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FAQ ALASKA - Frequently Asked Questions About Alaska

Chronological History of Alaska

Presented below are historical facts for which there are written records. Until contact with Europeans, the history of Native Alaskans was preserved through the oral tradition. In the 250 years since Europeans found Alaska, much of that oral history was lost, what was recorded does not correspond to the Western manner of recording events on a calendar basis.

18th century

  • 1725 - Peter the Great sends Vitus Bering to explore the North Pacific.
  • 1728 - Vitus Bering sails through the Bering Strait.
  • 1733 - Bering's second expedition, with George Wilhelm Steller aboard, the first naturalist to visit Alaska.
  • 1741 - Alexei Chirikof, with Bering expedition, sights land on July 15; the Europeans had found Alaska.
  • 1742 - First scientific report on the North Pacific fur seal.
  • 1743 - Concentrated hunting of sea otter by Russia begins.
  • 1774 to 1792 - The Spanish sent seven expeditions north to look for Russian settlements and the Northwest Passage.
  • 1774 - Juan Perez ordered by Spain to explore west coast; discovers Prince of Wales Island, Dixon Sound.
  • 1776 - Captain James Cook expedition to search for Northwest Passage.
  • 1725 - Cook reaches King Island, Norton Sound, Unalaska.
  • 1784 - Grigorii Shelikov establishes first white settlement at Three Saints Bay, Kodiak.
  • 1786 - Gerassin Pribilof discovers the rookeries on the islands now know as the Pribilofs.
  • 1791 - George Vancouver leaves England to explore the coast.
  • 1792 - Catherine II grants a monopoly of furs in Alaska to Grigorii Shelikov.
  • 1794 - Baranov builds first vessel in northwestern America at Voskres-senski on Kenai.
  • 1795 - The first Russian Orthodox Church established in Kodiak.
  • 1799 - Alexander Baranov establishes Russian post known today as Old Sitka; trade charter grants exclusive trading rights to the Russian American Company.

19th Century

  • 1802 - Russian fort at Old Sitka destroyed by Tlingits.
  • 1804 - Russians return to Sitka and attack Kiksadi fort on Indian River. Russians lose the battle, but Natives are forced to flee. Baranov re-establishes trading post.
  • 1805 - Yurii Lisianski sails to Canton with the first Russian cargo of furs to be sent directly to China.
  • 1821 - No foreigners allowed in Russian-American waters, except at regular ports of call.
  • 1824 - Russians begin exploration of mainland that leads to discovery of Nushagak, Kuskokwim, Yukon, and Koyokuk Rivers.
  • 1834 - Father Veniaminov moves to Sitka; consecrated Bishop Innokenty in 1840.
  • 1840 - Russian Orthodox Diocese formed; Bishop Innokenty Veniaminov given permission to use Native languages in the liturgy.
  • 1841 - Edward de Stoeckl assigned to the secretariat of the Russian legation in the U.S.
  • 1847 - Fort Yukon established.
  • 1848 - Cathedral of St. Michael dedicated at New Archangel (Sitka).
  • 1853 - Russian explorer-trappers find oil seeps in Cook Inlet.
  • 1857 - Coal mining begins at Coal Harbor on the Kenai Peninsula.
  • 1859 - De Stoeckl returns to U.S. from St. Petersburg with authority to negotiate the sale of Alaska.
  • 1861 - Gold discovered on Stikine River near Telegraph Creek.
  • 1865 - Western Union Telegraph Company prepares to put telegraph line across Alaska and Siberia.

Purchase from Russia

  • 1867 - U.S. purchases Alaska from Russia; Pribilof Islands placed under jurisdiction of Secretary of Treasury. Fur seal population, stablized under Russian rule, declines rapidly.
  • 1868 - Alaska designated as the Department of Alaska under Brevet Major General Jeff C. Davis, U.S. Army.
  • 1869 - The Sitka Times, first newspaper in Alaska, published.
  • 1872 - Gold discovered near Sitka and in British Columbia .
  • 1874 - George Halt said to be the first white man to cross the Chilkoot Pass in search for gold.
  • 1876 - Gold discovered south of Juneau at Windham Bay.
  • 1877 - U.S. troops withdrawn from Alaska.
  • 1878 - School opens at Sitka, to become Sheldon Jackson Junior College. First canneries in Alaska established at Klawock and Sitka.
  • 1880 - Richard Harris and Joseph Juneau, with the aid of local clan leader Kowee, discover gold on Gastineau; Juneau is founded.
  • 1881 - Parris Lode claim staked and by 1885 is the most prominent mine in Alaska: Treadwell Mine.
  • 1882 - First commercial herring fishing begins at Killisnoo; first two central Alaska salmon canneries built. U.S. Navy bombs, then burns Tlingit village of Angoon.
  • 1884 - Congress passes Organic Act. $15,000 appropriated to educate Indian children.
  • 1885 - Dr. C. H. Townsend suggest introduction of reindeer into Alaska. Sheldon Jackson appointed General Agent for Education in Alaska.
  • 1887 - Father William Duncan and Tsimshian followers found Metlakatla on Annette Island.
  • 1888 - Boundary survey started by Dr. W. H. Dall of the U.S. and Dr. George Dawson of Canada.
  • 1890 - Large corporate salmon canneries begin to appear.
  • 1890 - Dr. Sheldon Jackson explores Arctic Coast; brings reindeer husbandry into Alaska.
  • 1891 - First oil claims staked in Cook Inlet area.
  • 1892 Afognak Reserve established, beginning the Alaskan Forest Service System.
  • 1894 - Gold discovery on Mastadon Creek; founding of Circle City.
  • 1896 - Dawson City founded at mouth of Klondike River; gold discovered on Bonanza Creek.
  • 1897-1900 - Klondike gold rush.
  • 1897 First shipment of fresh halibut sent south from Juneau.
  • 1898 - Skagway is largest city in Alaska; work starts on White Pass and Yukon Railroad; Congress appropriates money for telegraph from Seattle to Sitka; Nome gold rush begins.
  • 1899 - Local government organized in Nome.

20th century

  • 1900 - Civil Code for Alaska divides state into three judicial districts, with judges at Sitka, Eagle, and St. Michael; moves capital to Juneau. White Pass railroad completed. U.S. Congress passes act to establish Washington-Cable (WAMCATS) that later becomes the Alaska Communications System (ACS).
  • 1902 - President Theodore Roosevelt establishes Tongass National Forest; E.T. Barnette and local miners name their settlement Fairbanks.
  • 1904 - Last great Tlingit potlatch held in Sitka. Submarine cables laid from Seattle to Sitka, and from Sitka to Valdez, linking Alaska to "outside".
  • 1905 - Tanana railroad built; telegraph links Fairbanks and Valdez; Alaska Road Commission established under Army jurisdiction.
  • 1906 - Alaska authorized to send voteless delegate to Congress. Governor's Office moved from Sitka to Juneau.
  • 1907 - Gold discovered at Ruby; Richardson trail established; Tongass National Forest, largest U.S. forest, created by presidential proclamation.
  • 1908 - First cold storage plant built at Ketchikan.
  • 1911 - International agreement between U.S., Great Britain, Canada, Russia, and Japan controls fur seal fisheries; sea otters placed under complete protection; Copper River and Northwestern Railroad begins service to Kennecott Copper Mine.
  • 1912 - Territorial status for Alaska provides for Legislature; Alaska Native Brotherhood organizes in Southeast; Mount Katmai explodes, forming Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes.
  • 1913 - First Alaska Territorial Legislature convenes. First law passed grants women voting rights.
  • 1914 - Surveying begins for Alaska Railroad; City of Anchorage born as construction campsite.
  • 1915 - Alaska Native Sisterhood holds first convention in Sitka.
  • 1916 - First bill for Alaska statehood introduced in Congress. Alaskans vote in favor of prohibition by a 2 to 1 margin.
  • 1917 - Treadwell Mine complex caves in.
  • 1918 - Congress creates Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines as a land grant college.
  • 1920 - Anchorage organizes city government.
  • 1922 - Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines opens. Native voting rights established through a court case.
  • 1923 - President Warren G. Harding comes to Alaska to drive the last spike in Alaska Railroad.
  • 1924 - Congress extends citizenship to all Indians in the United States; Tlingit William Paul, Sr. is first Native elected to Alaska Legislature. Start of airmail delivery to Alaska.
  • 1928 - Court case resolves right of Native children to attend public school.
  • 1929 - U.S. Navy begins 5-year survey to map parts of Alaska. Alaska Native Brotherhood convention at Haines resolves to pursue land claims settlement in Southeast Alaska.
  • 1932 - Radio telephone communications established in Juneau, Ketchikan, and Nome.
  • 1935 - Matanuska Valley Project established. Nine hundred Alaska-Juneau Gold Mine workers go on a strike that lasts 40 days and ends in violence. - The Jurisdictional Act of June, 1935 allows the Tlingit and Haida Indians to pursue land claims in U.S. Court of Claims.
  • 1936 - The Indian Reorganization Act of 1935 amended to include Alaska. Nell Scott of Seldovia becomes the first woman elected to the Territorial Legislature.
  • 1940 - Fort Richardson established; construction begins on Elmendorf Air Force Base.
  • 1942 - Japan bombs Dutch Harbor; invades Aleutians.
  • 1944 - Alaska-Juneau Gold Mine shuts down.
  • 1945 - Governor Gruening signs the Anti-Discrimination Act, the first such legislation passed in the United States and its possessions since post-Civil War.
  • 1946 - Boarding school for Native high school students opens at Mt. Edgecombe.
  • 1947 - The Alaska Command established; first unified command of the U.S. staffed by Army, Air Force, and Navy officers. First Alaska Native land claims suit, filed by Tlingit and Haida people, introduced in U.S. Court of Claims.
  • 1948 - Alaskans vote to abolish fish traps by a 10 to 1 margin.
  • 1953 - Oil well drilled near Eureka on Glenn Highway marks the beginning of Alaska's modern oil history; first plywood operations begin at Juneau; first big Alaskan pulp mill opens at Ketchikan. First Alaskan television broadcast by KENI, Anchorage.
  • 1955 - Alaskans elect delegates to constitutional convention.
  • 1955 - Constitutional Convention opens at University of Alaska.
  • 1956 - Territorial voters adopt the Alaska Constitution; send two senators and one representative to Washington under the Tennessee Plan.
  • 1958 - Statehood measure passes; President Eisenhower signs statehood bill.


  • 1959 - Statehood proclaimed; state constitution in effect; Sitka pulp mill opens. U.S. Court of Claims issues judgement favoring Tlingit and Haida claims to Southeast Alaska lands.
  • 1964 - Good Friday earthquake.
  • 1966 - Alaska Federation of Natives organized. Interior Secretary Udall imposes a "land freeze" to protect Native use and occupancy of Alaska lands.
  • 1967 - Fairbanks flood.
  • 1968 - Oil pumped from a well at Prudhoe Bay on North Slope. Governor Hickel establishes Alaska Lands Claims Task Force that recommends a 40 million acre land settlement for Alaska Natives.
  • 1969 - North Slope Oil lease sale brings $900 million. First live satellite telecast in Alaska.
  • 1971 - Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act signed into law.
  • 1972 - Alaska Constitution amended to prohibit sexual discrimination.
  • 1973 - Congress passes the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act; salmon fisheries limited entry program becomes law.
  • 1974 - Alaska voters approve capital move initiative.
  • 1975 - Alaska Legislature appropriates funds to initiate purchase and installation of 100 satellite earth stations for establishment of statewide satellite communications network.
  • 1976 - Natural gas pipeline proposals filed. Alaska voters pick Willow as new capital site; voters approve constitutional amendment establishing Alaska Permanent Fund to receive "at least 25 percent" of all state oil revenues and related income.
  • 1977 - Trans-Alaska Pipeline completed from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez.
  • 1980 - Alaska Legislature increases Permanent Fund share of oil revenues from 25 to 50 percent; repeals Alaska personal income tax; establishes Alaska Dividend Fund to distribute Permanent Fund earnings to Alaska residents. Congress passes Alaska National Interests Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA).
  • 1982 - Alaska voters repeal law relocating capital to Willow and establish state spending limit; first Permanent Fund dividends distributed.
  • 1983 - Time zone shift: all Alaska. except westernmost Aleutians Islands, move to Alaska Standard Time, one hour west of Pacific Standard time; crab stocks so low that most commercial seasons are cancelled; the drinking age is raised from 19 to 21 by the Legislature.
  • 1985 - State purchases Alaska Railroad from the federal government; declining oil prices cause budget problems.
  • 1986 - Price of oil drops below $10 per barrel, causing Alaska oil revenues to plummet; the legislature passes a new bill governing subsistence hunting and fishing.
  • 1987 - The economic doldrums from oil prices continue to affect the state, causing many to lose their jobs and leave, banks to foreclose on property, and businesses to go bankrupt; a new military build-up in Alaska begins when the first troops of the new Sixth Infantry Division begin to arrive in Fairbanks.
  • 1988 - International efforts to rescue two whales caught by ice off Barrow captures world-wide attention; the state's economic woes continue and Anchorage loses 30,000 in population; the Soviets allow a one-day visit of a group of Alaskans to the Siberian port city of Provideniya; Anchorage loses its bid to host the 1994 Olympic Games to Lillehammer, Norway.
  • 1989 - The Exxon Valdez, a 987' oil tanker carrying 53 million gallons of North Slope crude grounds on Bligh Reef spilling 11 million gallons into Prince William Sound; the Permanent Fund passes the $10 billion mark; the Alaska Supreme Court throws out Alaska's rural preference law.
  • 1990 - The Alaska Legislature meets in special session and struggles unsuccessfully to resolve the subsistence issue; federal authorities take over subsistence management on federal lands; oil prices temporarily double after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait; Walter Hickel makes a political comeback with lt. governor candidate Jack Coghill on Alaskan Independence Party ticket and winning gubernatorial race; Congress sets aside more Southeast Alaska as wilderness by passing the Tongass Reform Act.
  • 1991 - The State of Alaska, the U.S. Justice Department and Exxon reach a $1 billion settlement resulting form the Exxon Valdez oil spill which is rejected by the U.S. District Court. An amended settlement earmarking more money for restoration work in Prince William Sound wins judicial approval. Congress effectively closes the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil development; Bristol Bay fisherman strike over low salmon prices; Hickel administration and the Legislature unable to resolve the subsistence issue.
  • 1992 - Final repercussions of Alaska's recession are felt as oil industry retrenches with major job losses; the Anchorage Times, once Alaska's largest newspaper folds; reapportionment challenges delay primaries by two weeks; Spurr Volcano erupts three times, one blast dumping ash on Anchorage; Juneau's Hillary Lindh wins Olympic Silver Medal in downhill skiing.
  • 1993 - Alaska Legislature passes largest capital works appropriation in ten years; a court-mandated new reapportionment scheme re-draws boundaries of some election districts; Greens Creek Mine near Juneau closes due to low silver, zinc, and lead prices; Sitka Pulp Mill announces indefinites suspension of mill operations, affecting 400 workers; Alaskan Independence Party Chairman Joe Vogler mysteriously disappears.
  • 1994 - Federal trial results in $5 billion dollar verdict in the Exxon Valdez case. Alaska's Tommy Moe brings home Olympic gold in downhill ski competitions. Joe Vogler's body is discovered buried off Chena Hot Springs Road near Fairbanks. Voters defeat the latest proposal to move the Alaska capital away from Juneau. The mental health lands case is decided after years in court; the suit initiated by Vern Weiss of Nenana and several other plaintoffs revolved around the 1977 legislature's dissolution of a trust established in territorial days.
  • 1995 - Canadian fisherman attack an Alaska ferry with paint and ball bearings projected from sling shots in frustration over inconclusive U.S.-Canada Pacific Salmon Treaty talks, which hinder Southeast Alaska's troll king salmon fishery. MarkAir faces bankruptcy while ticket holders are stranded and employees all over the state are laid off. The $267 million dollar Healy Clean Coal Project is launched with a substantial backing by the U.S. Department of Energy. Villagers from Alatna return to a newly rebuilt village after being one of several Koyukuk River communities washed out by fall floods in 1994.
  • 1996 - A federal judge rules against the State of Alaska in a case brought by Governor Hickel and continued by Governor Knowles over the state's interpretation of how the Alaska Statehood Act affects the federal government's management of federal lands in the state. U.S. Congress lifts the ban on exportation of Alaska crude oil. One of the most devastating fires in state history destroys homes and property in the South Central area near Big Lake.
  • 1997 - High winds and seas caused a Japanese refrigerator ship to go aground near Unalaska, spilling approximately 39,000 gallons of fuel. The Fairbanks Municipal Utilities System was sold to three private companies, ending 50 years of public utility ownership. MAPCO, owner of Alaska's largest oil refinery, was bought by Williams Co. Inc. Canadian fishermen in Prince Rupert blockaded an Alaskan ferry for three days in protest of Alaskan salmon-fishing practices; ferry service to Prince Rupert was disrupted for 19 weeks. The issue of the safety of the 20 year old Trans-Alaska pipeline was in the news, but both Alyeska and the Joint Pipeline Office maintained that the pipeline is well-monitored and safe.
  • 1998 - Statewide, 6,700 jobs were added and the unemployment rate set a record low at 5.8%. The moose was adopted as Alaska's official state land mammal. In May, an estimated 4,000 people marched in Anchorage to show solidarity and to bring attention to Native Rights' issues. The new Seward SeaLife Center is the western hemisphere's first cold-water marine research facility, and includes two floors of public displays. The Supreme Court of the United States in its case No.96-1577 ruled that the approximately 1.8 million acres owned by the Native Village of Venetie Tribal Government is not "Indian country".
  • 1999 - Two legendary dogmushers died this year - Joe Redington, Sr., founder of the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, and Edgar Nollner, Sr., the last surviving musher of the 1925 diptheria serum run to Nome. The state's top two oil producers, BP and ARCO, announced their intent to merge. The University of Alaska Museum in Fairbanks received $1,000,000 from the Bill Gates Foundation to help with their expansion project. In Anchorage, the Alaska Native Heritage Center, a 26 acre cultural park, opened its doors; it is expected that the Center will attract 130,000 visitors a year. In September, a proposal to spend Alaska Permanent Fund earnings on state government was soundly rejected by voters, 83% to 17%. The state's largest financial institution, the National Bank of Alaska, announced it has agreed to a buyout by Wells, Fargo & Co. Derailment of two Alaska Railroad trains in the Susitna River Valley in November and December resulted in jet fuel spills totalling approximately 100,000 gallons. Cleanup was hampered by extreme weather and the remote terrain.
  • 2000 - Along with the rest of the world, Alaskans welcomed the year 2000 with fanfare and firecrackers. Tragedy struck on January 31 when an Alaska Airlines jet crashed near Los Angeles, killing 88 people including Morris Thompson, Interior Alaska Native leader and former BIA director. Snowslides stranded dozens of people in Girdwood for nearly a week; avalanche conditions in the area were among the worst in decades. In April, after more than a year of anti-trust investigations by the FTC, the agreement was signed for BP to take over ARCO, with the exception of ARCO Alaska which was purchased by Phillips Petroleum. After more than 40 years the bodies of 133 people, mostly Native Alaskans, were returned to their villages for burial. Patients at the Mt. Edgecumbe TB hospital when they died, they had been buried in a nearby WWII bunker. Elmer Rasmuson, Anchorage banker and Alaskan philanthropist, died in December. And once again Alaska offered unique challenges to the intrepid federal census takers. Census 2000 results show a state population of 626,932, an increase of 14% from 1990, and Alaska moves to 47th in the state population rankings.
  • 2001 - Like so many others across America, Alaskans mourned friends and relatives killed in the terror attacks of September 11th, and joined in the October assault on al-Qaeda and Taliban targets in Afghanistan. The year had started on a sad note with paint-ball shootings of Alaska Natives in Anchorage. The assailants were prosecuted with their own videotape and Governor Tony Knowles created a Commission on Tolerance. 2001 saw other developments in Native issues. Governor Knowles declined to appeal the Katie John subsistence case and held a summit on subsistence. In December Point Hope Alaska Native Jesse Frankson stunned the sports world by winning the Guinness World Record for the highest martial arts kick.
  • 2002 - Legendary four-time Iditarod winner Doug Swingly said goodbye to racing and hello to new bride Melanie Shirilla. St. Patrick's Day brought Anchorage a record-setting snowfall of 28.6 inches of wet snow. The previous record of 15.6 inches was set in 1955. On that same day, March 17th, rescuers from North Slope Search and Rescue used helicopters to pluck 18 seal hunters from broken sea ice. It took five trips to pick up the hunters, but no one was injured. In June 2002, Alaska renewed its place as first line of missile defense with the groundbreaking of six interceptor missile silos. On November 3rd, Interior Alaska was shaken by a 7.9 earthquake centered 90 miles south of Fairbanks. Thanks to the small population of this area, no one was hurt, even though the quake was felt in Louisiana. On November 5, Alaska voters rejected moving the State Legislature by 67% to 33%. December brought a shock to the Alaska fishing industry, the closure of the 75-year-old Ward Cove Packing Co. salmon operation. Ward Cove cited weak overseas markets and competition from farmed salmon in its closure statement.
  • 2003 - Alaskans rang in the New Year with a hike in the minimum wage from $5.65 to $7.15. This gave Alaska the highest minimum wage on the West Coast. In March, the Ted Stevens Anchorage International airport was shut down by 109 mph winds. This same windstorm brought $8.5 million dollars in damages to homes and businesses. March also saw people around the state marching off to serve in Operation Iraqi Freedom. In April, Alaskans bid farewell to Kmart, which closed all of its Alaska stores. Wolf control became an issue in April, after the Board of Fish and Game voted to allow it, and environmental groups threatened tourism boycotts. October brought a preventable tragedy when author Timothy Treadwell and his companion Amie Huguenard were found mauled to death by bears in the Katmai National Park and Preserve. Mr. Treadwell was well known for approaching bears at very close ranges, something most wildlife professionals advise against. The year also brought the death of two respected politicians: former state Rep. Ramona Barnes (in November), Alaska's first female speaker of the House and former state Sen. Frank Ferguson (In June), a powerful Alaska Native legislator.
  • 2004 - 2004 will be remembered for a record fire season especially within the interior part of the state. 708 fires burned more than 6.7 million acres and cost more than $106 million. The U.S. Senate race between Lisa Murkowski (R) and Tony Knowles (D) was an 11.5 million campaign with Murkowski winning by 3 percent despite charges of nepotism regarding her 2002 appointment by her father, Frank Murkowski who left the U.S. Senate to become Alaska's governor. Subsequently Alaska voters abolished the governor's right to make such appointments, requiring that a special election be held in the future. In economic news record oil and gold prices were seen as well as record gasoline costs of $2.15 a gallon. A ship, the Selendang Ayu grounded and broke up in rough seas of the coast of Unalaska spilling 210,000 gallons of fuel and its cargo of soybeans. Cleanup efforts were difficult. Mitch Seavey of Seward won the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race on his 11th try.
  • 2005 -  The loss of two great men saddened Alaskans this year. Jay Hammond, who served two terms as Alaska’s governor died at his home in Lake Clark on Aug. 1. He was 83. Col. Norman Vaughan, explorer and adventurer, inspired many on how to live their senior years, died Dec. 23. He was 100 years old. Alaskans joined in a relief effort after the South Asia Tsunami which killed an estimated 200,000 people. Elmendorf  Air Force Base sent 85 Airmen and four C-130’s to Indonesia for two weeks bringing in food and supplies and carrying out hundreds of people displaced by the destruction of the tsunami. Three Alaskan solders were killed in a roadside bombing in Iraq: Sgt. Kurtis Arcala, Lance Cpl. Grant Fraser, and Pfc. Matthew Bohling. Four Alaskan Boy Scout leaders were electrocuted when they were erecting a tent at the 2005 National Scout Jamboree. They were Michael Shibe, Michael LaCroix , Ron Blitzer and Scott Powell who had moved to Ohio last year. A legally blind musher, Rachel Scdoris, began the 1,100 mile Iditarod race but had to scratch 731 miles into the race when her dogs became affected with a virus which also struck a number of other mushers. Robert Sorlie of Norway won the race for the second time.


Sources for 1725-1993 : Alaska Blue Book 1993-94, 11th ed., Juneau, Department of Education, Division of State Libraries, Archives & Museums. [amended]
Sources for 1774-1792: Through Spanish Eyes: Spanish Voyages to Alaska, 1774-1792.

Sources for 1994 : Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, 12/26/94.
Sources for 1995 : Anchorage Daily News, 12/31/95; Fairbanks Daily News-Miner Heartland, 12/31/95.
Sources for 1996 : Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, 6/5/96.
Sources for 1997 : Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, Heartland Section, 12/28/97; Alaska Almanac, 22nd ed. 1998.
Sources for 1998 : Alaska Almanac, 22nd-23rd ed. 1998-1999; Alaska Economic Trends, April 1999.
Sources for 1999 : Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, Heartland, 1/2/ 2000; Anchorage Daily News, 1/1/2000; Alaska Almanac, 24th ed., 2000.
Sources for 2000 : Alaska Almanac, 24th ed., 2000; Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, 12/30/00, p.C1;Census figure from State of Alaska website
Sources for 2001 : Juneau Empire 12/30/2001, 12/31/2001, Anchorage Daily News 12/30/2001.
Sources for 2002-2003 : Alaska Almanac, 27th ed., 2003, Juneau Empire 12/29/2003 and 12/31/2003, Division of Elections Web Site.
Sources for 2004 : Anchorage Daily News January 1, 2005, Fairbanks Daily News-Miner January 2, 2005
Sources for 2005 : Anchorage Daily News January 1, 2006

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Last Modified: 3 August 2006
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