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Originally appearing in Volume V01, Page 516 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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ALPHONSO See also:ALBUQUERQUE  D' (in Old See also:Port . AFFOrrso D'ALBOQUERQUE) (1453-1515), surnamed THE See also:GREAT, and THE PORTUGUESE See also:MARS, was See also:born in 1453 'at See also:Alexandria, near See also:Lisbon . Through his See also:father, Gonzalvo, who held an important position at See also:court, he was connected by illegitimate descent with the royal See also:family of See also:Portugal . He was educated at the court of See also:Alphonso V.,. and after the See also:death of that monarch seems to have served for some See also:time in See also:Africa . On his return he was appointed estribeiro-mor (See also:chief See also:equerry) to See also:John II . In 1503 he set out on his first expedition to the See also:East, which was to be the See also:scene of his future triumphs . In See also:company with his kinsman Francisco he sailed See also:round the Cape of See also:Good See also:Hope to See also:India, and succeeded in establishing the See also:king of See also:Cochin securely on his See also:throne, obtaining in return for this service permission to build a Portuguese fort at Cochin, and thus laying the See also:foundation of his See also:country's See also:empire in the East . He returned See also:home in See also:July 1504, and was well received by King See also:Emmanuel, who entrusted him with the command of a See also:squadron of five vessels in the See also:fleet of sixteen which sailed for India in 15o6 under See also:Tristan da Cunha . After a See also:series of successful attacks on the Arab cities on the east See also:coast of Africa, See also:Albuquerque separated from Da Cunha, and sailed with his squadron against the See also:island of Ormuz, in the See also:Persian Gulf, which was then one of the chief centres of See also:commerce in the East . He arrived on the 25th of See also:September 1507, and soon obtained See also:possession of the island, though he was unable See also:long to maintain his position . With his squadron increased by three vessels, he reached the See also:Malabar coast at the See also:close of the See also:year 1508, and immediately made known the See also:commission he had received from the king empowering him to supersede the See also:governor Francisco de See also:Almeida . The latter, however, refused to recognize Albuquerque's See also:credentials and See also:cast him into See also:prison, from which he was only released, after three months' confinement, on the arrival of the See also:grand-See also:marshal of Portugal with a large fleet .

Almeida having returned home, Albuquerque speedily showed the See also:

energy and determination of his See also:character . An unsuccessful attack upon See also:Calicut in See also:January 1510, in which the commanderin-chief received a severe See also:wound, was immediately followed by the investment and See also:capture of See also:Goa . Albuquerque, finding himself unable to hold the See also:town on his first occupation, abandoned it in See also:August, to return with the reinforcements in See also:November, when he obtained undisputed possession . He next directed his forces against Malacca, which he subdued after a severe struggle . He remained in the town nearly a year in See also:order to strengthen the position of the Portuguese See also:power . In 1512 he sailed for the coast of Malabar . On the voyage a violent See also:storm arose, Albuquerque's See also:vessel, the " See also:Flor de la See also:Mar," which carried the treasure he had amassed in his conquests, was wrecked, and he himself barely escaped with his See also:life . In September of the same year he arrived at Goa, where he quickly suppressed a serious revolt headed by Idalcan, and took such See also:measures for the See also:security and See also:peace of the town that it became the most flourishing of the Portuguese settlements in India . Albuquerque had been for some time under orders from the home See also:government to undertake an expedition to the Red See also:Sea, in order to secure that channel of communication exclusively to Portugal . He accordingly laid See also:siege to See also:Aden in 1513, but was repulsed; and a voyage into the Red Sea, the first ever made by a See also:European fleet, led to no substantial results . In order to destroy the power of See also:Egypt, he is said to have entertained the See also:idea of diverting the course of the See also:Nile and so rendering the whole countrybarren . His last warlike undertaking was a second attack upon Ormuz in 1515 .

The island yielded to him without resistance, and it remained in the possession of the Portuguese until 16.22 . Albuquerque's great career had a painful and ignominious close . He had several enemies at the Portuguese court who lost no opportunity of stirring up the See also:

jealousy of. the king,against him, and his own injudicious and arbitrary conduct on several occasions served their end only too well . On his return from Ormuz, at the entrance of the See also:harbour of Goa, he met a vessel from See also:Europe bearing despatches announcing that he was superseded by his See also:personal enemy Soarez . The See also:blow was too much for him and he died at sea on the 16th of See also:December 1515 . Before his death he wrote a See also:letter to the king in dignified and affecting terms, vindicating his conduct and claiming for his son the honours and rewards that were justly due to himself . His See also:body was buried at Goa in the See also:Church of our See also:Lady, and it is perhaps the most convincing See also:proof possible of the See also:justice of his See also:administration that, many years after, Mussulmans and See also:Hindus used to go to his See also:tomb to invoke See also:protection against the injustice of his successors . The king of Portugal was convinced too See also:late of his fidelity, and endeavoured to atone for the ingratitude with 'which he had treated him by heaping honours upon his natural son Affonso . The latter published a selection from his father's papers under the See also:title Commentaries do Grande Affonso d'Alboquerque . See the Callas de Albuquerque, published by the Lisbon See also:Academy (vol. i., 1884) ; also See also:Morse See also:Stephens' Life of Albuquerque; an See also:article in the Bolitim of the Lisbon See also:Geographical Society (January to See also:June 19o2) on " 0 See also:antigo Imperialismo portuguez, &c.,'` has especial reference to Albuquerque .

ALBURNUM (sapwood)

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