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Mac OS X v10.5

This article summarizes the key features that are available beginning with Mac OS X version 10.5 (also known as "Leopard"). It also lists many of the documents that were created or updated for the release.

Cross-Functional Features

Mac OS X v10.5 supports the features described in this section across system technologies.

64-Bit Support

In Mac OS X v10.5, most system libraries and frameworks are now 64-bit ready, meaning they can be used in both 32-bit and 64-bit applications. The conversion of frameworks to support 64-bit required some implementation changes to ensure the proper handling of 64-bit data structures; however, most of these changes should be transparent to your use of the frameworks. Building for 64-bit means you can create applications that address extremely large data sets, up to 128TB on the current Intel-based CPUs. On Intel-based Macintosh computers, some 64-bit applications may even run faster than their 32-bit equivalents because of the availability of extra processor resources in 64-bit mode.

Although most APIs support 64-bit development, some older APIs were not ported to 64-bit or offer restricted support for 64-bit applications. Many of these APIs are legacy Carbon managers that have been either wholly or partially deprecated in favor of more modern equivalents. What follows is a partial list of APIs that will not support 64-bit. For a complete description of 64-bit support in Carbon, see 64-Bit Guide for Carbon Developers.

In addition to the list of deprecated APIs, there are a few modern APIs that are not deprecated, but which have not been ported to 64-bit. Development of 32-bit applications with these APIs is still supported, but if you want to create a 64-bit application, you must use alternative technologies. Among these APIs are the following:

Mac OS X uses the LP64 model that is in use by other 64-bit UNIX systems, which means fewer headaches when porting from other operating systems. For general information on the LP64 model and how to write 64-bit applications, see 64-Bit Transition Guide. For Cocoa-specific transition information, see 64-Bit Transition Guide for Cocoa. For Carbon-specific transition information, see 64-Bit Guide for Carbon Developers.

Garbage Collection

Mac OS X v10.5 introduces support for garbage collection in Cocoa applications. Garbage collection is a form of automatic memory management used in many other development environments. When you implement an application using garbage collection, it becomes unnecessary for you to issue retain, release, and autorelease messages to retain or free your Cocoa objects. Instead, the garbage collector keeps track of all in-use objects and automatically frees objects that are not referenced by your application.

Garbage collection in Mac OS X v10.5 is an opt-in feature. You are not required to use it in your applications. For more information about how to support garbage collection in your Cocoa applications, see Garbage Collection Programming Guide.

Objective-C 2.0

Objective-C 2.0 is an update to the Objective-C language that adds support for many modern language features, including the following:

For information about the new features of Objective-C 2.0, see the following documents:

Resolution-Independent User Interface

Resolution independence decouples the resolution of the user's screen from the resolution you use to do drawing in your source code. While previous versions of Mac OS X assumed a screen resolution of 72 dots per inch (dpi), most modern screens actually have resolutions that are 100 dpi or more. Content rendered for a 72 dpi screen appears smaller on such screens—a problem that will only get worse as screen resolutions increase. To address this issue, Mac OS X v10.5 supports content scaling for screen-based rendering.

When drawing to a screen where content scaling is enabled, a scale factor is applied to content to render it at the correct size. For content drawn using Quartz and Cocoa primitives, this scaling behavior works seamlessly in most cases to retain your window’s crisp graphics. If your code assumes a specific pixel alignment or screen resolution, however, that code may not render correctly at scale factors greater than or less than 1.0. For example, bitmap images may be automatically scaled during drawing to fit into the larger pixel space, a process that may introduce artifacts.

Although the Mac OS X frameworks handle many aspects related to resolution-independent drawing, there are still things you need to do in your drawing code to support resolution independence:

Content scaling is currently enabled using the Quartz Debug application. For more information about resolution-independence and how to support it in your code, see Resolution Independence Guidelines.

Security Enhancements

Mac OS X v10.5 includes several new improvements in the underlying operating system security. The sections that follow describe some of the key features. For general information about the security features available in Mac OS X, see Security Overview.

Mandatory Access Control Framework

The Mandatory Access Control (MAC) framework provides a fine-grained security architecture for controlling the execution of processes at the kernel level. This feature enables the “sandboxing” of applications, which lets you limit the access of a given application to only those features you designate. You might use this feature to prevent an application that should not need network access from communicating over the network.

Code Signing

Code signing enables you to attach a digital signature to your applications. Mac OS X v10.5 uses these signatures to check the validity of your application bundle and ensure that it has not been modified. If the contents of your bundle change, perhaps because they have been tampered with, the system alerts the user to this fact. Code signing also results in fewer alert panels after installing system updates because the validity of signed applications can be guaranteed using the signature instead of by prompting the user.

For more information on code signing, see Code Signing Guide.

Restrictions on Executing Dynamically Generated Code

One way for malicious programs to bypass system security is to inject some data (such as a carefully crafted image or other seemingly valid data file) into a program’s process space and trick the program into executing the code contained in that data. In earlier versions of Mac OS X, the system placed no restrictions on where code could reside in the process space. In Mac OS X v10.4, a change was made to prevent the execution of code in a program’s stack space on Intel-based Macintosh computers by default. If needed, a program could override this behavior by passing the allow_stack_execute option to the ld program at link time or by dynamically allowing execution in this space using the mprotect system call.

In Mac OS X v10.5, the system is increasing the restrictions on executing code in two ways. First, the system now disallows the execution of stack-based code on both PowerPC-based and Intel-based Macintosh computers by default. Second, for 64-bit programs, the system now disallows attempts to execute code in any portion of the process space unless that portion is explicitly marked as executable. Most developers may not notice these changes because code compiled and linked statically is automatically marked as executable by the ld program. If your 64-bit application generates code dynamically, however, you must explicitly mark that code as executable or your program will receive a SIGBUS signal and exit when trying to execute that code. As before, you can use the mprotect system call with the PROT_EXEC option to grant execute permissions to a block of memory containing dynamically generated code. For information on how to use this call, see mprotect man page.

For more information, see Stack Execution Release Notes.

Quarantine

Applications that download files from the Internet or receive files from external sources (such as email attachments) can use the Quarantine feature to provide a first line of defense against malicious software such as Trojan horses. When an application receives an unknown file, it should add quarantine attributes to the file using new functions found in Launch Services. The attributes associate basic information with the file, such as its type, when it was received, and the URL from which it came. When the user tries to open a file that has quarantine attributes associated with it, Mac OS X inspects the file and automatically prevents known malicious files from being opened. For other files, the system asks the user what to do about the file, providing the user with information found in the quarantine attributes. If the user approves the opening of the file, the quarantine for that file is lifted.

If you are developing a web browser or email program, or if your software somehow deals with files from unknown sources, you should use the Quarantine feature as part of your program’s basic security procedures. Quarantine is part of the Launch Services API, which is itself part of the Core Services framework. For more information about the Quarantine API, see the LSQuarantine.h header file in that framework.

New and Updated Features

Mac OS X v10.5 supports the following new and updated features, which are listed alphabetically:

Address Book Framework

The Address Book framework adds support for sharing accounts, which are part of the Identity Services feature (see “Identity Services”). The Address Book framework includes a new ABIdentityPicker class, which posts a user interface for assigning sharing accounts to specific features of your application. For example, a slideshow application could use this feature to restrict access to the slideshows it manages.

For reference information about the Address Book framework, see Address Book Objective-C Framework Reference or Address Book C Framework Reference.

AppleScript

AppleScript in Mac OS X v10.5 has been updated to support the following features:

Mac OS X v10.5 also includes additional scripting support, which is described in “Scripting.”

Automator

The Automator application includes a new, more intuitive user interface for finding actions and building workflows. It also includes several new features that make it easier to create workflows and dynamically modify actions as they execute. These features include the following:

For information about the AMWorkflow and AMWorkflowController classes, see Automator Framework Reference.

Calendar Store Framework

The Calendar Store framework provides access to data from the iCal application. You can fetch calendars, events, and tasks from the iCal data storage using several different techniques, including predicate-based queries. You can register for notifications that let you know when calendar, event, and task objects change. You can also make changes to records and save those changes to the user’s calendar.

For information about the classes of the Calendar Store framework, see Calendar Store Framework Reference.

Carbon

The HIToolbox includes new functions to make it easier to integrate Cocoa views into your Carbon applications. Using these functions, you can create HIView-based wrappers for your Cocoa NSView objects and embed the corresponding HIViewRef objects into your windows. Once embedded, you use the standard HIView functions to manipulate the wrapper objects. Wrapped Cocoa views can be used in both composited and noncomposited windows.

The new Text Input Sources API now provides information about and supports the manipulation of text input sources. This API replaces the input source management functions in the Script Manager (such as the KeyScript function), Keyboard Layout Access (KL API), and the Text Services Manager (such as the SetDefaultInputMethod function).

For information about creating wrappers for Cocoa views, see HIView Reference. For general information about Carbon and Cocoa integration, see Carbon-Cocoa Integration Guide.

Cocoa

The Cocoa framework includes new classes and methods supporting several new features.

The following sections describe additional features now available in the Cocoa frameworks. For additional information about new Cocoa classes and methods, see Foundation Framework Reference and Application Kit Framework Reference

Animation Support

The NSWindow and NSView classes include support for new animation-based features including features found in Core Animation. These features extend the capabilities of windows and views in the following ways:

You can use these features to simplify your animation code and improve the performance of animated effects in your application. For additional information about Core Animation, see “Core Animation.”

Text System Improvements

The Cocoa text system includes the following improvements:

Cocoa Bindings Improvements

The Cocoa bindings technology includes the following new features in Mac OS X v10.5:

NSEnumerator Behavior Changes

The NSEnumerator class is used to iterate over the contents of a collection. In Mac OS X v10.5, if you are iterating a mutable collection and modify the collection, Cocoa now throws an exception. This behavior affects only those applications that are built against the version of Cocoa found in Mac OS X v10.5 and later, but it does represent a significant change from the way Cocoa used to behave.

The new behavior enforces a more correct (and safer) approach to iteration, which is that you should never modify the collection you are enumerating. Instead, you should modify a copy of the collection or simply gather the list of objects to modify during the iteration and act upon them after the iteration is complete. Alternatively, you can use the new iteration features available in Objective-C 2.0; see “Objective-C 2.0.”

For more information about collections and iteration, see Collections Programming Topics for Cocoa.

Core Animation

Core Animation is a new set of Objective-C classes for doing sophisticated 2D rendering and animation. Using Core Animation, you can create everything from basic window content to Front Row–style user interfaces, and achieve respectable animation performance, without having to tune your code using OpenGL or other low-level drawing routines. This performance is achieved using server-side content caching, which restricts the compositing operations performed by the server to only those parts of a view or window whose contents actually changed.

At the heart of the Core Animation programming model are layer objects, which are similar in many ways to Cocoa views. Like views, you can arrange layers in hierarchies, change their size and position, and tell them to draw themselves. Unlike views, layers do not support event-handling, accessibility, or drag and drop. You can also manipulate the layout of layers in more ways than traditional Cocoa views. In addition to positioning layers using a layout manager, you can apply affine transforms to layers to rotate, scale, skew, or translate them in relation to their parent layer.

Layer content can be animated implicitly or explicitly depending on the actions you take. Modifying specific properties of a layer, such as its geometry, visual attributes, or children, typically triggers an implicit animation to transition from the old state to the new state of the property. For example, adding a child layer triggers an animation that causes the child layer to fade gradually into view. You can also trigger animations explicitly in a layer by modifying its transformation matrix.

You can manipulate layers independent of, or in conjunction with, the views and windows of your application. Both Cocoa and Carbon applications can take advantage of the Core Animation’s integration with the NSView class to add animation effects to windows. Layers can also support the following types of content:

The Core Animation features are part of the Quartz Core framework (QuartzCore.framework). For information about Core Animation, see Animation Overview.

Core Audio

Core Audio includes the following new features in Mac OS X v10.5:

For an overview of Core Audio and its features, see Core Audio Overview. For information on how to create audio units, see Audio Unit Programming Guide.

Audio Queue

The Audio Queue interface is a new set of high-level services added to the Audio Toolbox framework (AudioToolbox.framework). Among the new services provided by this interface are the ability to play and record digital audio, access timing and control information, and support scheduled playback and synchronization. The interface supports both linear PCM and compressed audio formats.

OpenAL

OpenAL is a cross-platform, 3D audio API appropriate for games and audio applications. It provides an environmental context for audio, allowing developers to immerse users in multichannel, directional sound. OpenAL support in Mac OS X v10.5 has been updated to include the following features:

For more information on the Mac OS X implementation of OpenAL, see http://developer.apple.com/audio/openal.html.

AU Lab

The new version of the AU Lab application (located in /Developer/Applications/Audio) includes the following features:

Core Data 2.0

Core Data includes the following new features in Mac OS X v10.5:

For a list of new and changed classes and methods in Core Data, see Core Data Reference Update.

Core Image

Core Image in Mac OS X v10.5 includes extensions to the existing CIFilter class and a new class called CIFilterGenerator.

The CIRAWFilter category extends the CIFilter class to support initializing filters with RAW images. The methods in this category let you modify key aspects of the RAW image processing, including the white balance, exposure, sharpening, and boost settings.

The CIFilterGenerator class lets you create and reuse complex effects built from one or more CIFilter objects. You can create filter generator objects programmatically or using an editor view provided by Core Image. Filters inside a filter generator object can be grouped into a filter chain and treated as a single filter. Filter generator objects are registered by their filename or, if present, by an attribute that you supply in its description.

You can save the contents of a filter generator object by writing it out to a filter generator file. A filter generator file contains archived instances of the filter objects associated with a filter generator object. Filter generator files have a unique extension and file format. Copying your saved filter generator files to the Image Units directories on the system causes them to be loaded when any of the loadPlugins methods are invoked.

For information on the new features of Core Image, see Core Image Reference Collection. For a tutorial on how to create custom image units, see Image Unit Tutorial.

Core Text

Introduced in Mac OS X v10.5, Core Text is a C-based API that provides you with precise control over text layout and typography. Core Text provides a layered approach to laying out and displaying Unicode text. You can modify as much or as little of the system as is required to suit your needs. Core Text also provides optimized configurations for common scenarios, saving setup time in your application. Designed for performance, Core Text is up to twice as fast as ATSUI (Apple Type Services for Unicode Imaging), the text-handling technology that it replaces.

The Core Text font API is complementary to the Core Text layout engine. Core Text font technology is designed to handle Unicode fonts natively and comprehensively, unifying disparate Mac OS X font facilities so that developers can do everything they need to do without resorting to other APIs.

For more information about Core Text, see Core Text Programming Guide and Core Text Reference Collection.

Darwin

The Darwin layer of the operating system includes the following enhancements:

In addition, Apple submitted both Mac OS X v10.5 and Mac OS X v10.5 Server to The Open Group for certification against the UNIX ‘03 product standard.

FSEvents API

The FSEvents API notifies your application when changes occur in the file system. You can use file system events to monitor directories for any changes, such as the creation, modification, or removal of contained files and directories. Although kqueues provide similar behavior, the FSEvents API provides a much simpler way to monitor many directories at once. For example, you can use file system events to monitor entire file system hierarchies rooted at a specific directory and still receive notifications about individual directories in the hierarchy. The implementation of file system events is lightweight and efficient, providing built-in coalescing when multiple changes occur within a short period of time to one or many directories.

The FSEvents API is not intended for detecting fine-grained changes to individual files. You would not use this to detect changes to an individual file as in a virus checker program. Instead, you might use FSEvents to detect general changes to a file hierarchy. For example, you might use this technology in backup software to detect what files changed. You might also use it to monitor a set of data files your application uses, but which can be modified by other applications as well.

For information on how to use the FSEvents API, see File System Events Programming Guide.

iChat Instant Message Framework

The Instant Message framework now includes support for injecting audio or video content into a running conference. You can use this feature to share content from your applications with the active iChat session. Shared content can include still images, audio, and video. Shared audio content is mixed with the user’s live microphone to allow for the narration of video content. You render your content to a Core Video buffer through a series of callback functions and that content is automatically encoded into the H.264 video format for distribution to conference users.

For more information about the classes of the Instant Message framework, see Instant Message Framework Reference.

Identity Services

Introduced in Mac OS X v10.5, Identity Services encompasses features located in the Collaboration and Core Services frameworks. Identity Services provides a way to manage groups of users on a local system. In addition to standard login accounts, administrative users can now create sharing accounts, which use access control lists (see “ACL Support”) to restrict access to designated system or application resources. Sharing accounts do not have an associated home directory on the system and have much more limited privileges than traditional login accounts.

The Collaboration framework (Collaboration.framework) provides a set of Objective-C classes for displaying sharing account information and other identity-related user interfaces. The classes themselves are wrappers for the C-based identity management routines found in the Core Services framework. Applications can use either the Objective-C or C-based APIs to display information about users and groups and display a panel for selecting users and groups during the editing of access control lists.

For more information about the features of Identity Services and how you use those features in your applications, see Identity Services Programming Guide.

Image Kit

The Image Kit framework is a new Objective-C framework that makes it easy to incorporate powerful imaging services available into your applications. This framework takes advantage of features in Quartz, Core Image, OpenGL, and Core Animation (see “Core Animation”) to provide an advanced and highly optimized development path for implementing the following features.

Prior to the Image Kit, presenting a user interface for a Core Image filter required you to build a view object dynamically based on the attributes of that filter. With the Image Kit, each filter can now provide custom views (subclasses of NSView) containing the controls needed to manipulate that filter. Filters can provide different views based on the needs of the target application. For example, filters can provide a basic view (containing a limited number of attribute controls) or an expanded view (containing controls for all attributes). Applications can integrate the views returned by a filter directly into their own windows.

Note: Carbon developers wanting to include the new custom views in their applications can take advantage of the new NSView integration feature; see “Carbon.”

The Image Kit framework is included as a subframework of the Quartz framework (Quartz.framework). For more information about the features of this framework, see the framework header files.

The Input Method Kit

The Input Method Kit (InputMethodKit.framework) is a new Objective-C framework for building input methods for Chinese, Japanese, and other languages. The Input Method Kit framework lets developers focus exclusively on the development of their input method product's core behavior: the text conversion engine. The framework handles tasks such as connecting to clients, running candidate windows, and several other common tasks that developers would normally have to implement themselves.

For information about its classes, see Input Method Kit Framework Reference.

Latent Semantic Mapping Framework

The Latent Semantic Mapping framework (LatentSemanticMapping.framework) contains a Unicode-based API that supports the classification of text and other token-based content into developer-defined categories, based on semantic information latent in the text. Using this API and text samples with known characteristics, you create and train maps, which you can use to analyze and classify arbitrary text. You might use such a map to determine, for example, if an email message is consistent with the user’s interests.

For information about the Latent Semantic Mapping framework, see Latent Semantic Mapping Reference.

Mail Stationery

The Mail application in Mac OS X v10.5 supports the creation of email messages using templates. Templates provide the user with prebuilt email messages that can be customized quickly before being sent. Because templates are HTML-based, they can incorporate images and advanced formatting to give the user’s email a much more stylish and sophisticated appearance.

Developers and web designers can create custom template packages for external or internal users. Each template consists of an HTML page, property list file, and images packaged together in a bundle, which is then stored in the Mail application’s stationery directory. The HTML page and images define the content of the email message and can include drop zones for custom user content. The property list file provides Mail with information about the template, such as its name, ID, and the name of its thumbnail image.

For information about how to create new stationery templates, see Mail Stationery Release Notes for Mac OS X v10.5.

OpenGL

The AGL framework in Mac OS X v10.5 adds support for the following features:

In addition to the improvements to the OpenGL support itself, Mac OS X v10.5 includes updates to the OpenGL profiling tools to help you analyze your OpenGL programs and gather performance statistics.

For information about the AGL support, see AGL Reference.

Quartz

Quartz 2D includes additional functions for manipulating fonts. These functions are associated with the CGFontRef opaque type. They let you retrieve various font attributes, including the ascent, descent, leading, and bounding box of the font. For more information, see CGFont Reference.

Quartz Composer

The framework supporting Quartz Composer includes improvements to help you integrate compositions into your applications. In addition to new methods on existing classes, there is a new QCCompositionLayer class that loads, plays, and controls Quartz Composer compositions in a Core Animation hierarchy; see also “Core Animation.” Other Quartz Composer features include the following:

For information about the Quartz Composer framework, see Quartz Composer Reference Collection. For information about using the Quartz Composer application, see Quartz Composer User Guide.

QuickTime

Mac OS X v10.5 ships with QuickTime 7.2 installed, which builds on the features introduced in QuickTime 7.1. QuickTime 7.1 includes the following features:

Note: The C-based QuickTime API supports 32-bit applications only. To support 64-bit applications, you need to use “QuickTime Kit” instead.

QuickTime 7.2 adds the following features:

For information about changes in QuickTime 7.2, see QuickTime 7.2.1 Update Guide. For information about changes in QuickTime 7.1, see QuickTime 7.1 Update Guide.

QuickTime Kit

The QuickTime Kit framework includes updates to the existing QTMovie and QTMovieView classes along with several new classes to support professional-grade capture from a number of different devices. New features include the following:

The new classes provide an easy means of extending the QuickTime Kit framework functionality, with particular emphasis on providing the ability to add new types of inputs and outputs. The input and output classes included with the framework provide all components necessary to implement the most common use case for a media capture system: recording from a camera to a QuickTime file. Video capture includes frame accurate audio/video synchronization. You can preview captured content and save it to a file or stream.

For more information about the new classes in the QuickTime Kit, see QTKit Capture Programming Guide and QTKit Framework Reference.

RSS/Atom Support

The Publication Subscription framework (PubSub.framework) is a new framework that provides high-level support for subscribing to RSS and Atom feeds. You can use the framework to subscribe to podcasts, photocasts, and any other feed-based document. The framework handles all the feed downloads and updates automatically and provides your application with the data from the feed.

For information about the Publication Subscription framework, see Publication Subscription Programming Guide and Publication Subscription Framework Reference.

Scripting

Mac OS X v10.5 includes new bridging mechanisms that make it possible to control scriptable applications from your application using the Python, Ruby, and Objective-C languages. For example, you can generate an interface to iTunes so that your application can access scriptable iTunes features using Objective-C syntax. Bridging is much more convenient than building Apple events programmatically using the older Carbon or Cocoa routines. It is also more convenient, and much more efficient, than using the NSAppleScript class to execute scripts from your application. For scripting bridge reference information, see Scripting Bridge Framework Reference.

You create the bridging files for an application using the sdp command-line tool. For information about using this tool, see the sdp man page.

Spotlight

The following improvements have been made to Spotlight and the supporting file-system technologies:

Sync Services

The following sections describe several new features related to synchronizing data in Mac OS X v10.5.

Sync Services Framework

The Sync Services framework (SyncServices.framework) has been updated to include a new session driver class called ISyncSessionDriver. This new class greatly simplifies the process of syncing client records with your own applications. For more information about this class, see Sync Services Framework Reference.

iSync Plug-in Development

Mac OS X v10.5 also introduces a new application that greatly simplifies the creation of iSync plug-ins for third-party phones and devices. The iSync Plug-in Maker application provides a graphical tool that you use to specify the properties of your device. The application then generates a fully functional plug-in that you can load into iSync and test. For information about using this application to create iSync plug-ins, see iSync Plug-in Maker User Guide.

Syncing Application Preferences

In Mac OS X v10.5, it is now possible to synchronize application preferences across multiple machines using .Mac. For third-party applications, the default behavior is to synchronize all user preferences except "ByHost” preferences. If your application contains preferences that should not be synchronized, you can add an array to your application’s Info.plist file associated with the com.apple.PreferenceSync.ExcludeSyncKeys key. The array contains the keys associated with any preferences you do not want to synchronize.

Time Machine

Mac OS X v10.5 includes a new backup feature (called “Time Machine”) that protects user data from accidental loss. Included with this feature is a set of programmer-level functions that you can use to exclude unimportant files from the backup set. For example, you might use these functions to exclude your application’s cache files or any files that can be recreated easily. Excluding these types of files improves backup performance and reduces the amount of space required to back up the user’s system.

For information about the new functions, see Backup Core Reference.

Developer Tools

Apple provides a comprehensive suite of developer tools for creating Mac OS X software. The Xcode tools include applications to help you design, create, debug, and optimize your software. This tools suite also includes header files, sample code, and documentation for Apple technologies. You can download Xcode from the members area of the Apple Developer Connection (ADC) website (http://connect.apple.com/). Registration is required but free.

In Mac OS X v10.5 and later, it is possible to install multiple versions of Xcode on a single computer and run the applications and tools from different versions side-by-side. The applications listed in the following sections are installed in <Xcode>/Applications, where <Xcode> is the root directory of your Xcode installation. The default installation directory for Xcode is the /Developer directory.

The following sections detail the improvements to the developer tools suite in Mac OS X v10.5.

Xcode 3.0

The Xcode 3.0 application introduces several new features intended to make the development process easier. In addition to basic workflow improvements, Xcode includes new tools to simplify everything from writing your code to debugging your code. Figure 1 shows the Xcode application window, inspector, and Research Assistant.

Figure 1  Xcode application

Xcode application

The following sections provide basic information about the new features. For detailed information about new Xcode features, see What's New in Xcode.

Xcode Editor Improvements

The Xcode editing environment includes performance improvements and also offers several new features that go beyond basic text editing to help improve the development workflow. The new features include the following:

Streamlined Debugging

In Xcode 3.0, the distinction between “Run” and “Debug” has been eliminated. Now, you simply build your executable and run it. Hitting a breakpoint interrupts the program and displays the debugger window. (You can also debug from any editor window now.) Other features of the new debugging environment include the following:

Research Assistant

The Xcode documentation window provides an easy way for you to find information quickly, but now there is an even faster way to get the information you need as you type. This feature is called the Research Assistant.

The Research Assistant is an inspector that displays documentation for the currently selected text (see Figure 1). As the selection changes, the Research Assistant updates the information in its floating window to reflect the classes, methods, and functions you are currently using. This window shows the declaration, abstract, and availability information for the selection along with the framework containing the selected identifier, relevant documentation resources, and related methods and functions you might be interested in using.

Documentation Window

The documentation window (Figure 2) in Xcode provides an environment for searching and browsing the documentation. This window provides you with fast access to Apple’s developer documentation and gives you tools for searching its content. You can search by title, by language, and by content and can focus your search on the documents in a particular documentation set.

Figure 2  Xcode documentation window

Xcode documentation window

Documentation sets are collections of documents that can be installed, browsed, and searched independently. Documentation sets make it easier to install only the documentation you need for your development, reducing the amount of disk space needed for your developer tools installation. In addition to the Apple-provided documentation sets, third parties can implement their own documentation sets and have them appear in the Xcode documentation window. For information on how to create custom documentation sets, see Documentation Set Guide.

Refactoring Tools

Xcode’s new refactoring tools add the ability to make large-scale changes to your Objective-C source code. The changes you make are propagated throughout your code base, making sure that the changes do not break your builds. Supported transformations include the following:

Build Settings

The Build pane in the inspector now supports the following improvements:

Project Snapshots

Project snapshots provide a lightweight form of local source control for Xcode projects. Using this feature, you can take a “snapshot” of your project’s state at any point during development, such as after a successful build or immediately prior to refactoring your code. If after making subsequent changes you decide those changes were not useful, you can revert your project files back to the previous snapshot state. Because snapshots are local, your intermediate changes need never be committed to source control.

Project Versioning

Xcode projects now have a Compatibility pane in the project inspector that lets you determine whether you want an Xcode 3.0–only project or one that can be used by previous versions of Xcode. Marking a project as Xcode 3.0–only generates an alert whenever you try to use an Xcode feature that is not present in previous versions of the application.

Repository Management

Xcode now supports the management of multiple SCM repositories to allow you to perform tasks such as the following:

Miscellaneous Improvements

Xcode includes the following additional improvements:

Interface Builder 3.0

Interface Builder has undergone its first major update in over a decade and includes numerous improvements to the application appearance and workflow. In addition to support for new controls (such as Cocoa toolbars), the new version features major improvements in the following areas:

In place of the old palette window, Interface Builder now lets you choose views and controls from an object library. This library groups related controls into categories and lets you either browse for the desired element or search for it by name. The library also provides controls for displaying controls in the size (regular, small, mini) that you want and seeing your selection reflected in the library window.

Thanks to improvements in the underlying infrastructure for managing controls, it is now much easier to integrate your own controls into Interface Builder. Interface Builder includes the Interface Builder Kit framework and an Xcode project template for creating custom plug-ins. Most of the work needed to integrate custom controls now occurs directly in the nib file of your plug-in, with more advanced features requiring only modest amounts of code.

Because of its infrastructure improvements, Interface Builder now supports the ability to inspect multiple objects. The basic attributes inspector breaks up attributes by class, allowing each class to define a separate section for its own content. Selecting multiple objects of different types still displays any attributes inspectors that are common among the selected objects. Other types of inspectors, such as the size inspector also remain active in most cases, allowing you to modify the size of multiple controls all at once.

Figure 3 shows the new look of the Interface Builder application, including the new document, library, and inspector windows.

Figure 3  Interface Builder 3.0

Interface Builder 3.0

For information about Interface Builder features and how to use them, see Interface Builder User Guide. For information about how to integrate your own custom controls into Interface Builder, see Interface Builder Plug-In Programming Guide.

Instruments

Instruments is a new application that complements existing performance tools such as Shark. The Instruments application provides an integrated set of tools for debugging and analyzing performance problems in your application.

Figure 4 shows the Instruments user interface. Instead of analyzing different aspects of your program’s performance individually, Instruments lets you configure multiple “instruments” to gather several different types of data simultaneously. Instruments let you gather information about CPU usage, disk I/O, memory usage, garbage collection events, Cocoa notifications, and more. The data for each instrument is displayed along a horizontal time axis, giving you the chance to correlate results from different instruments and thus see the “big picture” of your application’s behavior.

Figure 4  The Instruments application interface

The Instruments application interface

An important aspect of Instruments is the repeatability of data gathering operations. Instruments lets you record a sequence of events in your application and store them in the master track. You can then replay a sequence of events to reproduce the exact same conditions in your application. This repeatability means that each new set of data you gather can be compared directly to any old sets, resulting in a more meaningful comparison of performance data. It also means that you can automate much of the data gathering operation. Because events are shown alongside data results, it is easier to correlate performance problems with the events that caused them.

For an introduction to Instruments, see Instruments User Guide.

Dashcode

Dashcode is an integrated environment for laying out, coding, and testing Dashboard widgets. Although users see and use widgets as applications, they’re actually packaged webpages powered by standard technologies such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. Although it is easy for anyone with web design experience to build a widget using existing webpage editors, as a widget’s code and layout get more complex, managing and testing of that widget becomes increasingly difficult. Dashcode provides the following features to help simplify the widget design process:

Figure 5 shows the Dashcode canvas, inspector, and library windows. The canvas is a drag-and-drop layout environment where you lay out widgets visually. Using the inspector window, you can apply style information to the controls, text, and shape elements that you drag in from the library.

Figure 5  Dashcode canvas

Dashcode canvas

For more information about Dashcode, see Dashcode User Guide.

API Delta Documents

Table 1 list the documents describing the API changes that were made in system frameworks for Mac OS X v10.5.

Table 1  Mac OS X v10.5 delta documents

Framework

Document

Accelerate

Accelerate Reference Update

Address Book

Address Book Reference Update

AGL

AGL Reference Update

AppKit

Application Kit Reference Update

Application Services

Application Services Reference Update

Automator

Automator Reference Update

Calendar Store

Calendar Store Reference Update (new framework)

Carbon

Carbon Reference Update

Collaboration

Collaboration Reference Update (new framework)

Core Data

Core Data Reference Update

Core Foundation

Core Foundation Reference Update

Core Services

Core Services Reference Update

Directory Service

Directory Service Reference Update (new framework)

Foundation

Foundation Reference Update

Instant Message

Instant Message Reference Update

OpenGL

OpenGL Reference Update

Preference Panes

Preference Panes Reference Update

PubSub

Publication Subscription Reference Update (new framework)

QTKit

QTKit Reference Update

Quartz Core

Quartz Core Reference Update

Quartz

Quartz Reference Update

QuickTime

QuickTime Reference Update

Security

Security Reference Update

Security Interface

Security Interface Reference Update

Sync Services

Sync Services Reference Update

System Configuration

System Configuration Reference Update

WebKit

WebKit Reference Update



Last updated: 2009-11-13

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