Use English forms when they are in common use: Cologne, Leghorn, Lower Saxony, Lyons, Marseilles, Naples, Nuremberg, Turin. And English rather than American—Rockefeller Centre, Bar Harbour, Pearl Harbour—unless the place name is part of a company name, such as Rockefeller Center Properties Inc. But follow local practice when a country expressly changes its name, or the names of rivers, towns, etc, within it. Thus Almaty not Alma Ata; Chemnitz not Karl-Marx-Stadt; Chennai not Madras; Côte d'Ivoire not Ivory Coast; Mumbai not Bombay; Myanmar not (alas) Burma; Nizhny Novgorod not Gorky; Yangon not (alas, alack) Rangoon;and St Petersburg not Leningrad.
Zaire has now reverted to Congo. In contexts where there can be no confusion with the ex-French country of the same name, plain Congo will do. But if there is any risk of misunderstanding, call it Congo-Kinshasa. The other Congo should always be Congo-Brazzaville. The river is now also the Congo. The people of either country are also Congolese.
Do not use the definite article before Krajina, Lebanon, Piedmont, Punjab, Sudan, Transkei, Ukraine. But it is the Caucasus, the Gambia, The Hague, the Maghreb, the Netherlands—and La Paz, Le Havre, Los Angeles, etc.
Do not use the names of capital cities as synonyms for their governments. Britain will send a gunboat is fine, but London will send a gunboat suggests that this will be the action of the people of London alone. To write Washington and Moscow now differ only in their approach to Havana is absurd.
Although the place is western (or eastern) Europe, euphony dictates that the people are west (or east) Europeans.
Argentina (adj and people Argentine, not Argentinian)
Brittany, Breton (but Britannia, Britannic)
Cassel (not Kassel)
Colombia (South America)
Columbia (university, District of); British Columbia
Côte d'Ivoire (not Ivory Coast), Ivorian
Czech Republic; Czech Lands
Dar es Salaam
Dominica (Caribbean island)
Dominican Republic (part of another island)
Dusseldorf (not Düsseldorf)
El Salvador, Salvadorean
Guyana (but French Guiana)
Gweru (not Gwelo)
Hong Kong (unless it is part of the name of a company which spells it as one word: Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation)
Kwekwe (not Que Que)
Lyons (not Lyon)
Marseilles (not Marseille)
Mpumalanga (formerly Eastern Transvaal)
Mumbai (not Bombay)
Myanmar (not Burma)
New York City
Philippines (the people are Filipinos and Filipinas)
Quebec, Quebecker (but Parti Québécois)
Rwanda, Rwandan (not Rwandese)
St Antony's (college)
Salonika (not Thessaloniki)
Sao Paulo (Brazilian city)
Zurich (not Zürich)
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