The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2009)

C

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CACCIA DOMINIONI, Camillo
(1877-1946)

Birth. February 7, 1877, Milan, Italy.

Education. Major Seminary of Milan, Milan; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in canon law); Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 23, 1899, Milan, by Cardinal Andrea Ferrari, archbishop of Milan. Further studies, 1899-1902. Pastoral work in Rome, 1899-1921. Coadjutor-canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1903. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, September 24, 1914. Master of the Papal Chamber, June 16, 1921; reappointed, February 7, 1922. Protonotory apostolic, June 27, 1921. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, February 14, 1924.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, December 19, 1935. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Crowned Pope Pius XII, March 12, 1939.

Death. November 12, 1946, of heart ailment, Rome. Buried in the crypt of the basilica of Ss. Ambrogio e Carlo, Rome.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CACCIAVILLAN, Agostino
(1926-

Birth. August 14, 1926, Novale di Valdagno, diocese of Vicenza, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Vicenza, Vicenza; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate in social sciences); State University, Rome (doctorate in jurisprudence); Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (doctorate in canon law); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 26, 1949. Vicar cooperator, Santa Maria in Colle, Bassano del Grapa. Further studies and pastoral work, Rome 1957-1959.Worked for a few months at the Secretariat of State. Secretary of the nunciature in the Philippines, 1960-1964; of the nunciature in Spain, 1964-1968; of the nunciature in Lisbon, 1968. From 1969 to 1974, worked in the Secretariat of State, where he also was head of the Office of Information and Documentation. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, August 26, 1973.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Amiterno and appointed pro-nuncio in Kenya and apostolic delegate in the Seychelles, January 17, 1976. Consecrated, February 28, 1976, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Jean Villot, secretary of State, assisted by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, and by Carlo Fanton, titular bishop of Bennefa, auxiliary of Vincenza. In Kenya was also permanent observer before the organs of the U.N. for the Environment and the Habitat, 1976-1981. Pro-nuncio in India, May 9, 1981. First pro-nuncio in Nepal, April 30, 1985. Pro-nuncio in the United States of America, permanent observer before the Organization of American States (O.A.S.), and representative of the Holy See before the World Association of Jurists, June 13, 1990. President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, November 5, 1998. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Angeli Custodi a Città Giardino, February 21, 2001. Attended the X Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Resigned the presidency, October 1, 2002. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, August 14, 2006. Confirmed by Pope Benedict XVI in the office of cardinal protodeacon in the consistory of March 1, 2008.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CAGGIANO, Antonio
(1889-1979)

Birth. January 30, 1889, Coronda, diocese of Santa Fe, Argentina.

Education. Seminary of Santa Fe, Santa Fe.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 23, 1912, Santa Fe. Pastoral work in Santa Fe, 1912-1913. Faculty member of the Seminary of Santa Fe, 1913-1931. Pastoral work in the Argentinian Catholic Action, 1913-1931; national chaplain, 1931-1933. Vicar general of the Military Ordinary, 1933-1934.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rosario, September 13, 1934. Consecrated, March 17, 1935, Rosario, by Filippo Cortesi, titular archbishop of Sirace, nuncio in Argentina, assisted by Nicolás Fasolino, archbishop of Santa Fe, and by Fortunado Devoto, titular bishop of Attea, auxiliary of Buenos Aires.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, February 22, 1946. Papal legate to the National Marian Congress, Catamarca, Argentina, April 24, 1954. Papal legate to the Congress of Catholic Education, La Paz, Bolivia, September 8, 1948. Attended the First General Conference of Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 25 to August 4, 1955. Persecuted by the Peronist regime, 1955. Papal legate to the Bolivarian Eucharistic Congress, Caracas, Venezuela, November 10, 1956. Promoted to the primatial metropolitan see of Buenos Aires, August 15, 1959. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Ordinary of the Armed Forces, December 14, 1959. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962 - 1965; member of the Board of Presidency, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Lost his right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 22, 1975. Cardinal protopriest, December 17, 1978.

Death. October 23, 1979, Buenos Aires. Buried, metropolitan cathedral, Buenos Aires.

Link. His photograph and his arms. Araldica Vtaicana.

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CAGIANO DE AZEVEDO, Ottavio
(1845-1927)

Birth. November 7 (1), 1845, Frosinone, diocese of Veroli, Italy. He had the title of count. Nephew of Cardinal Antonio Maria Cagiano de Azevedo (1844).

Education. Seminary of Grottaferrata, Grottaferrata.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 1868. Pastoral work in Rome, 1868-1874. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, April 1, 1874. Abreviattore de parco maggiore, January 1, 1876. Protonotary apostolic ad instar participantium, April 9 (2), 1880. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, December 3 (3), 1886. Master of the Papal Chamber, December 31, 1891 (4). Papal Majordomo, May 29, 1901.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 11, 1905; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, December 14, 1905. Apostolic visitor of the Hospice of Catechumens, January 17, 1911. Pro-prefect of the S.C. for Religious, June 12, 1913; prefect, October 31, 1913. Protector of the Order of the Servants of Mary, March 10, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, December 6, 1915 until his death. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, proper of the chancellor, December 6, 1915 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Franz Joseph of Austria; the grand cross of the Order of Isabel of Spain; the grand cross of the Civil Order of Tuscany. Officer of Légion d'honor of France. Commander with plaque of the Order of the Red Eagle of Prussia. Grand officer of the Order of the Crown of Siam.

Death. July 11, 1927, Anzio, near Rome. Buried, tomb of the Order of the Servants of Mary, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1938, p. 77; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 678; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 9, 23 and 25.

Limk. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, p. 77; and Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 9; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 678, says that he was born on November 1, 1845.
(2) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 9; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 678, says that he was named on April 16, 1880.
(3) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 9; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 678, says that he was named on December 1, 1886.
(4) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 9; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 678, says that he was named on January 1, 1892.


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CAGLIERO, S.D.B., Giovanni
(1838-1926)

Birth. January 11, 1838, Castelnuovo d'Asti, archdiocese of Turin, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Castelnuovo d'Asti; University of Turin. Joined the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco), Turin, 1851. Received clerical habit from St. John Bosco and was his favorite pupil. Classmate of St. Domenico Savio and St. Michele Rua.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 14, 1862, Turin. Faculty member of Salesian House of Studies, Turin, 1862-1875. Led first ten Salesians to America and established five houses in Uruguay and Argentina, 1875-1877. Spiritual director of his society and first General Director of Daughters of Mary Auxiliary, Turin, 1877-1884. Pro-apostolic vicar of new vicariate of Northern Patagonia, Argentina, November 20, 1883.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Magido, October 30, 1884. Consecrated, December 7, 1884, Turin, by Cardinal Gaetano Alimonda. Promoted to titular archbishop of Sebaste, March 24, 1904. Apostolic visitor to Italian dioceses of Bobbio, Piacenza, Savona, and Tortona, 1904. Apostolic delegate and legate extraordinary to Costa Rica, June 10, 1908. Apostolic delegate and legate extraordinary to Nicaragua, October 26, 1908.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 6, 1915; received the red hat and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, December 9, 1915. First Salesian cardinal. Opted for order of cardinal bishops and suburbicarian see of Frascati, December 16, 1920. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress of Frascati, August 5, 1923.

Death. February 28, 1926, Rome. Buried in the sepulchre of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, Campo Verano Cemetery, Rome. In 1964 his remains were transferred to Mater Misericordiae Cathedral, Viedma, Argentina.

Bibliography. Entraigas, Raul A. El Apóstol de la Patagonia. Rosario, Argentina: Apis, 1956.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; another biography, in Italian; biography, in German; and brief biographical data, in Italian sixth paragraph on page.


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CALLEGARI, Giuseppe
(1841-1906)

Birth. November 4, 1841, Venice, Italy. Received the sacrament of confirmation, November 23, 1851.

Education. Patriarchal Seminary, Venice. Received the insignias of the clerical character, December 18, 1858; minor orders, March 3, 1860 and March 16, 1861; subdiaconate, December 20, 1862; diaconate, December 19, 1863.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 26, 1864, Venice. At the Patriarchal Seminary of Venice, he was professor of its gymnasii; and professor of moral theology, 1865-1873. Pastoral work in Venice, 1865-1880. Counselor of the ecclesiastical tribunal, 1878; prosynodal examiner. Contributing writer to Il Veneto Cattolico. He was a very close friend of Giuseppe Sarto, future Pope Pius X.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Treviso, with dispensation for not having the degree, February 28, 1880. Granted permission to receive the episcopal consecration in Venice from its patriarch, March 11, 1880. Consecrated, March, 1880, cathedral basilica of S. Marco, Venice, by Domenico Agostini, patriarch of Venice, assisted by Giovanni Berengo, bishop of Mantua, and by Giuseppe Apollonio, bishop of Adria. Assistant to Pontifical Throne, August 24, 1882. Transferred to see of Padua, retaining the administration of Treviso until the appointment of a successor, September 25, 1882. In 1892 declined the patriarchal see of Venice and recommended Giuseppe Sarto, bishop of Mantua, for that see. President of Società Scientifica dei Cattolici Italiani.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 9, 1903; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Cosmedin, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, November 12, 1903.

Death. April 14, 1906, after a long illness, Padua. Exposed in the cathedral of Padua and buried in the Shrine d'Arcella, Padua, where S. Antonio di Padua died (1).

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1914. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1913, p. 59; "Ém. card. Callegari (Giuseppe), év. de Padoue." in "Nécrologie", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1907. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1907, p. 645-646; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 8 and 26; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 444 and 538; Toniolo, Giuseppe. "Il Cardinal Giuseppe Callegari e gli studi in Italia." Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Sociali, XLl (1906), 3-12.

Link. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) An electronic message from a priest of the diocese of Padua indicated that he is buried in the crypt of the cathedral of Padua.


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CALLORI DI VIGNALE, Federico
(1890-1971)

Birth. December 15, 1890, Vignale Monferrato, diocese of Casale Monferrato, Italy, from a noble family.

Education. Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 16, 1917, Rome. Pastoral ministry in Rome, 1917-1958. Privy chamberlain participant, July 6, 1919; reappointed, February 7, 1922, and March 3, 1939. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, June 3, 1935. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 28, 1935. Protonotary apostolic, June 6, 1935. Pro-master of the Papal Chamber, December 20, 1950. Knight grand cross of the Order of Merit of the Itlian Republic, January 12, 1953. Majordomo of the Sacred Apostolic Palace, October 29, 1958.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Maiuca, February 15, 1965. Consecrated, February 21, 1965, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, bishop of Ostia and Porto e Santa Rufina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Diego Venini, titular archbishop of Adana, privy almoner of His Holiness, and and Pericle Felici, titular archbishop of Samosata, secretary General of the Second Vatican Council

Cardinal. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni Bosco, February 25, 1965. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971.

Death. August 10, 1971, Vatican City. Buried in the chapel-tomb of his family in Vignale Monferrato.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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CÂMARA, Jaime de Barros
(1894-1971)

Birth. July 3, 1894, São José, archdiocese of Florianópolis, Brazil.

Education. Seminary of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 1, 1920, Florianópolis, by Joaquim Domingues de Oliveira, archbishop of Florianópolis. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Florianópolis, 1920-1935. Rector of the Seminary Azambuja-Brusque, Florianópolis, 1935-1936. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, April 18, 1935.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mossoro, December 19, 1936; Consecrated, February 2, 1936, Florianópolis, by Joaquim Domingues de Oliveira, archbishop of Florianópolis, assisted by Pio de Freitas Silveira, C.M., bishop of Joinville, and by Daniel Henrique Hostin, O.F.M., bishop of Lages. Promoted to metropolitan see of Belém do Pará, September 15, 1941. Transferred to the metropolitan see of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, July 3, 1943.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio, February 22, 1946. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Porto Alegre, October 3, 1948; to the Interamerican Congress of the Confederation of Catholic Education, Rio de Janeiro, July 4, 1951. Attended the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, July 25 to August 4, 1955. President of the Conference of Catholic Bishops of Brazil, 1958-1963. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Curitiba, March 5, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. February 18, 1971, Aparecida. Buried in the new metropolitan cathedral of Rio de Janeiro.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CAMASSEI, Filippo
(1848-1921)

Birth. September 14, 1848, Rome, Italy.

Education. Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome (doctorates in theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 12, 1872. Pastoral work in Rome. Secretary to Cardinal Raffaele Monaco la Valetta, vicar general of Rome, 1876. Rector of the Pontifical Pius Seminary, 1874. Rector of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, December 10, 1889. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 13 (1), 1897.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Naxos, Greece, March 18, 1904. Consecrated, April 10, 1904, chapel of he Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, by Cardinal Girolamo Gotti, O.C.D., prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, assisted by Pietro Gasparri, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Edmund Stonor, titular archbishop of Trebizonda. Promoted to the Latin patriarchate of Jerusalem, December 6, 1906. Expelled to Nazareth by the Turks, November 19 (2), 1917; there he was hosted by the Franciscan friars; continued to supervise the parishes in north Palestine from Nazareth and appointed Monsignor François Vilinger as his vicar in order to supervise the rest of the parishes in Palestine and Jordan. After the Anglo-French victory, on November 3, 1918, returned to Jerusalem. Shortly after, in May 1919, he went to Rome to rest and visit the Vatican.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1919; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, December 18, 1919.

Death. January 18, 1921, suddenly while he was at the table, Rome. Buried, in the sepulchre of "Collegio de S.C. Propaganda Fide", Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 688; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 18, 23, 197 and 267.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English and Arabic; photograph and biographical data, in French.

(1) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 267; and Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 688; his biographical data in French, linked above, indicates that he was named on December 13, 1897.
(2) This is according to his biographical data in French, linked above; his biographical data in English and Arabic, also linked above, indicates that he was expelled on November 10, 1917.


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CANALI, Nicola
(1874-1961)

Birth. June 6, 1874, Rieti, Italy. Son of Marquis Filippo Canali and Countess Leonetta Vincentini. Other cardinals of the family were Saverio Canali (1766); and Franceso Canali (1831).

Education. Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Pontifical Roman Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 31, 1900, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Member of the staff of secretariat of State, and secretary to Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State, September 1, 1903. Privy chamberlain, November S. 1903. Substitute at the secretariat of State and secretary of Ciphering, March 21, 1908. Domestic prelate, March 23, 1908. Secretary of the S.C. Ceremonial, September 24, 1914. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, June 27, 1926. Protonotary apostolic, September 15, 1926.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, December 19, 1935. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. President of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, March 20, 1939. Cardinal protector of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, July 16, 1940 (by apostolic brief Cum ordine equester); on December 25, 1949, Pope Pius XII named him grand master of the order; occupied the post until his death. Grand penitentiary, October 15, 1941. Cardinal protodeacon in November 1946. Grand prior commendatario in Rome of the Sacred and Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. As cardinal protodeacon, he crowned Pope John XXIII on November 4, 1958.

Death. Thursday August 3, 1961, at 10:45 a.m., of pneumonia; Vatican City. The funeral mass was celebrated at the patriarchal Vatican basilica on Monday August 7, 1961, by Ilario Alcini, titular archbishop of Nicea, visitor of the seminaries of Italy, in the presence of Pope John XXIII and nineteen cardinals. Buried in the chapel of S. Pio X in the church of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, S. Onofrio al Gianicolo, Rome. He was the last cardinal who was never a bishop, before Pope John XXIII issued the motu proprio Cum gravissima on April 15, 1962 providing that all cardinals should receive the episcopal consecration.

Link. Photographs and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.


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CANESTRI, Giovanni
(1918-

Birth. September 30, 1918, Castelspina, diocese of Alessandria, Italy.

Education. Minor Seminary, Alessandria, 1929 (secondary studies); Pontifical Major Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (licenciate in theology; doctorate in canon law); Rome State University, Rome (doctorate in law).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 12, 1941, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome; in the same ceremony was ordained Salvatore Pappalardo, future cardinal. Pastoral work in the parishes of S. Ttavio and Casal Bertone, and further studies, Rome, 1941-1959. Professor of religion in several Roman superior institutes. Spiritual director of the Pontifical Roman Major Seminary, 1959-1961; apostolic examiner of clergy.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tenedo and appointed auxiliary of the cardinal vicar of Rome, July 8, 1961. Consecrated, July 30, 1961, Rome, by Cardinal Luigi Traglia, pro-vicar general of His Holiness for the diocese of Rome, assisted by Ettore Cunial, titular archbishop of Soteropoli, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Peter Canisius van Lierde, O.S.A. titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan and vicar general of His Holiness for Vatican City. Transferred to the see of Tortona, January 7, 1971. Transferred to the titular see of Monterano, with personal title of archbishop, and appointed vicegerent of Rome, February 8, 1975. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Cagliari, March 22, 1984. Transferred to metropolitan see of Genoa, July 6, 1987.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Andrea della Valle, June 28, 1988. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 20, 1995. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, September 30, 1998.

Bibliography. Alberti, O. "Mons. Giovanni Canestri" in La Pontificia Università Lateranense; profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri e dei suis discepoli, Rome : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 510; Del Re, Niccolò. Il vicegerente del vicariato di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1976, p. 79.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CAPOTOSTI, Luigi
(1863-1938)

Birth. February 23, 1863, Montegiberto, archdiocese of Fermo, Italy. He spent his youth in the neighboring comune of Moresco, where the family had moved.

Education. Archiepiscoal Seminary of Fermo, Fermo (doctorate in sacred theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 19, 1885, Fermo, by Cardinal Amilcare Malagola, archbishop of Fermo. Secretary of Cardinal Malagola, 1885-1895; and of Archbishop Roberto Papiri of Fermo from 1895. Professor of moral philosophy, luoghi teologici and moral theology at the Seminary of Fermo; collegiate doctor of the theological faculty; member of the diocesan philosophical Academy S. Tommaso d'Aquino; official of the archdiocesan curia; canon primicerius of the metropolitan cathedral chapter. Exercised his pastoral ministry with the Catholic Action. President of the Pious Society of Diocesan Missionaries. Director of two schools of religion, for men and women.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Modigliana, Italy, April 8, 1908. Consecrated, May 31, 1908, in the cathedral of Fermo, by Carlo Castelli, O.S.C., archbishop of Fermo, assisted by Raimundo Daffei, bishop of Forli, and by Luigi Boschi, bishop of Ripatransone; solemnly entered the diocese on the following November 15. Named secretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of Sacraments, June 8, 1914; took possession of the office the following June 12. Promoted to titular archbishop of Terme, January 22, 1915.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 21, 1926; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, June 24, 1926. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Loreto, Italy, August 30, 1930. Pro-datary, July 29, 1931; datary, September 23, 1933 until his death. Papal legate to the Regional Eucharistic Congress, Piacenza, Italy, July 30, 1933. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, April 1, 1935 until June 15, 1936.

Death. February 16, 1938, Rome. Buried in the crypt of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1939, p. 84; "Luigi Capotosti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1936. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1936, p. 40; "Nécrologe. Em. Capotosti (Louis), dataire." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1939. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1939, p. 780; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, LX, n. 141 (June 21-22, 1926), p. 1-2.

Link. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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CAPRIO, Giuseppe
(1914-2005)

Birth. November 15, 1914, Lapio, archdiocese of Benevento, Italy. Baptized in the parish church of S. Catarina d'Alessandria, Lapio. He had an uncle, also named Giuseppe Caprio, who was a priest and for several years pro-secretary of the economy of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide.

Education. Archiepiscopal Seminary of Benevento, Benevento; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate in theology and doctorate in canon law); Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1938, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Further studies, 1939-1940, Rome. Assigned to the Secretariat of State, 1940-1947. Secretary of the nunciature in China, 1947-1951; expelled from China by the Communist regime after three months of house arrest in Nanchang. Auditor of the nunciature in Belgium, 1951-1954. Visitor and regent of the apostolic delegation in South Vietnam, 1954-1959. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 21, 1955. Internuncio in China (Formosa), May 20, 1959.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Apollonia, October 14, 1961. Consecrated, December 14, 1961, basilica of Madonna delle Grazie, Benevento, by Cardinal Gregoire-Pierre Agagianian, prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, assisted by Pietro Parente, titular archbishop of Tolemaide di Tebaide, assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, and by Raffaele Calabria, titular archbishop of Elipoli di Fenicia, coadjutor of Benevento. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Pro-nuncio in India, August 22, 1967. Head of the Vatican delegation to the Second U.N.O. Conference for Commerce and Development, New Delhi, India, 1968. Secretary of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, April 19, 1969. Substitute of the Secretariat of State, June 14, 1977. Pro-president of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, April 28, 1979.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria Ausiliatrice in Via Tuscolana, June 30, 1979. President of the Administration of Patrimony of Apostolic See, July 1, 1979. Attended the V Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. President of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See, January 30, 1981. Attended the VI Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 28 to October 29, 1983; the II Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Cardinal protodeacon, June 22, 1987. Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, November 15, 1988. Special papal envoy to the funeral of Prince Franz Josef II of Liechtenstein, November 1989. Resigned the presidency, January 22, 1990. Special papal envoy to the accession to the throne of Emperor Akihito, Tokyo, Japan, November 12, 1990. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, November 26, 1990. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, November 15, 1994. Resigned the grand mastership, December 1995.

Death. October 15, 2005, in the afternoon, Rome. The funeral, presided by the pope, who delivered the homily, took place on Tuesday, October 18, 2005, at 11 a.m., in the altar of the chair of Saint Peter the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Fifty cardinals and many bishops, present in Rome for the assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, participated in the ceremony, which was also attended by members of the diplomatic corps accredited before the Holy See, and family members of the late cardinal. Another funeral for Cardinal Caprio took place on October 19, 2005, in the parish church of S. Catarina d'Alessandria, Lapio, where he had been baptized; it was presided by Cardinal Crescenzio Sepe, prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples and concelebrated by Serafino Sprovieri, archbishop of Benevento, and all the bishops of the Irpina region. The remains of the cardinal were buried, according to his will, in that parish church.


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CARBERRY, John Joseph
(1904-1998)

Birth. July 31, 1904, Brooklyn, New York, United States of America. Son of James Joseph Carberry and Mary Elizabeth O'Keefe.

Education. Cathedral College, Brooklyn; Pontifical Academy of the Immaculate Conception, Rome; The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. (doctorate in canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 28, 1929, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, vicar general of Rome. Pastoral work in the diocese of Brooklyn, 1930-1931; 1935; 1940-1941; 1945-1956. Further studies, 1931-1934. Faculty member of the Immaculate Conception Seminary, Huntington, N.Y., 1935; 1941-1945. Secretary to the bishop of Trenton, N.J., and assistant chancellor of that diocese, 1935-1940. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, February 3, 1948. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 7, 1954.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Elide and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Lafayette in Indiana, May 3, 1956. Consecrated, July 25, 1956, Our Lady of Perpetual Help church, Brooklyn, by Raymond Augustine Kearny, titular bishop of Lisinia, auxiliary of Brooklyn, assisted by George William Ahr, bishop of Trenton, and by John Benjamin Grellinger, titular bishop of Siene, auxiliary of Green Bay. Succeeded to the see of Lafayette in Indiana, November 20, 1957. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Transferred to the see of Columbus, Ohio, January 16, 1965. President of the Canon Law Society of America, May 1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of St. Louis, February 17, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni Battista de Rossi a via Latina, April 30, 1969. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese, July 31, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, July 31, 1984.

Death. June 17, 1998, at St. Agnes Home in Kirkwood, Missouri, where he retired after suffering from a stroke. Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral basilica of St. Louis.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 127; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 35.

Link. Photograph and brief biographical data, in English, fourth from the bottom of the page.


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CARDIJN, Joseph-Léon
(1882-1967)

Birth. November 18, 1882, Schaerbeek-Brussels, Belgium. Eldest son of Henri Cardijn and Louise van Daelen.

Education. Seminary of Mechelen, Mechelen; University of Louvain, Louvain.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 22, 1906, Mechelen. Faculty member of the Seminary of Basse-Wabre, 1906-1912. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of Mechelen, 1912-1915. Imprisoned during the First World War, 1915-1917. Pastoral work with the workers in Mechelen, 1917-1925. Founder of the Young Christian Workers, 1925; General chaplain, 1927-1965. Imprisoned during W.W. II, 1941. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, April 30, 1950. Protonotary apostolic, September 25, 1962.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tusuro, February 15, 1965. Consecrated, February 21, 1965, chapel of the Urbanian College de Propaganda Fide, Rome, by Cardinal Leo-Joseph Suenens, archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels, assisted by Charles-Marie Himmer, bishop of Tournai, and by Emiel-Jozef De Smedt, bishop of Brugge.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Michele Arcangelo a Pietralata, February 25, 1965.

Death. July 25, 1967, of kidney ailment, Louvain. Buried in the parish church of Notre-Dame of Laeken, Brussels.

Bibliography. De la Bedoyere, Michael. The Cardijn story. Milwaukee : Bruce Publishing Co., 1958; Verhoeven, Joseph. Joseph Cardijn, prophète de notre temps. Préface de Léon-Joseph Cardinal Suenens. Bruxelles : Éditions "Labor", 1971. (Ceux dhier et daujourdhui, 8).

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CARLES GORDÓ, Ricardo María
(1926-

Birth. September 24, 1926, Valencia, archdiocese of Valencia, Spain.

Education. Major Seminary, Valencia; Colegio Corpus Christi, Valencia; Pontifical University of Salamanca, Salamanca (licenciate in canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1951, Valencia. Further studies, 1951-1953. Successively, 1953-1969, pastoral work in the archdiocese of Valencia; counselor of the Catholic Youth Workers; director of the deacons convictory; episcopal delegate for the clergy; and diocesan counselor of the pastoral for the family.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tortosa, June 6, 1969. Consecrated, August 3, 1969, cathedral of Tortosa, by Luigi Dadaglio, titular archbishop of Lero, nuncio in Spain, assisted by Manuel Moll y Salord, titular bishop of Urbs Salvia, former bishop of Tortosa, and by Rafael González Moralejo, titular bishop of Dardano, auxiliary of Valencia. Promoted to the archiepiscopal see of Barcelona, March 23, 1990. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Consolatrice al Tiburtino, November 26, 1994. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, November 6, 1995. Attended the X Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, June 15, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, September 24, 2006.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 131.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CARO RODRÍGUEZ, José María
(1866-1958)

Birth. June 23, 1866, Cahuil, diocese of Roncagua, Chile. Fourth of the nine children of José María Caro Martínez and Rita Rodríguez Cornejo.

Education. Initial studies in the local school; Seminary of Santiago, Santiago de Chile, 1881-1886 (humanities); Pontifical Collegio Pio-Latinoamericano, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1887-1891 (theology; among his professors was Fr. Louis Billot, S.J., future cardinal).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1890, Rome. Returned to Chile on October 2, 1891. From 1892 to 1899, professor of preparatory studies and philosophy at the Seminary of Santiago; pastoral ministry in several chaplaincies, hospitals and parishes; pastor of Mamiña, March to December 1899; professor of theology at the Seminary of Santiago, 1900-1911; always had a very delicate health. Named apostolic vicar of Tarapac on May 6, 1911.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Milasa, January 5, 1912, Consecrated, April 28, 1912, metropolitan cathedral of Santiago, by Enrico Sibilia, titular archbishop of Side, internuncio in Chile, assisted by Luis Izquierdo Vargas, bishop of Concepción, and by Miguel Claro Vázquez, titular bishop of Legia. Transferred to the see of La Serena, December 14, 1925. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, November 6, 1937. Promoted to archbishop when La Serena was elevated to the rank of metropolitan see, May 20, 1939. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Santiago, August 28, 1939.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Scala, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, May 18, 1946. Papal legate to the Chilean Plenary Council, Santiago, September 8, 1946; to the 10th National Eucharistic Congress, Valparaíso, Chile, September 26, 1951. Attended the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 25 to August 4, 1955. Papal legate to the 6th Interamerican Congress of Catholic Education, Santiago de Chile, Chile, August 30, 1956. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. He was the first Chilean cardinal.

Death. December 4, 1958, Santiago de Chile. Buried in the crypt of the archbishops in the metropolitan cathedral of Santiago de Chile. His remains were transferred to a funeral chapel at the back of the cathedral's central nave on March 19, 1968.

Bibliography. Caro Rodríguez, José María. Autobiografía del eminentísimo y reverendísimo señor cardenal D. José María Caro Rodríguez, primer cardenal chileno. Apuntes y recuerdos por Joaquín Fuenzalida Morandé. Documentos importantes. Santiago: Arzobispado de Santiago, 1968; Vanherk Moris, Juan. Monseñor José María Caro, apóstol de Tarapac. Santiago de Chile : Editorial del Pacífico, 1963 . Salinas Fuenzalida, Augusto. Un pastor santo, el emintentísimo señor cardenal don José María Caro Rodríguez, 1866-1958. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Andrés Bello, 1981.

Link. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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CARPINO, Francesco
(1905-1993)

Birth. May 18, 1905, Palazzolo Acreide, archdiocese of Siracusa, Sicily, Italy. Third of the five children of Salvatore Carpino, owner of a small rural estate, and Maria Odigitria (Itria) Cascino. He was baptized on May 24, 1905 by Canon Giuseppe Gallo in the mother church of Palazzolo.

Education. Seminary of Noto, Noto, Sicily, September 14, 1914 to June 1919 (obtained the license ginnazaiale); Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome, September 1919 to 1926 (doctorates philosophy and theology, and licentiate in canon law, 1926); returned to his diocese in 1926 and became professor in the seminary until reaching the canonical age for the priestly ordination; received the diaconate on June 29, 1927; Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 14, 1927, mother church of Palazzolo Acreide, by Giuseppe Vizzini, bishop of Noto. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Noto and faculty member of its seminary, 1927-1929. Professor of sacramental theology at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome, 1929-1951; resided in the Pontifical Roman Seminary. Pastoral ministry in Rome and collaboration with several congregations of the Roman Curia as well as with the Roman vicariate, 1929-1951. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, April 27, 1939.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicomedia and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Monreale, February 11, 1951. Consecrated, April 8, 1951, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D., bishop of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, secretary of S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Angelo Calabretta, bishop of Noto. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Monreale, August 23, 1951. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, November 15, 1960. Named titular archbishop of Sardica and appointed assessor of the S.C. Consistorial, January 19, 1961. Secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, October 25, 1961. President of the Supreme Council of Immigration, 1961-1967. President of the General Secretariat International of Apostolatus Maris, 1961-1967. Secretary of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, 1961-1967. Counselor of the Pontifical Preparatory Commission of the Second Vatican Council, 1961-1964. Secretary of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Shrine of Pompeii, 1961-1965; for the Shrines of Pompeii and Loreto, 1966-1967. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Secretary of the conclave of 1963. Pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, April 7, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Ausiliatrice in via Tuscolana, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, June 29, 1967. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Palermo, June 26, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Resigned the government of the archdiocese, October 17, 1970; he explained that an archdiocese with many and difficult pastoral problems needed a young archbishop with fresh energies to prepare a vast program for a long term. Appointed referendary for relations in the S.C. for Bishops, October 19, 1970. Named cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Albano, January 27, 1978. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, May 18, 1985.

Death. October 5, 1993, at dawn, in Rome; received the last rites from Alois Wagner, titular bishop of Siccenna, vice-president of the Pontificial Council Cor Unum and was assisted by his sister Concettina Carpino. The funeral mass, presided by Pope John Paul II, concelebrated by thirty cardinals and numerous archbishops and bishops, took place in the patriarchal Vatican basilica at 5:30 p.m. on October 7, 1993. The body of the late cardinal was flown to Monreale on October 8th and transferred to Palermo, where another funeral took place in that cathedral concelebrated celebrated by Salvatore Cassisa, archbishop of Monreale, Cardinal Salvatore Pappalardo, archbishop of Palermo, and almost all the bishops of Sicily. After the funeral in Palermo, the body was taken to Palazzolo Acreide and a requiem mass was celebrated in the church of S. Paolo by Giuseppe Costanzo, archbishop of Siracusa, before the burial in the tomb of his family; later, it was transferred to the cemetery chapel of Palazzolo Acreide. On September 14, 1998, the remains were transferred to the metropolitan cathedral of Palermo.

Bibliography. Amata, Biagio. Card. Francesco Carpino : testimonianze e studi. Roma : Libreria editrice vaticana, 1994; Calleri Russo, Anna. Il Cardinale Francesco Carpino: un figlio di Palazzolo al servizio della chiesa cattolica. Catania: Greco, 1997.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CARTER, Gerald Emmett
(1912-2003)

Birth. March 11, 1912, Montréal, Canada. He was the youngest of eight children of an Irish Catholic family of modest means. His father, a strong union man, was a typesetter for the newspaper Montreal Star. His brother Alexander was bishop of Sault-Sainte-Marie, and two sisters became nuns.

Education. St. Patrick's Boy School (primary studies); Collège de Montréal, Montréal (classics); Grand Seminary, Montréal (theology); University of Montréal, Montréal (licentiate in theology, 1936; master's of arts, 1940; doctorate, 1947).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 22, 1937, Montréal, by Alphonse-Emmanuel Deschamps, titular bishop of Tenneso, auxiliary of of Montréal. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Montréal; ecclesiastical inspector of the English Catholic schools of Montréal and responsible of the Catholic School Committee 1937-1939. First director of the English section of École Normale Jacques-Cartier, 1939. Chaplain of the Catholic students at McGill University,1942-1956. Adjunct director of the English section of Catholic Action, 1943; director, 1944. President of the Thomas More Institute for Adult Education, 1946-1961. Member of the Commission of the Catholic Schools of Montréal, 1948-1961. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Montréal, January 30, 1953. President of the St. Joseph's Teachers College, from June 5, 1955. Member of the Board of Catholic Schools. Founder of St. Thomas More and Newman Clubs throughout Canada. Director of St. Lawrence College, Sainte-Foy, 1961.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Altiburo and appointed auxiliary of London, Canada, December 1, 1961. Consecrated, February 2, 1962, Montréal, by Cardinal Paul-Émile Léger, P.S.S., archbishop of Montréal, assisted by John Christopher Cody, bishop of London, and by Alexander Carter, bishop of Sault-Sainte-Marie, his brother. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Transferred to the see of London, Canada, February 17, 1964. Vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of the Region of Ontario, 1971-1973. Vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of Canada, 1973-1975. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. President of the Episcopal Conference of Canada, 1975-1977. Attended the IV Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; elected member of its council. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Toronto, April 27, 1978.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinal, November 5 to 9, 1979. Attended the V Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of its general secretariat, 1980-1983. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. He suffered a cardiac crisis in 1981. Companion of the Order of Canada, 1983. He broke a hip in 1988. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 17, 1990. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, March 11, 1992.

Death. April 6, 2003, after a series of strokes, Toronto. Buried, Bishops' Mausoleum, Holy Cross Cemetery, Toronto.

Bibliography. Higgins, Michael W. and Douglas R. Letson. My Father's Business: A biography of His Eminence G. Emmett Cardinal Carter.Toronto : Macmillan of Canada, 1990; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latines et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson and Lafleur, 2002, pp. 354-355.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CASANOVA Y MARZOL, Vicente
(1854-1930)

Birth. April 16, 1854, Borja, diocese of Tarazona, Spain.

Education. Seminary of Zaragoza, Zaragoza; Seminary of Madrid, Madrid; obtained a licentiate in theology in Valencia, 1882.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1881. Pastor in Maluenda and Alfaro, diocese of Tarazona. For many years, pastor of the parish of Nuestra Señora del Buen Consejo, Madrid.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Almería, December 19, 1907. Consecrated, March 25, 1908, cathedral of San Isidro, Madrid, by Antonio Vico, titular archbishop of Filippi, nuncio in Spain, assisted by José María Salvador y Barrera, bishop of Madrid, and by Julián de Diego y Alcolea, bishop of Astorga. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Granada, March 7, 1925.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 30, 1925; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio, December 17, 1925.

Death. October 23, 1930, Zaragoza, while he was attending the III National Catechetical Congress. Buried, metropolitan cathedral, Granada.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 70.

Link. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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CASARIEGO Y ACEVEDO, C.R.S., Mario
(1909-1983)

Birth. February 13, 1909, Figueras de Castropol, diocese of Oviedo, Spain. Son of Mario Casariego and Ágata Acevedo. He bcame an orphan when he was a little child and was sent to Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, where an uncle had a bakery. He went to Ciudad Guatemala, where he earned a living shining shoes. The boy was taken in by Doña Amelia de Estupiñián, who impressed by his qualities, and in agreement with Fr. Mariano Rosell Arellanmo, future archbishop of Guatemala, sent him to the Somascan Fathers in El Salvador.

Education. Joined the Clerics Regular of Somasca, 1924, El Salvador; professed, October 3, 1930, Somasca, Italy. Somascan houses of studies, Bergamo and Genoa; Somascan theological seminary, San Salvador.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 19, 1936, San Salvador. Pastoral work in La Ceiba Institute, San Salvador, 1936-1948; its rector, 1948-1954. Counselor of his order, 1954-1957; provincial of Central America, 1957-1958.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Pudenziana and appointed auxiliary of Guatemala, November 15, 1958. Consecrated, December 27, 1958, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Girolamo Bartolomeo Bortignon, O.F.M., Cap., bishop of Padua, and by Gioacchino Muccin, bishop of Feltre e Belluno. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinal Domenico Tardini, secretary of State; and future Cardinals Albino Luciani, bishop of Vittorio Veneto, future Pope John Paul I; Carlo Grano, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, nuncio in Italy; Giuseppe Ferretto, titular archbishop of Sardica, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial and secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals; and Angelo Dell'Acqua, titular archbishop of Chalcedonia, substitute of the Secretariat of State. Promoted to the titular see of Perge and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Guatemala, September 22, 1963. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Guatemala, December 12, 1964. Kidnapped for several days by a terrorist group, March 1968. Assistant at Pontifical Throne, June 4, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Aquiro, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, April 30, 1969. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. He was the first cardinal from Guatemala.

Death. June 15, 1983, of cardiac related complications, Guatemala. Buried, metropolitan cathedral, Guatemala.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 120.


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CASAROLI, Agostino
(1914-1998)

Birth. November 24, 1914, Castel San Giovanni, diocese of Piacenza, Italy. Of a family of modest economic means.

Education. Collegio Alberoni, Piacenza; Episcopal Seminary of Bedonia, Piacenza; Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome (doctorate in canon law); Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome; Italian Society for International Organizations, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 27, 1937, Piacenza. Further studies, 1937-1939, Rome. Adjunct to the archives and minutante at the Secretariat of State, 1940. Pastoral work in the diocese of Rome, 1943-1998. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, January 4, 1945. Chaplain of Villa Agnese, 1950-1998. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 22, 1954. Assistant to Cardinal Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D., secretary of the S.C. Consistorial at the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council, July 25 to August 4, 1955, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ecclesiastical counselor to the Roman Group of Christian Union of Enterpreneurs, 1957-. Papal envoy to deliver the red biretta to Cardinal José María Bueno Monreal, archbishop of Sevilla, Spain, December 1958. Faculty member of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, 1958-1961. Undersecretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, February 24,1961. Chief of the Vatican delegation to the United Nations Organization Conference on diplomatic relations, Vienna, Austria, March 1961. Chief of the Vatican delegation to the United Nations Organization Conference on consular relations, Vienna, Austria, March 1963. Vatican representative at the exchange of instruments in ratification of the modus vivendi with Tunisia, concerning the situation of the Catholic Church, 1964. Signatory of the partial agreement between the Holy See and Hungary, Budapest, September 15, 1964. Negotiated with the Czech government the appointment of Frantisek Tomásek, titular bishop of Buto and auxiliary of Prague, as apostolic administrator sede plena of the archdiocese, February 1965. Signatory of the protocol between the Holy See and Yugoslavia, Belgrade, June 25, 1966. Secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, June 29, 1967.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cartagine, July 4, 1967. Consecrated, July 16, 1967, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Augusto Gianfranceschi, bishop of Cesena, and by Jacques-Paul Martin, titular bishop of Neapoli di Palaestina, prefect of the Papal Household. In the same ceremony was consecrated Ernesto Civardi, titular archbishop of Sardi, secretary of the S.C. Consistorial and secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, future cardinal; and three other prelates. President of the Pontifical Commission for Russia. Delivered the official document of adhesion of the Vatican to the Treaty of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, Moscow, U.S.S.R., February 25, 1971. Vatican representative to the meeting of European foreign ministers, Helsinki, Finland, July 3 to 7, 1973. Special delegate of the Holy See to the Conference on European Security and Cooperation, Helsinki, Finland, July 30 to August 1, 1975. Delivered the papal message to the United Nations Organization Special Assembly on Disarmament, June 1978. Confirmed in his posts by Pope John Paul I, August 28, 1978; and by Pope John Paul II, October 1978. Pro-secretary of State and pro-prefect of the Council for Public Affairs of the Church, April 28 to July 1, 1979.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, June 30, 1979. Secretary of State, prefect of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church and president of Pontifical Commission for State of Vatican City, July 1, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City; the V Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. President of the Administration of Patrimony of Apostolic See, January 30, 1981. Papal legate to the opening celebrations of 7th centennial of St. Francis' birth, Assisi, Italy, October 3 to 4, 1981; to the celebrations of 450th anniversary of the apparition of Our Lady of Guadalupe, México City, México, December 12, 1981. Special papal envoy to the centennial celebration of the establishment of the Knights of Columbus, Hartford, United States, August 3 to 6, 1982. Attended the VI Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, April 8, 1984; charged with representing the pope before the civil government of the State of Vatican City. Papal legate to National Eucharistic Congress, Buenos Aires, Argentina, October 11 to 14, 1984. Named cardinal bishop of the title of suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, retaining in commendam his title, May 25, 1985; the name of the suburbicarian see was changed to Porto-Santa Rufina on September 30, 1986. Papal legate to the celebrations in honor of the 11th centennial of St. Metodius' death, Djakovo, Bosnia, Yugoslavia, July 4 to 5, 1985; and Velehrad, Czechoslovakia, July 7, 1985. Attended the II Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Papal legate to the coronation of the image of Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary, Pompeii, Italy, May 8, 1987. Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Resigned the secretariat of State and the prefecture of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church, December 1, 1990. Vice-dean of College of Cardinals, June 5, 1993. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, November 24, 1994. After his retirement, he exercised his priestly ministry among young detainees in the jail of Casal del Marmo for minors, in Rome.

Death. June 9, 1998, Rome, of cardio-respiratory complications. Buried below the main altar of the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome.

Bibliography. Casaroli, Agostino. Il martirio della pazienza. Torino : Einaudi, 2000; Santini, Alceste. Agostino Casaroli, hombre de diálogo. Translated by Rafael Pérez. Madrid : PPC, 1993.

Links. Site of the "Associazione Centro Studi Cardinale Agostino Casaroli", in Italian; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CASORIA, Giuseppe
(1908-2001)

Birth. October 1, 1908, Acerra, Italy. Of a family of modest means. Son of Clemente Casoria and Maria Russo. He was baptized in the cathedral of Acerra by Fr. Vincenzo Montesarchio; his godfather was Vincenzo del Giudice, a friend of the family.

Education. Elementary studies (five years) in Acerra; Seminary of Acerra, Acerra; Pontifical Theological Faculty of Southern Italy, Naples (doctorate in theology, 1930); Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome (doctorate in philosophy, 1932); obtained the diploma of the triennial study of the S.C. of the Council, 1934; Pontifical Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome (doctorate in utroque iuris, 1936); obtained the diploma of advocate of the Sacred Roman Rota and of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, 1938; obtained a doctorate in political science, 1952.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1930, in the bishop's chapel, by Francesco Di Pietro, bishop of Acerra. Professor at the Seminary of Acerra, 1930-1931. Pastoral work and further studies, 1930-1937. Professor at the Seminary of Potenza e Molfetta, 1934-1937. Work in different organs of the Roman Curia, 1937-1972: defender of the matrimonial bond, Sacred Roman Rota, 1939-1952; defender of the matrimonial bond, ecclesiastical tribunal of the conciliar region of Campania, 1941; advocate in the S.C. of Rites, for causes of the saints, 1949; deputy to the monasteries of the vicariate of Rome, 1951; commissary for the matrimonial causes, Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, 1954; prelate referendary of the Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signature, March 8, 1956; voting prelate, 1962; judge of the appellate tribunal of the Vicariate of Rome, 1956; defender of the matrimonial bond and commissary for matrimonial causes in the S.C. for Oriental Church, 1956; consultor of the S.C. for Oriental Church, 1958; undersecretary adjunct of the S.C. for Discipline of Sacraments, 1959; undersecretary, 1960. Expert in the preparatory commission for the Discipline of Sacraments of the Second Vatican Council, 1960-1962. Qualifier in the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, 1964; expert judge and commissary for matrimonial causes, 1966. Secretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, 1969.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Vescovio, January 6, 1972. Consecrated, February 13, 1972, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Cardinal Bernardus Johannes Alfrink, archbishop of Utrecht, and by Cardinal William Conway, archbishop of Armagh. In the same ceremony was consecrated Paul Augustin Mayer, O.S.B., titular archbishop of Satriano, pro-prefect of the SS. CC. for the Sacraments and for Divine Worship, future cardinal. Named secretary of the S.C. for the Causes of the Saints, February 2, 1973. Named pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Sacraments and Divine Worship, August 24, 1981.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giuseppe in Via Trionfale, February 2, 1983. Prefect of the S.C. for the Sacraments and Divine Worship, February 3, 1983. Attended the VI Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned prefecture, April 8, 1984. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, October 1, 1988. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, April 5, 1993.

Death. February 8, 2001, in Clinica Pio XI, Rome. When the pope learned the news of the death, he sent a telegram to the niece of the cardinal. The funeral, celebrated in the altar of the chair of the patriarchal Vatican basilica on Saturday February 10, at 11 a.m., was presided over by Pope John Paul II, who also delivered the homily; nineteen cardinals concelebrated with the pope and three were present at the ceremony; also present were numerous archbishops and bishops as well as priests from Acerra and Campania and the family of the late cardinal; the niece and her husband had the two first readings of the exquial liturgy. Later, the body of the late cardinal was transferred to Acerra; in the cemetery of the city, Bishop Salvatore Giovanni Rinaldi presided over a mass of suffrage, after which the body was buried in the family's tomb in that cemetery.

Bibliography. Sacramenti, liturgia, cause dei santi : studi in onore del cardinale Giuseppe Casoria. A cura di Antonio Moroni, Carlo Pinto e Marcello Bartolucci. Napoli : Campania Notizie, 1992; Scelzo, Angelo. Anche la Curia ha un' anima (napoletana). Vita del Cardinale Giuseppe Casoria. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2009.


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CASSIDY, Edward Idris
(1924-

Birth. July 5, 1924, Sydney, Australia.

Education. Parramatta Lyceum, Sydney; St. Colomban's Seminary, Springwood; St. Patrick's College, Manly; Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (doctorate in canon law); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 23, 1949. Pastoral work in the diocese of Wagga Wagga, 1950-1952. Further studies in Rome, 1952-1955. Joined the Vatican diplomatic service, 1955. Secretary, internunciature in India, 1955-1962. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness, July 3, 1956; June 21, 1963. Auditor, nunciature in Ireland, 1962-1967. Counselor, nunciature in El Salvador, 1967-1969. Counselor, nunciature in Argentina, 1969-1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Amanzia and appointed pro-nuncio in the Republic of China, October 27, 1970. Consecrated, November 15, 1970, chapel of the Pontifical Urban Athenaeum of Propaganda Fide, Rome, by Cardinal Jean Villot, secretary of State, assisted by Giovanni Benelli, titular archbishop of Tusuro, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Matthew Beovich, archbishop of Adelaide, representing Sergio Pignedoli, titular archbishop of Iconio, secretary of S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples. Pro-nuncio in Bangladesh, January 31, 1973. Apostolic delegate in South Africa and pro-nuncio in Lesotho, March 25, 1979. Pro-nuncio in Holland, November 6, 1984. Substitute of the secretariat of State for General Affairs, March 23, 1988. President of the Pontifical Council for Promotion of Christian Unity, December 12, 1989. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, June 28, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly for Europe of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; Special Assembly for Africa of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; IX Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; Special Assembly for Lebanon of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 26 to December 14, 1995. Special papal envoy to the celebrations at the Marian Shrine of Zarvanycia, Ukraine, for the 4th centenary of Union of Brest and the 350th anniversary of the Union of Uzhorod, May 19, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; Special Assembly for Asia of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; Special Assembly for Oceania of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998; one of its three presidents delegate. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the celebrations marking the millennium of Christianity in Iceland, Reykjavík, June 1 to 2, 2000. Resigned the presidency of the council, March 3, 2001. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, February 26, 2002. Special papal envoy to the ceremony for the reopening of the cathedral of St. Patrick, Parramatta, Australia, on November 29, 2003. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, July 5, 2004.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CASTALDO, Alfonso
(1890-1966)

Birth. November 6, 1890, Casoria, archdiocese of Naples, Italy. Third of the five children of Aniello Casoria, a merchant, and Marianna Crispino; his father died when he was seven years old. He was baptized at home, by special permission of the Neapolitan curia, on November 10, 1890, at noon, by Canon Alfonso Castaldo, his paternal uncle.

Education. Initial studies at the elementary of school of Casoria; Seminary of Cerreto Sannita (licenza ginnasiale); Seminary of Pozzuoli, Pozzuoli; Seminary of Naples, Naples; University of Naples, Naples (letters and philosophy). Msgr. Francesco Morano and Fr. Luigi Maglione, future cardinals, were influential in his decision to enter the seminary.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 8, 1913, Naples, by Angelo Michele Jannacchino, bishop of Cerreto. Military chaplain in the Italian Army in World War I, 1915-1918. Provost of the church of S. Mauro Abbate, Casoria, 1918-1934.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pozzuoli, March 27, 1934. Consecrated June 30, 1934, parish church of S. Marco, Casoria, by Cardinal Alessio Acalesi, archbishop of Naples, assisted by Salvatore del Bene, bishop of Cerreto Sannita (Telese), and by Salvatore Meo, titular bishop of Metone. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, July 16, 1949. Promoted to titular archbishop of Tessalonica and appointed coadjutor of Naples and administrator per vitam of Pozzuoli, January 14, 1950. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Naples, February 7, 1958. Named bishop ad personam of Pozzuoli, August 5, 1958.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, December 18, 1958. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. Thursday March 3, 1966, at 10:50 a.m., Filomarino palace, archiepiscopal residence, Naples; the funeral, celebrated in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples, was attended by Cardinal Francesco Morano and thirty archbishops and bishops. Buried n the chapel of Succopro near the remains of S. Gennaro, martyr and patron saint of Naples, in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples (1).

Bibliography. Di Petta, Pasquale. Alfonso Castaldo : preposito, vescovo, cardinale. Con appendice di Gaetano Capasso. Naples ; Rome : LER, 1997; Germier, Giuseppe. Il cardinale Alfonso Castaldo, arcivescovo di Napoli. Presentazione di S.E. Mons. Antonio Cece. Napoli: Santuario Basilica Immacolata del Ven. Placido Baccher, 1977.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb taken from an unnumbered color plate in Di Petta, Alfonso Castaldo : preposito, vescovo, cardinale:

ALFONSO CARD. CASTALDO
ARCHIEPISCOPVS NEAPOLITANVS
OVI ET PVTEOLANVS EPISCOPVS
SVRRECTVRVS
HEIC IN PACE REQVIESCIT
VI NOVEMBRES MDCCCXC
V NONAS MARTIAS MCMLXV


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CASTILLO LARA, S.D.B., Rosalio José
(1922-2007)

Birth. September 4, 1922, San Casimiro, diocese of Maracay, Venezuela. Son of Rosalio Castillo Hernández and Guillermina Lara Peña. He was the third of seven siblings, five boys and two girls. Nephew of Lucas Guillermo Castillo, archbishop of Caracas.

Education. Received his initial primary instruction from his mother at home; sent to Colegio Don Bosco, Valencia, 1934-1935 (from fourth grade); Salesian Lyceum "San José", Los Teques, 1935-1940. Joined the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco), novitiate of Bogotá, Colombia, 1940; Salesian houses of study, Colombia, 1940-1949; Salesian Athenaeum, Turin, 1950-(doctorate in canon law, October 1953, summa cum laude; his thesis director was Father Alfons Maria Stckler, S.D.B., future cardinal); University of Bonn, Germany.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 4, 1949, church of "María Auxiliadora, Sarría, Caracas, by his uncle. Celebrated his first mas in the chapel of the archbishopric, assisted by his uncle and in the presence of his mother, siblings and relatives (his father had died shortly before his ordination). Director of studies, St. Joseph Institute, Los Teques, 1949-1950. Further studies, 1950-1953, Turin. President of the Venezuelan Association of Catholic Educators, 1953. Professor of canon law at the Salesian Athenaeum, Turin, 1954-1957; 1957-1965, Rome, when the faculty of canon law was transferred to that city. Further research, 1962, Bonn. Numerary member of the Institute of Research and Study in Medieval Law, Toronto. Provincial of the Salesian Society in Venezuela, January 1966-August 1967; regional assistant of congregation for Latin America, Southern Cone, 1967-1971; general counselor for pastoral care for youth, 1971-1973.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Precausa and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Trujillo, Venezuela, March 26, 1973. Consecrated, May 24, 1973, Caracas, by Cardinal José Humberto Quintero Parra, archbishop of Caracas, assisted by Francisco José Iturriza Guillén, S.D.B., bishop of Coro, and by José León Rojas Chaparro, bishop of Trujillo. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Secretary of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law, February 12, 1975. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. President of the Disciplinary Commission of the Roman Curia, October 5, 1981. Pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law, May 22, 1982. Promoted to he rank of archbishop, May 26, 1982. Pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, January 18, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Nostra Signora di Coromoto in S. Giovanni di Dio, May 25, 1985. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, May 27, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, December 6, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. President of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, October 31, 1990. Attended the Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Special papal envoy to the 4th National Marian Congress, Guanare, Venezuela, May 29 to 31, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Resigned the presidency of Administration, June 24, 1995. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, January 29, 1996. Special papal envoy to the closing ceremonies of the Fifth Centennial of St. John of God's Birth, Granada, Spain, March 7 to 8, 1996. Resigned the presidency, October 14, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Returned to Venezuela in 1997 and lived in Güiripa, in San Casimiro, Aragua. Special papal envoy to the Third Colombian National Eucharistic Congress, Cali, October 16 to 18 1999. Special papal envoy to the Second Regional Eucharistic Congress of the Antilles, May 18-21, 2000, Castries, St. Lucie. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress of Argentina, Córdoba, September 8 to 10, 2000. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, September 4, 2002.

Death. October 16, 2007, at 7:40 a.m., in "Centro Médico de Caracas", Venezuela, where he had been hospitalized since September 19, 2007, due to an acute respiratory deficiency. The body of the cardinal was exposed in capilla ardiente in Templo Nacional de San Juan Bosco de Altamira, Caracas. The exequial mass was held on Thursday October 18, 2007, at noon, in Templo San Juan Bosco de Altamira. presided by the papal representative, Cardinal Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez, archbishop of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Later, the body of the late cardinal was taken to San Casimiro, State of Aragua, where a eucharistic was be celebrated at 4 p.m. After the mass, the body was taken to the city of Güiripa, State of Aragua, where, at 7 p.m., a mass was celebrated, and then, the capilla ardiente continued. On Friday October 19, 2007, at 11 a.m., in the chapel of María Auxiliadora, Güiripa, an exequial mass was concelebrated by the Venezuelan episcopate as a final farewell; the inhumation took place in that chapel.

Bibliography. Castillo Lara, Rosalio José ; Roberto Giusti. Memorias inconclusas del Cardenal Rosalio Castillo Lara. Caracas : Editorial Libros Marcados, 2007.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CASTRILLÓN HOYOS, Darío
(1929-

Birth. July 4, 1929, Medellín, Colombia.

Education. Seminary of Antioquia, Medellín; Seminary of Santa Rosa de Osos, Santa Rosa de Osos; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in canon law and specialization in religious sociology, political economics and ethical economics); Sociological Faculty, University of Louvain, Louvain, Belgium.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 26, 1952, basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, by Alfonso Carinci, titular archbishop of Seleucia di Isauria, secretary fo the S.C. of Rites. Further studies, Rome. Successively, in Colombia, 1954-1971, pastoral work in Segovia de Yarumal; director of Cursillos; director of the national pastoral program and of the Legion of Mary; official, diocesan curia of Santa Rosa de Osos; director of radiophonic schools; diocesan delegate of the Catholic Action (1959); ecclesiastical assistant of the Catholic Workers Youth; diocesan director of catechetics; inspector of the diocesan office of Popular Cultural Action (1962); secretary general of the Colombian episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Villa del re and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Pereira, June 2, 1971. Consecrated, July 18, 1971, by Angelo Palmas, titular archbishop of Vibiana, nuncio in Colombia, assisted by Aníbal Muñoz Duque, titular archbishop of Cariana, coadjutor of Bogotá, and by Baltasar Alvarez Restrepo, bishop of Pereira. Succeeded to the see of Pereira, July 1, 1976. Secretary general of the Latin American Episcopal Council, 1983-1987; its president, 1987-1991. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bucaramanga, December 16, 1992. Attended the IX Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Pro-prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy, June 15, 1996. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese, June 15, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; one of the three presidents-delegate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Nome di Maria al Foro Traiano, February 21, 1998. Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy, February 23, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29-May 14, 1998. Papal envoy to the signing of the Global and Definitive Agreement between Perú and Ecuador to settle their border dispute, Brasília, October 26, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; the Special Assembly for Oceania of World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998; the II Special Assembly for Europe of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the XII centennial of the construction of the duomo of Aachen, Germany, January 29 to 30, 2000. President of the Pontifical Commission "Ecclesia Dei", April 13, 2000. Special papal envoy to the closing celebrations of the Chilean National Eucharistic Congress and to the dedication of the new cathedral of the diocese of San Bernardo, Chile, November 25 and 26, 2000, respectively. Attended the X Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy and president of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, April 21, 2005. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Resigned the prefecture of the Congregation for the Clergy, October 31, 2006. Confirmed by Pope Benedict XVI as cardinal protodeacon on January 2, 2007; and again in the consistory of February 23, 2007; occupied the post until March 1, 2008. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, March 1, 2008. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned eighty years old on July 4, 2009. Ended his service as president of the Pontifical Commission "Ecclesia Dei" on July 8, 2009.

Bibliography. Miranda, Salvador. "Castrillón Hoyos, Darío." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyla years. Detroit : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, pp. 242-243.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CATTANI AMADORI, Federico
(1856-1943)

Birth. April 17, 1856, Maradi, diocese of Modigliana, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Modigliana, Modigliana; Pontifical Roman Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas, Rome; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 5, 1879, Modigliana. Faculty member of the Seminary of Modigliana and pastoral work in that diocese, 1879-1888; vicar general, 1888-1906. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 14, 1904. Further studies, 1906-1909. Apostolic visitor to Marsica, 1909. Auditor of His Holiness, February 9, 1909. Secretary of the cardinalitial commission deciding competence questions between Roman congregations, 1921. Secretary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, February 14, 1924. Apostolic protonotary, 1926.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, December 19, 1935. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. April 11, 1943, of a heart disease, Rome. Buried in the parish church of Maradi, his native town.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CAVALCANTI, Joaquim Arcoverde de Albuquerque
(1850-1930)

Birth. January 17, 1850, Cimbres, Pernambuco, diocese of Olinda, Brazil.

Education. Collegio Romano, Rome; Pontifical Collegio Pio-Latinomericano, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorates in philosophy and theology); Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris; La Sorbonne University, Paris (natural sciences).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 4, 1874, Rome. Further studies, Paris, 1874-1876. From 1876 to 1878, rector of the Seminary of Olinda. Parish priest of Boa Vista and of São Frei Pedro Gonçalves, Recife, 1878; of Cimbres, 1879. Professor and rector of the Ginásio Pernambucano. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Olinda. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 27, 1884. Nominated coadjutor bishop of São Salvador da Bahia, Brazil, March 7, 1888 by the imperial regent princess; the nomination was withdrawn when he declined, April 18, 1888.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Goias, Brazil, June 26, 1890; consecrated, October 26, 1890, Rome, by Cardinal Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of State, assisted by António de Macedo Costa, archbishop of São Salvador da Bahia, and by Domenico Ferrata, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. Resigned the government of diocese, October 27, 1891. Returned to Brazil and resided in Colégio de São Luiz, in Itu. Transferred to the titular see of Argos and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of São Paulo, August 26, 1892. Succeeded to the diocese of São Paulo, August 19, 1894. Assistant to the Pontifical Throne, November 12, 1896. Promoted to the metropolitan see of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, August 31, 1897. Attended the First Latin American Plenary Council, Vatican City, May 29 to July 9, 1899.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1905; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio, December 14, 1905. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. He was the first Brazilian cardinal and the first cardinal from Latin America.

Death. April 18, 1930, Rio de Janeiro. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Rio de Janeiro.

Bibliography. Almeida, Alceste Pinheiro de. O cardeal arcoverde e a reorganizaçco eclesiástica. Wernet, Augustin, orient. São Paulo, 2004. Dissertation: Tese (Doutorado). Abstract: Essa tese busca tragar o itinerário de um prelado da Igreja Católica Romana, Joaquim Arcoverde Albuquerque Cavalcanti, bispo coadjutor e titular de São Paulo entre 1892 e 1897, arcebispo do Rio de Janeiro de 1897 a 1930, cardeal - o primeiro da América Latina - em 1906. Foi o principal líder da Igreja no Brasil a partir de sua posse no Distrito Federal. Articulador das relações com o Estado e formulador de sua polmtica. A tese procura elucidar a ação de um prelado em um ambiente muitas vezes hostil à religião católica. Sua atuação dirigiu-se ao interior da Igreja: ampliou o controle sobre o clero, desarticulou as irmandades leigas, impõs novos padrões de organização, burocratizou as paróquias, contratou ordens e congregações estrangeiras para o Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, instituiu no Brasil devoções européias, encontrou formas de suprir a perda do apoio do Estado. Arcoverde agiu também para fora da Igreja. Foi quem, ao assumir a Arquidiocese do Distrito Federal, deu continuidade à polmtica estabelecida de convivência com o Estado. Tal polmtica vigorou até o final da segunda década do siculo XX, quando a Santa Sé optou então por um novo modelo, sob a liderança de um jovem bispo paulista, Sebastião Leme; Gardel, Luis Delgado. Les armoiries ecclésiastiques au Brésil, 1551-1962; armes des éminentissimes cardinaux, des archêveques et évêques résidentiels, titulaires, et in partibus infidelium, et des prélats et abbés nullius dioeceseos. Rio de Janeiro: Companhia Gráfica Lux, 1963; Nóbrega, Apolonio. "Dioceses e bispos do Brasil". Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, CCXXII (January-March 1954), 200-222.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CAVALLARI, Aristide
(1849-1914)

Birth. February 8, 1849, Chioggia, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Chioggia, Chioggia (first three years of theology); his family moved to Venice; Patriarchal Seminary of Venice, Venice.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 27, 1872, Venice, by Cardinal Giuseppe Luigi Trevisanato, patriarch of Venice. Pastoral work in Venice: S. Elisabetta di Lido, 1872-1880; cooperator in the parish of S. Caciano, 1880-1886; economous and later pastor in Treporti, 1886-188; archpriest of S. Pietro di Castello, 1888-1903. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Venice; synodal examiner; official of patriarchal curia.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Filadelfia, with dispensation of degree and retaining the archpriesthood of S. Pietro di Castello, and appointed auxiliary of Venice, August 22, 1903. Consecrated, August 23, 1903, church of the Franciscan Missionaries, in via Giusti, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Satolli, bishop of Frascati, prefect of S.C. of Studies, assisted by Jeremy James Harty, archbishop of Manila, and by Paolo Maria Barone, titular archbishop of Melitene. Named vicar general of Venice, January 1904. Promoted to the patriarchal see of Venice, April 15, 1904.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 15, 1907; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Cosmedin, deaconry elevated pro illla vice to title, April 18, 1907. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.

Death. November 24, 1914, Venice. Buried, S. Cristoforo chapel, cemetery of S. Michele, Venice. Transferred to the patriarchal cathedral of Venice, November 1957.

Bibliography. Niero, Antonio. I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni. Venice : Studium Cattolico Veneziano, 1961. (Collana Storica, 3), pp. 205-207.


Link. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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CÉ, Marco
(1925-

Birth. July 8, 1925, Izano, diocese of Crema, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Crema, Crema; Lyceum A. Verri, Lodi; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 27, 1948, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Faculty member and vice-rector, Seminary of Crema, 1948-1957; rector, 1950-1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Vulturia and appointed auxiliary of Bologna, April 22, 1970. Consecrated, May 17, 1970, Crema, by Carlo Manziana, bishop of Crema, assisted by Franco Costa, titular archbishop of Emmaus, General Ecclesiastical Assistant of the Italian Catholic Action, and by Placido Cambiaghi, C.R.S.P., bishop of Novara. General Ecclesiastical Assistant of the Italian Catholic Action, May 21, 1976. Promoted to the patriarchal see of Venice, December 7, 1978.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Marco, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City. Attended the V Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the VI Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the VII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the XVI centennial of the death of Saint Vigil, bishop, patron of the archdiocese of Trent, Italy, that took place in that city on June 26, 2001. Resigned the pastoral government of patriarchate, January 5, 2002. Apostolic administrator of Venice, January 5 to March 3, 2002. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, July 8, 2005. Preached the spiritual exercises for Pope Benedict XVI and the Roman Curia, March 5 to 11, 2006, chapel Redemptoris Mater, Vatican City on the theme "Camminando con Gesù verso la Pasqua guidati dallEvangelista Marco".

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CENTO, Fernando
(1883-1973)

Birth. August 10, 1883, Pollenza, diocese of Macerata, Italy. His parents were Evaristo Cento and his second wife, Ermelinda Andreani. He had a half-sister, Rosa, and a brother, Vincenzo.

Education. Seminary of Macerata, Macerata, 1893-1905 (philosophy and theology); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (canon law); La Sapienza Royal University, Rome (obtained a doctorate in letters; dissertation: "Il pensiero educativo di Dante"). Received the tonsure and the first two minor orders on March 19, 1904, in the church Corpus Domini, Macerata, from Raniero Sarnari, bishop of Macerata; the other two minor orders on April 8, 1905, in the cathedral of Tolentino, from the same bishop; the subdiaconate on September 23, 1905, in the cathedral of Fermo; the diaconate on December 17, 1905 in the basilica of the Madonna della Misericordia.

Priesthood. Ordained, Saturday December 23, 1905, Macerata; he had to obtain a dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age of 23 years required to be ordained a priest. Further studies in Rome. Professor of literature at the Seminary of Macerata; and of philosophy at the State Institute of Macerata, 1906-1916; demonstrated excellent qualities as a preacher in several Italian dioceses. Called to the military service during the First World War, was attached to the Service of Health at the military hospital of Ancona, 1915-1917. Founder and first director of the weekly Il Cittadino, diocesan paper. Secretary to the papal majordome, Giovanni Tacci, titular archbishop of of Nicea, 1917-1918. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, November 15, 1917. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Macerata and pastor of the cathedral, 1919-1922.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Acireale, July 22, 1922. Consecrated, September 3, 1922, cathedral of Macerata, by Cardinal Giovanni Tacci, secretary of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, assisted by Domenico Pasi, bishop of Macerata-Tolentino, and by Placido Ferniani, bishop of Ruvo e Bitonto. Promoted to titular archbishop of Seleucia Pieria, June 24, 1926. Appointed nuncio in Venezuela, June 28, 1926. Nuncio in Perú, July 26, 1936; he was charged with the affairs of the church in Ecuador, which had not had diplomatic relations with the Holy See for nearly forty years. Named nuncio in Ecuador, July 25, 1937, after having successfully negotiated the modus vivendi with the Ecuadorian government, which established the diplomatic relations between both states (1). Papal legate to the Second National Eucharistic Congress, La Paz, Bolivia, April 16, 1939. Envoy in a special mission to Venezuela, 1939. Extraordinary ambassador to the inauguration of President Manuel Prado y Ugarteche of Perú, December 8, 1939. Papal legate to the Second National Eucharistic Congress, Arequipa, Perú, September 21, 1940. Extraordinary ambassador to the inauguration of Juan Antonio Ríos Morales of Chile, April 2, 1942. Extraordinary ambassador to the inauguration of President José Luis Bustamante y Rivero of Perú, July 28, 1945. Extraordinary ambassador to the inauguration of President Marshal Gaspar Dutra of Brazil, January 31, 1946. Nuncio in Belgium and Luxemburg, March 9, 1946. Extraordinary papal envoy to the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain, June 2, 1953. Nuncio in Portugal, October 26, 1953.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Eustachio, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, March 12, 1959. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Córdoba, Argentina, October 20, 1959. Grand penitentiary, February 12, 1962. Papal legate to the Fourth Centennial Celebration of Theresian Reforms, Avila, Spain, July 16, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Velletri, April 23, 1965. Papal legate to consign the Golden Rose to the Shrine of Fátima, Portugal, May 13, 1965. Resigned his post of grand penitentiary, April 6, 1967. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. He founded "Casa di Riposo di Pollenza", 1972.

Death. January 13, 1973, at 4 a.m., Rome. On that same day, Pope Paul VI visited the chapel where the body of the cardinal was exposed. The funeral mass, celebrated by Luigi Punzolo, titular archbishop of Sebastea, apostolic administrator of Velletri, took place in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on January 16, 1973, at 10:30 a.m. Cardinal Luigi Traglia represented the pope in the final commendation. A large number of cardinals, archbishops and bishops of the Roman Curia, as well as from Macerata, Pollenza and Acireale, attended the funeral. A funeral mass in the cathedral of Macerata was presided by Bishop Ersilio Tonini, bishop of Macerata, and concelebrated by 100 priests and numerous bishops. The funeral in Pollenza was a demonstration of the esteem of its population for the late cardinal. His mortal remains were buried in the parish church of S. Antonio, Pollenza, where he had celebrated his first mass.

Bibliography. Bogliolo, Luigi ; Casolini, Fausta. Il Cardinale Cento, 1883-1973. Dal focolare domestico alla porpora. Roma : Città Nuova Editrice, 1983.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The nuncio was asked to visit Ecuador on his way to enter his nunciature in Perú. The Ecuadoran government had placed as an absolute condition that the vist would have to be of a strictly private character. The nuncio entered the country as a simple tourist. He disembarked in the port of Guayaquil on August 31, 1936, and was received by civil and ecclesiastical authorities. Archbishop Carlos María de la Torre of Quito, future cardinal, went to meet him in the middle of the street in the city of Riobamba. The news of his arrival spread and provoked a festive and enthusiastic response from the population. The archbishop of Quito organized a a triumphant reception for the nuncio in that city, when he arrived at the station on September 3, 1936. The government got alarmed by the enthusiasm of the people and reminded the nuncio that he came as a private visitor and that it could not guarantee his safety. He was hosted by the Álvarez Barba family, who owned a house in the center of the city of Quito. President Federico Páez, who had probably imposed the restrictions on the visit of the nuncio, sent a high level officer of the presidency to greet the visitor the following morning. Archbishop Cento, after having celebrated mass in the Salesian church of "Cristo Rey", went personally to return the visit to the president and in the evening, he visited the foreign minister; he later went to thank the archbishop. From that day, the nuncio initiated a cordial rapport with the Catholic people of Quito and the diplomatic relations with the government, which culminated with a modus vivendi between the church and the state.


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CEREJEIRA, Manuel Gonçalves
(1888-1977)

Birth. November 29, 1888, Lousado, archdiocese of Braga, Portugal.

Education. Seminary of Braga, Braga; University of Coimbra, Coimbra.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 1, 1911, Braga. Faculty member of the University of Coimbra, 1911-1928. Member of the Permanent Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses, December 7, 1925.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Mitilene and appointed suffragan of Lisbon, March 23, 1928. Consecrated, June 17, 1928, Coimbra, by Luis Coelho da Silva, bishop of Coimbra, assisted by José Alves Correia da Silva, bishop of Leiria, and by António Antunes, titular bishop of e Retimo and coadjutor of Coimbra. Named vicar capitular of Lisbon, August 5, 1929. Promoted to the patriarchate of Lisbon, November 18, 1929.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1929; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, December 19, 1929. Papal legate to the National Congress of Prayer's Apostolate, Braga, July 15, 1930; to the centennial celebrations of St. Anthony, Lisbon, June 13, 1931; to the First National Missionary Congress, Lisbon, September 4, 1931; to the centennial celebrations of St. Elizabeth of Portugal, Coimbra, June 24, 1936. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Papal legate to the consecration of new cathedral of Lourenço Marques, Mozambique, May 28, 1944; to the 4th centennial celebration of the death of St. John of God, Portugal and Spain, September 23, 1950; to the 4th centennial celebrations of St. Francis Xavier's death, Goa, India, October 30, 1952; to the National Marian Congress, Braga, May 24, 1954. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Papal legate to the dedication of new Brazilian capital, Brasília, March 2, 1960. Cardinal protopriest, August 6, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Papal legate to the celebrations in honor of Our Lady of Monte Sameiro, May 20, 1964. Attended the I Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. Resigned the pastoral government of the patriarchate, May 10, 1971.

Death. August 2, 1977, Lisbon. Buried, tomb of the patriarchs, church of São Vicente de Fora. He was the last surviving cardinal of Pope Pius XI.

Link. Brief biography, in Portuguese, in Os Cardeais Portugueses - Nota Histórica, under "D. MANUEL GONÇALVES CEREJEIRA - 14º Cardeal Patriarca de Lisboa"; and photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CERRETTI, Bonaventura
(1872-1933)

Birth. June 17, 1872, Comune de Bardono, diocese of Orvieto, Italy. Son of Faustino Cerretti and Maria Custodi.

Education. Seminary of Spoleto, Spoleto; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Royal University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 31, 1895, Rome, by Tancredo Fausti, titular archbishop of Seleucia Pieria. Pastoral work in the diocese of Orvieto, 1895-1899. Staff member in the Secretariat of State, 1899-1904. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, January 13, 1904. Secretary to apostolic delegate in México, 1904-1906. Auditor in the apostolic delegation in the United States of America, 1906-1914.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Filippopoli di Tracia, April 15, 1914. Transferred to the titular see of Corinto, May 10, 1914. Consecrated, July 19, 1914, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State, assisted by Giulio Serafini, titular archbishop of Lepanto, and by Salvatore Fratocchi, bishop of Orvieto. Apostolic delegate in Australia and New Zealand, October 5, 1914. Secretary of the S C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, May 6, 1917. In special mission to the peace conference, Paris, May to June, 1919. Nuncio in France, May 20, 1921.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 14, 1925; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, June 24, 1926. Papal legate to the 29th International Eucharistic Congress, Sydney, Australia, June 14, 1928. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, July 16, 1930. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, October 12, 1931. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Velletri, March 13, 1933. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1933; he died shortly after.

Death. May 8, 1933, Rome. Buried, basilica of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, pp. 435-436; Cerretti, Elvira. Il Cardinale Bonaventura Cerretti. Rome : Istituto grafico Tiberino, 1939; De Marco, Vittorio. Un diplomatico vaticano all'Eliseo : il cardinale Bonaventura Cerretti (1872-1933). Rome : Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 1984. (Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 52; Politica e storia, 52).

Link. His photograph and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.


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CHAROST, Alexis
(1860-1930)

Birth. November 14, 1860, Le Mans, France. His baptismal name was Alexis-Armand.

Education. Seminary of Le Mans, Le Mans; Pontifical French Seminary, Rome; Catholic University of Angers, Angers.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 19, 1883. Faculty member of the School of Sainte-Croix, 1883-1892. Director of the Internship of Notre Dame de la Couture, Le Mans, 1892-1894. Secretary to the archbishop of Rennes, 1894-1899. Titular canon of the cathedral chapter of Rennes, 1899. Vicar general and director of secondary studies of the archdiocese of Rennes, 1909-1913.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Mliletopoli and appointed auxiliary of Cambrai for the General Vicariate of Lille, February 14, 1913. Consecrated, May 13, 1913, metropolitan cathedral of Rennes, by Auguste-Rene Dubourg, archbishop of Rennes, assisted by François Delamaire, archbishop of Cambrai, and by Olivier de Dufort, bishop of Langres. Transferred to see of Lille, November 21, 1913. Acting chancellor of the Catholic University of Lille, 1915; chancellor, 1919. Promoted to titular archbishop of Chersoneso and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Rennes, June 15, 1920. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Rennes, September 22, 1921.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1922; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, December 14, 1922. Papal legate to the centennial celebrations in honor of Cardinal Charles-Martial Allemand-Lavigerie, Algiers, August 25, 1925; to the 50th anniversary of the Catholic University of Lille, March 14, 1927; to the celebrations in honor of St. Thérèse de Lisieux, Lisieux, September 15, 1929.

Death. November 7, 1930, Rennes. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Rennes.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 231-232.

Link. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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CHELI, Giovanni
(1918-

Birth. October 4, 1918, Turin, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Asti, Asti; Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome (doctorate in canon law and licentiateship in theology); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 21, 1942. In Asti, 1942-1949, diocesan vice-counselor of the Young Men of Catholic Action; faculty member and prefect general of discipline of the Seminary of Asti. Further studies and pastoral work in Rome, 1949-1952. Entered the Vatican diplomatic service, 1952. Attaché of the nunciature in Guatemala and faculty member in the Catholic University of Santa María, Guatemala City, 1952-1955. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness, March 2, 1953; October 28, 1958. Secretary of the nunciature in Spain and pastoral work in Madrid, 1955-1962. Counselor of the nunciature in Italy, 1962-1967. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 1, 1965. At the service of Pontifical Council for Public Affairs of the Church, 1967-1973. Permanent observer of the Holy See at the United Nations Organization, July 25, 1973.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Santa Giusta and named apostolic nuncio, September 8, 1978. Consecrated, September 16, 1978, Vatican City, by Cardinal Jean Villot, bishop of the title of suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, prefect of Pontifical Council for Public Affairs of the Church, camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, assisted by Giuseppe Caprio, titular archbishop of Apollonia, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Agostino Casaroli, titular archbishop of Cartago, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. Pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the Pastoral Care of Migrations and Tourism, September 18, 1986; commission changed name to Pontifical Council for Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants on June 28, 1988. President of the Pontifical Commission for Migrants and Intinerants, March 1, 1989. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the IX Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; the Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for America, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, February 21, 1998. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission for Migrants and Intinerants, June 15, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned 80 years of age, October 4, 1998. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, March 1, 2008.

Link. Biography, in English; photograph and biography, in English; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CHIARLO, Carlo
(1881-1964)

Birth. November 4, 1881, Pontremoli, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Lucca, Lucca; Pontifical "Angelicum" Athenaeum, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 28, 1904, Lucca. Faculty member of the Seminary of Lucca and pastoral work in that archdiocese, 1904-1917. Secretary; and later, chargé d'affaires in the nunciature in Perú, 1917-1922. Auditor in the nunciature in Poland, 1922-1928. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, May 26, 1918; reappointed, July 21, 1922.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Amida, October 12, 1928. Consecrated, November 11, 1928, chapel of Collegio Pio-Latinoamericano, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Giovanni Volpi, titular archbishop of Antiochia di Pisidia, and by Theodor Kubina, bishop of Czestochowa. Named nuncio in Bolivia, November 12, 1928. Nuncio in Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Panamá, January 7, 1932. Transferred to the newly established nunciature in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panamá, December 19, 1933. Recalled to Rome in 1941 and charged with the special mission of assisting prisoners of the Second World War. Head of the pontifical mission to Germany, 1945. Nuncio in Brazil, March 19, 1946. Nuncio at disposition of the Secretariat of State, September 1954-1958.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, December 18, 1958. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Attended the first two sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1963.

Death. January 21, 1964, Lucca. Buried in the urban cemetery of Lucca.

Link. His portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CIAPPI, O.P., Mario Luigi
(1909-1996)

Birth. October 6, 1909, Florence, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Lucca, Lucca; Seminary of Arezzo, Arezzo. Joined Order of Preachers (Dominicans); professed in the convent of Santa Maria della Quercia, Viterbo; convent of San Domenico, Pistoia; Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome (doctorate in theology; thesis: De divina misericordia ut prima causa operum Dei); University of Louvain, Louvain, Belgium; University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 26, 1932, Rome. Further studies, 1932-1935. Faculty member and dean of the Theological Faculty of the Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome, 1935-1955; of the Institute Beato Angelico, Rome. Master of the Sacred Palace, May 5, 1955; title changed to theologian of the Pontifical Household by the motu proprio Pontificalis domus, March 28, 1968. Attended the I Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Miseno, June 10, 1977. Consecrated, June 18, 1977, basilica of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, by Cardinal Dino Staffa, prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signature, assisted by Jean Jérôme Hamer, O.P., titular archbishop of Lorio, secretary of the S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith, and by Angelo Raimondo Verardo, O.P., bishop of Ventimiglia-San Remo.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 27, 1977; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Nostra Signora del S. Cuore, June 27, 1977. Pro-theologian of the Pontifical Household, 1977-1989 . Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 - 9, 1979. Opted for order of cardinal priests and the title of Sacro Cuore di Gesù aggonizante a Vitinia, June 22, 1987. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, October 6, 1989.

Death. April 23, 1996, Rome. Buried, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Link. His portrait, Araldica Vaticana.


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CICOGNANI, Amleto Giovanni
(1883-1973)

Birth. February 24, 1883, Brisighella, diocese of Faenza, Italy. Son of Guglielmo Cicognani and Anna Ceroni; she was widowed at an early age; she ran a general store in order to support her sons, who were her only two children. Brother of Cardinal Gaetano Cicognani (1953).

Education. Seminary of Faenza, Faenza; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 23, 1905, Faenza, by Gioacchino Cantagalli, bishop of Faenza. Further studies, 1905-1910. Official at the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, May 10, 1910. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 28, 1917; reappointed, March 9, 1922. Faculty member of the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", 1921-1932. Substitute adjunct of the S.C. Consistorial, December 16, 1922. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 19, 1923. Pastoral work in the diocese of Rome, 1926-1932. Special missions to United States of America, 1924 and 1931; to Brazil, 1926. Assessor of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, February 16, 1928. Secretary of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Codification of Oriental Canon Law, December 2, 1929. Protonotary apostolic, April 7, 1932.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Laodicea di Frigia, March 17, 1933. Consecrated, April 23, 1933, in the church of S. Susanna, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Carlo Rossi, O.C.D., secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Giuseppe Pizzardo, titular archbishop of Nicea, and by Carlo Salotti, titular archbishop of Filippopoli. Apostolic delegate to the United States of America, April 23, 1933.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Clemente, December 18, 1958. His creation was an exception made to canon 232, 3, of the Code of Canon Law, that forbids anyone having a brother in the Sacred College of Cardinals to be a cardinal. Gaetano Cicognani, his brother, had been created a cardinal in the consistory of January 12, 1953, and was still living. Secretary of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, November 14, 1959. Papal legate to the National Catechetical Congress, Dallas, March 20, 1961. Secretary of State, president of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, and president of the Commission of Cardinals for the Administration of the Wealth of the Holy See, August 12, 1961. President of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Special Administration of the Holy See, October 4, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, May 23, 1962. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Confirmed in all his posts by the new Pope Paul VI, June 21, 1963. Papal legate to the 19th centennial celebration of the arrival of St. Paul Apostle to Spain, Tarragona, December 31, 1963. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See, May 7, 1968. Resigned his posts, April 30, 1969. Secretary of State emeritus, May 8, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years of age, January 1, 1971. Elected by the cardinal bishops and confirmed by Pope Paul VI as dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals and cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, retaining the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, March 24, 1972.

Death. December 17, 1973, Vatican City. Buried in the church of S. Clemente, Rome.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 207; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, pp. 42-43.


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CICOGNANI, Gaetano
(1881-1962)

Birth. November 26, 1881, Brisighella, diocese of Faenza, Italy. Son of Guglielmo Cicognani and Anna Ceroni; she was widowed at an early age; she ran a general store in order to support her sons, who were her only two children. Brother of Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani (1958).

Education. Seminary of Faenza, Faenza; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome; Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 24, 1904, Faenza, by Gioacchino Cantagalli, bishop of Faenza. Successively, 1904-1915, further studies; staff member of the S. Roman Rota; staff member of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature; faculty member of the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome. Entered in the Secretariat of State, 1915. Secretary of the nunciature in Spain, February 1, 1916. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 9, 1916; reappointed, July 5, 1922. Auditor of the nunciature in Belgium, February 3, 1920.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Ancira, January 11, 1925. Appointed nuncio in Bolivia, January 10, 1925. Consecrated, February 1, 1925, chapel of the Pontifical Collegio Pio-Latinoamericano, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Rafaello Carlo Rossi, O.C.D., titular archbishop of Tessalonica, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial, and by Giovanni Maria Zonghi, titular archbishop of Colosso, president of the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles. Nuncio in Perú, June 15, 1928. Papal legate to the First National Eucharistic Congress, Lima, Perú, September, 1935. Nuncio in Austria, June 13, 1936. Nuncio in Spain (National Government), May 16, 1938.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, October 29, 1953. Prefect of the S.C of Rites, December 7, 1953. Pro-prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signature, November 18, 1954 to November 14, 1959. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, December 14, 1959.

Death. February 5, 1962, Rome. Buried in the collegiate church of S. Michele, Brisighella, Faenza.

Bibliography. Il Cardinale Gaetano Cicognani (1881-1962). Note per una biografia. Roma : Studium, 1983; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 258-261.

Links. Biography, in Italian; and his photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CINTRA, Sebastião Leme da Silveira
(1882-1942)

Birth. January 20, 1882, Espirito Santo do Pinhal, diocese of Ribeirão Preto (now diocese of São João da Boa Vista), Brazil.

Education. Seminary of São Paulo, São Paulo; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1904, Rome. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of São Paulo; faculty member of its seminary, director of the archdiocesan newspaper A Gazeta do Povo; and cathedral canon, 1904-1910. Pro-vicar general of São Paulo, 1909-1911.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ortosia di Fenicia and appointed auxiliary of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, March 24, 1911. Consecrated, June 24, 1911, Rome, by Cardinal Joaquim Arcoverde de Albuquerque Cavalcanti, archbishop of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, assisted by Francisco do Rego Maia, titular archbishop of Nicopoli al Nesto, and by Juan Nepomuceno Terrero y Escalada, bishop of La Plata. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Olinda, April 29, 1916. Became also archbishop of Recife when the see was united to Olinda, April 29, 1918. Named titular archbishop of Farsala and appointed coadjutor of Rio de Janeiro, with right of succession, March 15, 1921. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, April 18, 1930.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1930; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alesio, July 3, 1930. Papal legate to the dedication of the monument of Christ the Redeemer, Rio de Janeiro, September 14, 1931; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Bahia, June 15, 1933; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Belo Horizonte, July 27, 1936. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Papal legate to the Plenary Council of Brazil and the National Eucharistic Congress, Recife, July 21, 1939. Founder of the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, 1941.

Death. October 17, 1942, Rio de Janeiro. Buried, Shrine of the Eucharistic Heart of Jesus, Rio de Janeiro.

Link. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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CIPRIANI THORNE, Opus Dei, Juan Luis
(1943-

Birth. December 28, 1943, Lima, Perú. He is the fourth of the eleven children of Enrique Cipriani and Isabel Thorne.

Education. Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería (UNI), Lima (doctorate in industrial engineering); worked as an engineer for some time with W.R. Grace and was a promoter of the Instituto Rural Valle Grande. Member of the Peruvian basketball team in the Bolivarian competition in Barranquilla, Colombia (first place); second place in South American Tournament, Lima; champion in South American Tournament, Montevideo, Uruguay; also participated in Pan American Games, Winnipeg, Canada. Joined the Opus Dei, Lima, June 10, 1962. International Seminary of the Opus Dei, Rome; University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (doctorates in philosophy and theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 21, 1977, Madrid, Spain. Faculty member, Pontifical and Civil Faculty of Theology of Lima; spiritual director of the Major Seminary of Lima; chaplain and faculty member of Escuela de Alta Dirección and of Escuela Superior Montemar, Lima; from 1986 to 1988, regional vicar of the Opus Dei in Perú and vice chancellor of the University of Piura.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of and appointed auxiliary of Ayacucho. Consecrated, July 3, 1988, cathedral of Lima, by Cardinal Juan Landázuri Ricketts, O.F.M., archbishop of Lima, assisted by Luigi Dossena, titular archbishop of de Carpi, nuncio in Perú, and by Federico Richter Fernández-Prada, O.F.M., archbishop of Ayacucho. Apostolic administrator of Ayacucho, May 23, 1991. Attended the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Ayacucho, May 13, 1995. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Lima, January 9, 1999. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical and Civil Theological Faculty of Lima, January 9, 1999. Grand Chancellor of the Pontifical Catholic University of Perú, March 24, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Camillo de Lellis, February 21, 2001. Attended the X Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Named member of of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, February 3, 2007. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. On January 9, 2009, the Peruvian government decorated him with the Order "El Sol del Perú", with the grade of grand cross, on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of his appointment as archbishop of Lima. On January 30, 2009, the mayor of Lima, Dr. Luis Castañeda Lossio, granted him the "Medalla de Lima" in recognition of his pastoral work in the archdiocese of Lima. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 4th centennial of the archdiocese of Ayacucho, Perú, which took place on July 20, 2009.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Spanish; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CIRIACI, Pietro
(1885-1966)

Birth. December 2, 1885, Rome, Italy. Son of Giuseppe Ciriaci and Maria Giuggiolini Magnaterra. He was baptized in the church of S. Crisogono, Rome; and received first communion in the church of "Madonna di Ponterotto", Rome, on June 27, 1897.

Education. Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; entered, October 31, 1902; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome (doctorates in philosophy, July 5, 1904; theology, July 6, 1909; and canon law, November 8, 1911).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1909, Rome; celebrated his first mass in the church of S. Maria Liberatrice "a Monte Testaccio" on December 19, 1909. Vice-pastor of S. Rocco parish, Rome, July 28, 1910. Professor of ethical philosophy at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare"; later, of fundamental theology and dean of the faculty, November 14, 1914 until September 1926. Scrittore at of the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, January 21, 1911; promoted to registratore, December 15, 1911. Adjunct aiutante di studio at the S.C. of the Council, February 22, 1913. Minutant at the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, first section, June 16, 1917. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness, October 26, 1918. Under-secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, May 14, 1921. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 27, 1922. On March 27, 1927, he left Rome as special envoy to solve the incident of the feast of Ján Huss (1), for which Archbishop Francesco Marmaggi, nuncio in that country, had to leave the post; and to conclude the modus vivendi between Czechoslovakia and the Holy See; he successfully solved the problem of the celebration and signed the agreement on December 17, 1927.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tarso, February 15, 1928. Consecrated, March 18, 1928, basilica of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Carlo Cremonesi, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, secret almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Profreone, sacristan of His Holiness. Named nuncio in Czechoslovakia, March 18, 1928. Nuncio in Portugal, January 19, 1934.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Prassede, October 29, 1953. Prefect of S.C. of Council, March 20, 1954 to December 30, 1966. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, May 31, 1955. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Opted for the title of S Lorenzo in Lucina, September 26, 1964.

Death. December 30, 1966, in his Roman residence in Via Rusticucci; his confessor, Fr. Salvatore Finelli, C.SS.R., was present. He was exposed in his residence on December 31, 1966. The funeral took place on January 3, 1967, in the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, presided by Pope Paul VI. His remains were buried in the first chapel on the right of that same basilica (2).

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), 147-148; Palazzini, Pietro. "Fulgida porpora, prima guida alla revisione del Codice. Il Cardinale Pietro Ciriaci". Apollinaris, XLI (1968), 7-42.

Link. Photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The Czech government dropped the celebration of the feast of St. Ján Chrysostom and replaced it with the feast of Ján Huss, who is considered a heretic by the church.
(2) This is the text of the inscription that he composed for the stone that covers his tomb, taken from Palazzini, "Fulgida porpora, prima guida alla revisione del Codice. Il Cardinale Pietro Ciriaci", p. 9: Petrus presb. Card. Ciriaci in sua prisca paroecia et in archiepiscopum Tarsenen consecrari et in Domino requiescere voluit.


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CIVARDI, Ernesto
(1906-1989)

Birth. October 21, 1906, Fossarmato, diocese of Pavia, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Pavia, Pavia; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in canon law); Sacred Roma Rota, legal section, Vatican City (Rotal lawyer).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1930, Pavia. Further studies, 1930-1932, Rome. Vice-rector, Lombardian Seminary, Rome, 1932-1934. Pastoral work in the diocese of Rome and staff member of the S.C. Consistorial, 1934-1953. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 15, 1950. Substitute of the S.C. Consistorial, 1953-1965; undersecretary, 1965-1967. Commissary of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments and justice promoter of the Vatican City Tribunal, 1953-1967. Referendary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, November 18, 1958; voting prelate, October 10, 1962. Expert at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Counselor of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, 1965-1967. Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, May 17, 1967.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sardica, June 26, 1967. Consecrated, July 16, 1967, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Augusto Gianfranceschi, bishop of Cesena, and by Jacques-Paul Martin, titular bishop of Neapoli di Palaestina, canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. In the same ceremony was consecrated Agostino Casaroli, titular archbishop of Cartagine, future cardinal. Secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, July 16, 1967; and three other prelates. Present at the ceremony was his brother Luigi, titular bishop of Tespia and canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Secretary of the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Secretary of the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Teodoro, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, October 21, 1986.

Death. November 28, 1989, Rome. Buried in the chapel of the "Confraternità dei Lombardi", Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.


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CLANCY, Edward Bede
(1923-

Birth. December 13, 1923, Lithgow, diocese of Bathurst, Australia. Son of John Bede Clancy and Ellen Lucy Edwards.

Education. St. Columba's College, Springwood; St. Patrick's College, Manly; Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome (doctorate in theology); Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome (licentiate in Sacred Scriptures).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 23, 1949. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of Sydney, 1949-1952. Further studies, Rome, 1952-1955. Pastoral work in Sydney, 1955-1958; faculty member, St. Columban College Seminary 1958-1961. Further studies, 1961-1963. Chaplain of the University of Sydney and faculty member of St. Patrick's College, Manly, 1963-1973.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ard Carna, and auxiliary of Sydney, October 25, 1973. Consecrated, January 19, 1974, Sydney, by Cardinal James Darcy Freeman, archbishop of Sydney, assisted by Cardinal James Robert Knox, archbishop of Melbourne, and by Thomas Vincent Cahill, archbishop of Canberra. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Canberra, November 24, 1978. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Sydney, February 12, 1983. President of the Australian Episcopal Conference, 1986- . Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; member of its general secretariat, 1987-1990.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Vallicella, June 28, 1988. Attended VIII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; member of its general secretariat, 1990-1994. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, October --, 1988; November 6, 1995. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; president delegate; member of the general secretariat, 1994-1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Special papal envoy to the Marian Congress on the Holy Trinity, Manila, Philippines, January 27 to 29, 2000. Special papal envoy to the IX World Day of the Sick, Sydney, February 11, 2001. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 26, 2001. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, December 13, 2003.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Sydney; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CODY, John Patrick
(1907-1982)

Birth, December 24, 1907, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America. Son of Thomas Joseph Cody and Mary Begley.

Education. St. Louis Preparatory Seminary, St. Louis; Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 8, 1931, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Marchetti-Selvaggiani, vicar general of Rome. Staff member of the North American College, Rome, 1932-1938. Attached to the Secretariat of State, 1932. Secretary to the archbishop of St. Louis, 1938-1940. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, May 24, 1939. Chancellor of the archdiocese of St, Louis, May 2, 1940. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of St. Louis, 1945-1954. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 14, 1946.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Apollonia and appointed auxiliary of St. Louis, May 14, 1947. Consecrated, July 2, 1947, cathedral of St. Louis, by Joseph Elmer Ritter, archbishop of St. Louis, assisted by John Joseph Donnelly, bishop of Leavenworth, and by Vincent Stanislaus Waters, bishop of Raleigh. Named coadjutor, with right of succession, of the see of St. Joseph, January 21, 1954. Apostolic administrator of the see of St. Joseph, May 9, 1955. Coadjutor, with right of succession, of the see of Kansas City-St. Joseph (1), August 24, 1956. Succeeded to the see of Kansas City-St. Joseph, September 11, 1956. Promoted to titular archbishop of Bostra and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of the metropolitan see of New Orleans, July 20, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Vicar general of the archdiocese of New Orleans, December 4, 1962. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of New Orleans, November 8, 1964. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Chicago, June 14, 1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Cecilia, June 29, 1967. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979.

Death. April 25, 1982, of a heart attack, after a history of heart trouble, shortly after being confined to his home after a lengthy hospital stay, in Chicago. Buried in the bishops' chapel, Mount Carmel Cemetery, Hillside, archdiocese of Chicago. His predecessor Cardinal Samuel Alphonse Stritch and his immediate successor, Cardinal Joseph Louis Bernardin, are also buried in that chapel.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 209-220; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 44; Dahm, Charles W. ; Ghelardi, Robert. Power and authority in the Catholic Church : Cardinal Cody in Chicago. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1981. Note: A revision of the author's thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Wisconsin.

Link. His arms, Aradlica Vaticana.

(1) The two dioceses were united on July 2, 1956.


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COFFY, Robert
(1920-1995)

Birth. October 24, 1920, Le Biot, diocese of Annecy, France. His father was a carpenter. His baptismal name was Robert-Joseph.

Education. Minor Seminary, Thonon; Major Seminary, Annecy; Catholic Faculty, Lyon.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1944, Annecy. Further studies, Lyon, 1944-1946. Pastoral work, Annecy, 1946-1947; faculty member, minor seminary of Thonon, 1948; further studies, Lyon, 1949. In the diocese of Annecy, faculty member of its major seminary, 1949-1952; its rector, 1952-1956; honorary canon of the cathedral chapter; member of the episcopal council; diocesan director of religious education; vicar general, 1956-1967.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Gap, February 11, 1967. Consecrated, April 23, 1967, church of the Visitation, Annecy, by Jean Sauvage, bishop of Annecy, assisted by André Charles Collini, bishop of Ajaccio, and by Paul-Marie François Rousset, Ist. del Prado, titular bishop of Utimma, auxiliary of Lyon. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Albi, June 15, 1974. Attended the IV Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Attended the VI Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Transferred to the archdiocese of Marseille, April 13, 1985. Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of S. Luigi Maria Grignion de Montfort, June 28, 1991. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 22, 1995.

Death. July 15, 1995, of cancer, in Saint-Zacharie, diocese of Fréjus-Toulon. Buried in the archepiscopal (now metropolitan) cathedral of Marseille.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 241-242.


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COLASUONNO, Francesco
(1925-2003)

Birth. January 2, 1925, Grumo Appula, archdiocese of Bari, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Bari, Bari; Regional Seminary of Molfetta, Molfetta; University of Bari, Bari; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorates in theology and canon law); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 28, 1947, Bari. Further studies in Rome. Faculty member of the Seminary of Bari, Bari. Joined the Vatican diplomatic service and was attached to the Council for Public Affairs of the Church, 1960-1962. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, December 13, 1961; June 21, 1963. Secretary and later auditor of the apostolic delegation in the United States of America, 1962-1967. Auditor of the nunciature in India (1968-1972). Prelate of honor of His Holiness, October 17, 1971. Counselor of the nunciature and chargé d'affaires ad interim in China (Taiwan), 1972-1974.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tronto and appointed apostolic delegate in Mozambique, December 6, 1974. Consecrated, February 9, 1975, cathedral of Bari, by Cardinal Corrado Ursi, archbishop of Naples, assisted by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, and by Anastasio Alberto Ballestrero, O.C.D., archbishop of Bari. Pro-nuncio in Zimbabwe, March 7, 1981. Pro-nuncio in Yugoslavia, January 8, 1985. Nuncio with special charges and chief of the Holy See permanent delegation for working contacts with the government of the Republic of Poland, April 9, 1986. Representative of the Holy See before the Russian Federation, March 15, 1990. Nuncio in Italy, November 12, 1994. Nuncio also in San Marino, April 22, 1995.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Eugenio, February 21, 1998. Special papal envoy to the closing celebrations of 5th Centennial of the Evangelization of Mozambique, Maputo, August 11 to 16, 1998.

Death. May 31, 2003, after a lengthy illness, at his family's residence in Grumo Appula, Bari. Buried in the parish church of Santa Maria Assunta, Grumo Appula.


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COLOMBO, Giovanni
(1902-1992)

Birth. December 6, 1902, Caronno Pertusella (Varese), archdiocese of Milan, Italy. Sixth of the seven children of Enrico Colombo, office head of a factory, and Luigia Millefanti, shirt maker and embroiderer. He was baptized on December 8, 1902 in the parish church of S. Margherita, Caronno Pertusella; his middle name was Umberto.

Education. Initial studies, scuola comunale of the Sisters of the Immaculate Conception, Ivrea; Seminary Ginnasiale of S. Pietro Martire, Seveso (entered, September 14, 1914); Seminario Liceale of Monza, Monza; Seminary of Milan at Corso Venezia (doctorate in theology, September 30, 1926). Catholic University of Milan, Milan (doctorate in letters, 1932; thesis: "La rinascita cattolica e il suo secolo - Primi saggi"). Received the ecclesiastical tonsure, May 26, 1923; the first minor orders, December 22, 1923; the second minor orders, March 19, 1924; the subdiaconate, June 28, 1925; and the diaconate, November 1, 1925.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 29, 1926, metropolitan cathedral of Milan, by Cardinal Eugenio Tosi, O.SS.C.A., archbishop of Milan. Professor of letters at the Seminary Ginnasiale of San Pietro Martire (Seveso), October 1926. Professor of Italian at the Seminary Liceale of Venegono Inferiore, Milan, October 1931. Professor of sacred eloquence in the courses for the seminarians and at the Theological Faculty of the seminary, 1932-1944. Professor of Italian language and literature at the Faculties of Education and of Letters and Philosophy of the Catholic University of Sacro Cuore of Milan, 1937-1939. On August 2, 1939, Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, O.S.B., archbishop of Milan, named him rector of the Seminary Liceale of Milan at Venegono inferiore; occupied the post until 1953. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 7, 1948. Rector major of the Seminaries of Milan, July 23, 1953 until 1960. On August 30, 1954, he administered the last rites to Cardinal Schuster, who died saintly in the Seminary of Venegono.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Filippopoli di Arabia and appointed auxiliary of Milan, October 25, 1960. Consecrated, December 7, 1960, metropolitan cathedral basilica of S. Ambrogio of Milan, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, archbishop of Milan, future Pope Paul VI, assisted by Anacleto Cazzaniga, archbishop of Urbino, and by Giuseppe Schiavini, titular bishop of Farsalo, auxiliary and vicar general of Milan. Member of the preparatory commission for seminaries and universities of the Second Vatican Council. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Milan, August 10, 1963.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, February 25, 1965. Special papal envoy to the 19th National Eucharistic Congress, Pescara, Italy, September 11 to 18, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5-9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese, December 29, 1979. From January 1980 to May 1992, he resided in the Seminary at Corso Venezia, Milan, which he had restored, carrying out an intense cultural and pastoral activity at the service of the Ambrosian archdiocese and the Italian church. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, December 6, 1982. Following his retirement, he resided at the Seminary of Corso Venezia, which was restored thanks to his personal interest.

Death. May 20, 1992, at the Seminary of Corso Venezia, Milan. Buried under the pavement of the right side nave in front of the altar that contains the remains of Blessed Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, O.S.B., in the metropolitan cathedral of S. Maria Nascente, Milan (1).

Bibliography. Colombo, Giovanni ; Majo, Angelo. Cardinale a Milano : l'episcopato di Giovanni Colombo. Milano : NED, 1982; Majo, Angelo ; Colombo, Giovanni ; Russo, Mimma. Il cardinale Giovanni Colombo : profumo di opere buone. Cinisello Balsamo (Milano) : San Paolo, 1998. (Testimoni del nostro tempo. 29).

Link. Photograph, documents and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Majo, Il cardinale Giovanni Colombo : profumo di opere buone, p. 21:

IOANNES
CARD. COLOMBO
ARCHIEPISCOPUS
QUI AB ANNO 1963 AD ANNUM. 1979
PRECLARA DOCTRINA
PRUDENTIQUE CONSILIO
ABROSIANAM REXIT ECCLESIAM
FILIORUM MEMORIAE
PRECIBUSQUE
COMMENDATUS
6 DEC. 1902 - 20 MAI 1992


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CONCHA CÓRDOBA, Luis
(1891-1975)

Birth. November 7, 1891, Bogotá , Colombia. His parents were José Vicente Concha, who was president of Colombia, and his first wife, Leonor Córdoba. He had six sisters from the two marriages of his father: Leonor, Isabel, Julia, Elvira, Josefina, and Maruja. He was baptized by Fr. Rafael Almansa in the parish church of "La Veracruz". His father prepared him for first communion.

Education. Studied Latin at home under Dr. Miguel Abadía Méndez, professor of the same subject the Conciliar Seminary of Bogotá , Bogotá; he entered the seminary to continue the study of Latin in 1908; went to Paris with his father when the latter was named Colombian ambassador in France; studied humanities in Paris under Abbé Lafont; on his return to Bogotá, he continued his priestly studies at the seminary; Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome (Sacred Scriptures); Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1916, Bogotá. His father was then president of the Republic of Colombia from 1914 to 1918. Chaplain of the apostolic school of the cathedral of Bogotá, professor at the Conciliar Seminary, and at "Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario; pastoral ministry at the parish church of "La Veracruz," 1917-1918. Director of the archdiocesan bi-weekly "El Catolicismo", November 1918 to March 1919. Further studies in Rome and Paris, April 1919 until the end of 1920; he had to return early without obtaining any academic degrees due to bad health. In 1921, he was named chaplain of the monastery of the Visitation, prefect of studies and professor at the Conciliar Seminary of Bogotá, and professor of religion at "Gimnasio Moderno" and at "Colegio Nuestra Señora del Rosario. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness, February 21, 1921; reappointed, April 10, 1922. Spiritual director at the Conciliar Seminary in 1923. Director again of "El Catolicismo" from August 16 to October 15, 1924. Postulated by the president of Colombia to the rectorate of "Colegio Mayor Nuestra Señora del Rosario" but he declined. Professor of Sacred Scripture and moral theology at the Conciliar Seminary. Prebendary of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Bogotá. President of the committee for the 1925 Holy Year. Sub-promoted of the faith in the informative process for the beatification of Ezequiel Moreno y Díaz, O.A.R., bishop of Pasto. Ecclesiastical censor. Canon theologian of the chapter of the metropolitan cathedral of Bogotá, and secretary of the archdiocesan curia, 1933-1934. General archiocesan assistant of the Catholic Action. Archdiocesan chancellor. Member of the archdiocesan synod. Vicar general substitute of Bogotá, 1934-1935.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Manizales, July 13, 1935. Consecrated, November 30, 1935, metropolitan and primatial cathedral basilica of Bogotá, by Ismael Perdomo, archbishop of Bogotá, assisted by Francisco Cristóbal Toro, bishop of Antioquia, and Crisanto Luque Sánchez, bishop of Tunja. Promoted to archbishop when Manizales was elevated to the metropolitan rank, May 10, 1954. Transferred to the primatial metropolitan see of Bogotá, May 18, 1959. Military vicar of Colombia, May 19, 1959 to July 29, 1972. President of the Episcopal Conference of Colombia.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1961; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria Nuova, January 19, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Lost his right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, November 7, 1971. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Bogotá, July 29, 1972.

Death. September 18, 1975, after a long and painful illness, very early in the morning, "Clínica Marly", Bogotá. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Bogotá.

Bibliography. Agudelo Giraldo, Guillermo. Los arzobispos de Bogotá que he conocido : medio siglo en la historia eclesiástica colombiana, 1928-1984. Bogotá : s.n., 1987. Notes: "Ensayo sobre los cuatro arzobispos que han dejado huella profunda en la agitada historia contemporánea de Colombia: monseñor Ismael Perdomo, cardenal Crisanto Luque, cardenal Luis Concha, cardenal Aníbal Muñoz Duque." Originally presented by the author on entering the Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica on Nov. 15, 1986. Cover title: Cuatro arzobispos que han marcado nuestra historia, 1928-1984. "Ediciones Verdad y Vida", volumen 14, nos. 24-25 y 26, diciembre de 1986".

Link. Photograph, arms and biographical entry, in Spanish, archdioves of Bogotá; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CONFALONIERI, Carlo
(1893-1986)

Birth. July 25, 1893, Seveso, archdiocese of Milan, Italy. Fourth child of Giuseppe Confalonieri and Maria Rusconi. Baptized the day after his birth by Fr. Ambrogio Sirtori. Received the sacrament of confirmation on February 13, 1901 at the parish church of Seveso; and the first communion on May 5, 1904.

Education. Seminary of Seveso, Seveso (1904-1909; ginnasio); Archiepiscopal Seminary of Monza, Milan (1909-1912; philosophy); Lyceum "Parini", Milan (license liceale); Pontifical Seminary Ss. Ambrogio e Carlo (Collegio Lombardo), Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (1912-1914; bachelor in theology, 1913); military service (1914-1916). From Andrea Carlo Ferrari, archbishop of Milan, received the ecclesiastical tonsure, June 14, 1912; the four minor orders, September 20, 1913; the subdiaconate, January 2, 1916 in the archbishop's private chapel; and the diaconate, January 9, 1916 in the crypt under the main altar of the metropolitan cathedral of Milan.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 18, 1916, shrine of S. Pietro Martire, Seveso, by Cardinal Andrea Carlo Ferrari, archbishop of Milan. In the Italian Army during the First World War, 1916-1919. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of Milan, 1919-1921. Secretary to Cardinal Achille Ratti, archbishop of Milan, 1921-1922; was his conclavist in the conclave of 1922; was named his secretary when he became Pope Pius XI (1922-1939). Privy chamberlain participant, February 7, 1922; reappointed, March 3, 1939. Protonotary apostolic, December 24, 1935. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1935. In 1937, Pope Pius XI intended to name Msgr. Confalonieri as substitute of the Secretariat of State but Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, secretary of State, future Pope Pius XII, asked the pope to name Msgr. Giovanni Battista Montini, future Pope Paul VI, instead. Pope Pius XII designated Msgr. Confalonieri to be metropolitan archbishop of Modena and abbot of Nonantola on December 16, 1939 but he declined.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Aquila, March 27, 1941. Consecrated, May 4, 1941, Sistine chapel at the Vatican, by Pope Pius XII, assisted by Giuseppe Migone, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, secret almoner of His Holiness, and by Alfonso Camillo De Romanis, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. Secretary of the S.C. for Seminaries and Universities, January 25, 1950. Transferred to the titular archbishopric of Nicopoli al Nesto, February 22, 1950.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, December 18, 1958. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, November 16, 1959. Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, March 14, 1961, Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Pro-prefect of the S.C. Consistorial, 1966. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Confirmed in his post by Pope Paul VI when he became 75 years old, July 25, 1968. Attended the I Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. President delegate of the First Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, October 11 to 28, 1969. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Pastoral of Emigration and Tourism, April 30, 1970. Attended the II Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Cardinal bishop of the title of suburbicarian see of Palestrina, March 15, 1972. Resigned his posts, February 25, 1973. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, July 25, 1973. Special papal envoy to the restoration of Seminary of Milan, Milan, October 27, 1973. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 7, 1974. Papal legate to the opening of Holy Door at the patriarchal Liberian basilica, December 24, 1974. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals and bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, proper of the dean, retaining the title of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, December 12, 1977. Presided over the funerals of Popes Paul VI and John Paul I in 1978. Special papal envoy to the 20th National Eucharistic Congress, Milan, Italy, May 15 to 22, 1983. Papal legate to the opening of Holy Door at patriarchal Liberian basilica, December 24, 1983.

Death. August 1, 1986, Rome. The funeral took place on August 4, 1986 at 10 a.m., in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, presided by Pope John Paul II. Transferred to Seveso, another funeral mass celebrated on August 5, 1986 at 10 a.m. in the parish church, celebrated by Cardinal Giovanni Colombo, archbishop emeritus of Milan; afterward, the late cardinal was buried next to his parents in the family plot in the cemetery of Seveso.

Bibliography. Garofalo, Salvatore. Il cardinale Carlo Confalonieri (1893-1986). Presentazione di Francesco Marchisano. Roma : Studium, 1993. (Coscienza. Studi ; 23).

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CONGAR, O.P., Yves
(1904-1995)

Birth. April 8, 1904, Sedan, archdiocese of Rheims, France.

Education. Seminary of Rheims, Rheims, France; Catholic Institute, Paris. Joined the Order of Preachers (Dominicans), Amiens, December 7, 1925; took the name Marie-Joseph; professed, September 8, 1926; Le Saulchoir Dominican Seminary, Tournai, Belgium.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 25, 1930. Faculty member, Le Saulchoir Dominican Seminary, 1931-1939; 1945-1954. Secretary of Revue des sciences philosophiques et théologiques, from 1935. Medical orderly in the French Army during the Second World War; taken prisoner by Germany, 1940-1945 escaped. Awarded the French Legion of Honor and the Croix de Guerre. Forbidden by the Vatican to teach, lecture or publish and banished to obscure posts in Jerusalem, Rome, Cambridge and Strasbourg due to his support to the worker-priest movement, 1954-1956. Consultant to the preparatory theological commission of the II Vatican Council, July 5, 1960; expert at the II Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Forced to give up most physical activities due to a neurological ailment in 1968; resided in the Centre des Invalides, Paris, since 1986. Member of the International Theological Commission, 1969-1985.

Episcopate. Excused from receiving the episcopal consecration because of age and bad health.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received deaconry of S. Sebastiano al Palatino, November 26, 1994. He was 90 years of age when created a cardinal and, therefore, never had the right to participate in the conclave.

Death. June 22, 1995, Paris, France. Buried, tomb of the Dominican Order, Cemetery of Montparnasse, Paris.

Bibliography. Bosch, Juan. A la escucha del Cardenal Congar. Madrid : Edibesa, 1994. Bibliografía del Cardenal Congar: pp. 193-291; Congar, Yves ; Audoin-Rouzeau, Stéphane ; Congar, Dominique. Journal de la guerre, 1914-1918. Paris : Cerf, 1997; Congar, Yves ; Etienne Fouilloux ; Dominique Congar ; André Duval; Bernard Montagnes. Journal d'un théologien : 1946-1956. Paris : Cerf, 2001; Flynn, Gabriel. Yves Congar's vision of the church in a world of unbelief. Aldershot, Hants, England ; Burlington, VT : Ashgate, 2003; Fouilloux, É. "Frère Yves, Cardinal Congar, Dominicain. Itinéraire d'un théologien." Revue des Sciences Philosophiques et Théologique, LXXIX (1995); Jossua, Jean Pierre. Le Père Congar, la théologie au service du peuple de Dieu. Paris : Éditions du Cerf, 1967. (Chrétiens de tous les temps, 20); Jossua, Jean Pierre. "Yves Congar. La vie et oeuvre d'un théologien." Cristianesimo nella storia, XVII (1996), 1-12; Koskela, Douglas Michael. Yves Congar' vision of ecclesiality . Dissertation: Thesis (Ph.D. in Religious Studies)--Southern Methodist University, 2003. In: Dissertation Abstracts International 64-09A; Nichols, Aidan. Yves Congar. London : Geoffrey Chapman ; Wilton, CT : Morehouse-Barlow, 1989. (Outstanding Christian thinkers); Puyo, Jean ; Congar, Yves. Jean Puyo interroge le père Congar : une vie pour la vérité. Paris : Le Centurion, 1975. (Les Interviews); Vauchez, André. Cardinal Yves Congar : 1904-1995 : actes du colloque réuni à Rome les 3-4 juin 1996. Paris : Cerf, 1999. (Histoire ; Variation: Histoire (Editions du Cerf)); Yves Congar : 1904-1995. Redaktorzy Stanislaw C. Napiórkowski, Andrzej Czaja, Kazimierz Pek. Lublin : Red. Wydawnictw Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego, 1998. Summary in French. Papers presented at a conference.

Link. Biography, in English (Britannica).


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CONNELL, Desmond
(1926-

Birth. March 24, 1926, Phibsboro, archdiocese of Dublin, Ireland.

Education. Belvedere College Dublin; Holy Cross College (Diocesan Seminary), Dublin; University College, Dublin (bachelor of arts and master of arts); Seminary of Maynooth, Maynooth (theology); Louvain University, Louvain, Belgium (doctorate in philosophy).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 19, 1951. Further studies, Louvain, 1951-1953. Chaplain to three communities of contemplative sisters, the Poor Clares, Donnybrook, 1953-1955; the Carmelites, Drumcondra, 1955-1966 and the Carmelites in Blackrock from 1966. From 1953, also worked in the Department of Metaphysics, University College Dublin; professor of General Metaphysics, 1972; and elected dean of the Faculty of Philosophy and Sociology, 1983; re-elected three years later. For his published work he was awarded the degree D.Litt. by the National University of Ireland, 1981. Member of the Irish Hierarchy's theological commission, and of the Diocesan Committee on Ecumenism. Prelate of honor, August 20, 1984.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Dublin, January 21, 1988. Consecrated, March 6, 1988, pro-cathedral of St. Mary, Dublin, by Gaetano Alibrandi, titular archbishop of Binda, nuncio in Ireland, assisted by Joseph A. Carroll, titular bishop of Questoriana, vicar general of Dublin, and by Brendan Oliver Comiskey, bishop of Ferns. Elected vice-president of the Irish Episcopal Conference. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; I Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; IX Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; II Special Assembly for Europe of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, February 21, 2001. Attended the X Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30-October 27, 2001. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese for having reached the age limit, in conformity with canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, April 26, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, March 24, 2006.

Links. Photograph and brief biographical data, in English, second on page; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CONWAY, William John
(1913-1977)

Birth. January 22, 1913, Belfast, diocese of Down and Connor, Ireland.

Education. Queen's University, Belfast; St. Patrick's College, Maynooth; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 20, 1937. Further studies, 1937-1940. Faculty member of St. Malachias' Major Seminary, 1940-1947. Faculty member of St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, 1947-1957; rector, 1957-1958.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Neve and appointed auxiliary of Armagh, May 31, 1958. Consecrated, July 27, 1958, Saint Patrick`s metropolitan cathedral, Armagh, by Cardinal John F. D'Alton, archbishop of Armagh, assisted by Neil Farren, bishop of Derry, and by William MacNeely, bishop of Raphoe. Promoted to the primatial and metropolitan see of Armagh, September 9, 1963. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Patrizio a Villa Ludovisi, February 25, 1965. President delegate of the First Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Special papal envoy to the opening of the restored Holy Cross Abbey, Cashel, Ireland, October 5, 1975.

Death. April 17, 1977, after a brief battle with cancer, following surgery for removal of his gall bladder, Armagh. The requiem mass was celebrated by Bishop William Philbin of Down and Connor, assisted by the late cardinal's two brothers. Buried in the grounds of St. Patrick's metropolitan cathedral, Armagh.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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COOKE, Terence James
(1921-1983)

Birth. March 1, 1921, New York, New York, United States of America. Son of Michael Cooke and Margaret Gannon.

Education. St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, New York; The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.; University of Chicago, Chicago.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 1, 1945, New York, by Francis Joseph Spellman, archbishop of New York. Pastoral work, Bronx, 1945-1947. Further studies, 1947-1949. Faculty member of Fordham University, New York, 1949-1954. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of New York, 1949-1954. Director of youth activities of the Catholic Charities of New York, and bursar of St. Joseph's Seminary, 1954-1956. Episcopal vicar of the Bronx and Manhattan, and secretary to the cardinal archbishop of New York, 1957-1965. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, August 13, 1957. Vice-chancellor of the archdiocese of New York, 1958-1961; chancellor, 1961-1965. Supervisor of all the programs of building constructions of the archdiocese of New York, 1958-1965.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Summa and appointed auxiliary of New York, September 5, 1965. Consecrated, December 15, 1965, St. Patrick's cathedral, New York, by Cardinal Francis Joseph Spellman, archbishop of New York, assisted by Joseph Thomas McGucken, archbishop of San Francisco, and by John Joseph Maguire, titular archbishop of Tabalta, coadjutor of New York. In the same ceremony was consecrated William Joseph Moran, titular bishop of Centuria, auxiliary of the military vicar of the United States of America. Organized the visit of Pope Paul VI to the United Nations Organization and New York City, October 4, 1965. Vicar general of the archdiocese of New York, December 15, 1965. Member of the National Commission to study civil disorders. Promoted to the metropolitan see of New York, March 2, 1968. Military vicar of U.S. Armed Forces, April 4, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, April 30, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981.

Death. October 6, 1983, in his archiepiscopal residence in New Yor, after a five year battle with acute myelomonoblastic leukemia, which he spent on almost constant chemotherapy teatment. Buried in the crypt of St. Patrick's metropolitan cathedral, New York.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, pp. 146-147; Code, Bernard. American Bishops 1964-1970. St. Louis : Wexford Press, 1970, p. 7; Groeschel, Benedict J. Thy will be done : a spiritual portrait of Terence Cardinal Cooke. Staten Island, N.Y.: Alba House, 1990.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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COORAY, O.M.I, Thomas Benjamin
(1901-1988)

Birth. December 28, 1901, Periyamulla Negombo, archdiocese of Colombo, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).

Education. St. Aloysius Seminary, Borella; St. Joseph's College, Colombo; University College, Colombo; Pontifical "Angelicum" Athenaeum, Rome. Joined Oblates of Mary Immaculate.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 23, 1929, Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1929-1931. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of Colombo, 1931-1945.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Preslavo and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Colombo, December 14, 1945. Consecrated, March 7, 1946, cathedral of Saint Lucy, Colombo, by Leon Petrus Kierkels, titular archbishop of Salamina, apostolic delegate in India and Ceylon, assisted by Edmund Peiris, bishop of Chilaw, and by Bernardo Regno, bishop of Kandy. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Colombo, July 26, 1947. Assistant at Pontifical Throne, May 16, 1954. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the II Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the III Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, September 2, 1976. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, December 28, 1981. He was the first cardinal from Sri Lanka.

Death. October 29, 1988, Tewatta Ragama. Buried in the crypt of the basilica of Our Lady of Lanka, Tewatta.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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COPELLO, Santiago Luis
(1880-1967)

Birth. January 7, 1880, San Isidoro, archdiocese of La Plata, Argentina.

Education. Seminary of La Plata, La Plata; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1902, Rome. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of La Plata, 1903-1918.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Aulona and appointed auxiliary of La Plata, November 8, 1918. Consecrated, March 30, 1919, San Isidoro, by Juan Nepomuceno Terrero Escolada, archbishop of La Plata, assisted by Francisco Alberti, titular bishop of Siunia, auxiliary of Buenos Aires, and by José Américo Orzali, bishop of San Juan de Cuyo. Named auxiliary bishop of Buenos Aires, May 15, 1928. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Buenos Aires, and military vicar of Argentina, June 12, 1928. Vicar capitular of Buenos Aires, August 2, 1932. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Buenos Aires, September 20, 1932.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, December 19, 1935. Primate of Argentina, January 29, 1936. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Asunción, Paraguay, May 27, 1937; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Montevideo, Uruguay, October 12, 1938. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Santa Fe, Argentina, September 14, 1940; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Santiago, Chile, September 30, 1941; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 15, 1944; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Lujan, Argentina, September 27, 1947. Attended the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 25 to August 4, 1955. Resided in the Roman Curia after 1955 due to the conflict between the Peronist regime and the Catholic Church. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Resigned the government of the archdiocese and was appointed chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, March 25, 1959 until his death. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, assigned to the chancellorship, December 14, 1959. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. He was the first Argentinian cardinal and the first cardinal from Spanish America.

Death. February 9, 1967, Rome. Buried in a simple marble tomb, with a bass-relief of Jesus praying in the Garden of Gethsemane, while his three of his disciples sleep; in the crypt of the basilica of Santísimo Sacramento of Buenos Aires (1).

Link. Photographs, his arms and his tomb, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided in a photograph by Dr. Santiago Castillo-Illingworth, from Buenos Aires:

Santiago Luis Copello
Cardenal de la Santa Romana Iglesia
II - 9 - 1967


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CORDEIRO, Joseph
(1918-1994)

Birth. January 19, 1918, Bombay, India. His baptismal name was Joseph Marie Anthony.

Education. Pontifical Seminary of Kandy, Ceylon; University of Bombay, Bombay; University of Oxford, Oxford, England.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 24, 1946, Kandy. Pastoral work in Hydebarad and Karachi, Pakistan, 1946-1948. Further studies, 1948-1950. President of St. Francis Xavier High School, Quetta, India, 1951-1953. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of Karachi, rector of the Minor Seminar of Karachi, and archdiocesan consultor, 1953-1958.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Karachi, Pakistan, May 7, 1958. Consecrated, August 24, 1958, Karachi, by James Cornelius van Miltenburg, archbishop-bishop of Hyderabad, assisted by Francesco Benedetto Cialeo, O.P., bishop of Multan, and by Leonard Joseph Raymond, bishop of Allahabad. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the II Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Elected member of the Council of the General Secretariat of the World Synod of Bishops, November 6, 1971.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Andrea delle Frstte, March 5, 1973. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; its relator; the IV Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; member of its general secretariat, 1977-1980. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the V Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of its general secretariat, 1980-1983. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. Attended the VI Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; one of its three presidents delegate; member of its general secretariat, 1983-1986. Papal legate to the 43rd International Eucharistic Congress, Nairobi, Kenya, August 11 to 18, 1985. Attended the II Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; member of its general secretariat until 1987. Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. He was the first cardinal from Pakistan.

Death. February 11, 1994, after a battle with cancer, Karachi. Buried in the grotto, beside St. Patrick's metropolitan cathedral, Karachi.


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CORRIPIO AHUMADA, Ernesto
(1919-2008)

Birth. June 29, 1919, Tampico, México. Son of Ernesto Corripio Estrada and Herminia Ahumada; he was the eldest of four brothers; the other children were Valentín, Francisco and Narciso. During his infancy there began a religious persecution which became more acute in the government of Plutarco Elías Calles, who assumed the presidency in 1924, when the future cardinal was five years old; the "Cristero" conflict in its critical phase lasted until 1929, when the government and the Church arrived at an unfulfilled peace agreement; by that time, he had already felt God's call and was the altar server of Fr. Francisco Cortés, who had to seek refuge in the house of the now Servant Of God Francisco Balmori. Inspired in his vocation by his maternal grandmother and promoted by the bishop of Tampico, Serafín María Armora, he entered the seminary.

Education. Seminario Palafoxiano, Puebla, December 30, 1930-1935 (literary studies and philosophy); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in philosophy, 1937-January 1945; licentiates in theology, 1942; in canon law, 1944; and in church history, 1945); resided at Collegio Pio Latino Americano.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 15, 1942, Gesù church, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1942-1945. Successively, 1945-1950, pastoral work in the diocese of Tampico; faculty member, administrator and vice-rector, Seminary of Tampico. Secretary of the Tampico diocesan curia, 1950-1952.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Zapara and appointed auxiliary of Tampico, December 27, 1952; at the time, he was the yougest bishop of the world. Consecrated, March 19, 1953, cathedral of Tampico, by Octaviano Márquez Toriz, archbishop of Puebla, assisted by Serafín María Armora y González, bishop of Tamaulipas, and by Luis Guizar Barragán, bishop of Saltillo. Transferred to the see of Tampico, February 25, 1956. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Antequera, July 25, 1967. President of the Mexican Episcopal Conference, from 1967 to 1973. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Puebla de los Angeles, March 8, 1976. Transferred to the metropolitan see of México, July 19, 1977. Attended the III General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; one of its three presidents delegate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of Immacolata al Tiburtino, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Special papal representative to the funeral of Oscar Arnulfo Romero Galdamez, assassinated archbishop of San Salvador, El Salvador, March 30, 1980. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. Special papal envoy to the National Marian Congress, La Paz, Bolivia, January 29 to February 5, 1984. Attended the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, September 29, 1994. Apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of México, September 29, 1994 to June 13, 1995. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, June 29, 1999. He was instrumental in the renewing of diplomatic relations between the Holy See and México.

Death. April 10, 2008, at 5:30 a.m., from complications of heart problems, thrombosis and diabetes, in his residence in La Noria, Xochimilco, México City. His body was exposed in the Minor Seminary of the archdiocese of México on April 10, from 4 p.m. until the following day at noon; then, the casket with the body of the late cardinal was transferred to the National Basilica of Guadalupe, where it was in repose until Saturday at noon, when it was taken to the metropolitan and primatial cathedral of México; Cardinal Norberto Rivera Carrera, archbishop of México, presided the funeral mass on Sunday April 13 in that cathedral. His burial took place in the crypt of the archbishops below the Altar de los Reyes of that cathedral.

Links. Biography, in Spanish; photographs and biography, in Italian; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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COS Y MACHO, José María
(1838-1919)

Birth. August 6, 1838, Terán, Cabuérniga, diocese of Santander, Spain. Baptized in the parish of Santa Eulalia, August 9, 1838, with the names José María Justo.

Education. Jesuit School, Segura, Guipúzcoa; Seminary of Monte Corbán, Santander; University of Salamanca, Salamanca (doctorate in theology).

Priest. Ordained, September 1862. Further studies, 1862-1864. Faculty member of the Conciliar Seminary of Santander, 1862-1865. Canon magister of the cathedral of Oviedo, 1865. Secretary of the chamber of the bishop of Oviedo, 1882. Archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Córdoba, 1884; exchanged the post for canon maestreescuela of the cathedral chapter of Oviedo.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mondoñedo, June 10, 1886. Consecrated, September 12, 1886, at the cathedral of Oviedo, by Victoriano Guisasola y Rodríguez, archbishop of Santiago de Compostela, assisted by Ramón Martínez Vigil, O.P., bishop of Oviedo, and by José Tomás de Mazarrasa y Rivas, titular bishop of Filippopoli in Arabia, apostolic administrator of Ciudad Rodrigo. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, February 14, 1889. Senator of the Spanish kingdom, 1891 until his death. Transferred to the diocese of Madrid-Alcalá, with the title of archbishop ad personam, June 11, 1892. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Valladolid, April 18, 1901.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, December 2, 1912. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Apostolic administrator of Avila, December 4, 1918.

Death. December 17 (1), 1919, of bronchopneumonia, Valladolid. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Valladolid.

Bibliography. Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1921, p. 66; Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 53; Pieta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 10 and 24; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 314, 373, 386 and 580.

Links. Biography, in Spanish, Episcopologio de la Iglesia Católica en Cuba; brief biographical data, in Spanish; and his photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Echeverría, Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985, p. 53; Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 580; and Pieta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, p. 10; Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, p. 66, says that he died on December 16, 1919.


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COSTANTINI, Celso
(1876-1958)

Birth. April 3, 1876, Castion di Zoppola, diocese of Concordia, Italy. Son of Costante Costantini, a mason, and Maddalena Altan. Brother of Msgr. Giovanni (1880-1956). His baptismal name was Celso Benigno Luigi.

Education. After completing his elementary education, he followed his father as a mason. In 1892, he entered the Seminary of Portogruaro. Between 1897 and 1899, in Rome, he frequented the Accademia di S. Tommaso and the University della Minerva. He obtained doctorates philosophy and theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 26, 1899, Portogruaro. Named vice-chancellor of the curia of Concordia and chaplain at the hospital of Portogruaro. In 1900 he was named spiritual economus of Roraigrande. On February 21, 1901 he was named vicario of Concordia Sagittaria. Founder of the "Società degli Amici dell'Arte Sacra", Milan, 1912. In January 1915, he founded the illustrated journal "Arte Cristiana", which he directed for nine years. Named regent of the parish of Aquileia on July 5, 1915. On December 12, 1917, during the First World War, he was named military chaplain in the Italian Army. Named vicar general of the diocese of Concordia on November 5, 1918. In 1918-1919, he founded the "Istituto S. Filippo Neri" for the sons of the war; and the "Opera nazionale di soccorso per le chiese devastate dalla guerra". In October 1919, he was named director of the Archeological Museum of Aquileia. On April 30, 1920, he was named apostolic administrator of Fiume, which was occupied by Gabriele D'Annunzio.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Gerapoli, July 22, 1921. Consecrated, August 24, 1921, cathedral of Concordia Sagittaria, by Cardinal Pietro LaFontaine, patriarch of Venice, assisted by Angelo Bartolomasi, bishop of Trieste, and by Luigi Paulini, bishop of Concordia. On March 4, 1922, he conducted an apostolic visitation to the diocese of Trento. Named first apostolic delegate in China on August 12, 1922. Promoted to titular archbishop of Teodosiopoli di Arcadia, September 9, 1922. Arrived in China on November 8, 1922 and announced his role to the missionaries. Presided over the First Chinese Council, celebrated in Shanghai, in May-June 1924. The Holy See officially recognized the new Republic of China on August 1, 1928, thanks to the work of Apostolic Delegate Costantini. On October 28, 1928, he attended the consecration of the first six Chinese bishops by Pope Pius XI at the Vatican. Named Latin ordinary of Karbin on May 28, 1931. Founder of the Congregation of the Lord's Disciples, a Chinese congregation that has spread to various parts of Asia. In 1931, he returned to Italy and then went to the United States of America to recover from health problems. In November 1933, Pope Pius XI accepted his resignation as apostolic delegate in China. On December 3, 1933, he was named consultor of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith; named secretary of that congregation on December 20, 1935. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, January 19, 1936.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, January 15, 1953. Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, May 22, 1954 until his death. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, assigned to chancellor, June 9, 1958. He received a visit from Cardinal Angelo Roncalli, patriarch of Venice, on the eve of his death, while recovering at the "Margherita Clinic" in Via Massimo, Rome, where he was to undergo an operation; he did not survive the operation. A fortnight later, Roncalli was elected Pope John XXIII. He was a prolific writer in varied fields (1).

Death. October 17, 1958, Rome. Buried in Zoppola, next to the grave of his brother Msgr. Giovanni Costantini.

Bibliography. Butturini, Giuseppe. Alle origini del Concilio Vaticano II. Una proposta di Celso Costantini. Pordenone : Concordia sette, 1988. (Storia, cultura, arte, economia ; 10); Simonato, Ruggero. Celso Costantini tra rinnovamento cattolico in Italia e le nuove missioni in Cina. Pordenone : Concordia sette, 1985. (Storia, cultura, arte, economia ; 8; Documenti e studi per la storia concordiese ; 4).

Links. Piazza Celso Costantini, Concordia; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is a list of his books taken from Simonato, Celso Costantini tra rinnovamento cattolico in Italia e le nuove missioni in Cina: I doveri dei clero ai principio dei secolo XX, Rome 1901; Le unioni professionali, Portogruaro 1902; Nozioni d'arte per ii clero, Florencea 1919; Parole dette in morte di D. Antonio AgnoIutto, [s.l.] 1919; Gli orfaneIIi della Patria, Venice 1921; La Ouaresima. Lettera pastorale, Fiume 1922; Contra spem in spero (ossia l'attuale dramma missionario in Cina), Rome 1931; L'Azione Cattolica in Cina. Mobilitare la Cina per convertire la Cina, Rome 1933; Il crollo dell'antica Cina, Rome 1934; Aspetti del problema missionario, Milan-Rome 1935; Arte sacra e novecentismo, Rome 1935; Commemorazione di S.E. ii Cardinale Pietro La Fontaine patriarca di Venezia letta nella saia Napoleonica da S.E. Mons. Gelso Costantini arci-vescovo titolare di Teodosia Segretario della S.C. di Propaganda Fide il 26 novembre 1936, Venice 1937; L'arte cristiana nelle missioni, Rome 1940; Induite vos armaturare Dei (Ricordi-Pensieri-Raccomandazioni ai DiscepoIi del Signore), Rome 1942; Gesù Cristo via, verità e vita (Riproduzione di cento stampe antiche con commenti sui Vangeli), Rome 1943; Va e annunzia il Regno di Dio (scritti, appelli e messaggi cristiano, 2 vols., Brescia 1943; Dio nascosto. Splendori di [ede e d'arte nella Santa Eucarestia, Rome 1944; Con i missionari in Cina, 2 vols., Rome 1946; Foglie secche, Rome 1948; Il divino consolatore. II senso della vita e della morte, Rome 1950; Le missioni cattoliche, Milan 1950; Il libro della sposa, Novara 1952; Ultime fogIie, Rome 1954; La beatificazione di frà Odorico da Pordenone nei suo secondo centenario, Venice (1955); Cum Petro in Christo, Rome 1957; Renovabitur ut Aquilae ]uventus tua, Rome 1958; In difesa dell'arte cristiana, Milan 1958. Following is a list of his articles: "Un incontro col conte Grosoli", La Concordia, VIII (1904), 6 marzo 1984, p. 1 (*); "L'arte benedettina", Emporium ", XXXIII (1911), pp. 83-100; "Contraffazioni dell'arte sacra: te statue industriali", Arte Cristiana, I (1913), pp. 53-55; Per la rinascita dell'arte del cesello: Eugenio BeIIosio, Arte Cristiana, I (1913), pp. 66-73; "Il 'Missale Romanum' miniato da Attillo Razzolini", Arte Cristiana, I (1913), pp. 83-87; PoIemichetta cortese, Arte Cristiana, I (1913), p. 250; I nostri criteri sull'arte cristiana, Arte Cristiana, I (1913), p. 309; Le imagini sacre, Arte Cristiana, II (1914), pp. 90-93; Florete, fiores, Arte Cristiana, II (1914), pp. 271-273; Diversi aspetti doli'arte cristiana, Arte Cristiana, III (1915), pp. 34-41; La mostra nazionale dell'incisione in Milano, Arte Cristiana, III (1915), p. 115; Il ferrobattuto nelle chiese, Arte Cristiana, III (1915), pp. 244-248; La vittoria eucaristica dei mosaico di Aquileia, Arte Cristiana, IV (1916), pp. 1-5; Un viaggio in Francia, Arte Cristiana, V (1917), pp. 146-175; La gran pietà delle nostre chiese sul fronte, Arte Cristiana, VI (1918), pp. 34-44; I mosaici cristiani scoperti ad Aquileia negli ultimi scavi, Arte Cristiana, VI (1918), pp. 66-76; A Lourdes, Arte Cristiana, VI (1918), pp. 145-158; Carlo Donati e la decorazione di una cappella per i caduti di Ravenna, Arte Cristiana, VIlI (1920), pp. 1-9; Preghiera al milite ignoto, Democrazia cristiana, II (1922), n. 1, p. 26; Il cattolicesimo in Cina, Le Missioni Cattoliche, LIII (1923), pp. 259-261; Il problema della cultura missionaria e la Cina d'oggi, Vita e Pensiero, XIV (1931), n. 5-6, pp. 5-22; La suppellettile ecclesiastica nei paesi di missione, Il Pensiero Missionario, V (1934), pp. 403-413; I doveri di discrezione della stampa missionaria, Il Pensiero Missionario, IX (1937), pp. 159-164; Musica indigena e liturgia cattolica, Il Pensiero Missionario, XII (1940), pp. 120-131; "Il grande dramma missionario", Il Pensiero Missionario, XII (1940), pp. 193-209. "Dell'Arte Cristiana indigena", Eglise Vivante, V (1952), pp. 279-285; "Tradizione e modernità", Fede e Arte, V (1957), pp. 198-201; "Antonio Canova, l'uomo, il cristiano, il cittadino", Fede e Arte, V (1957), pp. 450-461.


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COTTIER, O.P., Georges Marie Martin
(1922-

Birth. April 25, 1922, Céligny, diocese of Lausanne (1), Switzerland.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans), 1945. University of Fribourg, Fribourg; also, studied in Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 2, 1951, Rome. Professor of contemporary philosophy at the University of Genève. Professor of philosophy at the Faculty of Letters, University of Fribourg. Director of the Dominican Center of Genève. In the 1980s, he collaborated on numerous occasions with Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Opposed to the theology of liberation, he had an active role in the preparation of the second document issued by the Vatican against such theological movement. Published in April 1986, the document expresses reservations concerning its conformity with the Church's tradition. Member of the International Theological Commission; secretary general from March 1989 until October 2003. Theologian of the Pontifical Household, December 1989 until October 2003. Moved to Rome in 1990. Preached the spiritual exercises of Lent for the pope and the Roman Curia, March 1990. Honorary member of the Pontifical Academy of Science, October 28, 1992. Publisher of the journal Nova et Vetera.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tullia, October 7, 2003. Consecrated on October 20, 2003, church of S. Sabina, Rome, by Cardinal Christoph Schönborn, O.P., archbishop of Vienna, assisted by Bernard Genoud, bishop of Lausanne, Genève et Fribourg, and by Archbishop Paolo Sardi, titular archbishop of Sutri, nuncio with special charges.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Domenico e Sisto, October 21, 2003. When he was promoted to the cardinalate, the cardinal was already 80 years old, therefore, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave. Pro-theologian of the Pontifical Household, October 21, 2003; reappointed, April 21, 2005; ceased, December 1, 2005. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Ceased as theologian of the Pontifical Household on December 1, 2005.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) On October 17, 1924, the diocese of Lausanne was united to that of Fribourg, which had also the title of Genève since January 30, 1821.


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COUSSA, B.A., Gabriel Acacius
(1897-1962)

Birth. August 3, 1897, Aleppo, Syria. Son of Rizcallah Coussa and his wife Suzanne. He had two brothers, Georges and Nsri. His baptismal name was Léon Gabriel.

Education. Initial studies and part of his secondary ones at the Franciscan and Jesuit schools in Aleppo. Joined the Order of St. Basil of the Melkites of Aleppo at the monastery of Saint-Georges Deir-es-Chir in 1911; admitted to the novtiate in 1912, he took the name Acacius; sent to Rome to Collège Saint-Atanase, he made the simple profession on November 21, 1914 in the church of the Navicella; the First World War forced him to go to Switzerland because he was a Turkish citizen; he spent eighteen months in the Benedictine monastery of Einsiedeln, where he continued his theological studies; returned to Rome on November 9, 1916 thanks to the intervention of the Holy See before the Italian government; continued his studies at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propoganda Fide," and resided at the Pontifical Greco-Roman College; he made the solemn profession on July 6, 1918 at the church of the Navicella, and received the minor orders; on July 11, 1920, he received the diaconate; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, November 4, 1922.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 25, 1920, Rome, by Isaïe Papadopoulos, titular bishop of Grazianopoli, assessor of the S.C. of the Oriental Church. Director of the Melkite Scholasticate, Beyrut, Lebanon, 1921-1925. Assistant general of his order, December 19, 1925 to May 20, 1934. Superior of the monastery of Deir-es-Cheir, January 1929; at the end of the year, he left for Rome, where he arrived on December 31, 1929. Delegate of the Melkite hierarchy in the commission for the preparatory studies for the codification of the Oriental canon law, 1929-1935. Professor of canon law at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", 1932-1936. Assistant to the Pontifical Commission for the Preparation of the Oriental Canon Law, March 21, 1933; when the commission was charged with the redaction of the Code of Oriental Canon Law, he became its secretary, July 16, 1935. Professor of De personis of the Latin Code of Canon Law, at the Pontifical Institute "Utriusque Iuris," Rome, 1936-1953; dean of the faculty of canon law, 1946. Secretary of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, March 3, 1946. Elected Assessor of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, January 15, 1953.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Gerapoli in Siria, February 26, 1961. Consecrated, Sunday April 16, 1961, Sistine chapel, the Vatican, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Giovanni Mele, bishop of Lungro, for the Italo-Albanians of Continental Italy, by Giuseppe Perniciaro, titular bishop of Arbano, auxiliary and vicar general of the apostolic administrator of Piana degli Albanesi, by Archmandrite Théodore Minisci, higoumène of the Italo-Greek monastery of Grottaferrata, and by Archmandrite Ambroise Kassis, superior general of the Basilian Order of Aleppo. Pro-secretary of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, August 4, 1961.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 19, 1962; received the red hat and the title of S. Atanasio, March 22, 1962. Secretary of the S.C. for Oriental Church, March 24, 1962.

Death. July 29, 1962, of peritonitis caused by appendicitis, in the hospital Salvator Mundi, Rome. The Byzantine divine liturgy, followed by a funeral service, was presided by Pope John XXIII in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on August 1, 1962. Temporarily buried in a crypt in the chapel of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, next to Cardinal Pietro Fumasoni Biondi, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. His remains were transferred to the church of S. Atanasio, Rome, his cardinalitial title, in May 1963.

Bibliography. Le Cardinal Gabriel Acace Coussa : Memorial. Beyrouth : L'Order basilien alépin, 1964.


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CREMONESI, Carlo
(1866-1943)

Birth. November 4, 1866, Rome, Italy.

Education. Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 21, 1890, Rome. Professor of literature at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, 1890-1909. Secretary of Cardinal Luigi Galimberti. Canon of the chapter of S. Angelo in Pescheria. Honorary chamberlain, May 22, 1898; reappointed, September 15, 1903. Notary for the processes of the candidates to the Italian episcopal sees. Secretary of Pontifical Commission for Works of Religion, 1909-1921. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, September 9, 1910. Cleric of Apostolic Chamber, June 14, 1914.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicomedia and appointed privy almoner of His Holiness, December 29, 1921. Consecrated, January 8, 1922, Sistine chapel, at the Vatican, by Pope Benedict XV, assisted by Giovanni Battista Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano, archbishop of Bologna, former privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. Pontifical delegate and first prelate nullius of the prelature of Valle di Pompei, March 20, 1926; took possession on May 22, 1926; resigned the prelature because of other charges in Rome, September 28, 1928. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 21, 1926.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, December 19, 1935. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. November 25, 1943, Vatican City. Buried in the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1958, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1958, p. 80; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 683; "Liste des cardinaux par ordre alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1936. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1937, p. 95.

Links. Photograph and biographical information, in Italian; and his photograph and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CSERNOCH, János
(1852-1927)

Birth. June 18, 1852, Szakolcza (1), archdiocese of Esztergom (Gran), Hungary. Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 1861.

Education. Collegium Pazmaneum, Vienna; Institute Sankt Augustinum, Vienna; University of Vienna, Vienna (doctorate in theology, June 2, 1876); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome. Received the insignias of the clerical character and the minor orders, July 22, 1874; subdiaconate, July 23, 1874; diaconate, July 24, 1874.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 18, 1874, Vienna. Further studies, 1874-1877. Successively, in the archdiocese of Esztergom, 1877-1908, cooperator in Radossócz and Budapest; professor of theology and biblical studies at the Seminary of Esztergom, 1879; librarian and archivist of the archiepiscopal palace; secretary to Cardinal János Simor; notary of the Holy See; cathedral canon, 1888; titular abbot of Savnyik, 1888; archiepiscopal chancellor for six years; pastor of the cathedral, 1893. Privy chamberlain honorary, 1882. Royal chaplain, 1887. Deputy in the parliament of Hungary, representing his native city, 1901. Co-founder of the Catholic Party. Protonotary apostolic, April 15, 1907.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Csanád, Hungary, February 16, 1908. Consecrated, 10 May, 1908, athedral of Temesvar, by Käroly Hörnig, bishop of Vezprém, assisted by Jozsef Németh, titular bishop of Isauropoli, auxiliary of Csanád, and by Vasile Hossu, bishop of Lugoj. Promoted to metropolitan see of Kalocsa, April 20, 1911. Royal counselor. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Esztergom, December 13, 1912.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red biretta from archduke Franz-Ferdinand (who was assassinated in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914); received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, September 8, 1914. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1915. Crowned Karoly IV of Hungary, December 31, 1916. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI.

Death. July 25, 1927, of pneumonia, Esztergom. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Esztergom.

Links. Biography, in Hungarian; his photograph, Araldica Vaticana; and his portrait by Ferenc Hatvany.

(1) Now Skalica, archdiocese of Bratislava-Trnava, Slovakia.


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CUSHING, Richard James
(1895-1970)

Birth. August 24, 1895, South Boston, archdiocese of Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Son of Patrick Cushing and Mary Dahill.

Education. Boston College, Boston; St. John's Seminary, Brighton, Massachusetts.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1921, Boston, by Cardinal William Henry O'Connell, archbishop of Boston. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of Boston, 1921-1939. Assistant director of the Society for the Propagation of Faith, 1922-1929; director, 1929-1944. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 14, 1939.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Mela and appointed auxiliary of Boston, June 10, 1939. Consecrated, June 29, 1939, metropolitan cathedral of the Holy Cross, Boston, by Cardinal William Henry O'Connell, archbishop of Boston, assisted by John Bertram Peterson, bishop of Manchester, and by Thomas Addis Emmet, titular bishop of Tuscamia, apostolic vicar of Jamaica. Apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of Boston, April-September, 1944. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Boston, September 25, 1944. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 11, 1954. Founder of the Missionary Society of St. James.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, December 18, 1958. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Lima, Perú, June 27, 1960; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, July 4, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. He officiated in the funeral of President John F. Kennedy of the United States of American in November 1963. Papal legate to the consecration of cathedral of Galway, Ireland, March 10, 1965. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, September 8, 1970.

Death. November 2, 1970, of cancer, in Boston. Buried in the chapel of St. Colette School for Exceptional Children, Boston.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 96; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 59; Dever, Joseph. Cushing of Boston : a candid portrait. Boston : Bruce Humphries, 1965; Devine, M.C. The world's cardinal. Boston : St. Paul Editions, 1964; Fenton, John H. Salt of the earth : an informal profile of Richard Cardinal Cushing. New York : Coward-McCann, 1965.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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