California Indians and Their Reservations
Go to California Indians
- One of the eleven bands of the Pit River Tribe.
- A group of three languages: Maidu, Konkow, and Nisenan.
- MAIDU INDIANS
- The Maiduan peoples lived traditionally in the north-central part of
California, along the eastern tributaries of the Sacramento River, south of
Lassen Peak. In the early 19th century, there were around 9,000 Maidus. There
are three groups of closely-related peoples usually called the Maidu:
the Maidu of Plumas and Lassen counties, the Konkow of Butte and Yuba counties,
and the Nisenan of Yuba, Nevada, Placer, Sacramento, and El Dorado counties.
Their languages (Maidu, Konkow, and Nisenan) are of the Penutian family, and
were probably mutually unintelligible. Their traditional way of life extended
from the valley ecological type, dependent on marine resources and vegetables,
to the foothills ecological type, the classic California way of eating acorns
and small game. Gold was discovered in California at Coloma, in the heart
of Nisenan territory, and gold miners overwhelmed this traditional Maidu territory
in the 1850s. Today, there are approximately 2,500 Maiduan people who live
primarily on the rancherias of Auburn, Berry Creek, Chico, Enterprise, Greenville,
Mooretown, Shingle Springs, and Susanville, as well as on the Round Valley
Reservation. The Konkow Reservation was established as Nome Lackee in 1854,
but its residents were forced nine years later to abandon it and march to
the Round Valley Reservation. See also:
United Auburn Indian Community. For pictures, see: Edward S. Curtis's The North American Indian
- MAIDU (NORTHWESTERN)
- Now called Konkow.
- MANCHESTER-POINT ARENA RANCHERIA
- A federal reservation of Pomo Indians in Mendocino County, near the town
of Point Arena. Total area is 364 acres. Population is around 212.
- MANZANITA BAND OF MISSION INDIANS
- The Kumeyaay (Diegueño) Indians of the Manzanita Indian Reservation.
- MANZANITA INDIAN RESERVATION
- A federal reservation of Kuymeyaay (Diegueño) Indians in southeastern
San Diego County, near the community of Boulevard. Total area is 3,579 acres.
Population is around 69.
- MATTOLE INDIANS
- The Mattole people traditionally occupied a stretch of coastline in the
northwestern corner of California, close to the Oregon border, along with
some inland river valleys. Their language is Athabascan, relating them to
their Athabascan neighbors, as well as to the Navajos and Apaches of the Southwest,
and also to the peoples of the interior of Alaska and northern Canada. They
traditionally fished and gathered along the coast, and depended on king salmon
and other resources along the major rivers of their territories. Presently,
their descendants are found on the Rohnerville Rancheria.
- MECHOOPDA INDIAN TRIBE OF THE CHICO RANCHERIA
- A federal reservation of Mechoopda Maidu Indians. Contact:
1-800-472-9188; 125 Mission Ranch Blvd. Chico, CA 95926;
- MESA GRANDE BAND OF MISSION INDIANS
- The Diegueño Indians of the Mesa Grande Reservation.
- MESA GRANDE RESERVATION
- A federal reservation of Diegueño Indians in eastern San Diego County
near the mountain community of Santa Ysabel. Total area is 1,803 acres, with
630 enrolled members and a population of 180 on the reservation. The chairperson
is Howard K. Maxey.
- The Mewuk Indians are Miwok. There are three divisions
- MEWUK LANGUAGE
- The Mewuk, or Miwok, Indian language belongs to the Penutian language family,
other languages of which are spoken by peoples from the coast of Canada to
the U. S. Southeast and south to the Yucatan Peninsula. Today few tribal elders
under the age of 60 speak the Mewuk language.
- MIDDLETOWN RANCHERIA
- A federal reservation of Pomo Indians in Lake County, about 30 miles east
of the city of Santa Rosa. Some Wappo and Lake Miwok people also moved onto
this land when it was established for "landless" California native
peoples in 1910. The total area is 109 acres, with a population around 73.
- MISSION INDIANS
- This is a designation for the Indians of Southern California forced by the
Spanish into the mission system in the coastal areas of the southern two-thirds
of the state. The Indian groups known as Mission Indians are the following:
- Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians (Cahuilla)
- Augustine Band of Mission Indians (Cahuilla)
- Barona Band of Mission Indians (Kumeyaay/Diegueño)
- Cabazon Band of Mission Indians (Cahuilla)
- Cahuilla Band of Mission Indians (Cahuilla)
- Campo Band of Mission Indians (Kumeyaay/Diegueño)
- Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians (Kumeyaay/Diegueño)
- Costanoan Band of Carmel Mission Indians (Ohlone)
- Cuyapaipe Band of Mission Indians (Kumeyaay/Diegueño)
- Inaja & Cosmit Band of Mission Indians (Kumeyaay/Diegueño)
- Jamul Band of Mission Indians (Kumeyaay/Diegueño)
- La Jolla Band of Mission Indians (Luiseño)
- La Posta Band of Mission Indians (Kumeyaay/Diegueño)
- Los Coyotes Band of Mission Indians (Cahuilla and Cupeño)
- Manzanita Band of Mission Indians (Kumeyaay/Diegueño)
- Mesa Grande Band of Mission Indians (Kumeyaay/Diegueño)
- Morongo Band of Mission Indians (Cahuilla, Serrano and Cupeño)
- Pala Band of Mission Indians (Cupeño and Luiseño)
- Pauma Band of Mission Indians (Luiseño)
- Pechanga Band of Mission Indians (Luiseño)
- Ramona Band or Village of Mission Indians (Cahuilla)
- San Manuel Band of Mission Indians (Serrano)
- San Pasqual Band of Mission Indians (Kumeyaay/Diegueño)
- Santa Rosa Band of Mission Indians (Cahuilla)
- Santa Ynez Band of Mission Indians (Chumash)
- Santa Ysabel Band of Mission Indians (Kumeyaay/Diegueño)
- Soboba Band of Mission Indians (Luiseño)
- Sycuan Band of Mission Indians (Kumeyaay/Diegueño)
- Torres-Martinez Band of Mission Indians (Cahuilla),
- Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians (Luiseño)
- Starting in 1769, the Franciscan Catholics of Spain built 21 missions in
California to convert the Indians to the Catholic religion and the Spanish
way of life. The missions were built with Indian labor. The Spanish settled,
in part, where there was a ready-made population of potential Christian
converts that would also supply labor for running the mission system that
was their economic underpinning.
- The Miwok people were originally composed of three main groups - the
Coast Miwok, the Lake Miwok, and the Sierra Mewuk, all from north-central
California. Originally, the Miwok lived in over 100 villages along the San
Joanquin and Sacramento Rivers, from the area north of San Francisco Bay east
into the western slope of the Sierra Nevada. The Coast Miwok territory traditionally
covered the Pacific Coast from present-day Sausalito to Duncan's Point,
including Bodega Bay, Tomales Bay, and San Pablo Bay, inland to the area near
Sonoma. The Lake Miwok lands were located to the east and south of Clear Lake,
north of San Francisco Bay. The Sierra Mewuk traditional territory was in
the Sierra Nevada foothills of the central part of California. These Indians
spoke Hokan languages, related to other California languages from the north
along the coast and extending into Mexico and the Great Basin. Their food
supplies included the tideland gathering of fish and shellfish, for the Coast
Miwok, fish and waterfowl for the Lake Miwok, and king salmon for the Sierra
Mewuk. They all also utilized acorns and game. In the 18th century, there
were around 22,000 Miwok. Today many Coast Miwok live in the same areas they
traditionally lived, but they have no recognized tribal lands. On December 28, 2002,
the Coast Miwok were admitted by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and ratified (but not
officially recognized) as a tribe. Having official status entitles them to recieve
funding for health care, education, and housing. The Coast Miwok are now called
the Federated Indians of Graton Ranchiera. Many of the
Lake Miwok people live today on the Middletown Rancheria. Many of the Sierra
Mewuk still live today around their traditional territory. Some live on the
federal trust lands of the Jackson, Shingle Springs, and Tuolumne rancherias,
and some live on the Sheep Ranch, Buena Vista, and Chicken Ranch rancherias,
which have little or no trust lands. Others live in the surrounding areas
of these rancherias. There are about 3,500 Miwok people today. See also:
Indian Community. For pictures, see: Edward S. Curtis's The North American Indian.
- MIWOK LANGUAGE
- See: Mewuk Language
- MOJAVE (MOHAVE)
- This group of Indians traditionally occupied about 200 miles of land along
the Colorado River from present-day Hoover Dam down to the city of Blythe,
as well as a large inland region to the west of the river. Their language
belongs to the Yuman branch of the Hokan family. The Mojave made their living
as desert farmers, using the floodwaters of the Colorado River. They depended
on fishing, hunting, and trapping, and on the mesquite bean for food. Today
there are around 1,000 Mojave people living on or near the Fort Mojave Reservation,
which is located along the Colorado River in the states of California, Arizona,
and Nevada. Several thousand more live on the Colorado River Reservation.
- Name of the Western Mono Indians.
- MONO INDIANS
- See: Mono, Western
- MONO (LANGUAGE)
- A language of the western group of the Numic family of the Uto-Aztecan
- MONO LAKE INDIAN COMMUNITY
- A group of Northern Paiute Indians inhabiting the Mono Lake region who are
called the Kutzadika'a People, or the Mono Lake Kutzadika. The Kutzadika'a
Indian Community is currently working to obtain federal recognition of their
tribe. For more information on the tribe and the origins of their name, see
the following web site:
Kutzadika'a People or contact:
Mono Lake Indian Community, P.O. Box 29, Lee Vining, CA 93541 (760) 647-6377;email@example.com.
- MONO, WESTERN (MONACHE)
- The Western Mono Indians traditionally lived in the south-central Sierra
Nevada foothills. Their language is of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
Acorns made up the major part of their diet, and they also depended on other
vegetable foods and game. Today these Indians are basically landless, but some live on the rancherias of Big
Sandy, Cold Springs, and North Fork, as well as in the town of Dunlap.
- MONTEREY BAND OF MONTEREY COUNTY
- The federally recognized name of the Ohlone/Costanoan-Esselen Nation.
- MONTGOMERY CREEK RANCHERIA
- A federal reservation of Pit River Indians in Shasta County, 34 miles northeast
of the city of Redding. Total area is 72 acres, with a population of around
- MOORETOWN RANCHERIA
- A federal reservation of Concow and Maidu Indians near the town of Oroville.
Total area is 109 acres.
- MORONGO BAND OF MISSION INDIANS
- The Cahuilla, Serrano, and Cupeño Indians of the Morongo Reservation.
- MORONGO RESERVATION
- A federal reservation of Cahuilla, Serrano, and Cupeño Indians in
Riverside County, in south-central California along Interstate 10. The
reservation is near the community of Banning, just 22 miles northwest of the
city of Palm Springs. Total area is 32,362 acres. Population is around 954,
with about 996 tribal members in the area. Contact: 11581
Potrero Road, Banning, CA 92220, (909) 849-4697.
See: Morongo Band of Mission Indians
- MUWEKMA OHLONE TRIBE
- Was federally recognized as the Verona Band of Alameda County. Seeking reaffirmation
as a federally acknowledged tribe.
- Hupa people from the Hoopa Valley.
- Newe means "people," and is the name of the Western Shoshone prior
to European contact. During the 1820's, white explorers gave the Newe the
name "Shoshone" and the Nevada band was specified as "Western
- The North Fork Mono Indians.
- One of the three languages of Maidu, and a division of the Maidu people,
representing the southern or valley Maidu. The Nisenan had the largest population
of the Maidu divisions and the most number of tribelets. See also:
- The Nomlaki Indians are a division of the Penutian-speaking Wintun Indians
of the Sacramento Valley region. They traditionally occupied parts of what
are now Tehama and Glenn counties. Just before the turn of the 20th century,
diseases brought by white immigrants devastated the Nomlaki population by
at least 75%. Other factors greatly disrupted tribal unity. In 1854, a 25,000-acre
Nome Lackee Reservation was established by Executive Order. However, this
reservation was dissolved in 1863 and the land taken over by white immigrants.
After being forcibly removed to the Round Valley Reservation, and to the Nome
Lackee Reservation, the Grindstone Indian Rancheria finally offered a sanctuary
for some of the Nomlaki people. See also:
- NORTH FORK RANCHERIA
- A federal reservation of Western Mono Indians in Madera County, at the western
edge of the Sierra National Forest in central California, about 50 miles northeast
of the city of Fresno. Total area is 80 acres. Population is around 9, with
a tribal enrollment of about 285.
- NORTHWESTERN MAIDU
- Now called Konkow.
- A language branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
- A regional group of the Chumash. See:
- OHLONE (or, COSTANOAN, or MUWEKMA TRIBE)
- The Ohlone, or Costanoans, are recognized by the state of California. The
Muwekma Ohlone Tribe was federally recognized as the Verona Band of Alameda
County. The Amah-Mutsun Band was federally recognized as the San Juan Bautista
Band of San Benito County. The Ohlone/Costanoan-Esselen Nation was federally
recognized as the Monterey Band of Monterey County. The Ohlone Indians lived
around San Francisco Bay before the Europeans arrived. Originally, the name
"Ohlone" was the name of a small Indian tribe that lived on the
coast near Pescadero. Some use the name Ohlone for all the Indians who live
around San Francisco Bay. See also:
- OHLONE/COSTANOAN-ESSELEN NATION
- Federally recognized as the Monterey Band of Monterey County. See: Ohlone Costanoan Esselen Nation
- OHLONE INDIAN TRIBE
- In 1971, descendants of the Costanoans formed the Ohlone Indian Tribe.
- One of the three original autonomous bands of the Tubatulabal people.
- PAIUTE INDIANS
- There are three main groups of Paiute people. The Northern Paiute and Owens
Valley Paiute lived in what is now California, occupying the eastern slope
of the Sierra Nevada mountains, from the northern border with Oregon south
to Owens Valley. The third group of Paiute people are the Southern Paiute.
Their languages are Uto-Aztecan. They made their living by hunting and
gathering, along with some irrigation of lands supporting plants with edible
seeds and roots. Today there are around 2,200 Owens Valley Paiutes living
on the Benton, Bishop, Big Pine, Lone Pine, and Fort Independence reservations,
and about 150 Northern Paiutes living in the Bridgeport Paiute Indian Colony,
on the Cedarville Rancheria, and on the Fort Bidwell Reservation.
- PAIUTE-SHOSHONE INDIANS OF THE BISHOP COMMUNITY OF THE BISHOP COLONY
- The Shoshonean-speaking Paiute Indians of the Bishop Reservation.
- PAIUTE-SHOSHONE INDIANS OF THE LONE PINE COMMUNITY
- The Paiute Indians of the Lone Pine Reservation.
- PALA BAND OF MISSION INDIANS
- The Cupeño and Luiseño Indians of the Pala Reservation.
- PALA INDIAN RESERVATION
- A federal reservation of Cupeño and Luiseño Indians in northeast
San Diego County, next to the San Luis Rey River. Total area is 11,893 acres
of mountain and inland valley country. Population is around 1,573, with about
585 tribal members in the area. See: Pala Band of Mission Indians.
- One of the three original autonomous bands of the Tubatulabal people.
- PASKENTA BAND OF NOMLAKI INDIANS
- This is a federally-recognized group of Nomlaki Indians from western
Tehama County. The tribe has nearly 2,000 acres in trust.
- PATWIN INDIANS
- The Patwin Indians are a division of the Penutian-speaking Wintun Indians
of the Sacramento Valley region. See:
- PAUMA BAND OF MISSION INDIANS
- The Luiseño Indians of the Pauma Reservation.
- PAUMA INDIAN RESERVATION
- A federal reservation of Luiseño Indians in the northeastern corner
of San Diego County, against the foothills of Mount Palomar. It is also known
as the Pauma and Yuima Reservation. Total area is 5,877 acres, with 225 acres
serving as the community center. Two 12.5 acre tracts located on the slopes
of Mount Palomar are referred to as Yuima tracts 1 and 2. These tracts are
about five miles from the main reservation and are unpopulated. The population
on the reservation is around 186.
- PECHANGA BAND OF MISSION INDIANS
- The Luiseño Indians of the Pechanga Reservation.
- PECHANGA RESERVATION
- A federal reservation of Luiseño Indians in south Riverside County,
near the city of Temecula. Total area is 4,394 acres. Reservation population
is around 467, with another 305 in the adjacent population.
Pechanga Band of Luiseño Indians.
- PENUTIAN LANGUAGE FAMILY
- A language family spoken by a number of central and northern California
Indian peoples, including the Wappo, Yuki, Yokuts, and Wintun Indians. This
language family extends all the way from coastal Canada to New Mexico, the
Gulf of Mexico, and on to the Yucatan Peninsula.
- PICAYUNE RANCHERIA
- A federal reservation of Chuckchansi Indians located near the community
of Coarsegold in central California. They are among a group of about 15 "Foothill
Yokuts" tribes who occupied the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada from
the Fresno River southward to the Kern River, or from the San Joaquin River
to the south, to Yosemite National park to the north. The total area is 160
acres, located adjacent Highway 41 in Coarsegold. The population is about
1200 tribal members. Contact: 46575 Road 417, Coarsegold,
CA 93614 (559) 683-6633; fax (559) 683-0599. See: Picayune Rancheria of the
- PINOLEVILLE RANCHERIA
- A federal reservation of Pomo Indians in Mendocino County, about 150 miles
north of San Francisco, near the city of Ukiah. Total area is 99 acres. Population
is around 70, with a tribal enrollment of about 136. See:
Web Resource for the Pinoleville Tribal Government
- PIT RIVER INDIANS (ACHUMAWI, ATSUGEWI)
- There are eleven bands of the Pit River Indian tribe, who have traditionally
occupied lands along the Pit River in the far northeastern part of California.
This region, from Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak to the Warner Range, has a
tremendous ecological diversity yielding a huge variety of foods, medicines,
and raw materials. These bands are the Achomawi, Aporidge, Astariwawi, Atsuge,
Atwamsini, Hanhawi, Hewisedawi, Ilmawi, Itsatawi, Kosalextawi, and Madesi.
Their languages, Achumawi and Atsugewi, are two closely related members of
the Palaihnihan branch of the greater Hokan linguistic family. They depended
on fish and other river resources to survive, as well as on acorns and other
vegetables growing in the river valleys. In the mid-19th century, around
3,000 Achumawi lived in California. There were about nine tribelets. Today
there are around 1,800 tribal members living on the Alturas, Big Bend, Big
Valley, Likely, Lookout, Montgomery Creek, Redding, Roaring Creek, and Susanville
rancherias, as well as on the Pit River, Round Valley and X-L Ranch reservations.
Pit River Tribal Office: 37014 Main Street, Burney, CA 96013; (530) 335-5421.
- POMO INDIANS
- The Pomo people are from northwestern California, where they still occupy
their ancestral lands. They are derived from seven culturally similar but
politically independent villages or tribelets. Pomo-speaking people have
traditionally occupied land about 50 miles north of San Francisco Bay, on
the coast and inland, especially around Clear Lake and the Russian River,
in what is now Mendocino , Sonoma, and Lake counties. They had seven related
but mutually unintelligible languages belonging to the Hokan language family.
Along the Pacific coast they fished and gathered shellfish, relying secondarily
on acorns and game. Along the rivers they caught king salmon and also ate
acorns and game. In the early 19th century, there were roughly 15,000 Pomo.
Today there are approximately 5,000 Pomo people and their descendants live
on or near the rancherias of Big Valley, Cloverdale, Dry Creek, Grindstone,
Guidiville, Hopland, Lytton, Manchester-Point Arena, Middletown, Pinoleville,
Potter Valley, Redwood Valley, Robinson, Scotts Valley, Sherwood Valley, Stewarts
Point, and Upper Lake, and on the Coyote Valley and Round Valley reservations.
About 140 Pomo also live on the Sulphur Bank Rancheria/Elem Indian Colony.
For pictures, see: Edward S. Curtis's The North American Indian.
- POMO LANGUAGE
- Actually seven mutually unintelligible Pomoan (Hokan) languages, including
Southern Pomo, Central Pomo, Northern Pomo, Eastern Pomo, Northeastern Pomo,
Southeastern Pomo, and Southwestern Pomo (Kashaya).
- There were an estimated 300,000 to 400,000 California Indians around the
middle of the 18th century when the Europeans arrived in the new world. Due
to contact with the Spanish and other Europeans in the region, and the introduction
of diseases and warfare, the population in the region of Native Americans
fell by more than 90%, from upward of 200,000 in the mid-19th century
to roughly 15,000, within the span of a generation or two. By 1915, their
population had been reduced to just 16,000. The following are population estimates
are drawn from Tiller (1998) and Klein (1995).
Indian Population in California (Estimates):
|1769||300,000||(when first Spanish Mission was established)|
|1834||100,000||(when Mexico took over and secularized the missions)|
Reservation Populations and Tribal Enrollments (Estimates):
|Agua Caliente Reservation||Riverside||365|
|Barona Indian Reservation||San Diego||490|
|Benton Paiute Reservation||Mono||50|
|Berry Creek Rancheria of Maidu Indians||Butte||136||tribal enrollment, 304|
|Big Bend Rancheria||Shasta||10|
|Big Lagoon Rancheria||Humboldt||24|
|Big Pine Reservation||Inyo||462||tribal members, 450|
|Big Sandy Rancheria||Fresno||96||tribal members, 108|
|Big Valley Rancheria||Lake||225|
|Blue Lake Rancheria||Humboldt||78|
|Bridgeport Indian Colony||Mono||43||tribal members in area, 100|
|Buena Vista Rancheria||Amador||n/a|
|Campo Reservation||San Diego||351|
|Capitan Grande Reservation||San Diego||no inhabitants|
|Chemehuevi Indian Reservation||San Bernardino||345||tribal enrollment, 509|
|Chicken Ranch Rancheria||Tuolumne||11|
|Cloverdale Rancheria Council||Sonoma||n/a|
|Cold Springs Rancheria||Fresno||193||tribal enrollment, 265|
|Colorado River Indian Tribes Reservation||La Paz County, AZ
& Colorado River, CA
|Colusa Rancheria||Colusa||77||tribal enrollment, 55|
|Cortina Indian Rancheria||Colusa||19||tribal enrollment, 117|
|Coyote Valley Reservation||Mendocino||104||tribal members in area, 225|
|Cuyapaipe Reservation||San Diego||no inhabitants|
|Death Valley Indian Community
|Dry Creek Rancheria||Sonoma||53|
|Elk Valley Rancheria||Del Norte||77|
|Fort Bidwell Reservation||Modoc||108|
|Fort Independence Reservation||Inyo||86|
|Fort Mohave Reservation||San Bernardino||251|
|Fort Yuma Reservation||Imperial||2,340|
|Greenville Rancheria of Maidu Indians||Plumas and Tehama||22||tribal enrollment, 144|
|Grindstone Indian Rancheria||Glenn||98||tribal enrollment, 162|
|Hoopa Valley Reservation||Humboldt||2,633|
|Hopland Reservation||Mendocino||45||tribal enrollment, 350|
|Jamul Indian Village||San Diego||1||tribal members in area, 60|
|Karuk Reservation||Humboldt and Siskiyou||333|
|La Jolla Reservation||San Diego||390||tribal enrollment, 620|
|La Posta Reservation||San Diego||18||tribal enrollment, 18|
|Likely Rancheria||Modoc||used as a cemetery for Pit River Tribe|
|Lone Pine Reservation||Inyo||212||tribal enrollment, 1,400|
|Los Coyotes Reservation||San Diego||70||tribal members in area, 212|
|Manchester-Point Arena Rancheria||Mendocino||212|
|Manzanita Reservation||San Diego||69||tribal enrollment, 67|
|Mesa Grande Reservation||San Diego||180||tribal enrollment, 630|
|Montgomery Creek Rancheria||Shasta||15|
|Morongo Reservation||Riverside||954||tribal members in area, 996|
|North Fork Rancheria||Madera||9||tribal enrollment, 285|
|Pala Reservation||San Diego||1,573||tribal members in area, 585|
|Paskenpa Band of Nomelecki Indians||Tehema||332 tribal members in area|
|Pauma and Yuima Reservation||San Diego||186|
|Pinoleville Rancheria||Mendocino||70||tribal enrollment, 136|
|Potter Valley Rancheria||Mendocino||138||tribal enrollment, 199|
|Quartz Valley Indian Community||Siskiyou||126||tribal enrollment, 150|
|Redwood Valley Rancheria||Mendocino||263||tribal enrollment, 149|
|Resighini Rancheria||Del Norte||36|
|Rincon Reservation||San Diego||1,495||tribal enrollment, 651|
|Roaring Creek Rancheria||Shasta||14|
|Robinson Rancheria||Lake||153||tribal enrollment, 211|
|Round Valley Reservation||Mendocino||300||tribal enrollment, 2,615|
|San Manuel Reservation||San Bernardino||74||tribal members in area, 85|
|San Pasqual Reservation||San Diego||752||tribal members in area, 435|
|Santa Rosa Rancheria||Kings||517||tribal members in area, 408|
|Santa Rosa Reservation||Riverside||65|
|Santa Ynez Reservation||Santa Barbara||122|
|Santa Ysabel Reservation||San Diego||250|
|Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians of the Sugar Bowl Rancheria||Lakeport||n/a||tribal enrollment, 96|
|Sheep Ranch Rancheria||Calaveras||5|
|Sherwood Valley Rancheria||Mendocino||179||tribal enrollment, 350|
|Shingle Springs Rancheria||El Dorado||57||tribal members in area, 185|
|Smith River Rancheria||Del Norte||240||tribal members in area, 660|
|Stewarts Point Rancheria||Sonoma||57|
|Sulphur Bank Rancheria/Elem Indian Colony||Lake||69||tribal enrollment, 165|
|Susanville Rancheria||Lassen||298||tribal members in area, 373|
|Sycuan Rancheria||San Diego||33||tribal members in area, 120|
|Table Bluff Rancheria||Humboldt||97||tribal members in area, 34||Table Mountain Reservation||Fresno||11|
|Timbi-Sha Band of Shoshone Indians||Inyo||285|
|Torres Martinez Reservation||Imperial and Riverside||4,146|
|Trinidad Rancheria||Humboldt||73||tribal members in area, 154|
|Tule River Reservation||Tulare||566||tribal members in area, 850|
|Tuolumne Rancheria||Tuolumne||168||tribal members in area, 285|
|Twenty-nine Palms Reservation||San Bernardino||0||unoccupied|
|United Auburn Community||Placer||n/a|
|Upper Lake Rancheria||Lake||82|
|Viejas (Baron Long) Reservation||San Diego||394|
|Winnemucca Indian Colony||Lassen||110|
|Woodfords Community Council||Alpine||219||component band of the Washoe Tribe|
|X-L Ranch Reservation||Modoc||40|
|Yurok Reservation||Humboldt and Del Norte||1,103|
Population Estimates - By Cultural Groups
(those of Indian descent in California today, on and off reservations):
|Cahto||137 on the Laytonville Rancheria|
|Chilula||some on the Hoopa Valley Reservation|
|Hupa||3,000 on the Hoopa Valley Reservation|
|Karuk||5,000; official tribal enrollment was 1,900 in 1992|
|Kitanemuk||not known since name was not used in government documents|
|Mattole||some on the Rohnerville Rancheria|
|Mojave (Mohave)||1,000 on or near the Fort Mojave Reservation, located along the Colorado River in the states of California, Arizona, and Nevada. (A few more thousand live on the Colorado River Reservation in Arizona)|
|Mono Western (Monache)||some on the Big Sandy, Cold Springs, and North Fork rancherias, and in the town of Dunlap|
|Pit River (Achumawi, Atsugewi)||1,350|
|Serrano||over 1,000; with 85 on the San Manuel Reservation, and many of the 1,000 or so residents on or near the Morongo Reservation of Serrano descent, and others on or near the Soboba Reservation|
|Wappo||a small number|
|Whilkut||some on the Hoopa Valley Reservation|
|Yana||some on the Redding Rancheria|
|Yurok||over 3,500 officially enrolled tribal members|
Major Sources Used:
- Castillo, Edward D. "California." In The Gale Encyclopedia
of Native American Tribes. Vol. 4. Detroit: Gale, 1998.
- Klein, Barry T. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian.
7th ed. West Nyack, NY: Todd Publications, 1995.
- Kroeber, Alfred L. Handbook of the Indians of California. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 78 1925.
- Pritzker, Barry M. "California." In Native Americans: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Peoples. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1998.
- Tiller, Veronica E. Velarde. "California." In American Indian Reservations and Trust Areas. Albuquerque: Tiller Research, 1996.
- U.S. Bureau of the Census. Census 2000. Washington, DC: Census, 2001. (http://factfinder.census.gov/; Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data, Detailed Tables).
Note: Information for the website has been changed, modified, and corrected along the way. Feedback from anthropologists, professors, and tribal members has been incorporated into the original sources to attempt to provide accurate and timely information. Information was also gathered through a survey questionnaire sent to all California Indian groups and reservations.
For additional addresses, phone numbers, and contact information, check the following: