 at the age of 53.


Legall, M. de Kermur, Sire de (1702-1792)

French champion in the 18th century.  He was the teacher of Philidor. 


Legky, Nikolay (1955-    )

Grandmaster from the Ujkraine.  His FIDE rating is 2453.


Lehmann, Heinz (1921-    )

Honorary grandmaster from Germany. 


Lein, Anatoly (1931-    )

Russian Grandmaster (1968) who moved to the United States in 1976.  He was a mathematician.  He played in 6 USSR Championships.  He was Moscow champion in 1981.  He won the US Open in 1976.


Leko, Peter (1979-    )

Hungarian player who became the youngest International Master in the world at age 12.  In 1994, at the age of 14 years, 4 months, and 22 days, he became the youngest grandmaster in history.  In 1994 he became the World Junior Champion.  In 2001, he was ranked as the 5th strongest chess player in the world.  He also became the first Random Chess World Champion when he defeated Michael Adams in a match.   In 2004 he drew with Kramnik in the Classical World Chess Championship in Brissago, Switzerland.  In 2005 he won the 67th Corus Chess Tournament in Wijk aan Zee.  It was a Category 19 event with average rating of 2721.  His rating is 2740.


Leko – Dovramadjiev, 1991

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 g6 6.Nxc6 bxc6 7.e5 Ng8 8.Bc4 d5 9.exd6 exd6 10.O-O d5 11.Nxd5 cxd5 12.Bxd5 Rb8 13.Bxf7+ Kxf7 14.Qc7 Ra8 15.Re1  1-0


Lemachko, Tatjana (1948-    )

Female chess master who defected from the Bulgarian team on the eve of the last round of the Lucerne Chess Olympiad in 1982 and moved to Switzerland.  She tied for first place (with Akhmilovskaya) at the 1979 Alicante Women’s Interzonal Tournament.  She was one of the eight finalists for the women's world championship for 1983.


Lenderman, Alex (1989-    )

Brooklyn player (born on September 23, 1989)  who was the winner of the 2005 Boys Under-16 title at the World Youth Chess Championship in Belfort, France.  Lenderman was the first American to win a gold medal at the World Youth Chess Championship since Tal Shaked became World Junior Champion in 1997.  He was awarded the title of International Master in 2005.  In 2007, he won the USCF National High School (K-12) Championship, held in Kansas City, Missouri, on tie-break against Alexander Barnett and Michael Zhong.  He is rated over 2430.


Lendl, Ivan (1960-   )

Czech tennis champion and chess player.  His father, Dr. Jiri Lendl, was a Czech  junior chess champion who later became a strong tennis player and president of the Czechoslovakian Tennis Federation.  In 2001, Jiri Lendl played Kasparov in a charity simultaneous exhibition in the Czech Republic.


Lengyel, Levente (1933-    )

Hungarian Grandmaster (1964).  In 1962, he tied for 1st in the Hungarian Championship, but lost to Portisch in the play-off.


Lenin, Vladimir (1870-1924)

An avid chess player who used "Karpov" as one of his pseudonyms during his exile.  He had a chess table made that had a secret compartment for the preservation of illegal Party documents and letters.  Lenin later preferred Chekas to chess.


Leonardo da Cutri, Giovanni (1542-1587)

One of the leading 16th century Italian players.  He moved to Rome to study law.  In 1560, he was defeated by the visiting Spanish cleric, Ruy Lopez.  In 1574, he defeated Ruy Lopez in a match played in the presence of Philip II.  He may have been poisoned in 1587.


Leonhardt, Paul (1877-1934)

Polish-born German player of Grandmaster strength.  He was Nordic Champion in 1907. 


Lerner, Konstantin (1950-    )

Russian Grandmaster (1986).  He took 2nd in the 1984 and 1986 USSR Championships.


Lev, Ronen (1968-    )

Grandmaster from Israel.  His FIDE rating is 2425.


Levenfish, Grigory (1889-1961)

Russian Grandmaster (1950) who was an engineer in the glass industry.   He was USSR champion in 1934 (with Rabinovich) and 1937.  He worked with Smyslov to write Rook Endings.  He played in 12 USSR Championships.


Rabinovich - Levenfish, Moscow 1927

1.e4 Nf6 2.e5 Nd5 3.Nf3 d6 4.Be2 Nf4 5.Bf1 dxe5 6.Nxe5 Qd5 7.Nf3 Qe4+ 8.Be2 Nxg2+ 9.Kf1 Bh3 10.d3 Nh4+ 11.Ke1 Nxf3 mate  0-1


Levitina, Irina (1954-    )

She was the 4-time USSR Women's Champion who was not allowed to play in the 1979 Women's Interzonal in Buenos Aires and for the World Women's Championship because her brother immigrated (legally) to Israel.  She is also a world class bridge player and now a professional bridge player.  She has played on 3 chess Olympiads and 1 bridge Olympiad.  She became a Woman Grandmaster in 1976.  In 1984, she was the challenger and lost to Chiburdanidze with 2 wins, 7 draws, and 5 losses in the Women’s World Championship.


Levitina - Jovanovic, Menorca 1973

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 a6 6.Bg5 e6 7.f4 h6 8.Bh4 Be7 9.Qf3 Nbd7 10.O-O-O Qc7 11.g4 Rb8 12.Bg3 g5 13.e5 Ng8 14.exd6 Bxd6 15.fxg5 hxg5 16.Nxe6 (16...fxe6 17.Bxd6)  1-0


Levitt, Jonathan (1963-    )

Grandmaster from England.  His FIDE rating is 2441.


Levy, David (1945-    )

Scottish International Master (1969) who, in 1968, made a $3,000 wager that no chess computer could beat him in ten years.  He won his bet from Don Michie, John McCarthy, Seymour Pappert, and Ed Kozdrowicki.  He has authored over 50 chess books.  He is president of the International Computer Games Association (ICGA).  In 1978 he won his wager by defeating Chess 4.7 with 3 wins and 1 draw.  He was the first International Master to give up a draw to a computer program.  He could have made the bet that no chess computer could beat him in 20 years.  It was in 1989 that he finally lost to a computer when Deep Thought defeated Levy by the score of 4 wins and no losses or draws.  In 1973, Levy said, “I am tempted to speculate that a computer program will not gain the International Master title before the turn of the century and that the idea of an electronic World Champion belongs only in the pages of a science fiction book.”   Computers were IM strength in 1985 (rated over 2400) and world championship strength in 1997, when DEEP BLUE defeated Kasparov in a match.


Maeder - Levy, Haifa 1970

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 g6 6.Be3 Bg7 7.f3 Nc6 8.Qd2 O-O 9.O-O-O d5 10.exd5 Nb4 11.Bc4 Nxd5 12.Nb3 Nxc3 13.bxc3 Nxa2+ 14.Kb2 Nxc3 15.Qxd8 Nxd1+  0-1


Lewis, Lennox (1965-    )

WBC Heavyweight Boxing Champion who plays chess every day while in training.   Another boxer, Dr. Vladimir Klitschko, the WBO Heavyweight World Champion, also plays chess., along with his other boxing brother, Vitali.


Lewis, William (1787-1870)

William Lewis was born in Birmingham, England on October 9, 1787.  He was a chess player, author and organizer.  In 1817 he wrote Oriental Chess.   He took a job as the operator of the Turk chess automaton in 1818 to 1819.  In April,1821, Lewis went to Paris to play a match against Alexandre Deschapelles.  Three games were played, in which Deschapelles gave Lewis the odds of a pawn and move.  Lewis won one game and drew two games.  In 1822, he wrote Elements.  In 1823, he lost a match against La Bourdonnais, with one win and four losses.  He headed the London Chess Club team in their correspondence match with Edinburgh in 1824.   In 1827, his chess room folded when Lewis went bankrupt after investing in the piano business.  He authored several chess books.  In 1827 he wrote Chess Problems.  Prior to this, chess problems were called chess positions or chess situations.  He called himself the ‘Teacher of Chess.’   Alexander McDonnell  became a pupil of Lewis in 1825.  In 1831 and 1832, he wrote Progessive Lessons.  In 1832, he wrote Fifty Games.  In 1835, he wrote A Selection of Games and Chess for Beginners.  In 1838, he wrote Chess Board Companion.  It ran for nine editions.  In February, 1838, an article in the London newspaper Bell’s Life by George Walker referred to William Lewis as ‘our past grandmaster.’  It was the first time the term grandmaster was used to indicate a top chess player.  In 1844, he wrote Treatise.  He died on October 22, 1870 in England.


Liberzon, Vladimir (1937-1996)

Soviet Grandmaster (1965) who immigrated to Israel in 1973 and won the Israel championship in 1974.  He was the first Soviet Grandmaster to immigrate to Israel.  He was not a full-time professional chess player and was trained as an electrical engineer who worked for the National Electrical Company.  He was the champion of Moscow in 1963 and 1964.


Liberzon - A. Geller, Leningrad 1960

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 f5 4.Nc3 fxe4 5.Nxe4 d5 6.Nxe5 dxe4 7.Nxc6 bxc6 8.Bxc6+ Bd7 9.Qh5+ Ke7 10.Qe5+ Be6 11.f4 Nh6 12.f5 Nxf5 13.Rf1 Nd4 14.Qc5+ Qd6 15.Qg5 mate   1-0


Lie, Kjetil A. (1980-    )

Grandmaster from Norway.  His FIDE rating is 2472.


Lilienthal, Andor (1911-    )

International Grandmaster (1950) and the oldest grandmaster in the world.  In 1935 he emigrated from Hungary to the Soviet Union, becoming a Soviet citizen in 1939.  He tied for 1st place (with Boleslavsky) in the 1939-40 USSR Chess Championship.   He took 8th-10th in the 1950 Budapest Candidates Tournament.  From 1951 to 1960, he was the trainer to Tigran Petrosian.  He served as Smyslov’s second during his world championship matches.  In 1976 he returned to Hungary.  He has played against 10 world champions (beating Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Botvinnik, and Smyslov).  He has also beaten Tartakower, Najdorf, Bronstein, and Taimanov.


Boros – Lilienthal, Budapest 1933

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.f4 d5 4.fxe5 Nxe4 5.Qf3 Nc6 6.Nxe4 Nd4 7.Qf4 dxe4 8.Bc4 Bf5 9.c3 g5 10.Bxf7+ Kxf7 11.Qf2 e3 12.Qf1 exd2+ 13.Kd1 dxc1=Q+ 14.Kxc1 g4 15.b4 Qg5+ 16.Kd1 Rd8  0-1


Lim Kok Ann (1920-2003)

Chess patriarch of Singapore.    He was a professor of Bacteriology.  He formed the Singapore Chess Federation in 1961 and served as its President for 18 years. 


Linde, Antonius van der (1833-1897)

Dutch chess historian and chess book collector.  The Royal Dutch Library in The Hague bought his chess library.


Lipke, Paul (1870-1955)

German lawyer and player of Grandmaster strength.  He was the foremost blindfold player of his day.


Lipschuetz, Solomon (Samuel or Simon) (1863-1905)

American chess master and first officially recognized American chess champion.   He was born in Hungary and came to America in 1880.  He lost a match against George Mackenzie in late 1886 for the U.S. Championship. In 1888 he added a 122-page addendum to Gossip’s Chessplayer’s Manual.  In 1889 he was the top American finisher at the 6th American Chess Congress in New York and considered the U.S. chess champion.  The organizers of this event had announced that the top American in this tournament could bear the title.  In 1890 he played a match against Jackson Showalter in Louisville, Kentucky and lost.  Showalter then claimed the title of U.S. chess champion.  In 1892 Lipschuetz defeated Jackson Showalter in a match (he won with a 7-1 score) in New York to claim the title, but then retired from chess for health reasons.  The title reverted back to Showalter.  In 1895, Lipschuetz returned, claiming that he never relinquished the title.  Showalter then beat him in a match in New York in 1895.  He was New York state chess champion in 1889 and 1889.  In 1905 he died of lung disease.


Delmar – Lipschuetz, New York 1888

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nxc6 bxc6 6.Bd3 d5 7.e5 Ng4 8.O-O Bc5 9.h3 Nxe5 10.Re1 Qf6 11.Qe2 O-O 12.Qxe5 Qxf2+ 13.Kh1 Bxh3 14.gxh3 Qf3+ 15.Kh2 Bd6 16.Qxd6 Qf2+  0-1


Liss, Eran (1975-    )

Grandmaster from Israel.  His FIDE rating is 2487.


Litinskaya-Shul, Marta (1949-    )

Russian Woman Grandmaster (1976).  She was USSR Woman Champion in 1972.  She was born Marta Shul.


Liu Wenzhe (1940-    )

First Chinese chess master and China’s first chess player to defeat a grandmaster.  At the 1978 Olympiad in Buenos Aires, he defeated Dutch Grandmaster Jan Donner.  Since 1986 he has been the head coach of the Chinese national chess team.


Ljubojevic, Ljubomir (1950-    )

Yugoslav Grandmaster (1971).  He won the Yugoslav Championship in 1977 and 1982.  In 1983, he was ranked 3rd in the world.


Lobron, Eric (1960-    )

US-born (in Philadelphia)  German Grandmaster (1982).  He won the German Championship in 1980.


Loginov, Valery (1955-    )

Grandmaster from Russia.  His FIDE rating is 2527.


Lombardy, William (Bill) (1937-    )

American Grandmaster (1960) and the first American to win an official world chess championship when he won the World Junior Championship in 1957 with a perfect 11-0 score at Toronto.  He was ordained a priest in 1967 by Cardinal Spellman.  Lombardy was Fischer’s second in Reykjavik when Fischer played Spassky for the world championship title.  He had played in 7 chess Olympiads for the United States.  He won the US Open in 1963 and 1965.  He learned the game at age 9 from a neighbor.  In 1954 he won the New York State Championship.  He won the Canadian Open in 1956 (with Larry Evans).  In 1978 he was attacked in New York City by a mugger who had a knife.  Tendons in two fingers were severed and he underwent a long operation to repair the severed tendons.  He is no longer a priest and is now married.


Gerusel - Lombardy, Toronto 1957

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.Qc2 Nc6 5.Nf3 d5 6.a3 Bxc3 7.Qxc3 Ne4 8.Qc2 e5 9.dxe5 Bf5 10.Qa4 O-O 11.Be3 d4 12.Rd1 dxe3 13.Rxd8 exf2+ 14.Kd1 Rfxd8+ 15.Kc1 a6 16.Qb3 Nc5 17.Qc3 Na5 18.e4 Nab3+  (19.Kb1 Rd1+ 20.Ka2 Ra1 mate)  0-1


Lopez de Segura (Sigura), Ruy (1530-1580)

Spanish priest and one of the leading players of his day.  In 1559-60 he went to Rome to attend an ecclesiastical conference.  It was there that he defeated all the best players in Rome, including Leonardo.  In 1561 he proposed the 50-move rule to claim a draw and introduced the word gambit (specifically, the Damiano Gambit 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 f6 3.Nxe5).  In 1561 he wrote Libro de la Invencion Liberal y Arte del Juego del Axedrez, muy vtil y prouechosa.  It was the first major chess book since 1512 (almost 50 years), when Damiano wrote his chess book.  In 1572 he returned to Rome and again, defeated the top Italian players.  In 1574-75 he was in the court of King Philip II of Spain and lost a match with Leonardo.  Ruy Lopez did play a blindfold simultaneous exhibition, which impressed the king.  Ruy Lopez received a solid gold rook and chain from King Philip, along with ownership to one of the richest parishes in the land.   In his writings, Ruy Lopez claimed that 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 (Philidor’s Defense), was better than 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6. 


Loranth, Alice (?-1998)

Long-time head of the Fine Arts and Special Collections Department of the Cleveland Public Library.  She presided over one of the largest chess collections in the world, the John G. White Collection, for 30 years.


Louis IX (1214-1270)

The only French king to be made a saint.  Upon the death of his father in 1226, he became king of France at the age of 12.  He led the 7th Crusade in 1248.  He was captured by the Egyptians in 1250.  He negotiated his freedom for a costly ransom, then stayed in the Holy Land.    He stayed there for four years and only returned to France when his mother died in 1254.  When he returned, he outlawed prostitution and chess.  In 1269, he led the 8th Crusade and decided to attack Tunisia in Africa.  But his forces were struck by plague and he died of bubonic plague in 1270.  It is said that he received a fine chess set as a gift from Aladdin.


Lovegrove, Walter (1869-1956)

Master emeritus of the US Chess Federation and one of San Francisco’s leading chess players.  He was a national correspondence champion and claimed the Championship of the Pacific Coast, California Championship,  and the Mechanics Institute Championship.


Loewenthal, Johann (1810-1876)

Hungarian player and one of the top 10 players of the 1850s.  In 1848 he came to the United States to escape the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.  When the regime was overthrown in 1849, he fled to New York.  In 1850 he moved to Cincinnati where he established a cigar divan and gave chess lessons.  His customers paid his fare to the London International Tournament in 1851, but he got knocked out in the first round.  Because of his early loss, he felt too embarrassed to return to the United States.  Staunton found him a job as secretary to the St. George’s Chess Club in London.  He invented  the demonstration chess board in 1857.  He organized the second international tournament ever held, London 1862.  He was considered the best opening theorist of his day.


Anderssen - Lowenthal, London 1851

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4 Bc5 5.O-O d6 6.c3 d3 7.b4 Bb6 8.a4 a5 9.b5 Ne5 10.Nxe5 dxe5 11.Qh5 Qf6 12.Ba3 Ne7 13.Nd2 Be6 14.Bxd3 O-O-O 15.Qe2 Ng6 16.g3 Bh3 17.c4 Nf4  0-1


Loyd, Sam (1841-1911)

The most famous American chess composer.  As a 16 year old, he served with Paul Morphy as a contributor to Chess Monthly.  He modified an Eastern board game and popularized it as Parcheesi.  He was known as "The Puzzle King."  He served as president of the New York Chess Club and organized the first international tournament on American soil.  He composed about 3,000 chess problems.  He owned a chain of music stores and was also a magician and ventriloquist.   He produced over 10,000 puzzles in his lifetime.


Lputian, Smbat (1958-    )

Armenian Grandmaster (1984).  His FIDE rating is 2629.


Lucena, Luis Ramirez (1475-1530)

Author of the oldest existing printed book (incunabulim) on chess (modern chess), Repeticion: de Amores; E Arte. De Axedres con cl. Juegos de partido.  The book was published in Salamanca in 1497 where Lucena was a university student.  Only 20 copies  are known to exist.  Lucena may have written the Gottingen manuscript in 1500 since his book and the Gottingen manuscript are similar.  The book was dedicated to Prince Don Johan the Third (1478-1497), the only male child of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain.  The book may have been a plagiarized book written by Francesch Vicent in 1495.  No known copies of Vicent’s book, entitled Libre dels Jochs Partits dels Schacs en Nombre de 100, are in existence.  Vicent’s book contained 100 chess problems.  Lucena’s book contains 150 chess problems (75 problems with the new rules of chess and 75 problems from the Arabic medieval chess)..


Lukacs, Peter (1950-    )

Hungarian Grandmaster (1986).  In 1980, he won the Hungarian Championship.


Lukov, Valentin (1955-    )

Bulgarian Grandmaster (1988).    His FIDE rating is 2439.


Lundin, Erik (1904-    )

Swedish International Master (1950) and honorary Grandmaster (1983).  He was Swedish champion 10 times and played on 9 Swedish Olympiad teams.


Lupu, Mircea-Sergiu (1962-    )

Grandmaster from France.  His FIDE rating is 2457.


Luther, Thomas (1969-    )

Grandmaster from Germany.  His FIDE rating is 2540.


Lutikov, Anatoly (1933-1989)

Russian Grandmaster (1974).   He played in 6 USSR Championships, taking 3rd place in 1968/69.


Lutz, Christopher (1971-    )

Grandmaster from Germany.  His FIDE rating is 2616.


Lyman, Harry (1915-1999)

Henry (Harry) Lyman was born on June 15, 1915 in Boston, Massachusetts.  He was an accountant for General Dynamics.  He was U.S. Amateur champion in 1957 (winning it 6-0) and a former New England champion (1965, 1968, 1970).