The Arabized Arabs go back in ancestry to their great grandfather
Abraham [AWS] from a town called "Ar" near Kufa on the west bank of the
Euphrates in Iraq. Excavations brought to light great details of the town, Abrahams
family, and the prevalent religions and social circumstances. [Tafheem-ul-Qur'an, 1/553]
It is known that Abraham [AWS] left Ar for Harran and then for
Palestine, which he made headquarters for his Message. He wandered all over the area. When
he went to Egypt, the Pharaoh tried to do evil to his wife Sarah, but Allâh saved her and
the Pharaohs wicked scheme recoiled on him. He thus came to realize her strong
attachment to Allâh, and, in acknowledgment of her grace, the Pharaoh rendered his
daughter Hagar at Sarahs service, but Sarah gave Hagar to Abraham as a wife. [Bukhari 1/474]
Abraham returned to Palestine where Hagar gave birth to Ishmael.
Sarah became so jealous of Hagar that she forced Abraham to send Hagar and her baby away
to a plantless valley on a small hill in Hijaz, by the Sacred House, exposed to the
wearing of floods coming right and left. He chose for them a place under a lofty tree
above Zamzam near the upper side of the Mosque in Makkah where neither people nor water
was available, and went back to Palestine leaving with his wife and baby a leather case
with some dates and a pot of water. Not before long, they ran out of both food and water,
but thanks to Allâhs favour water gushed forth to sustain them for sometime. The
whole story of Zamzam spring is already known to everybody. [Bukhari
Another Yemeni tribe Jurhum the Second came and lived
in Makkah upon Hagars permission, after being said to have lived in the valleys
around Makkah. It is mentioned in the Sahih Al-Bukhari that this tribe came to Makkah
before Ishmael was a young man while they had passed through that valley long before this
Abraham used to go to Makkah every now and then to see his wife and
son. The number of these journeys is still unknown, but authentic historical resources
spoke of four ones.
Allâh, the Sublime, stated in the Noble Qurân that He had
Abraham see, in his dream, that he slaughtered his son Ishmael, and therefore Abraham
stood up to fulfill His Order:
"Then, when they had both
submitted themselves (to the Will of Allâh), and he had laid him prostrate on his
forehead (or on the side of his forehead for slaughtering); and We called out to him:
"O Abraham! You have fulfilled the dream (vision)!" Verily! Thus do we reward
the Muhsinûn (good-doers, who perform good deeds totally for Allâhs sake only,
without any show off or to gain praise or fame, etc. and do them in accordance to
Allâhs Orders). Verily, that indeed was a manifest trial and We ransomed him
with a great sacrifice (i.e. a ram)" [37:103-107]
It is mentioned in the Genesis that Ishmael was thirteen years older
than his brother Ishaq. The sequence of the story of the sacrifice of Ishmael shows that
it really happened before Ishaqs birth, and that Allâhs Promise to give
Abraham another son, Ishaq, came after narration of the whole story.
This story spoke of one journey at least before
Ishmael became a young man. Al-Bukhari, on the authority of Ibn Abbas, reported the
other three journeys; a summary of which goes as follows:
When Ishmael became a young man, he learned Arabic at the hand of
the tribe of Jurhum, who loved him with great admiration and gave him one of their women
as a wife, soon after his mother died. Having wanted to see his wife and son again,
Abraham came to Makkah, after Ishmaels marriage, but he didnt find him at
home. He asked Ishmaels wife about her husband and how they were doing. She
complained of poverty, so he asked her to tell Ishmael to change his doorstep. Ishmael
understood the message, divorced his wife and got married to the daughter of Mudad bin
Amr, chief of the tribe of Jurhum. [Qalb Jazeerat Al-Arab, p
Once more, Abraham came to see his son, but again didnt find
him at home. He asked his new wife the same previous question, to which she thanked
Allâh. Abraham asked her to tell Ishmael to keep his doorstep (i.e. to keep her as wife)
and went back to Palestine.
A third time, Abraham came to Makkah to find Ishmael sharpening an
arrow under a lofty tree near Zamzam. The meeting, after a very long journey of
separation, was very touching for a father so affectionate and a so dutiful and righteous
son. This time, father and son built Al-Kabah and raised its pillars, and Abraham,
in compliance with Allâhs Commandment, called unto people to make pilgrimage to it.
By the grace of Allâh, Ishmael had twelve sons from the daughter of
Mudad, whose names were Nabet, Qidar, Edbael, Mebsham, Mishma, Duma, Micha,
Hudud, Yetma, Yetour, Nafis and Qidman, and who ultimately formed twelve tribes inhabiting Makkah
and trading between Yemen, geographical Syria and Egypt. Later on, these tribes spread all
over, and even outside, the peninsula. All their tidings went into oblivion except for the
descendants of Nabet and Qidar.
The Nabeteans sons of Nabet established a flourishing
civilization in the north of Hijaz, they instituted a powerful government which spread out
its domain over all neighbouring tribes, and made Petra their capital. Nobody dared
challenge their authority until the Romans came and managed to eliminate their kingdom.
After extensive research and painstaking investigation, Mr. Sulaiman An-Nadwi came to the
conclusion that the Ghassanide kings, along with the Aws and Khazraj were not likely to be
Qahtanians but rather Nabeteans. [Tareekh Ard Al-Qur'an 2/78-86]
Descendants of Qidar, the son of Ishmael, lived long in Makkah
increasing in number, of them issued Adnan and son Maad, to whom
Adnanian Arabs traced back their ancestry. Adnan is the twenty-first
grandfather in the series of the Prophetic ancestry. It was said that whenever Prophet
Muhammad [pbuh] spoke of his ancestry he would stop at Adnan and say:
"Genealogists tell lies" and did not go farther than him. A group of scholars,
however, favoured the probability of going beyond Adnan attaching no significance to
the aforementioned Prophetic Hadith. They went on to say that there were exactly
forty fathers between Adnan and Abraham [AWS]. [Rahmat-ul-lil'alameen
Nizar, Maads only son , had four sons who branched out
into four great tribes; Eyad, Anmar, Rabia and Mudar. These last two sub-branched
into several septs. Rabia fathered Asad, Anazah, Abdul Qais, and
Wails two sons (Bakr and Taghlib), Hanifa and many others.
Mudar tribes branched out into two great divisions: Qais Ailan
bin Mudar and septs of Elias bin Mudar. Of Qais Ailan were the Banu Saleem, Banu
Hawazin, and Banu Ghatafan of whom descended Abs, Zubyan, Ashja and Ghani bin
Asur. Of Elias bin Mudar were Tamim bin Murra, Hudhail bin Mudrika, Banu Asad bin
Khuzaimah and septs of Kinana bin Khuzaimah, of whom came Quraish, the descendants of Fahr
bin Malik bin An-Nadr bin Kinana.
Quraish branched out into various tribes, the most famous of whom
were Jumah, Sahm, Adi, Makhzum, Tayim, Zahra and the three septs of Qusai bin
Abdud-Dar bin Qusai, Asad bin Abdul Uzza bin Qusai and Abd Manaf
Abd Manaf branched out into four tribes: Abd Shams,
Nawfal, Muttalib and Hashim. It is, however, from the family of Hashim that Allâh
selected Prophet Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Abdul-Muttalib bin Hashim
Prophet Muhammad [pbuh] said:
"Allâh selected Ishmael from the
sons of Abraham, Kinana from the sons of Ishmael, Quraish from the sons of Kinana, Hashim
from the sons of Quraish and He selected me from the sons of Hashim."
[Muslim 2/245; Tirmidhi 2/201]
Al-Abbas bin Abdul-Muttalib quoted the Messenger of
Allâh [pbuh] as saying:
"Allâh created mankind and chose
me from the best whereof, He chose the tribes and selected me from the best whereof; and
He chose families and selected me from the best whereof. I am the very best in person and
family." [Tirmidhi 2/201]
Having increased in number, children of Adnan, in pursuit of
pastures and water, spread out over various parts of Arabia.
The tribe of Abdul Qais, together with some septs of Bakr bin
Wail and Tamim, emigrated to Bahrain where they dwelt.
Banu Hanifa bin Sab bin Ali bin Bakr went to settle in
the capital of Yamama. All the tribes of Bakr bin Wail lived in an area of land
which included Yamama, Bahrain, Saif Kazima, the sea shore, the outer borders of Iraq,
Ablah and Hait.
Most of the tribe of Taghlib lived in the Euphrates area while some
of them lived with Bakr.
Banu Tamim lived in Basra semi-desert.
Banu Saleem lived in the vicinity of Madinah on the land stretching
from Wadi Al-Qura to Khaibar onwards to the eastern mountains to Harrah.
Thaqif dwelt in Taif and Hawazin east of Makkah near Autas on
the road from Makkah to Basra.
Banu Asad lived on the land east of Taimâ and west of
while family of Tai lived between Banu Asad and Taimâ. They were
five-day-walk far from Kufa.
Zubyan inhabited the plot of and between Taimâ and
Some septs of Kinana lived in Tihama, while septs of
Quraish dwelt in Makkah and its suburbs. Quraish remained completely disunited until Qusai
bin Kilab managed to rally their ranks on honourable terms attaching major prominence to
their status and importance. [Muhadrat Tareekh Al-Umam Al-Islamiyah