1,4-dioxane

Description

1,4-dioxane is primarily used as stabilizer in solvents, such as the dry cleaning chemical trichloroethane, and as a solvent in lacquers, varnishes, paints, plastics, dyes, oils, waxes and resins. It may also be found in some paint/varnish strippers, automotive coolants, and in pesticides as an inert ingredient. Children may be exposed to 1,4-dioxane when products containing are used indoors, especially without adequate ventilation.

1,4-dioxane may also contaminate cosmetics and personal care products containing ethoxylated detergents (see �Detection � below), including some shampoos, toothpastes and mouthwashes that children may use, as an accidental byproduct.

Health Effects

Immediate Health Effects
Longterm or Delayed Health Effects
Other

 

How Exposures Occur

Breathing Air/Fumes
From Drinking Water
From Food
Through the Skin

 

Significant Statistics

Even traces of 1,4-dioxane contamination are cause for concern, according to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.

“1,4-Dioxane, CAS No. 123-91-1: Reasonably Anticipated to be a Human Carcinogen.” Tenth Report on Carcinogens. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, December 2002.http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/roc/tenth/profiles/s080diox.pdf

Between 10.5 and 18.3 million pounds of 1,4-dioxane were produced in the U.S. in 1990.

1,4-Dioxane Factsheet. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, February 1995.http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/chemfact/dioxa-sd.txt

Nearly one million pounds of 1,4-dioxane were released into the U.S. environment in 1996, according to EPA Toxic Release Inventory estimates.

“1,4-Dioxane, CAS No. 123-91-1: Reasonably Anticipated to be a Human Carcinogen.” Tenth Report on Carcinogens. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, December 2002.http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/roc/tenth/profiles/s080diox.pdf

 

Solutions

How to detect 1,4-dioxane

How to minimize exposure to 1,4-dioxane

Alternatives

 

For More information

Books, articles, factsheets and reports

Other government agencies

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
5100 Paint Branch Parkway
College Park, MD 20740-3835
888-INFO-FDA (888-463-6332)

http://www.cfsan.fda.gov

National Toxicology Program

National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences
P.O.Box 12233
Research Triangle Park,NC 27709
919-541-3345

http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics
Ariel Rios Building
1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW
Washington DC 20460
202-260-1023

http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/

Nonprofit organizations

Cancer Prevention Coalition

c/o School of Public Health
University of Illinois Medical Center
2121 West Taylor Street
Chicago, IL 60612
312-996-2297

http://www.preventcancer.com

Other websites