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Originally published in Science Express on 28 June 2007
Science 3 August 2007:
Vol. 317. no. 5838, pp. 632 - 638
DOI: 10.1126/science.1144622

Research Articles

Genome Transplantation in Bacteria: Changing One Species to Another

Carole Lartigue, John I. Glass,* Nina Alperovich, Rembert Pieper, Prashanth P. Parmar, Clyde A. Hutchison, III, Hamilton O. Smith, J. Craig Venter

As a step toward propagation of synthetic genomes, we completely replaced the genome of a bacterial cell with one from another species by transplanting a whole genome as naked DNA. Intact genomic DNA from Mycoplasma mycoides large colony (LC), virtually free of protein, was transplanted into Mycoplasma capricolum cells by polyethylene glycol–mediated transformation. Cells selected for tetracycline resistance, carried by the M. mycoides LC chromosome, contain the complete donor genome and are free of detectable recipient genomic sequences. These cells that result from genome transplantation are phenotypically identical to the M. mycoides LC donor strain as judged by several criteria.

The J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jglass{at}

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New Selectable Marker for Manipulating the Simple Genomes of Mycoplasma Species.
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Creating Bacterial Strains from Genomes That Have Been Cloned and Engineered in Yeast.
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Occurrence, Plasticity, and Evolution of the vpma Gene Family, a Genetic System Devoted to High-Frequency Surface Variation in Mycoplasma agalactiae.
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J. Bacteriol. 191, 4111-4121
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Mycoplasma leachii sp. nov. as a new species designation for Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 of Leach, and reclassification of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC as a serovar of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.
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Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59, 1353-1358
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DEG 5.0, a database of essential genes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
R. Zhang and Y. Lin (2009)
Nucleic Acids Res. 37, D455-D458
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Transcription of foreign DNA in Escherichia coli.
R. L. Warren, J. D. Freeman, R. C. Levesque, D. E. Smailus, S. Flibotte, and R. A. Holt (2008)
Genome Res. 18, 1798-1805
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Suppression-Subtractive Hybridization as a Strategy To Identify Taxon-Specific Sequences within the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster: Design and Validation of an M. capricolum subsp. capricolum-Specific PCR Assay.
L. Maigre, C. Citti, M. Marenda, F. Poumarat, and F. Tardy (2008)
J. Clin. Microbiol. 46, 1307-1316
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Complete Chemical Synthesis, Assembly, and Cloning of a Mycoplasma genitalium Genome.
D. G. Gibson, G. A. Benders, C. Andrews-Pfannkoch, E. A. Denisova, H. Baden-Tillson, J. Zaveri, T. B. Stockwell, A. Brownley, D. W. Thomas, M. A. Algire, et al. (2008)
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Expression of Mycoplasma Proteins Carrying an Affinity Tag in M. pneumoniae Allows Rapid Purification and Circumvents Problems Related to the Aberrant Genetic Code.
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