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THE ASSOCIATION
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GENERAL GLOSSARY
RACING GLOSSARY | SHOWING GLOSSARY

Advancement
Allele
Artificial Insemination
Appendix Horse
Bay
Bay Roan
  
Black
Blood Typing/DNA
Blue Roan
Brown
Buckskin
Champagne Dilution
Chestnut
Chromosome
Cooled Semen

Colors of Horses
Colt
Coronet
Cremello
Crop
Cryptorchid
Dam
Date of Sale
Date Transfer Recorded
Deadlines

Derivation
Dilution
DNA

Dominant
Dun

Equine Infectious Anemia
Embryo Transfer
Explanation of Registration Numbers
Filly
Foal
Frozen Semen
Full Brother/Full Sister
Gelding
Gene
Genetic Test
Genotype
Grade Horse
Gray
Granddam
Grandsire
Grullo
HERDA
Hermaphrodite
Heterozygous
Homebred

Homozygous
HYPP

Inbreeding

Lameness
Line Breeding
Mare
Maternal Grandsire
Modifier
Oocyte
Palomino
Parrot Mouth
Parentage Verified
Perlino
Phenotype
Red Dun
Red Factor
Red Roan
Remuneration
Rushes
Selective Breeding
Sire
Sorrel
Stallion
Stud
Weanling
White
Yearling

Click BACK TO TOP  at any time to return to the top of this page

Advancement
A procedure for Appendix horses to receive an AQHA numbered registration certificate. When the horse receives its Open Register of Merit, (80 or better speed index in racing, 10 points for showing) it is then eligible for advancement into the numbered registry, so long as it is not parrot mouth or, if a stallion, not a cryptorchid. If Impressive progeny, the horse must be tested for HYPP. The horse cannot advance if N/H or H/H. The horse cannot have undesirable white markings. The horse's registration number is changed from the (X) appendix number to a regular number, and it is issued a white certificate; therefore, becoming eligible to breed to a Thoroughbred, Appendix, or registered American Quarter Horse.

Allele
Alternative forms ofa gene that occurs on the same place on a chromosome.

Artificial Insemination
Introduction of semen into the uterus or oviduct by other than natural means.  AQHA allows the use of artificial insemination on premises, cooled and transported, and/or frozen semen for breeding purposes.  Foals produced through the artificial insemination method on premises (not cooled and transported or frozen) are processed through the normal registration procedures.  A fact sheet on Artificial Insemination is available.  See "Cooled and Transported Semen" and "Frozen Semen" for more information.

Appendix Horse BACK TO TOP
A horse registered with AQHA which is the result of breeding a Thoroughbred and an American Quarter Horse that has a permanent number, or a combination of an Appendix numbered American Quarter Horse and an American Quarter Horse with a permanent number. Appendix horses are distinguished by an "X" in front of their registration number and their certificates are gold.

There are three different mixes of horses that are eligible to be registered in AQHA's registry:

Registered Appendix (X) + Registered American Quarter Horse (QH) = Registered Appendix foal(X)

Registered American Quarter Horse (QH) + Registered American Quarter Horse (QH) = Registered American Quarter Horse foal (QH)

Recognized Thoroughbred (TB) + Registered American Quarter Horse (QH) = Registered Appendix foal (X)

Some examples of horses that are not eligible for registration with AQHA:

Appendix (X) + Appendix (X)' not eligible to be registered
(Unless one Appendix horse advances)

Thoroughbred (TB)+ Appendix (X)'not eligible to be registered
(Unless the Appendix horse advances)

American Quarter Horse (QH)+ Any other breed of horse besides a registered Appendix, acknowledged Thoroughbred, or registered American Quarter Horse not eligible to be registered with AQHA

Bay
Body color ranging from tan, through red, to reddish brown; mane and tail black; usually black on lower legs.

Bay Roan
More or less uniform mixture of white with red hairs in large portion of the body; darker on head, usually red but can have a few black hairs in mixture; black mane and tail and black on lower legs.

Black
Body color true black without light areas; mane and tail black.

Blood Typing / DNA BACK TO TOP
Used to verify the parentage of a foal. AQHA converted from using a blood sample to using a hair sample in 1995.

Blue Roan
More or less a uniform mixture of white with black hairs on the body, but usually darker on head and lower legs; can have a few red hairs in mixture.

Brown
Body color brown or black with light areas at muzzle, eyes, flank, and inside upper legs; mane and tail black.

Buckskin BACK TO TOP
Body color yellowish or gold; mane and tail black; usually black on lower legs.

Champagne Dilution
Is a color gene recently named and understood to be a separate gene.  Champagne functions as a simple dominant dilution gene. Meaning if your horse carries one copy of the gene, it will show the characteristics.  This gene can be present in many color bases.

Chestnut
Body color dark red or brownish-red; mane and tail usually dark red or brownish-red but may be flaxen.

Chromosome
A series of genes strung together. They appear in pairs, and each parent gives one of its chromosomes to the foal. horses have 32 pairs.

Cooled and Transported Semen
Semen cooled then transported to another location for artificial insemination.  Stallion owners using this method must file a collection insemination certificate notifying AQHA of its use and make notation on the breeding report filed with AQHA.  These forms are available >from AQHA free of charge.  Foals produced through the use of cooled and transported semen must be parentage verified before being registered.  A fact sheet on artificial insemination is available.  

Colors of Horses BACK TO TOP
There are 17 recognized colors for American Quarter Horses. Bay, Black, Brown, Sorrel, Chestnut, Dun, Buckskin, Red Dun, Grullo, Palomino, Gray, Red Roan, Blue Roan, Bay Roan, Cremello, Perlino, White.

Colt
An un-castrated male horse less than three years old that can still sire offspring.

Coronet
A narrow area above the horse's hoof.

Cremello
Light (or pink) skin over the body, white or cream-colored hair and blue eyes.

Crop BACK TO TOP
The group of foals sired by a stallion in a given season.

Cryptorchid
Less than two visible testicles descended into the scrotum. A genetic defect according to AQHA.

Dam
A female parent; mother. The mother of a newborn foal.

Date of Sale BACK TO TOP
Date that is listed on transfer report submitted to AQHA which is agreed upon by seller and buyer.

Date Transfer Recorded
The date the transfer transaction is completed by AQHA

Deadlines
These are set for various forms and applications received by the Association.

The following must be POSTMARKED by November 30:

The following deadlines are determined by the date RECEIVED in the office:

Derivation
Is establishing a DNA type for parentage verification when at least one parent is deceased, through postmortem testing or through genetic testing of offspring.

Dilution
A gene that causes a horse's coat color to become lighter in appearance.

 

DNABACK TO TOP
Deoxyribonucleic acid. What the lab uses to identify markers in a horse which can later be used to prove or disprove parentage. DNA typing is established using the roots of a hair sample.

DNA requirements are as follows:

  • All breeding stallions
  • All mares born on or after January 1, 1989, must have a genetic type on file with AQHA prior to the registration of any foal produced by them.
  • Foals produced through the use of embryo transfer, cooled and transported semen, and frozen semen.
  • Horses being tattooed for racing must be pvd before they can be tattoed

DNA kits can be ordered through AQHA at a cost of $40 per kit if ordered on a foal application, or $50 per kit for a registered horse.

Dominant
A gene that will be expressed phenotypically over a recessive gene.

Dun
Body color yellowish or gold; mane and tail may be black, brown, red, yellow, white or mixed; often has dorsal stripe, zebra stripes on legs, transverse over withers.

EIA BACK TO TOP
Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA), usually called "Coggins" or "swamp fever," can affect any equine, such as horses, mules, donkeys, asses and zebras. Once in the animal, the virus breaks down red blood cells, bringing on death or chronic illness. Sometimes, infected equine can look healthy, but suffer intermittently from fever, swelling, and weight loss when subjected to stress, heat or overwork.

EIA virus is spread by blood-to-blood contact and can be passed from one horse to another when medical treatments involve reusing contaminated needles. Likewise, large horseflies, with their saw-edged cutting mouth parts, can carry droplets of contaminated blood from infected horses to clean' ones.

A fact sheet on EIA is available by contacting the AQHA office.

Embryo Transfer
Taking the embryo from one mare and placing it in the womb of another mare to carry to term. Allows biological mare to maintain her shape and build for racing and showing. Mare must be enrolled for embryo transfer prior to the embryo being transferred. Must also meet all other registration requirements and must be parentage verified.

Explanation of Registration Numbers

Filly BACK TO TOP
A female horse three years old and younger.

Foal
A baby horse

Frozen Semen
Semen collected and frozen for future breeding purposes.  Stallions owners using this method must file a collection insemination certificate notifying AQHA of its use and make notation on the breeding report filed with AQHA.  These forms are available from AQHA free of charge.  Foals produced through the use of frozen semen must be parentage verified before being registered.  A fact sheet on artificial insemination is available.

Full Brother / Full Sister BACK TO TOP
Horses that have both the same sire and dam.

Gelding
A male horse who has been castrated (a surgical process known as gelded to insure he sires no offspring). Owners must report the fact that their stallions have been gelded. This should be done by providing AQHA with the certificate and a statement from the owner indicating the date on which the horse was gelded. The certificate will be changed and returned to the owner free of charge.

Gene
Segment of DNA that provides a bluprint of genetic information.

Genetic Test
Process of collecting hair samples from the mane or tail to obtain DNA type. See "DNA" for more information.

Genotype
The genetic makeup of an animal.

Grade Horse BACK TO TOP
A horse with no registration papers or a horse sold without papers is considered canceled under our records.

Gray
Body color a mixture of white with any other colored hairs; often born solid-colored or almost solid-colored and gets lighter with age as more white hairs appear.

Granddam
The mother of a horse's dam (also called the second dam).

Grandsire BACK TO TOP
The father of a horse's sire, unless otherwise stated (see maternal grandsire).

Grullo
Body color smoky or mouse-colored (not a mixture of black and white hairs, but each hair mouse-colored.); mane and tail black; usually black on the lower legs; often has dorsal stripe.

HERDA
A devastating disease that causes the skin to lift and peel away.  The condition, which renders a horse unable to wear a saddle or harness, is known by two names: hyperelastosis cutis and hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia. The reported age at onset ranges from birth to 4 years old. 

Hermaphrodite
A horse that is not genetically a stallion or mare because it has both male and female reproductive organs.

Heterozygous
A pair of genes that are different.

Homebred
A horse bred by his owner.

Homozygous
A pair of genes that are identical.

HYPPBACK TO TOP
Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis. An inherited disease that leads to uncontrolled muscle twitching or profound muscle weakness, and in severe cases, may lead to collapse and/or death. To date HYPP only has been traced to descendants of IMPRESSIVE #0767246. HYPP is listed as a genetic defect in AQHA's rules. Foals born in 1998 and later tracing to IMPRESSIVE will have the following statement placed on their Certificate of Registrations:

"This horse has an ancestor known to carry HYPP, designated under AQHA rules as a genetic defect. AQHA recommends testing to confirm presence or absence of this gene."

AQHA will test any foals who are required to be parentage verified and who trace to IMPRESSIVE for HYPP prior to being registered. This testing can be performed with the same DNA sample submitted to the laboratory for parentage verification upon request.

Beginning with foals born January 1, 2007 and after, all descendants of IMPRESSIVE, #0767246, must be parentage verified and HYPP tested unless their decendant parent has already been tested and found to be N/N. Any foal that tests H/H will not be eligible for registration.

AQHA will accept test results only if performed through a licensed laboratory. AQHA has a fact sheet and a brochure available on HYPP.

HYPP kits can be ordered through AQHA for $40.

Inbreeding
The practice of mating animals more closely related than the average of the breed, such as father and daughter, mother and son, brother and sister, or cousins.

Lameness
Defect in the foot or leg causing marked nodding, hitching or shortened stride.

Line Breeding
The practice of mating animals to concentrate the blood or to develop a high relationship to a particular ancestor. While this is typically done to concentrate the desirable characteristics of an outstanding sire or dam, it can also concentrate undesirable characteristics. In actual practice, line breeding is the same as inbreeding.

MareBACK TO TOP
A female horse four years of age or older.

Maternal Grandsire
The sire of a horse's dam. 

Modifier
A gene that changes the phenotypic appearance of a horse.

Oocyte
 An unfertilized egg is removed from the donor mare and placed into a recipient mare and the mare is then bred.  

Palomino
Body color golden yellow, mane and tail white. Palominos typically do not have dorsal stripes.

Parrot Mouth BACK TO TOP
Either overshot or undershot as defined by the American Association of Equine Practitioners as "noocclusal contact between the upper and central incisors." Defined by AQHA as a genetic defect.

Parentage Verified
This status means a foal and its sire and dam have been DNA typed and the foal has been confirmed to qualify as an offspring of that particular mating. Parentage must be verified through genetic testing before a foal can be registered if: (1) Either of the parents was less than two years of age at time of conception. (2) It was the result of an embryo/oocyte transfer/fertilized egg. (3) It was conceived by the use of cooled transported semen. (4) It was conceived by the use of frozen semen. (5) It was more than 48 months of age at the time application for registration is made. (6) Its dam was exposed to more than one stallion within a 30 day time period. (7) It has white markings exceeding the limitations specified in rule 205 (d). (8) It is foaled January 1, 2007 or after and is a descendant of IMPRESSIVE, #0767246, as required in rule 205 (c). (9) The Executive Committee has justifiable cause to question its parentage.

Perlino
Light (or pink) skin over the body, white or cream-colored hair and blue eyes. Mane, tail and lower legs slightly darker than body color. 

Phenotype
The physical appearance of an animal.

Red Dun
A form of dun with body color yellowish or flesh colored; mane, tail and dorsal stripe are red.

Red Factor
This is a test that can be performed to determine whether a horse can or cannot produce black pigmentation.

Red Roan BACK TO TOP
More or less uniform mixture of white with red hairs on the body, but usually darker on head and lower legs; can have red, black, or flaxen mane and/or tail.

Remuneration
Compensation, payment.

Rushes
Special handling fees (in addition to regular fees) are charged for services on various items. AQHA's busiest time of the year is November through February. You may see a delay in your request during this time.

Selective Breeding
The process of selecting certain individuals to mate based on the type of horse you are trying to produce.

Sire BACK TO TOP
The father of a newborn foal or any other horse.

Sorrel
Body color reddish or copper-red; mane and tail usually same color as body, but may be flaxen. The most common color of American Quarter Horses.

Stallion
A male horse 3 years or older which has not been gelded.

StudBACK TO TOP
A stallion who is being used for breeding.

Weanling
A foal being weaned and until he becomes a yearling on January 1 of the year following birth.

White
Body color white; skin is pink; eyes are usually dark; small black spots may be found in the skin, but usually are not accompanied by colored hair. Some white horses may be variegated, meaning they have patches of colored hair, usually intermixed with white.

Yearling BACK TO TOP
A horse's age following January 1 of the year after foaling.

 

     

   


 

 


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