CIVIL WAR ERA FIREARMS



U.S. Muskets

Model 1795 U.S. Flintlock Musket
Made by Harpers Ferry Armory and Springfield Armory. Circa 1800-1815 Harpers Ferry Armory made approximately 70,000. Circa 1795-1814, Springfield Armory made approximately 85,000. 44½" round .69 caliber smoothbore barrel. Bayonet lug underneath barrel at muzzle. Steel ramrod with tulip shaped head. Front brass sight stud on top of upper barrel band. Three barrel bands retained with barrel band retaining springs. Steel furniture. Metal finished bright. Walnut stock.


Model 1803 U.S. Flintlock Rifle
Made by Harpers Ferry Armory. 4,023 made circa 1803-1807. 15,703 made circa 1814-1820. 35½" browned octagon to round .54 caliber barrel. Flatblade brass front sight with open blued steel rear sight. Steel ramrod with brass end. Walnut halfstock with case-hardened lockplate.


Model 1816 U.S. Flintlock Musket
Made by Harpers Ferry Armory and Springfield Armories. Circa 1816-1844 Harpers Ferry Armory made over 350,000. Circa 1816-1840, Springfield Armory made over 325,000. 42" round .69 caliber smoothbore barrel. No front or rear sight. Bayonet lug on top of barrel at muzzle. Steel ramrod with button shaped head. Three barrel bands retained with barrel band retainging springs. Iron mountings. Metal parts finished bright. Walnut stock. Variations of this basic musket were produced.


Model 1816 U.S. Flintlock Musket
(converted to Percussion)
Converted to percussion by private contractors. Circa 1840-1860. Total quantity converted is unknown . Same description as above Flintlock Musket with following exception. The most common conversion was known as the Drum and Nipple or French Style conversion. This consisted of removing all external lock parts then plugging all threaded holes; a drum type bolster (with nipple) was then threaded into the enlarged touchhole; then , the hammer was replaced with one that resembled a civilian fowling piece.


Model 1842 U.S. Musket
Made by Harpers Ferry Armory and Springfield Armory; c. 1844-1855. Total produced about 275,000 (Harpers Ferry Armory; 103,000) (Springfield Armory; 172,000). 42" round 69 caliber smoothbore barrel. Bayonet lug on bottom of muzzle of barrel. Blade front sight mounted on front barrel band, no rear sight. Three barrel bands retained with barrel band retaining springs. Steel ramrod with trumpet shaped head. Iron mountings. Metal parts finished bright. Walnut stock with a comb. First regulation musket made in the percussion ignition system at the national armories. Last smoothbore U.S. arm made in 69 caliber. First U.S. weapon made at the Harpers Ferry and Springfield Armories with fully interchangeable parts.


Model 1842 U.S. Rifle Musket
Made by Harpers Ferry Armory and Springfield Armory; c. 1856-1859. Total produced about 14,182. Same as the 1842 U.S. Percussion Musket, but features a 69 caliber rifled barrel. Slightly more than 10,000 were fitted with long range sights, the balance were issued without them.


Model 1855 U.S. Percussion Rifle-Musket
Made by Harpers Ferry Armory and Springfield Armory; c. 1857-1861. Total produced about 59,273 (Harpers Ferry Armory; 12,158) (Springfield Armory; 47,115). 40" round 58 caliber rifled barrel with cleanout screw on bolster. Front sight doubles as lug for angular bayonet. Early models have long range rear sight, later models have two leaf rear sight. Three barrel bands retained with barrel band retaining springs. Steel ramrod with tulip shaped end and swelled shank at forend cap. Iron mountings, with brass forend cap (in 1859, the forend cap was changed to iron). Metal parts finished bright. Lock contains a Maynard primer system. Walnut stock without patchbox (in 1859, a patchbox was added on right side of butt). Staple arm of the civil war. First U.S. martial arm firing the Minie bullet in 58 caliber.


Model 1861 U.S. Rifle-Musket
Made by Springfield Armory; c. 1861-1862. Total produced about 265,129. 40" round .58 caliber rifled barrel with cleanout screw on bolster. Front sight doubles as lug for angular bayonet. Two leaf rear sight. Three barrel bands retained with barrel band retaining springs. Steel ramrod with tulip shaped end and swelled shank at forend cap. Iron mountings. Metal parts finished bright (rear sight sometimes blued). Walnut stock. The Model 1861 was the standard musket in use during the civil war. A major improvement over the Model 1855 was the elimination of the Maynard primer system. This model served as the pattern for most arms made for war use. Approximately 1,000,000 were manufactured by the Springfield Armory and private contractors.


Model 1863 U.S. Rifle-Musket, Type I and Type II
Made by Springfield Armory, c. 1863 (Type I) and 1864-1865 (Type II). Total produced was about 273,265 for Type I and 255,040 for Type II. 40" round 58 caliber rifled barrel. Front sight doubles as lug for angular bayonet. Two leaf rear sight on Type I and single leaf rear sight on Type II. Three split type barrel bands secured with screws on Type I and three solid barrel bands secured by flat springs mounted in the stock on Type II.. Steel ramrod with tulip shaped end, straight shank on Type I and either tulip head type or knurled and slotted head type on Type II.. Iron mountings. Metal parts finished bright excepting case hardened lock. Rear sights are sometimes blued on Type I. Barrel bands and some other parts are occasionally blued on Type I.. The addition of finishes such as case hardening and blueing on the Type I is a departure from previous U.S. martial longarm production. Bluing eliminated on some parts of the Type II. The Type II is the last regulation U.S. martial arm of muzzle-loading design.



U.S. Rifles

Model 1841 U.S. Rifle, "Mississippi Rifle"
Made by Harpers Ferry Armory; c. 1846-1855. Total produced about 25,296. 33" browned rifled 54 caliber round barrel. Made without provision for bayonet. Brass blade front sight and V-notch rear sight. Two barrel bands retained with barrel band retaining springs. Steel ramrod of trumpet head type, with brass tip. Brass mountings finished bright. Blued screw heads. Casehardened lock. Walnut stock with large patchbox on right side of butt. The "Mississippi Rifle" owes its name to the successful use of the weapon by a Mississippi regiment, under command of Jefferson Davis, in the Mexican War. In its period, military authorities regarded the model 1841 as the best of its type. First regulation rifle made in the percussion ignition system at the national armories.

Model 1841 U.S. Percussion Rifle (National Armory alteration)
Altered by Harpers Ferry Armory and Springfield Armory; c. 1855-1860. Total altered about 8,879. Alteration consisted of reboring the barrel to 58 caliber, and replacing the ramrod by an all steel type having exaggerated trumpet head profile without brass tip.


Model 1859 Sharps Rifle
Made by the Sharps Rifle Company; c. 1859-1866. Total produced approximately 5,000. 30" round 52 caliber blue barrel fastened with three barrel bands. Fit for socket and saber type bayonets. Furniture is iron. Receiver, breechblock, lock, lever, trigger plate, and patchbox are case-hardened. Rifles were usually fitted with a single trigger but some had double set triggers. Stocks are walnut. Original rifles have a pellet priming system (not functional on reproduction) integral to the lockplate. These were purchased and used by the U.S. Army and Navy during the Civil War.



U.S. Carbines

Model 1859 Sharps Carbine
Made by the Sharps Rifle Company; c. 1859-1866. Total produced 33,000. 22" round 52 caliber blue barrel fastened with one barrel band. Carbine has a sling ring bar affixed to the left side of the receiver extending to the stock. Furniture is iron. Receiver, breechblock, lock, lever, trigger plate, and patchbox are case-hardened. Stocks are walnut. Original carbines have a pellet priming system (not functional on reproduction) integral to the lockplate. These were purchased and used by the U.S. Army and Navy during the Civil War.



U.S. Revolvers

Model 1851 Colt Navy Revolver
Made by the Colt Company; c. 1850-1873. Total produced, over 250,000. The U.S. government purchased over 17,000 1851 and 1861 Colt 'Navies' during the war. Six shot single action revolver. 7½" octagonal .36 caliber barrel with attached loading lever. Six shot cylinder with roll engraved navy battle scene. One piece walnut grips. Case-hardened frame, lever, and hammer. The gripstraps and trigger guard are of brass, blue steel, or silver plated brass. Trigger guard may be square or round depending on model. Remainder of the revolver is blued. These were purchased and used by the U.S. Army and Navy during the Civil War.


Model 1861 Colt Navy Revolver
Made by the Colt Company; c. 1850-1873. Total produced, over 250,000. The U.S. government purchased over 17,000 1851 and 1861 Colt 'Navies' during the war. Six shot single action revolver. 7½" octagonal .36 caliber barrel with creeping style loading lever. Six shot cylinder with roll engraved navy battle scene. One piece walnut grips. Case-hardened frame, lever, and hammer. The gripstraps and trigger guard are of brass, blue steel, or silver plated brass. Trigger guard is round. Remainder of the revolver is blued. These were purchased and used by the U.S. Army and Navy during the Civil War.


Model 1858 Remington Navy Revolver
Made by the E. Remington and Sons Company; c. 1860-1862. Total produced, over 7,000 under various contracts. The U.S. government purchased over 5,000 Remington Navy revolvers during the war. Six shot single action revolver. 7½" octagonal .36 caliber barrel. Threads visible where barrel attaches to solid frame. Loading lever attached under barrel. Six shot round cylinder. Two piece walnut grips. Case-hardened hammer. The gripstraps and trigger guard are of steel. Trigger guard is round. Revolver is blued. These were purchased and used by the U.S. Army and Navy during the Civil War.


Model 1860 Colt Army Revolver
Made by the Colt Company; c. 1860-1873. Total produced, over 200,000. The U.S. government purchased over 95,000 during the war. Six shot single action revolver. 7½" or 8" round .44 caliber barrel with creeping style loading lever. Six shot rebated cylinder with roll engraved naval engagement scene. A few had a fluted cylinder without engraving. One piece walnut grips. Case-hardened frame, lever, and hammer. The gripstraps and trigger guard are of blue steel. Trigger is round. Revolver is blued. Some had additional screws and were cut for a detachable carbine stock. These were purchased and used by the U.S. Army and Navy during the Civil War.



C.S. Muskets

Richmond Armory Percussion Rifle-Musket
Made by Richmond Armory; c. 1861-1865. Total produced unknown. 40" round 58 caliber rifled barrel with cleanout screw on bolster. Front sight doubles as lug for angular bayonet. Two leaf rear sight. Three barrel bands retained with barrel band retaining springs. Iron ramrod with tulip shaped end. Iron mountings with brass buttplate and forend cap. Early production muskets used a lockplate with a distinctive full humpback design. Later production muskets used a lockplate with a lower humpback design. Metal parts finished bright. Walnut stock. The lockplates were made from forgings and dies that were intended to use the Maynard tape primer used on the U.S. Model 1855 rifled musket. The unused Maynard system caused the distinctive "humpback" design. The Richmond Armory Percussion Rifled-Musket was produced in larger numbers than all other Confederate longarms.



C.S. Rifles

Cook & Brother Rifle
Made by Ferdinand and Francis Cook, Athens Georgia; 1863-1864. Total produced unknown; serial numbered. 33" round 58 caliber rifled barrel. Barrel marked PROVED at breach. Finished in the white. Found with or without lug on right side of muzzle for saber bayonet. Brass blade front sight and V-notch rear sight. Two brass barrel bands retained with barrel band retaining springs. Brass sling swivels attached to forward barrel band and trigger guard tang. Steel ramrod of tulip head type. Brass mountings including brass cap on tip of forend. Walnut stock.



C.S. Carbines and Musketoons

Carbines were generally issued to Cavalry troops. Musketoons were generally issued to Artillery troops.

Cook & Brother Carbine
Made by Ferdinand and Francis Cook, Athens Georgia; c.1863-1864. Total produced unknown; serial numbered. 21" round 58 caliber rifled barrel. Barrel marked PROVED at breach. Finished in the white. Steel base and blade front sight with V-notch rear sight were common. Two split type brass barrel bands secured with screws. Swivel type ramrod were common although some were made with tulip head type that did not swivel. Sling ring bar on left side of stock wrist were common although some were made without the sling ring bar. Brass mountings. Case hardened lock. Walnut stock.


Richmond Carbine
Made by Richmond Armory; c.1861-1865. Total produced unknown. 24" round 58 caliber rifled barrel with cleanout screw on bolster. Steel base and blade front sight with two leaf rear sight. Two barrel bands retained with barrel band retaining screws. Sling swivels attached to forward barrel band, trigger guard bow and under side of buttstock. Iron ramrod with tulip shaped end. Iron mountings with brass buttplate and forend cap. Full humpback design lockplate. Metal parts finished bright except for the lock, which was casehardened. Walnut stock.


J. P. Murray Musketoon
Made by Eldridge S. Greenwood and William C. Gray, Columbus, Georgia; c.1862-1864. Total produced unknown. 24" round 58 caliber rifled barrel. Finish believed to have been bright. Brass blade front sight and V-notch rear sight. Two brass barrel bands retained with barrel band retaining springs. Iron sling swivels attached to forward barrel band and trigger guard bow. Steel ramrod of tulip head type. Brass mountings. Case hardened. Walnut stock.



C.S. Revolvers

J.H. Dance and Brothers Revolver
Made by the J.H. Dance and Brothers Manufacturing Company, Columbia, Texas; c.1862-1863. Total produced, 325 - 500. The revolver is a copy of the 1851 Colt navy. Six shot single action revolver. 7½" part octagonal, part round .36 caliber barrel with attached loading lever. Six shot round cylinder. The steel frame has an absence of recoil shield protrusions. The sides of the frame are flat. One piece walnut grips. Case-hardened frame, lever, and hammer. The gripstraps and trigger guard are of brass. Remainder of the revolver is blued. The J.H. Dance and Brothers revolvers were produced in .36 and .44 calibers.


Griswold and Gunnison Revolver
Made by the Griswold and Gunnison Company, Griswoldville, Georgia; c. 1862-1864. Total produced, about 3,700. The revolver is a copy of the 1851 Colt navy with a brass frame. Six shot single action revolver. 7½" part octagonal, part round .36 caliber barrel with attached loading lever. Six shot round cylinder. One piece walnut grips. Case-hardened lever and hammer. Remainder of the revolver is blued. The frame, gripstraps and trigger guard are of brass.


Leech and Rigdon/Rigdon, Ansley Revolver
Made by the Rigdon/Rigdon, Ansley Company, Columbus, Mississippi/Greensboro & Augusta, Georgia; c. 1863-1865 under various contracts. Total produced, about 2,500. The revolver is a copy of the 1851 Colt navy. Six shot single action revolver. 7½" part octagonal, part round .36 caliber barrel with attached loading lever. Six shot round cylinder. One piece walnut grips. Case-hardened frame, lever and hammer. Remainder of the revolver is blued. The gripstraps and trigger guard are of brass.


Spiller and Burr Revolver
Made by the Spiller and Burr Company/Macon Armory, Atlanta-Macon, Georgia; c. 1862-1865. Total produced, about 1,450. The revolver is a copy of the Whitney navy. Six shot single action revolver. 6½" octagon .36 caliber barrel. Barrel attaches to solid brass frame. Loading lever attached under barrel. Six shot round cylinder. Two piece walnut grips. The gripstraps and trigger guard are of brass. Trigger guard round. Revolver steel parts are blued.



Imported Muskets, Rifles, and Musketoons

1853 Enfield Rifle-Musket
Made by Enfield (British) Armory. Total imported unknown. 39" tapered, round .577 caliber rifled, blued barrel. Blued front sight doubles as lug for angular bayonet. Blued long range (800 yard) rear sight. Three split type blued barrel bands secured with screws. Steel ramrod with slotted type head. Brass furniture finished bright. Casehardened lock and hammer. Walnut stock. This longarm was purchased and frequently used by both federal and confederate armies.

1858 Enfield Rifle
Made by Enfield (British) Armory. Total imported unknown. 33" tapered round 577 caliber rifled blued barrel. Lug on right side of muzzle for saber bayonet. Blued steel base and blade front sight. Blued long range (800 yards) rear sight. Two split type blued barrel bands secured with screws. Steel ramrod with slotted type head. Brass furniture finished bright. Casehardened lock and hammer. This longarm was preferred by confederate armies and also used by the federal armies during the civil war.

Enfield Percussion Musketoon
This firearm was a shortened version of the longarms previously listed. This longarm was preferred by confederate cavalry and also used by the federal cavalry. 24" long.


Go to Top
Go to Home Page



Page designed by
Frederick Computer Works