RACING GLOSSARY | SHOWING GLOSSARY
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A procedure for Appendix horses to receive an AQHA numbered registration certificate. When the horse receives its Open Register of Merit, (80 or better speed index in racing, 10 points for showing) it is then eligible for advancement into the numbered registry, so long as it is not parrot mouth or, if a stallion, not a cryptorchid. If Impressive progeny, the horse must be tested for HYPP. The horse cannot advance if N/H or H/H. The horse cannot have undesirable white markings. The horse's registration number is changed from the (X) appendix number to a regular number, and it is issued a white certificate; therefore, becoming eligible to breed to a Thoroughbred, Appendix, or registered American Quarter Horse.
Alternative forms ofa gene that occurs on the same place on a chromosome.
Introduction of semen into the uterus or oviduct by other than natural means. AQHA allows the use of artificial insemination on premises, cooled and transported, and/or frozen semen for breeding purposes. Foals produced through the artificial insemination method on premises (not cooled and transported or frozen) are processed through the normal registration procedures. A fact sheet on Artificial Insemination is available. See "Cooled and Transported Semen" and "Frozen Semen" for more information.
A horse registered with AQHA which is the result of breeding a Thoroughbred and an American Quarter Horse that has a permanent number, or a combination of an Appendix numbered American Quarter Horse and an American Quarter Horse with a permanent number. Appendix horses are distinguished by an "X" in front of their registration number and their certificates are gold.
There are three different mixes of horses that are eligible to be registered in AQHA's registry:
Registered Appendix (X) + Registered American Quarter Horse (QH) = Registered Appendix foal(X)
Registered American Quarter Horse (QH) + Registered American Quarter Horse (QH) = Registered American Quarter Horse foal (QH)
Recognized Thoroughbred (TB) + Registered American Quarter Horse (QH) = Registered Appendix foal (X)
Some examples of horses that are not eligible for registration with AQHA:
Appendix (X) + Appendix (X)' not eligible to be registered
(Unless one Appendix horse advances)
Thoroughbred (TB)+ Appendix (X)'not eligible to be registered
(Unless the Appendix horse advances)
American Quarter Horse (QH)+ Any other breed of horse besides a registered Appendix, acknowledged Thoroughbred, or registered American Quarter Horse not eligible to be registered with AQHA
Body color ranging from tan, through red, to reddish brown; mane and tail black; usually black on lower legs.
More or less uniform mixture of white with red hairs in large portion of the body; darker on head, usually red but can have a few black hairs in mixture; black mane and tail and black on lower legs.
Body color true black without light areas; mane and tail black.
Blood Typing / DNA
Used to verify the parentage of a foal. AQHA converted from using a blood sample to using a hair sample in 1995.
More or less a uniform mixture of white with black hairs on the body, but usually darker on head and lower legs; can have a few red hairs in mixture.
Body color brown or black with light areas at muzzle, eyes, flank, and inside upper legs; mane and tail black.
Body color yellowish or gold; mane and tail black; usually black on lower legs.
Is a color gene recently named and understood to be a separate gene. Champagne functions as a simple dominant dilution gene. Meaning if your horse carries one copy of the gene, it will show the characteristics. This gene can be present in many color bases.
Body color dark red or brownish-red; mane and tail usually dark red or brownish-red but may be flaxen.
A series of genes strung together. They appear in pairs, and each parent gives one of its chromosomes to the foal. horses have 32 pairs.
Cooled and Transported Semen
Semen cooled then transported to another location for artificial insemination. Stallion owners using this method must file a collection insemination certificate notifying AQHA of its use and make notation on the breeding report filed with AQHA. These forms are available >from AQHA free of charge. Foals produced through the use of cooled and transported semen must be parentage verified before being registered. A fact sheet on artificial insemination is available.
Colors of Horses
There are 17 recognized colors for American Quarter Horses. Bay, Black, Brown, Sorrel, Chestnut, Dun, Buckskin, Red Dun, Grullo, Palomino, Gray, Red Roan, Blue Roan, Bay Roan, Cremello, Perlino, White.
An un-castrated male horse less than three years old that can still sire offspring.
A narrow area above the horse's hoof.
Light (or pink) skin over the body, white or cream-colored hair and blue eyes.
The group of foals sired by a stallion in a given season.
Less than two visible testicles descended into the scrotum. A genetic defect according to AQHA.
A female parent; mother. The mother of a newborn foal.
Date of Sale
Date that is listed on transfer report submitted to AQHA which is agreed upon by seller and buyer.
Date Transfer Recorded
The date the transfer transaction is completed by AQHA
These are set for various forms and applications received by the Association.
The following must be POSTMARKED by November 30:
- Incentive Fund Stallion Nomination
- Stallion Breeding Report
The following deadlines are determined by the date RECEIVED in the office:
- Registration Application
- Incentive Fund Foal Nomination
Is establishing a DNA type for parentage verification when at least one parent is deceased, through postmortem testing or through genetic testing of offspring.
A gene that causes a horse's coat color to become lighter in appearance.
Deoxyribonucleic acid. What the lab uses to identify markers in a horse which can later be used to prove or disprove parentage. DNA typing is established using the roots of a hair sample.
DNA requirements are as follows:
- All breeding stallions
- All mares born on or after January 1, 1989, must have a genetic type on file with AQHA prior to the registration of any foal produced by them.
- Foals produced through the use of embryo transfer, cooled and transported semen, and frozen semen.
- Horses being tattooed for racing must be pvd before they can be tattoed
DNA kits can be ordered through AQHA at a cost of $40 per kit if ordered on a foal application, or $50 per kit for a registered horse.
A gene that will be expressed phenotypically over a recessive gene.
Body color yellowish or gold; mane and tail may be black, brown, red, yellow, white or mixed; often has dorsal stripe, zebra stripes on legs, transverse over withers.
Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA), usually called "Coggins" or "swamp fever," can affect any equine, such as horses, mules, donkeys, asses and zebras. Once in the animal, the virus breaks down red blood cells, bringing on death or chronic illness. Sometimes, infected equine can look healthy, but suffer intermittently from fever, swelling, and weight loss when subjected to stress, heat or overwork.
EIA virus is spread by blood-to-blood contact and can be passed from one horse to another when medical treatments involve reusing contaminated needles. Likewise, large horseflies, with their saw-edged cutting mouth parts, can carry droplets of contaminated blood from infected horses to clean' ones.
A fact sheet on EIA is available by contacting the AQHA office.
Taking the embryo from one mare and placing it in the womb of another mare to carry to term. Allows biological mare to maintain her shape and build for racing and showing. Mare must be enrolled for embryo transfer prior to the embryo being transferred. Must also meet all other registration requirements and must be parentage verified.
Explanation of Registration Numbers
- Letter A in front of number means Old Appendix Horse
- Letter I in front of number means International Horse that traces back to American Quarter Horses
- Letter L in front of number means Appaloosa Horse, also AP in last two positions of name
- Letter N in front of number means National Quarter Horse Breeders Association
- Letter P in front of number means Paint Horse, also PT in last two positions of name.
- Letter Q in front of number means American Quarter Racing Association Horse
- Letter T in front of number means Thoroughbred Horse, also year foaled in last two positions of name
- Letter U in front of number means Unregistered Horse
- Letter X in front of number means New Appendix Horse
A female horse three years old and younger.
A baby horse
Semen collected and frozen for future breeding purposes. Stallions owners using this method must file a collection insemination certificate notifying AQHA of its use and make notation on the breeding report filed with AQHA. These forms are available from AQHA free of charge. Foals produced through the use of frozen semen must be parentage verified before being registered. A fact sheet on artificial insemination is available.
Full Brother / Full Sister
Horses that have both the same sire and dam.
A male horse who has been castrated (a surgical process known as gelded to insure he sires no offspring). Owners must report the fact that their stallions have been gelded. This should be done by providing AQHA with the certificate and a statement from the owner indicating the date on which the horse was gelded. The certificate will be changed and returned to the owner free of charge.
Segment of DNA that provides a bluprint of genetic information.
Process of collecting hair samples from the mane or tail to obtain DNA type. See "DNA" for more information.
The genetic makeup of an animal.
A horse with no registration papers or a horse sold without papers is considered canceled under our records.
Body color a mixture of white with any other colored hairs; often born solid-colored or almost solid-colored and gets lighter with age as more white hairs appear.
The mother of a horse's dam (also called the second dam).
The father of a horse's sire, unless otherwise stated (see maternal grandsire).
Body color smoky or mouse-colored (not a mixture of black and white hairs, but each hair mouse-colored.); mane and tail black; usually black on the lower legs; often has dorsal stripe.
A devastating disease that causes the skin to lift and peel away. The condition, which renders a horse unable to wear a saddle or harness, is known by two names: hyperelastosis cutis and hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia. The reported age at onset ranges from birth to 4 years old.
A horse that is not genetically a stallion or mare because it has both male and female reproductive organs.
A pair of genes that are different.
A horse bred by his owner.
A pair of genes that are identical.
Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis. An inherited disease that leads to uncontrolled muscle twitching or profound muscle weakness, and in severe cases, may lead to collapse and/or death. To date HYPP only has been traced to descendants of IMPRESSIVE #0767246. HYPP is listed as a genetic defect in AQHA's rules. Foals born in 1998 and later tracing to IMPRESSIVE will have the following statement placed on their Certificate of Registrations:
"This horse has an ancestor known to carry HYPP, designated under AQHA rules as a genetic defect. AQHA recommends testing to confirm presence or absence of this gene."
AQHA will test any foals who are required to be parentage verified and who trace to IMPRESSIVE for HYPP prior to being registered. This testing can be performed with the same DNA sample submitted to the laboratory for parentage verification upon request.
Beginning with foals born January 1, 2007 and after, all descendants of IMPRESSIVE, #0767246, must be parentage verified and HYPP tested unless their decendant parent has already been tested and found to be N/N. Any foal that tests H/H will not be eligible for registration.
AQHA will accept test results only if performed through a licensed laboratory. AQHA has a fact sheet and a brochure available on HYPP.
HYPP kits can be ordered through AQHA for $40.
The practice of mating animals more closely related than the average of the breed, such as father and daughter, mother and son, brother and sister, or cousins.
Defect in the foot or leg causing marked nodding, hitching or shortened stride.
The practice of mating animals to concentrate the blood or to develop a high relationship to a particular ancestor. While this is typically done to concentrate the desirable characteristics of an outstanding sire or dam, it can also concentrate undesirable characteristics. In actual practice, line breeding is the same as inbreeding.
A female horse four years of age or older.
The sire of a horse's dam.
A gene that changes the phenotypic appearance of a horse.
An unfertilized egg is removed from the donor mare and placed into a recipient mare and the mare is then bred.
Body color golden yellow, mane and tail white. Palominos typically do not have dorsal stripes.
Either overshot or undershot as defined by the American Association of Equine Practitioners as "noocclusal contact between the upper and central incisors." Defined by AQHA as a genetic defect.
This status means a foal and its sire and dam have been DNA typed and the foal has been confirmed to qualify as an offspring of that particular mating. Parentage must be verified through genetic testing before a foal can be registered if: (1) Either of the parents was less than two years of age at time of conception. (2) It was the result of an embryo/oocyte transfer/fertilized egg. (3) It was conceived by the use of cooled transported semen. (4) It was conceived by the use of frozen semen. (5) It was more than 48 months of age at the time application for registration is made. (6) Its dam was exposed to more than one stallion within a 30 day time period. (7) It has white markings exceeding the limitations specified in rule 205 (d). (8) It is foaled January 1, 2007 or after and is a descendant of IMPRESSIVE, #0767246, as required in rule 205 (c). (9) The Executive Committee has justifiable cause to question its parentage.
Light (or pink) skin over the body, white or cream-colored hair and blue eyes. Mane, tail and lower legs slightly darker than body color.
The physical appearance of an animal.
A form of dun with body color yellowish or flesh colored; mane, tail and dorsal stripe are red.
This is a test that can be performed to determine whether a horse can or cannot produce black pigmentation.
More or less uniform mixture of white with red hairs on the body, but usually darker on head and lower legs; can have red, black, or flaxen mane and/or tail.
Special handling fees (in addition to regular fees) are charged for services on various items. AQHA's busiest time of the year is November through February. You may see a delay in your request during this time.
The process of selecting certain individuals to mate based on the type of horse you are trying to produce.
The father of a newborn foal or any other horse.
Body color reddish or copper-red; mane and tail usually same color as body, but may be flaxen. The most common color of American Quarter Horses.
A male horse 3 years or older which has not been gelded.
A stallion who is being used for breeding.
A foal being weaned and until he becomes a yearling on January 1 of the year following birth.
Body color white; skin is pink; eyes are usually dark; small black spots may be found in the skin, but usually are not accompanied by colored hair. Some white horses may be variegated, meaning they have patches of colored hair, usually intermixed with white.
A horse's age following January 1 of the year after foaling.