A SIMPLIFIED DESCRIPTION OF APACHE PRONUNCIATION

The representation of Apache in simple HTML is rather problematic. This page is presented only as a BASIC method of using simple HTML for internet Apache.

However, to see this same page in true Apache orthography, it is actually possible on the internet. One method is to use Adobe Acrobat Reader, and at the bottom of this page you can see just such an example.

However, there is still another method. In this method, you must use advanced Unicode characters available only in certain fonts. Luckily, there are two such fonts available free on the internet. My favorite one is Titus Cyberbit Basic. It is downloadable for free at:

http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/unicode/tituut.asp.

The other font is Aboriginal Serif. It is downloadable for free at:

http://www.languagegeek.com/font/fontdownload.html.

If you download one of these fonts and then install it in the normal manner on your computer, you will have no problem in seeing the true orthography of Apache.

To see this SAME, exact, page in true Apache orthography, first make sure you have downloaded TITUS Cyberbit Basic (works best), install it in your computer, and then try this link: SIMPLIFIED APACHE DESCRIPTION (IN TRUE APACHE ORTHOGRAPHY). You should then see true Apache orthography.

SIMPLIFIED APACHE DESCRIPTION

The vowels of Apache are the same as those commonly known as "continental." That is, they are quite similar to those of Spanish and other continental European languages. They are pronounced approximately as follows:

a -- ah
e -- eh
i -- ee
o -- oh
u -- oo

Examples:

gah -- rabbit
beso -- coin
bigan -- his hand
cho -- large
hayú -- where

The vowels are also often nasalized. Nasalization is indicated by a "hook" under the vowel. This is called an ogonek (from Polish), but is an unavailable character in HTML. Therefore, for the purposes of this discussion the ogonek will represented by the circumflex accent:

â -- somewhat like on, without completing the n
ê -- like en, without completing the n
î -- like een, without completing the n
ô -- like own, without completing the n
û -- like oon, without completing the n

Examples:

bighâ -- because
nkêêz-- time
kîh -- building
nzhôô -- good
hat'ûgha -- why

Vowels can also be pronounced using high or low tones (lowering or raising of the pitch of the voice). Low tones are assumed if the vowel is not marked by the high tone symbol. The acute accent mark is used for the mark of the high tone.

� á
é
í
ó
ú

Examples:

isdzán -- woman
bésh -- metal
gídí -- cat
gosdóón -- ribbon
tú -- water

Vowels are also often prolonged, indicated by doubling.

Examples:
chaa -- beaver
izee -- medicine
piishii -- nighthawk
shiwoo -- my teeth
dôô -- spring

The combination of a high tone and nasalization is marked by simultaneous appearance of the acute accent and the ogonek on the vowel. As this cannot be represented in HTML, the umlaut will be used to represent this combination.

Examples:

nadä' -- corn
dlö' -- bird

All consonants and consonant clusters are pronounced approximately as in English, but the following:

gh -- somewhat like a gargling sound; does not occur in English

Examples:

ighaa -- fur
tághaa -- length

n -- can occur as a single syllable, as in Nnee. Both "n's" are distinctly pronounced. In some dialects (notably White Mountain and Bylas dialects) the second "n" is pronounced like a "d".

nnee -- people
nneezí -- moustache

Other distinctive Apache sounds are the following:

' -- glottal stop. If one were saying "oh-oh" to a baby, this sounds very similar as an Apache saying o'o. The ' symbol indicates the "catch" in breath between the two o's.

Examples:

ch'ah -- hat
dit'ood -- wet
ni' -- ground, earth
ha'ándáh -- come in (to one)

"Voiceless l." Sounds rather like thl, as if one were lisping thlip, instead of slip. Because HTML does not allow the proper symbol (a slash l--same as the Polish slashed l), for our purposes we will use the English pound sign (£).

Examples:

£og -- fish
di£hi£ -- black
£ïï' -- horse

The Apache is language is still spoken today. On San Carlos Reservation there are about 4,000 speakers, and on the White Mountain Reservation there are probably 5,000 speakers. These are considered "Western Apache." The Mescalero Reservation has several thousand Mescalero and Chiricahua speakers. They are related Eastern Apache dialects. A small group of Chiricahuas in Oklahoma also speak the Chiricahua dialect. Still another dialect, that has only a few speakers (maybe 3 or 4) now, is Kiowa Apache. They live in Oklahoma near the Kiowa proper. Kiowa and Kiowa Apache are entirely unrelated.

It should also be noted that Navajo, the most-widely spoken Native American language in North America today, is closely related to Western Apache. After some familiarization, native speakers of either language can often "get the gist" of the other language.

FINALLY -- A REAL TREAT!

I am including in this introduction a tale from the San Carlos Apache--in the original Apache and an English translation.

I HAVE ALSO NOW ADDED A VERSION OF THIS TALE IN THE PROPER ORTHOGRAPHY (USING OGONEKS, ETC.). THE PROPER ORTHOGRAPHY IS AN ADOBE ACROBAT .PDF FILE. Enjoy it!

LEADER OF THE BIRDS-- An original Apache tale. (The Adobe Acrobat version is available on this page.)


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