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The ancient history of Hyderabad dates back to 3rd century BC. The places around Hyderabad were ruled by the Mauryan Empire (reign of Ashoka) during this period.In subsequent centuries the area was ruled by several Buddhist and Hindu kings. It was under the control of Chalukya kings for a long time. When the Chalukya kingdom became weak, Kakatiyas, who were feudal chieftains of Chalukya, declared independence and setup their own kingdom around Warangal (a place in Andhra Pradesh). But Warangal was again conquered by Muhammad bin Tughluq's forces from the Delhi Sultanate in 1321 AD which brought anarchy to the region.

For the next few decades, the Bahmani Sultanate of the Deccan fought with the Musunuri Nayakas on the north and the Vijayanagara Rayas on the south to take control of the region. By the middle of the 15th century, the region was under the firm control of the Bahmani Sultanate. In 1463, Sultan Mohammad Shah Bahmani dispatched Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk to the Telangana region to create disturbances. Sultan Quli quelled the disturbance and was rewarded with the post of administrator of the region. He established a base at Kakatiya hill fortress of Golconda which he strengthened and expanded considerably. By the end of the century, Quli ruled from Golconda as the Subedar of Telangana and enjoyed virtual independence from Bidar, where the Bahmani sultanate was then based. In 1518, he declared independence from the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Golconda Sultanate under the title Sultan Quli Qutub Shah. This was the beginning of Qutb Shahi Dynasty.

The early history of Hyderabad is associated with the Qutb Shahi Dynasty. All seven Qutb Shahi sultans were fond of learning and were great builders. They contributed to the growth and development of Indo-Persian and Indo-Islamic literature and culture in Hyderabad. They had also created a very good atmosphere for the development of Telugu literature. By the middle of 17th century, Hyderabad saw some shift in power. It went in the hands of Mughal emperor who ruled for four decades. In the subsequent periods, Hyderabad came under the control of Nizams. Hyderabad was a princely state under the Nizams, and was the largest known princely state in India with an area larger than England.

After India’s independence in 1947, the Nizam declared his intention to remain independent, either as a sovereign ruler or by acquiring Dominion status within the British Empire. But due to Sardar Patel’s involvement in the matter, the state was integrated into the Indian union in 1948. Till 1956 Hyderabad continued as a separate state within the union. On November 1, 1956, the states of India were reorganized on linguistic grounds and the map of India got a new shape. Consequently, the territories of the State of Hyderabad were divided between newly created Andhra Pradesh, Bombay state (later Maharashtra), and Karnataka. Hyderabad and the surrounding areas were added to Andhra Pradesh based on Telugu linguistic majority, and Hyderabad was declared the capital of the state of Andhra Pradesh.


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