Hedgehog Diseases

CONTENTS / West European Hedgehog - Erinaceus europaeus / Lists of diseases:
LIST OF HEDGEHOG DISEASES:
  • Common Reasons for Presentation
  • By Main Signs/System Affected
  • By Disease Agent

This list page enables you to scroll down the diseases of the hedgehog. The diseases are grouped together, first indicating COMMON DISEASES AND REASONS FOR PRESENTATION, then with SIMILAR DISEASES DEFINED BY THE MAIN SIGNS OR SYSTEM AFFECTED e.g. all the diseases causing mainly respiratory signs or respiratory system pathology are in the group "Respiratory Diseases", and arranged by alphabetical order within the groups, and finally grouped by DISEASE AGENT TYPE (viral, bacterial etc.) again organised alphabetically within each group.

For further information linking diseases to the system or area of the body to assist in diagnosis see also: 

  • Physical Examination of Mammals
  • Necropsy of Mammals
Hedgehogs: Health and Management
FULL CONTENTS
Species Information West European Hedgehog - Erinaceus europeus
Hedgehog Gardens Click for Garden Management for Hedgehogs incorporating farm yard features
Drug Data Click for list of Hedgehog Drugs
Hedgehog Management Techniques Click the buttons to move to the next section
Further Reading Click image for further reading on "Managing for West Nile Virus"

DIRECTORY: Organisations providing information on West European Hedgehog

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Common Diseases & Reasons for Presentation

  • Bordetella bronchiseptica Infection in Hedgehogs

  • Burns and Smoke Inhalation

  • Caparinia Mange in Hedgehogs

    • (Also other mite infections although Chiggers Infection in Hedgehogs, Chorioptic Mange in Hedgehogs, Demodex Infection in Hedgehogs, Notoedres Mange in Hedgehogs, Otodectes cynotis Ear Mite Infection in Hedgehogs and Sarcoptic mange are less common)

  • Hedgehog Dental Disease

    • (Dental tartar/calculus and periodontal disease are common in wild and captive hedgehogs)

  • Diarrhoea

    • [See: Digestive System / Gastro-Intestinal Diseases of Hedgehogs below]

  • Drowning

  • Foreign Body Entanglement & Snaring

  • Fractures in Hedgehogs

    • (May affect the legs, feet, nose, jaw or spine. An important differential diagnosis for spinal fractures is Hedgehog Pop-off Syndrome which is easily treated)

  • Flea Infection

  • Hedgehog Balloon Syndrome

    • (Not so very common but dramatic when it occurs)

  • Hedgehog Pop-off Syndrome

    • (Not particularly common but an important differential diagnosis for spinal trauma)

  • Hedgehog Intestinal Nematode Infection

  • Lacerations & Punctures, including bite wounds

  • Lungworm Infection of Hedgehogs

    • (Very common, particularly in underweight autumn juveniles)

  • Myiasis

  • Orphans

    • [See: Hand-rearing Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus)]

  • Ringworm
    • (Dermatophytosis)

  • Staphylococcosis

    • (Often in association with mite infections or Ringworm in Hedgehogs; other bacterial skin infection may also occur)

  • Salmonellosis (May be subclinical)

  • Hedgehog Tapeworm Infection 

    • (Infection is often noted, due to presence of parasites visible in faeces, without clinical signs)

  • Tick Infection 

    • (Heavy burdens of ticks are more common in debilitated than in healthy individuals)

  • Dehydration and weight loss: see also Starvation

    • (In hot dry weather)

  • Underweight autumn juveniles

    • [See: Over-wintering Underweight Juvenile Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus)]

    • This is a very common reason for presentation. Most of these individuals will have heavy parasite burdens, particularly lungworm. See section Common Diseases of Juveniles below.

Note: There is some geographical variation in the incidence of many conditions.

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Common Diseases of Juveniles

  • Juvenile hedgehogs are commonly presented in the autumn as animals too small to successfully hibernate over the winter period. 

    • [See: Over-wintering Underweight Juvenile Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus)]

  • Juvenile hedgehogs are likely to have higher parasite burdens than adults and are more likely to develop clinical disease associated with parasite infections such as:

    • Lungworm Infection of Hedgehogs

      • Significant lungworm burdens are found in most underweight autumn juveniles

    • Hedgehog Intestinal Nematode Infection

    • Hedgehog Intestinal Fluke Infection

    • Hedgehog Tapeworm Infection

    • (Thorny-headed Worm) Acanthocephala Infection of Hedgehogs

      • (This may be diagnosed only at post mortem examination)

    • Intestinal Coccidiosis in Hedgehogs (Parasitic Disease)

  • Salmonellosis 

    • (May cause sudden death)

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Common Diseases of Neonates and Hand-Reared Hedgehogs

  • Hoglets commonly present as orphans (e.g. following nest disturbance) and require hand-rearing. 

    • [See: Hand-rearing Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus)]

  • Myiasis
    • (COMMON IN SUMMER. Wounds and natural orifices (eyes, ears, mouth, anus etc.) may be affected)
  • When hoglets are found, if their mother has been killed or absent for some time they may be suffering from:

    • Dehydration

    • Starvation

    • Chilling - Hypothermia

  • Bacterial infections causing diarrhoea are very common:

    • Colibacillosis

    • Salmonellosis (particularly around weaning)

    • Proteus Infection

  • Older orphaned hoglets (e.g. four weeks old at presentation) are more likely to have parasitic worm infections than are those which are presented when extremely young.
    • Lungworm Infection of Hedgehogs
    • Hedgehog Intestinal Nematode Infection

    • Hedgehog Intestinal Fluke Infection

    • Hedgehog Tapeworm Infection

    • Intestinal Coccidiosis in Hedgehogs

  • Flea Infection 

  • NOTE: Self-anointing, with the hoglet producing frothy saliva and twisting around to lick at its back, possibly falling over while doing so, is normal behaviour in response to a strange or strong smell. See: West European hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus - Activity Patterns, Grooming and Navigation Behaviour (Literature Reports) - Grooming

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Zoonoses

  • Bordetella bronchiseptica Infection in Hedgehogs
    • (Infections in humans are usually "under atypical conditions")
  • Chiggers Infection in Hedgehogs
  • Colibacillosis
    • (Particularly vero cytotoxic Escherichia coli serogroup 0157)
  • Cryptosporidiosis in Mammals
    • (Very wide host range)
  • Erysipelothrix Infection in Waterfowl
    • (Infection reported. Could infect humans via bites or skin punctures caused by spines)
  • Flea Infection
    • COMMON ZOONOSIS. (Fleas may jump onto humans; some people appear more attractive to fleas than others)
  • Giardia Infection in Mammals
    • (Very wide host range)
  • Leptospirosis
    • (Risk from urine-contaminated food or water - oral route of infection or skin contamination)
  • Louping-ill
    • (Theoretically could be present in sheep ticks Ixodes ricinus which are found on hedgehogs)
  • Lungworm Infection of Hedgehog
    • (Capillaria aerophila infection may rarely occur in humans)
  • Lyme Disease
    • (Transmitted by ticks)
  • Mammalian Tuberculosis
    • (Not recorded to date in hedgehogs in the UK, but has been isolated from hedgehogs in New Zealand)
  • Pasteurella Infection in Hedgehogs
    • (Via bites or skin punctures caused by spines)
  • Pseudomonas Infection
    • COMMON ZOONOSIS. (Has been isolated from hedgehogs. Infection could occur via bites or skin punctures caused by spines)
  • Q Fever (Bacterial Disease Summary)
    •  (Transmitted by ticks)
  • Rabies
    • (Not present in the UK at this time (2002). Rare in hedgehogs but self-anointing, involving profuse salivation, may lead to suspicion: see West European hedgehog - Activity Patterns, Grooming and Navigation Behaviour (Literature Reports))
  • Ringworm in Hedgehogs
    • COMMON ZOONOSIS (There are a number of records of human ringworm caught from hedgehogs)
  • Salmonellosis
    • COMMON ZOONOSIS (There are a number of records of human salmonellosis associated with salmonellosis in hedgehogs)
  • Staphylococcosis
    • COMMON ZOONOSIS (Via bites or skin punctures caused by spines)
  • Sarcoptic mange
    • (Most Sarcoptes mites, from various species, potentially will infect humans)
  • Tick Infection
  • Toxoplasmosis
    • (Unlikely to be a problem unless the hedgehog is eaten without proper cooking)
  • Trichinella Infection of Hedgehogs
    • (Unlikely to be a problem unless the hedgehog is eaten without proper cooking)
  • Yersiniosis
    • (Yersinia enterocolitica, which has not been found in hedgehogs, is more likely to cause disease in humans than is Yersinia pseudotuberculosis)

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Diseases reported only from Experimental Infection, or as a Host with no Clinical Signs

  • Avian Influenza in Waterfowl (with a note on Hedgehogs)

    • (Experimental)

  • Avian Tuberculosis in Waterfowl (with a note on Hedgehogs)

    • (Organism has been isolated from lymph nodes)

  • Bhanja Virus Infection in Hedgehogs

    • (Experimental)

  • Congo Virus Infection in Hedgehogs

    • (Natural host: virus isolated from one Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog, antibodies detected in Atelerix frontalis - South African hedgehog in South Africa)

  • Histoplasmosis in Hedgehogs

    • (Infection reported in one Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog)

  • Lyme Disease with special reference to Hedgehogs

    • (Typical clinical signs of Lyme diseases reported once in a hedgehog)

  • Mycoplasma Infection in Waterfowl (with a note on Hedgehogs)

    • (Incidental findings)

  • Newcastle Disease in Waterfowl (with a note on Hedgehogs)

    • (Experimental in the North African hedgehog Aethechinus algirus (Atelerix algirus - Algerian hedgehog))

  • Rickettsia conori Infection in Hedgehogs

    • (Antibodies commonly found in Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog on the Mediterranean coast of France)

  • Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infection in Hedgehogs

    • (Reservoir hosts)

  • Yellow Fever in Hedgehogs

    • (Experimental)

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Skin Diseases

  •  Adder Venom Toxicity in Hedgehogs

    • (Adder bites may cause local swelling, systemic signs or be asymptomatic)

  • Burns and Smoke Inhalation

  • Caparinia Mange in Hedgehogs

  • Colibacillosis

    • (Abscesses. Also causes diarrhoea)

  • Chiggers Infection in Hedgehogs

  • Chorioptic Mange in Hedgehogs

    • (It has been suggested that Chorioptes sp. mange may be diagnosed in hedgehogs which have Caparinia sp. mange (See: Caparinia Mange in Hedgehogs))

  • Demodex Infection in Hedgehogs

  • Flea Infection

    • (COMMON. Usually incidental; large burdens may indicate debility. Fleas may jump onto humans)

  • Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    • (Details of the disease in the hedgehog are given on the page Foot and Mouth Disease - Editorial Overview of Disease Characteristics for specified SPECIES-TAXA)
  • Foreign Body Entanglement & Snaring
    • (May cause skin wounds or affect deeper structures)
  • Hedgehog Balloon Syndrome
  • Lacerations & Punctures, including bite wounds
    • (May cause skin wounds or affect deeper structures)
  • Mycobacterium marinum Infection in Hedgehogs
    • (Initial masses which became abscesses, later systemic infection)
  • Myiasis
    • (COMMON IN SUMMER. Wounds and natural orifices (eyes, ears, mouth, anus etc.) may be affected)
  • Neoplasia in Hedgehogs)
    • (Cutaneous and subcutaneous neoplasia has been reported)
  • Notoedres Mange in Hedgehogs
  • Oiling
  • Ringworm in Hedgehogs
    • (COMMON. N.B. Zoonosis. There are a number of records of human ringworm caught from hedgehogs)
  • Sarcoptic mange
  • Spine Loss in Hedgehogs
    • (In cases where mite and ringworm infection have been ruled out zinc or other trace element/vitamin deficiency should be considered)

  • Staphylococcosis

    • (May cause exudative dermatitis, abscesses, skin ulceration. May be secondary to mites or ringworm)

  • Tarring in hedgehogs)
    • (If hot may cause burns. See: Burns and Smoke Inhalation)
  • Tick Infection
    • (Common on hedgehogs; large numbers may reflect underlying debility and can cause significant blood loss)

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Respiratory Diseases

  • Adiaspiromycosis in Hedgehogs

    • (May be an incidental finding)

  • Bordetella bronchiseptica Infection in Hedgehogs

    • (Bacterial pneumonia is usually secondary to verminous pneumonia (Lungworm Infection of Hedgehogs)

  • Corynebacterium Pneumonia in Hedgehogs

    • (Reported once in a juvenile Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog; also liver, heart and tongue lesions)

  • Drowning

    • (Hedgehogs are good swimmers but cannot climb out of steep-sided pools or containers)

  • Histoplasmosis in Hedgehogs

    • (Infection reported in one Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog)

  • Lungworm Infection of Hedgehogs

    • (Common in all ages but particularly a problem of juveniles in autumn. May often have associated bacterial infection e.g. Bordetella bronchiseptica Infection)

  • Paraquat Toxicity in Hedgehogs

    • (Is seen in hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in the UK)

  • Pasteurella Infection in Hedgehogs

    • (Bacterial pneumonia is usually secondary to verminous pneumonia (Lungworm Infection of Hedgehogs)

  • Burns and Smoke Inhalation

    • (Smoke inhalation is likely in hedgehogs presented with burns from a bonfire)

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Musculo-Skeletal, Locomotor and Nervous Diseases

  • Alphachloralose Toxicity in Hedgehogs

    • (Rare, may occur following scavenging on a poisoned mouse or rabbit)

  • Anticholinesterase Toxicity

  • Calcium-Vitamin D Metabolism Imbalance in Hedgehogs

    • (Has been reported in captive hedgehogs fed incorrectly)

  • Crushing

    • (Crushed feet with massive infection are common)

  • Ethylene Glycol Intoxication

    • (Tastes sweet, may be drunk by hedgehogs)

  • Foreign Body Entanglement & Snaring

    • (May cause skin wounds or affect deeper structures)

  • Fractures in Hedgehogs

    • (COMMON in hedgehog casualties; may affect the legs, feet, nose, jaw or spine. An important differential diagnosis for spinal fractures is Hedgehog Pop-off Syndrome which is easily treated)

  • Paralysis in Hedgehogs

    • (Slow progression through ataxia and paresis to paraplegia and end-stage urinary retention in 14 hedgehogs at one wildlife hospital)

  • Hedgehog Pop-off Syndrome

    • (Hind legs protrude behind the spiny skin. Differential diagnosis spinal trauma)

  • Intervertebral Disc Prolapse in Hedgehogs

    • (Posterior ataxia progressing to paresis)

  • Lacerations & Punctures, including bite wounds

    • (May cause skin wounds or affect deeper structures)

  • Levamisole-Tetramisole Toxicity with special reference to Waterfowl, Hedgehogs and Elephants

    • (Signs are reported occasionally following therapeutic use)

  • Metaldehyde Poisoning

    • (Metaldehyde is commonly used as slug bait)

  • Neoplasia in Hedgehogs

    • (Neoplasia has been reported causing leg swelling and cessation of weight bearing on the affected limb)

  • Avian Botulism

    • (Toxin isolated from the body of a hedgehog following toxicity in cows. No information available on whether the hedgehog had died of )

  • Paralysis in Hedgehogs

    • (Probably diet related in captive animals; the possibility of pesticide toxicity in wild hedgehogs should be considered)

  • Paraquat Toxicity in Hedgehogs

    • (Reported)

  • Rabies

    • (Not present in the UK at this time except in some bats (2004). Rare in hedgehogs but normal self-anointing behaviour, involving profuse salivation, may wrongly lead to suspicion of this disease: see West European hedgehog - Activity Patterns, Grooming and Navigation Behaviour (Literature Reports))

  • Thiamine Deficiency

    • (Reported in hand reared/juvenile hedgehogs causing leg problems (paresis/paralysis) and sometimes leading to Hedgehog Pop-off Syndrome)

  • Trichinella Infection of Hedgehogs

    • (Has been reported as an incidental finding in wild hedgehogs including Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog, also reported causing illness in Hemiechinus collaris - Indian long-eared hedgehog)

  • Unspecified Morbillivirus Infection of Hedgehogs

    • (Clinical disease reported associated with morbillivirus infection on one occasion)

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Cardiac Diseases

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Digestive System / Gastro-Intestinal Diseases

  • (Thorny-headed Worm) Acanthocephala Infection of Hedgehogs

    • (Often asymptomatic but severe infection, particularly in juveniles, may cause diarrhoea and weight loss and may be fatal)

  • Colibacillosis

    • (Diarrhoea, may be fatal. Also causes abscesses)

  • Cytomegalic Inclusion Disease in Hedgehogs / Salivary Gland Oncocytes in Hedgehogs

    • (Incidental finding on histopathological examination; potential for systemic disease)

  • Hedgehog Dental Disease

    • (Dental tartar/calculus and periodontal disease are common in wild and captive hedgehogs)

  • Hedgehog Intestinal Nematode Infection

    • (May be no clinical signs, or watery diarrhoea and reduced weight gain in hoglets, or green mucoid diarrhoea, weight loss and lethargy with severe infections)

  • Hedgehog Intestinal Fluke Infection

    • (May cause weight loss, reduced appetite and restlessness)

  • Hedgehog Nematode (Oesophagus & Stomach) Infection

    • (Generally asymptomatic; may be associated with weight loss and lethargy)

  • Intestinal Coccidiosis in Hedgehogs

    • (No signs with mild infection but may cause diarrhoea or with heavy infection haemorrhagic diarrhoea, weight loss, dehydration and lethargy)

  • Neoplasia in Hedgehogs

    • (Neoplasia has been recorded affecting the mouth or the gastro-intestinal tract)

  • Non-specific Enteritis in Hedgehogs

    • (Probably diet related)

  • Oral Foreign Bodies in Hedgehogs

  • Parvovirus Infection of Hedgehogs

    • (One outbreak reported, possibly related to presence of feline panleucopaenia virus infection on the same premises)

  • Proteus Infection in Waterfowl and Hedgehogs

    • [Diarrhoea, in hoglets and in juveniles being overwintered; signs similar to Colibacillosis or Intestinal Coccidiosis in Hedgehogs)

  • Hedgehog Tapeworm Infection

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Hepatic Diseases

  • Hedgehog Herpesvirus Infection

    • (Main pathology hepatic. Two reports of clinical disease, one in an adult, the other in a litter of three-month-old juveniles.)

  • Herpes simplex Infection in Hedgehogs

    • (Single case reported in a pet Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog)

  • Liver Disease in Hedgehogs

    • (Fatty liver may be the main finding on post mortem examination. Presumed diet related)

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Eye / Ear Diseases

  • Eye Injury

    • (Rupture or prolapse of the globe is not uncommon)

  • Myiasis

    • (Eyes, ears and other orifices of casualties should always be checked for fly eggs or maggots)

  • Notoedres Mange in Hedgehogs

    • (Generally ear and head lesions in hedgehogs but can be more widespread)

  • Otitis Externa in Hedgehogs

    • (May occur secondary to myiasis; bacterial otitis externa and ear mite infection may occur together)

  • Otodectes cynotis Ear Mite Infection in Hedgehogs

    • (Has been reported)

  • Vitamin A Deficiency-Associated Eye Problems in Hedgehogs

    • (Uncommon)

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Systemic Diseases

  • Adder Venom Toxicity in Hedgehogs

    • (Adder bites may cause local swelling, systemic signs or be asymptomatic)

  • Alcohol Poisoning

    • (One case report)

  • Anticoagulant Rodenticide Toxicity

    • (Seen occasionally)

  • Chagas' Disease in Hedgehogs

    • (Clinical fatal disease described once in a Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog)

  • Dehydration
  • Drowning
  • Foot-and-Mouth Disease
    • (Note: Details of the disease in the hedgehog are given on the page Foot and Mouth Disease - Editorial Overview of Disease Characteristics for specified SPECIES-TAXA)
  • Hedgehog Herpesvirus Infection

    • (Two reports of clinical disease, one in an adult, the other in a litter of three-month-old juveniles. Main pathology hepatic)

  • Leptospirosis

    • (A wide variety of serotypes have been recorded in hedgehogs)

  • Mammalian Tuberculosis in Eurasian Badgers with notes on Hedgehogs

    • (Not recorded to date in hedgehogs in the UK, but has been isolated from hedgehogs in New Zealand)

  • Mycobacterium marinum Infection in Hedgehogs

    • (Initial masses which became abscesses, later systemic infection)

  • Neoplasia in Hedgehogs 

    • (A wide variety of neoplastic lesions have been seen in hedgehogs, particularly Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog but also in Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog and other hedgehog species)

  • Pentastome Infection in Hedgehogs

    • (Incidental finding)

  • Q Fever

    • (Infection reported)

  • Starvation

  • Toxoplasmosis

    • (Infection reported)

  • Tularemia

    • (Natural host; septicaemic infection reported)

  • Unspecified Morbillivirus Infection of Hedgehogs

    • (Clinical disease reported associated with morbillivirus infection on one occasion)

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Viral Diseases

  • Avian Influenza
  • Bhanja Virus Infection in Hedgehogs
  • Congo Virus Infection in Hedgehogs
  • Cytomegalic Inclusion Disease in Hedgehogs / Salivary Gland Oncocytes in Hedgehogs
  • Foot-and-Mouth Disease
    • (Note: Details of the disease in the hedgehog are given on the page Foot and Mouth Disease - Editorial Overview of Disease Characteristics for specified SPECIES-TAXA)
  • Hedgehog Herpesvirus Infection
  • Herpes simplex Infection in Hedgehogs
  • Unspecified Morbillivirus Infection of Hedgehogs
  • Newcastle Disease
  • Parvovirus Infection of Hedgehogs
  • Rabies
  • Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infection in Hedgehogs
  • Yellow Fever in Hedgehogs

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Bacterial Diseases

  • Avian Tuberculosis in Waterfowl (with a note on Hedgehogs)
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica Infection in Hedgehogs
  • Colibacillosis
  • Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in Hedgehogs
  • Corynebacterium Pneumonia in Hedgehogs
  • Erysipelothrix Infection
  • Leptospirosis
  • Listeriosis
  • Lyme Disease
  • Mammalian Tuberculosis
  • Mycobacterium marinum Infection in Hedgehogs
  • Mycoplasma Infection
  • Pasteurella Infection in Hedgehogs
  • Proteus Infection
  • Pseudomonas Infection
  • Q Fever (Coxiella burnetti infection)
  • Rickettsia conori Infection in Hedgehogs
  • Salmonellosis
  • Staphylococcosis
  • Streptococcosis
  • Tularemia
  • Urinary Tract Infection in Hedgehogs
  • Yersiniosis

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Fungal / Algal Diseases

  • Adiaspiromycosis in Hedgehogs
  • Histoplasmosis in Hedgehogs
  • Ringworm in Hedgehogs

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Parasitic Diseases

  • Acanthocephala Infection of Hedgehogs
  • Caparinia Mange in Hedgehogs
  • Chagas' Disease in Hedgehogs
  • Chiggers Infection in Hedgehogs
  • Chorioptic Mange in Hedgehogs
  • Cryptosporidiosis in Mammals
  • Demodex Infection in Hedgehogs
  • Flea Infection
  • Giardia Infection in Mammals
  • Hedgehog Intestinal Fluke Infection
  • Hedgehog Intestinal Nematode Infection
  • Hedgehog Tapeworm Infection
  • Intestinal Coccidiosis in Hedgehogs
  • Lungworm Infection of Hedgehogs
  • Myiasis
  • Notoedres Mange in Hedgehogs
  • Hedgehog Nematode (Oesophagus & Stomach) Infection
  • Otodectes cynotis Ear Mite Infection in Hedgehogs
  • Pentastome Infection in Hedgehogs
  • Sarcoptic mange
  • Tick Infection
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Trichinella Infection of Hedgehogs

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Toxic Diseases

  • Adder Venom Toxicity in Hedgehogs
  • Alcohol Poisoning
  • Alphachloralose Toxicity in Hedgehogs
  • Anticholinesterase Toxicity
  • Anticoagulant Rodenticide Toxicity
  • Avian Botulism
  • Ethylene Glycol Intoxication
  • Levamisole -Tetramisole Toxicity with special reference to Waterfowl, Hedgehogs and Elephants
  • Metaldehyde Poisoning
  • Oiling
  • Paraquat Toxicity in Hedgehogs

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Micro-nutrient (Vitamin / Mineral) Diseases

  • Calcium-Vitamin D Metabolism Imbalance in Hedgehogs
  • Thiamine Deficiency in Waterfowl and Hedgehogs 
  • Vitamin A Deficiency-Associated Eye Problems in Hedgehogs

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Physical / Traumatic Diseases

  • Abdominal Rupture in Hedgehogs

  • Burns and Smoke Inhalation

  • Chilling / Hypothermia
  • Crushing 
  • Drowning
  • Eye Injury 
  • Foreign Body Entanglement & Snaring
  • Fractures in Hedgehogs
  • Lacerations & Punctures, including bite wounds
  • Oral Foreign Bodies in Hedgehogs
  • Tarring in hedgehogs

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Miscellaneous / Multifactorial / Metabolic Diseases

  • Cardiomyopathy in Hedgehogs
  • Congestive Heart Failure in Hedgehogs
  • Dehydration
  • Dystocia in Hedgehogs
  • Hedgehog Balloon Syndrome
  • Hedgehog Dental Disease
  • Hedgehog Paralysis associated with Demyelination
  • Hedgehog Pop-off Syndrome
  • Kidney Failure in Hedgehogs
  • Intervertebral Disc Prolapse in Hedgehogs
  • Liver Disease in Hedgehogs
  • Non-specific Enteritis in Hedgehogs
  • Paralysis in Hedgehogs
  • Neoplasia in Hedgehogs
  • Otitis Externa in Hedgehogs
  • Rectal Prolapse in Hedgehogs
  • Spine Loss in Hedgehogs
  • Starvation
  • Umbilical Hernia in Hedgehogs
  • Urolithiasis in Hedgehogs

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