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English Inventors and Inventions

Seed drill - Jethro Tull.

Discovery of the planet Uranusand the moons Titania, Oberon, Enceladus, Mimas by Sir William Herschel 

Marsh test for Arsenic - James Marsh 
Dalton's law and Law of multiple proportions - John Dalton 
Discovery of Buckminsterfullerene - Sir Harry Kroto 
First isolation of Sodium - Humphry Davy 

Uniform Penny Post - Rowland Hill et al. 
Clockwork radio - Trevor Baylis 

Analytical engine  - Sir Charles Babbage 
ACE and Pilot ACE - Alan Turing 
Bombe - Alan Turing 
Colossus computer  - Tommy Flowers 
Difference engine  - Sir Charles Babbage 
World Wide Web  - Sir Tim Berners-Lee 
ZX Spectrum - Sir Clive Sinclair 

Clock making
Anchor escapement - Robert Hooke 
Grasshopper escapement, Gridiron pendulum, H1, H2, H3 and H4 watches (a watch built to solve the longitude measurement problem) - John Harrison 

Clothing manufacturing
Richard Arkwright – inventor of the first industrial spinning machine 
Derby Rib (stocking manufacture) - Jedediah Strutt 
Flying shuttle - John Kay 
Mauveine, the first synthetic organic dye - William Henry Perkin 
Power loom - Edmund Cartwright 
Spinning frame - John Kay 
Spinning jenny - James Hargreaves 
Spinning mule - Samuel Crompton 
Polyester - John Rex Whinfield 

Playfair cipher - Charles Wheatstone 

Isambard Kingdom Brunel image Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel, (pictured left) best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway, a series of famous steamships, and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering.
Adjustable spanner - Edwin Beard Budding 
Cavity Magnetron - Dr Harry Boot 
First coke-consuming blast furnace - Abraham Darby I 
First working universal joint - Robert Hooke 
First Compression-Ignition engine aka Diesel Engine - Herbert_Akroyd_Stuart 
Steam Engine - Thomas Savery 
Newcomen steam engine - Thomas Newcomen 
Modified version of the Newcomen steam engine (Pickard engine) - James Pickard 
Pendulum Governor - Frederick Lanchester 
The first screw-cutting lathe - Henry Maudslay 
Disc Brakes - Frederick Williams 
Internal combustion engine - Samuel Brown 
Jet Engine - Sir Frank Whittle 

Bird's Custard - Alfred Bird 
Sandwich - John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich 

Household appliances
Ballbarrow - James Dyson 
Collapsible baby buggy - Owen Maclaren 
Dyson DC01 - James Dyson 
Fire extinguisher - George William Manby 
Lawn mower - Edwin Beard Budding 
Rubber band - Stephen Perry 
Light Bulb - Joseph Wilson Swan 
Tin Can - Peter Durand 
Corkscrew - Reverend Samuell Henshall 
Mouse trap - James Henry Atkinson 
Sewing machine - Thomas Saint 
Postage Stamp - Rowland Hill 
Toilet Paper - British Perforated Paper Company 
Vacuum cleaner - Hubert Cecil Booth 

Industrial processes
English crucible steel - Benjamin Huntsman 
Steel production Bessemer process - Henry Bessemer 
Hydraulic press - Joseph Bramah 
Parkesine, the first man-made plastic - Alexander Parkes 
Portland cement - Joseph Aspdin 
Sheffield plate - Thomas Boulsover 
Water frame - Richard Arkwright 
Stainless Steel - Harry Brearley 
Rubber Masticator - Thomas Hancock 

First correct description of circulation of the blood - William Harvey 
Smallpox vaccine - Edward Jenner 
Antisepsis in surgery - Joseph Lister 
Artificial intraocular lens transplant surgery for cataract patients - Harold Ridley 
Clinical thermometer - Thomas Clifford Allbutt.
Colour blindness first described by John Dalton in Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours
Computed Tomography - Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield 
Viagra - Peter Dunn, Albert Wood, Dr Nicholas Terrett 
EKG (underlying principles) - various 

Congreve rocket - William Congreve 
High explosive squash head - Sir Charles Dennistoun Burney 
Puckle Gun - James Puckle 
Shrapnel shell - Henry Shrapnel 
Dreadnought Battleship 
Bailey Bridge - Donald Bailey 

Davy lamp - Humphry Davy 
Geordie lamp - George Stephenson 

Musical instruments
Concertina - Charles Wheatstone 

Ambrotype - Frederick Scott Archer 
Calotype - William Fox Talbot 
Collodion process - Frederick Scott Archer 
Stereoscope - Charles Wheatstone 

Sir Isaac Newton imageSir Isaac Newton

Newtonian telescope - Sir Isaac Newton 
Compound microscope with 30x magnification - Robert Hooke 
Universal Joint - Robert Hooke 
The Iris diaphragm - Robert Hooke 
Anchor escapement and the balance spring, which made more accurate clocks possible - Robert Hooke 
Correct theory of combustion - Robert Hooke 
Barometer, anemometer, and hygrometer (invented or improved) - Robert Hooke 
Hooke's Law (equation describing elasticity) - Robert Hooke 
Electrical generator (dynamo) - Michael Faraday 
Galvanometer - William Sturgeon 
Infrared radiation - discovery commonly attributed to William Herschel. 

Micrometer - Sir William Gascoigne 
the first bench micrometer that was capable of measuring to one ten thousandth of an inch - Henry Maudslay 
Sinclair Executive, the world's first small electronic pocket calculator - Sir Clive Sinclair 
Slide rule - William Oughtred 
Synthesis of coumarin, one of the first synthetic perfumes, and cinnamic acid via the Perkin reaction- William Henry Perkin 
The Law of Gravity - Sir Isaac Newton 
Newton's laws of motion - Sir Isaac Newton 
DNA fingerprinting - Sir Alec Jeffreys 
Smallpox Vaccination - Edward Jenner 
Electromagnet - William Sturgeon 
Dew Point Hygrometer - John Frederic Daniell 
Periodic Table - John Alexander Newlands 
Seismograph - John Milne 
Theory of Evolution - Charles Darwin 
Orbital Theory of the Atom - Ernest Rutherford 


Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel, best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway, a series of famous steamships, and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering.


First working railway steam locomotive - Richard Trevithick 
Blücher - George Stephenson 
Puffing Billy -William Hedley 
Locomotion No 1 - Robert Stephenson 
Sans Pareil - Timothy Hackworth 
Stephenson's Rocket - George and Robert Stephenson 

Other railway developments
Displacement lubricator, Ramsbottom safety valve, the water trough, the split piston ring - John Ramsbottom 

Bowden cable - Frank Bowden 
Cat's eye - Percy Shaw
Caterpillar track - Sir George Cayley 
Hansom cab - Joseph Hansom 
Seat belt - George Cayley 
Sinclair C5 - Sir Clive Sinclair 
Tarmac - E. Purnell Hooley 
Belisha beacon - Leslie Hore-Belisha 

Plimsol line - Samuel Plimsoll 
Hovercraft - Christopher Cockerell 
Lifeboat - Lionel Lukin 
Resurgam - George Garrett 
Submarine - William Bourne 

Aeronautics and flight - George Cayley 
Jet Engine - Sir Frank Whittle 

Football - Rules as know today were established in 1848 at Cambridge University 
Rugby - William Webb Ellis 

Daylight saving time - William Willett 
Bayko - Charles Plimpton 
Linoleum - Frederick Walton
Meccano - Frank Hornby 
Crossword puzzle - Arthur Wynne 
Gas Mask - John Tyndall and others 
Steel-ribbed Umbrella - Samuel Fox 

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