Major Publishing Houses, Magazines, and Newspapers In Which Mark Twain Published During His Lifetime

"He was as shy as a newspaper is when referring to its own merits."

Hannibal Journal Hannibal, Missouri, newspaper bought by Orion Clemens around 1850. An 18- to 21-year-old Sam Clemens published stories and travel letters from his trip to the East Coast here.
Virginia City Territorial Enterprise Virginia City, Nevada, newspaper, founded in 1858, and run by Joe Goodman and Dan DeQuille. The Enterprise profited greatly from the mining boom in the 1860s. Here Clemens worked in his first real job as a newspaper reporter, from 1862-1864. Clemens published humorous sketches, and articles about local news and territorial legislature sessions.
San Francisco Call Founded in 1856, the Call was one of five daily papers in San Francisco during the 1860s. Clemens was the Call's Nevada correspondent in 1863. He was a full-time reporter for the paper in 1864, until he was fired about four months later.
Californian San Francisco literary magazine, founded in 1864 by Charles Webb, and edited by Bret Harte. Twain published several important stories here in 1864, including: Aurelia's Unfortunate Young Man, The Killing of Julius Caesar 'Localized,' and Lucretia Smith's Soldier.
San Francisco Alta California Founded in 1848, the Alta was California's first daily newspaper. It was the Alta that fronted the $1,250 to pay for Twain's trip aboard to Europe and the Mideast aboard the Quaker City. From August 1867 to May 1868, Twain published 50 letters about the voyage for a rate of $20 each, in order to pay for his fare. Of course, this trip led to the book The Innocents Abroad.
New York Tribune Influential Horace Greeley newspaper, founded in 1841. Twain published several Quaker City letters here, and was a correspondent from Washington, D.C., in 1867-68.
American Publishing Company Subscription-book publishers, based in Hartford, Connecticut, it published many of Twain's major works. In 1867, Elisha Bliss, eventual company president, invited Twain to write The Innocents Abroad, which became a major success. Eventually, Twain would publish Roughing It; The Gilded Age; Sketches, New and Old; Tom Sawyer; A Tramp Abroad; Pudd'nhead Wilson; and Following the Equator with American Publishing.
Buffalo Express Buffalo, New York, newspaper in which Clemens owned one-third interest and worked as editor from 1869-71. Several well-known stories were published in the Express, including: The Capitoline Venus, Journalism in Tennessee, and A Curious Dream.
James R. Osgood and Co.Boston-based publishing company, founded in 1880 by James Osgood, a friend of Clemens'. In 1882, Osgood published The Prince and the Pauper and The Stolen White Elephant, and joined Clemens on a trip down the Mississippi River to collect material for Life on the Mississippi, which Osgood published in 1883.
Atlantic Monthly Literary magazine, founded in 1857 by James Lowell, and based in Boston. Among its editors was Twain's close friend W.D. Howells. Here Twain published Old Times on the Mississippi in serial form in 1874. Other stories appearing from 1875 to 1880 — all under Howells' editorship — included: The Canvasser's Tale, and The Recent Carnival of Crime in Connecticut.
Charles L. Webster & Co. Sam Clemens' subscription publishing company. Founded in 1884, Webster & Co. published many books, including several of Twain's, over a 10-year existance. The company got off a successful start, publishing the Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant, which was a huge success. Several unsuccessful ventures, however, such as an authorized biography of Pope Leo XIII and an 11-volume anthology of American literature, doomed the company to its eventual bankruptcy. Mark Twain published several works through Webster, including: Huckleberry Finn, A Connecticut Yankee In King Arthur's Court, Merry Tales, and The American Claimant.
North American Review A New York-based magazine, founded in 1815, focusing on social and political themes. The Review published important Twain pieces in the 1890s and 1900s, including: Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses, Christian Science, and 25 installments of Chapters from My Autobiography.
Harper and Brothers New York publishing house, founded in 1817. In October 1903, Harper's became Twain's exclusive American publisher. Published Joan of Arc in 1895, Tom Sawyer Abroad; Tom Sawyer, Detective, and Other Stories in 1896; Captain Stormfield in 1909. Held exclusive rights to Twain's books until the copyrights expired.
Harper's Weekly New York literary magazine, founded in 1857 by Fletcher Harper, of Harper and Brothers, and known for the high quality of their illustrations. Twain published more than ten pieces in Harper's Weekly during the 1900s, including: The $30,000 Bequest.
Harper's Magazine New York monthly, founded in 1850 by Fletcher Harper, of Harper and Brothers. Twain considered Harper's one of the most important forums for his work. He published more than 30 pieces here, including stories, essays, and serialized novels, from 1866 until the 1900s. Some of the more famous works included: Joan of Arc and Tom Sawyer, Detective, both in serialized format, Concerning the Jews, The Man that Corrupted Hadleyburg, A Double-Barrelled Detective Story, Eve's Diary, and Captain Stormfield's Visit to Heaven. The Mysterious Stranger was published posthumously here in 1916.
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