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2009 Report
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Overcoming barriers:
Human mobility and development

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Human Development Report 2009

Moldova
HDI Rank - 117
ExcelCountry Factsheet

A. Human movement: snapshots and trends
International migrant stocks (thousands), 1960..
International migrant stocks (thousands), 1990578.5
International migrant stocks (thousands), 2005440.1
International migrant stocks (thousands), 2010408.3
Annual rate of growth in international migrant stocks (%), 1960-2005..
International migrants as a percentage of total population, 1960..
International migrants as a percentage of total population, 200511.7
Female share of international migrant stocks (%), 1960..
Female share of international migrant stocks (%), 200556.0
Emigration rate (%), 2000-200214.3
International movement rate (%), 2000-200224.6
Internal migrant stocks (thousands), 1990-2005..
Life time internal migration rate (%), 1990-2005..
B. International emigrants by area of residence
Proportion of international migrant stocks residing in Africa (%), 2000-20021.8
Proportion of international migrant stocks residing in Asia (%), 2000-20027.7
Proportion of international migrant stocks residing in Europe (%), 2000-200286.7
Proportion of international migrant stocks residing in Latin America and the Caribbean (%), 2000-20020.2
Proportion of international migrant stocks residing in Northern America (%), 2000-20023.5
Proportion of international migrant stocks residing in Oceania (%), 2000-20020.1
Proportion of international migrant stocks residing in countries with very high levels of human development (%), 2000-200212.0
Proportion of international migrant stocks residing in countries with high levels of human development (%), 2000-200250.1
Proportion of international migrant stocks residing in countries with medium levels of human development (%), 2000-200237.1
Proportion of international migrant stocks residing in countries with low levels of human development (%), 2000-20020.8
Countries' shares of total stock of migrants in Africa (%), 2000-20020.07
Countries' shares of total stock of migrants in Asia (%), 2000-20020.10
Countries' shares of total stock of migrants in Europe (%), 2000-20020.98
Countries' shares of total stock of migrants in Latin America and the Caribbean (%), 2000-20020.02
Countries' shares of total stock of migrants in Northern America (%), 2000-20020.06
Countries' shares of total stock of migrants in Oceania (%), 2000-20020.02
C. Education and employment of international migrants in OECD countries (aged 15 years and above)
Stock of international migrants aged 15 years and above in OECD countries (thousands), 2000-200541.4
Percentage of international migrants aged 15 years and above in OECD countries with less than upper secondary education, 2000-200526.8
Percentage of international migrants aged 15 years and above in OECD countries with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education, 2000-200537.4
Percentage of international migrants aged 15 years and above in OECD countries with tertiary education, 2000-200534.6
Tertiary emigration rate to OECD countries (%), 2000-2005..
Labour force participation rate of international migrants in OECD countries (%), 2000-200563.7
Unemployment rate of international migrants in OECD countries (%), 2000-200512.3
Unemployment rate of international migrants in OECD countries with less than upper secondary education (%), 2000-200516.9
Unemployment rate of international migrants in OECD countries with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (%), 2000-200511.4
Unemployment rate of international migrants in OECD countries with tertiary education (%), 2000-200510.3
D. Conflict and insecurity induced movement
Refugees by country of origin (thousands), 20074.9
Refugees by country of origin as a percentage of international emigrants, 20070.7
Refugees by country of origin as a percentage of world refugees, 2007(.)
People in refugee-like situations by country of origin (thousands), 20070
Asylum seekers by country of origin (thousands), 20070.9
Internally displaced people (thousands), 2008..
Refugees by country of asylum (thousands), 20070.2
Refugees by country of asylum as a percentage of international immigrants, 2007(.)
Refugees by country of asylum as a percentage of world refugees, 2007(.)
People in refugee-like situations by country of asylum (thousands), 20070
Asylum seekers by country of asylum (thousands), 20070.1
E. International financial flows: remittances, official development assistance and foreign direct investment
Remittance inflows (US$ millions), 20071,498
Remittance outflows (US$ millions), 200787
Remittance outflows per international migrant (US$), 2007197
ODA per capita (US$), 200771
Remittance inflows per capita (US$), 2007395
Remittance inflows as a % of ODA, 2007556.6
Remittance inflows as a % of GDP, 200738.3
Ratio of remittance inflows to FDI, 20073.0
Percentage of remittance inflows by continent of origin - Africa(.)
Percentage of remittance inflows by continent of origin - Asia6.4
Percentage of remittance inflows by continent of origin - Europe83.2
Percentage of remittance inflows by continent of origin - Latin America and the Caribbean(.)
Percentage of remittance inflows by continent of origin - Northern America10.2
Percentage of remittance inflows by continent of origin - Oceania0.2
F. Selected conventions related to human rights and migration (by year of ratification)
Year of ratification of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families , 2009..
Year of ratification of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 20092005
Year of ratification of the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, 20092002
Year of ratification of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 20091993
Year of ratification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 20091993
Year of ratification of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 20091993
Year of ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 20091994
Year of ratification of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 20091995
Year of ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 20091993
G. Human development index trends
Human development index trends, 1980..
Human development index trends, 1985..
Human development index trends, 19900.735
Human development index trends, 19950.682
Human development index trends, 20000.683
Human development index trends, 20050.712
Human development index trends, 20060.718
Human development index trends, 20070.720
Revised HDI rank, 2006117
Real change in ranks, 2006-20070
Long-term annual growth rate in HDI (%), 1980-2007..
Medium-term annual growth rate in HDI (%), 1990-2007- 0.12
Short-term annual growth rate in HDI (%), 2000-20070.77
H. Human development index 2007 and its components
Human development index value, 20070.720
Life expectancy at birth (years), 200768.3
Adult literacy rate (% aged 15 and above), 200799.212
Combined gross enrolment ratio in education (%), 200771.6
GDP per capita (PPP US$), 20072,551
Life expectancy index, 20070.722
Education index, 20070.899
GDP index, 20070.541
GDP per capita (PPP US$) rank minus HDI rank, 200714
I-1. Human and income poverty
Human poverty index (HPI-1) rank, 200722
Human Poverty Index (HPI-1) value (%), 20075.9
Probability at birth of not surviving to age 40 (% of cohort), 2005-20106.2
Adult illiteracy rate (% aged 15 and above), 1999-20070.834
Population not using an improved water source (%), 200610
Children underweight for age (% under age 5), 2000-20064
Population living below $1.25 a day (%), 2000-20078.1
Population living below $2 a day (%), 2000-200728.9
Population living below the national poverty line (%), 2000-200648.5
HPI-1 rank minus income poverty rank- 21
I-2. Human and income poverty: OECD countries
Human poverty index (HPI-2) rank..
Human poverty index (HPI-2) value (%)..
Probability at birth of not surviving to age 60 (% of cohort), 2005-201022.5
People lacking functional literacy skills (% aged 16-65), 1994-2003..
Long-term unemployment rate (% of labour force), 2007..
Population living below 50% of median income (%), 2000-2005..
HPI-2 rank minus income poverty rank..
J. Gender-related development index and its components
GDI rank, 200797
GDI value, 20070.719
GDI value as a percentage of HDI value, 200799.8
Female life expectancy at birth (years), 200772.1
Male life expectancy at birth (years), 200764.5
Female adult literacy rate (% aged 15 and above), 1997-200798.9
Male adult literacy rate (% aged 15 and above), 1997-200799.6
Female combined gross enrolment ratio (%), 200774.65
Male combined gross enrolment ratio (%), 200768.65
Female estimated earned income (PPP US$), 20072,1736
Male estimated earned income (PPP US$), 20072,9646
HDI rank minus GDI rank, 20071
K. Gender empowerment measure and its components
Gender empowerment measure (GEM) rank, 200766
Gender empowerment measure (GEM) value, 20060.547
Seats in parliament (% held by women), 2008227
Legislators, senior officials and managers (% female), 1999-200740
Professional and technical workers (% female), 1999-200768
Earned income (estimated), ratio of female to male , 20070.73
Year women received the right to vote1924, 1993
Year women received the right to stand for election1924, 1993
Year in which a woman became Speaker or Presiding Officer of parliament or of one of its houses for the first time, as of 20092001
Women in ministerial positions (% of positions), 200811
L. Demographic trends
Total population (millions), 19904.4
Total population (millions), 20073.7
Total population (millions), 20203.4
Annual rate of natural increase of the population (%), 1990-19950.4
Annual rate of natural increase of the population (%), 2005-2010- 0.1
Net international migration rate (%), 1990-1995- 0.6
Net international migration rate (%), 2005-2010- 0.9
Urban share of the population (%), 199046.8
Urban share of the population (%), 199041.2
Child dependency ratio, 199043.8
Child dependency ratio, 201023.0
Old age dependency ratio, 199013.0
Old age dependency ratio, 201015.4
Total fertility rate (births per woman), 1990-19952.1
Total fertility rate (births per woman), 2005-20101.5
M. Economy and inequality
Total GDP (US$ billions), 20074.4
Total GDP (PPP US$ billions), 20079.7
GDP per capita (US$), 20071,156
Annual growth rate of GDP per capita (%), 1990-2007- 1.3
GDP per capita (PPP US$), year of highest value, 1980-20074,208
GDP per capita (PPP US$), year of highest value1989
Average annual change in consumer price index (%), 1990-200715.6
Average annual change in consumer price index (%), 2006-200712.4
Income/expenditure share of the richest 10% of the population (%), 1992-20073.08
Income/expenditure share of the richest 10% of the population (%), 1992-200728.28
Ratio of the richest 10% to the poorest 10%, 1992-20079.4
Gini index, 1992-200735.6
N. Health and education
Government expenditure on health per capita (PPP US$), 2006107
Government expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure11.8
Public current expenditure on primary education per pupil (PPP US$)..
Public expenditure on education as a percentage of total government expenditure, 2000-200719.8
Percentage of total aid allocated to social sectors (gross disbursements), 200752.5
Percentage of adults with low educational attainment levels (% aged 25 and above)..
Percentage of adults with medium educational attainment levels (% aged 25 and above)..
Percentage of adults with high educational attainment levels (% aged 25 and above)..
Under 5 mortality rate in the highest quintile of wealth (per 1,000 live births)29
Under 5 mortality rate in the highest quintile of wealth (per 1,000 live births)17
Under 5 mortality rate for children of mothers with at least secondary education (per 1,000 live births)..
Under 5 mortality rate for children of mothers with at least secondary education (per 1,000 live births)..
Healthy life expectancy at birth (years), 200763
Unhealthy life expectancy (%), 20078

Notes:
1 - UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimates based on its Global Age-specific Literacy Projections model, April 2009.
2 - For the purposes of calculating the HDI, a value of 99.0% was applied.
3 - UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimates based on its Global Age-specific Literacy Projections model, April 2009.
4 - For the purposes of calculating the HPI-1 a value of 1% was assumed.
5 - National estimate from the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
6 - No wage data are available. For the purposes of calculating the estimated female and male earned income, a value of 0.75 was used for the ratio of the female nonagricultural wage to the male nonagricultural wage.
7 - Countries with established quota systems for women. Quota systems aim at ensuring that women constitute at least a 'critical minority' of 30 or 40 percent. Today women constitute 16 percent of the members of parliaments around the world.
8 - Data refer to expenditure shares by percentiles of the population, ranked by per capita expenditure.

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