October 26, 2010


Holocaust Denial: A Global Survey - 2003

by Alex Grobman & Rafael Medoff

Table of Contents

North America
Europe
Middle East
Australia
Malaysia
New Zealand

Executive Summary: Holocaust Denial - A Global Survey: 2003

Holocaust denial activity decreased in the United States during 2003, but continued full force in government-sponsored media in Arab countries and the Palestinian Authority.

The decrease in the United States was due to the ongoing legal conflicts between the two major U.S. promoters of Holocaust denial, the Institute for Historical Review and Liberty Lobby founder Willis Carto. At the same time, British Holocaust-denier David Irving maintained an active presence on the U.S. lecture circuit throughout the year, speaking in at least twenty-five cities.

Other notable developments in 2003:

  • For the first time ever, a Holocaust denier was invited to the White House. Palestinian Authority prime minister Mahmoud Abbas, author of a book denying the Holocaust, visited the White House in July 2003.
  • A prominent former United States Senator, Mike Gravel (D-Alaska), appeared as a speaker at the June 2003 conference of a Holocaust-deniers' publication, The Barnes Review.
  • The leader of a major Muslim country, Malaysian prime minister Mahathir Mohammed, publicly affirmed that the Holocaust occurred. However, he did so in a speech alleging Jewish control of the world, and it was that theme, not his acknowledgment of the Holocaust, which attracted attention.

About the Authors

Alex Grobman, Ph.D., president of the Institute for Contemporary Jewish Life and the Brenn Institute, is co-author (with Michael Sherman) of Denying History: Who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and Why Do They Say It? and author of Rekindling the Flame: Jewish Chaplains in the U.S. Army and the Survivors of the Holocaust. He was the founding director of the St. Louis Holocaust Museum and Learning Center , and served as director of the Simon Wiesenthal Center in Los Angeles where he was the founding editor-in chief of the Simon Wiesenthal Annual. He edited Genocide: Critical Issues of the Holocaust; Anne Frank in Historical Perspective; and Those Who Dared: Rescuers and Rescued.

Rafael Medoff, Ph.D., is director of The David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies. He is associate editor of the scholarly journal American Jewish History and Visiting Scholar at Purchase College - The State University of New York. He is the author of seven books on the Holocaust, Zionism, and the history of American Jewry, the most recent of which (co-authored with David S. Wyman) is A Race Against Death: Peter Bergson, America, and the Holocaust. His essays have appeared in numerous scholarly journals, encyclopedias, and other reference volumes, including Holocaust & Genocide Studies, the Journal of Genocide Research, and Holocaust Studies Annual.

North America

Canada

On February 5, 2003, Canadian Holocaust-denier Ernst Zundel was arrested near Knoxville, Tennessee for having failed to show up an an immigration hearing. On February 19 , Zundel was deported to Canada. Zundel, 63, a German citizen, lived in Canada for more than forty years but was unable to obtain Canadian citizenship, in part because he was regarded by the Canadian authorities as a national security threat. Zundel was convicted by a Canadian human r rights tribunal in January 2001 of promoting hatred against Jews through his web site, but he left the country prior to the verdict. There is an outstanding warrant for his arrest in Germany, where he was convicted in absentia of Holocaust denial. [footnote 01]

On March 27, the Canadian Human Rights Commission alerted the Denver-based internet provider QWest COmmunications, which was hosting Ernst Zundel's web site, that the site contains hate literature. On May 12, QWest, which has 25 million customers, said that it had decided, in response to the Canadian alert, to take down Zundel's site. However, the site soon reappeared on another web server. [footnote 02]

The Institute for Historical Review organized rallies on Zundel's behalf outside the Canadian consulates in Los Angeles and Seattle on May 22, 2003. About a dozen people took part in each rally. On June 1, 2003, and again on November 22, 2003, several dozen Zundel supporters rallied outside the Metro West Detention Centre in Toronto, where he is being held.

In response to appeals from Zundel's supporters that it intervene on his behalf, the London-based International Secretariat of Amnesty International issued a statement on June 16, 2003, that it "does not consider Ernst Zundel to be a prisoner of conscience and is not calling for his release ... Amnesty International does not adopt persons who are imprisoned for 'hate speech' as prisoners of conscience." Alex Neve, Secretary-General of the Canadian branch of Amnesty International, told that Canadian National Post: "When it comes to freedom of expression, there are some legitimate limits and inciting people to hatred is one such limit." [footnote 03]

On June 22, 2003, Zundel's wife, Ingrid Rimland Zundel, placed a full-page advertisement in the Washington Times and the Russian newspaper Zavtra, calling for his release. Mrs. Zundel subsequently charged, on her web site, that the Washington Times version was "the same ad, but with modifications requested by them and reluctantly agreed to by me. Essentially, all references to the Holocaust Enforcer Lobby were deleted." The Ottawa Hill Times refused to publish the advertisement.

On August 8, the Canadian Jewish Congress petitioned the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, urging rejection of a request to include the Arab television network Al-Jazeera among the satellite television stations available to Canadian viewers. The 37-page CJC brief argued that Al-Jazeera's "programming content contains hate propaganda, in contravention of Canadian laws and broadcast standards," including Holocaust denial, which it said is "commonplace" on the network. The request to include Al-Jazeera was made by Videotron, Quebec's largest cable company, and the Canadian Cable Television Association. [footnote 04]

United States

The Institute for Historical Review, the leading Holocaust denial organization in the United States, held a public meeting on February 15, 2003, in Costa Mesa, CA. The featured speakers were IHR director Mark Weber and Tomislav Sunic, formerly a member of the staff of the Croatian embassies in Brussels and Copenhagen. In his remarks, Weber indicated that the IHR is suffering significant and ongoing financial problems as a result of its legal battles with a former comrade, Willis Carto.

In a March 26, 2003 fundraising letter, Weber wrote that the IHR has been devoting much of its resources to assisting the imprisoned Canadian Holocaust-denier Ernst Zundel (see above). Weber and Zundel's wife, Ingrid, were guests on the Jeff Rense Radio Show on February 10, and Weber appeared again on February 27, to defend Zundel. On May 22, Weber led a "Free Ernst Zundel" rally outside the Canadian Consulate in Los Angeles.

In an August 2003 fundraising letter, Weber reported that ongoing financial difficulties had forced him to "postpone" publication of the IHR's magazine, The Journal of Historical Review (the last issue to be published was in late 2002). The letter also emphasized: "Courageous men as diverse as Pete McCloskey and John Schmitz - both former Congressmen and presidential candidates - and author/columnist Joseph Sobran, have understood the unique importance of the IHR and its work." [footnote 05]

Rep. Pete McCloskey spoke at a Tikkun conference in Washington , D.C. in June, and "provided advice on lobbying Congress based on his eight terms in the House." The Washington Jewish Week, reporting on the event (June 5, 2003), stated: "McCloskey was a puzzling choice of panelist, considering his ties to a group that traffics in Holocaust denial. The former House member spoke at the Institute for Historical Review's 2000 conference, which also featured David Irving ... An IHR publication quoted McCloskey as telling the 2000 IHR conference, 'I don't know if you are right or wrong about the Holocaust,' but 'I hope you'll keep examining history.' He also wished the group 'good luck.' [Tikkun leader Michael] Lerner said he knew nothing of McCloskey's appearance at the IHR gathering, until asked about it by a reporter Tuesday morning. 'Had I known about it, I would not have allowed him to speak,' said Lerner, who noted that he he lost many family members in the Holocaust. He pledged to follow up after the conference, adding, 'I don't want to have anything to do with him' if 'that's true.'" [footnote 06]

Hutton and Joye Gibson, the parents of actor Mel Gibson, told the New York Times in a March 9, 2003 interview that they consider the Holocaust to be a hoax. Hutton told the Times that the Holocaust was fabricated in order to hide a secret deal between Hitler and "financiers" to move Jews from Germany to the Middle East to fight the Arabs. "Go and ask an undertaker or the guy who operates the crematorium what it takes to get rid of a dead body," Hutton Gibson remarked to The Times. "It takes one liter of petrol and 20 minutes. Now six million?" His wife Joye added: "That weren't even that many Jews in all of Europe."


The Holocaust-denying journal Barnes Review held its "Fourth International Conference on Authentic History, Real News, and the First Amendment," on June 20, 21, 22 and 23 at the Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza Washington National Airport, in Virginia. Barnes Review was founded by Willis Carto, longtime leader of the now-defunct Liberty Lobby.


One of the speakers at the Barnes Review conference was Mike Gravel, former U.S. Senator from Alaska (1969-1981), who spoke on "The National Initiative" during the conference's "Political Options Seminar. During his years in the Senate, Gravel served on the Finance, Interior, and Environment & Public Works committees, chairing the subcommittees on Energy, Water Resources, and Environmental Pollution. According to his official biography, during his years in office Gravel became convinced that in America's current system of government, "the people's interests are subordinated to those of powerful special interests." As a result, in the early 1990s he established two nonprofit organizations, "Philadelphia II" and "Direct Democracy," which have undertaken a campaign known as "The National Initiative" to promote a Constitutional amendment to create a "Legislature of the People" that would "establish public policy and make laws outside the control of representative government but in parallel with our elected representatives." [footnote 07]

Another speaker at the Barnes Review conference was Hutton Gibson, father of actor Mel Gibson, who spoke on "Traditional Catholicism" (one media report described his theme as "how to rebuild public respect for Christian institutions in the teeth of anti-Christian influences"). [footnote 08]

In April 2003, Barnes Review announced that it is the exclusive distributor for Jewish Supremacism, a new book by Holocaust-denier and former Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke. The journal's web site advertises the book as including "a panoramic summary of fifty years of findings by Holocaust revisionists who have left the official version of 'the Holocaust' in shreds." [footnote 09]


Boca Raton (FL) attorney Rob Ross, the finance committee chairman for the Palm Beach County Democratic Party, resigned that position on June 22, 2003, after it was revealed that he had sent a friendly e-mail to British Holocaust-denier David Irving in 1998. Ross sent the e-mail in the midst of Irving's libel suit against U.S. historian Deborah Lipstadt. Ross's letter called Deborah Lipstadt a "pawn" of the Anti-Defamation League and recommended that Irving take legal action "alleging that there has been a longstanding international conspiracy by the ADL to ruin your reputation and spread false allegations regarding the quality of your research and writings." [footnote 10]


British Holocaust-denier David Irving spoke to audiences in numerous cities around the United States during 2003. Speeches scheduled in Louisville and at the University of Kentucky in February were canceled due to what Irving called "outside pressure," but he did speak at St. Catherine's School in Louisville on February 20. He also spoke in Indianapolis, in New York City at the Holy Trinity Episcopal Church , in Arlington (Virginia), and Niagara Falls.

Irving returned to the United States in the late summer, to host his fifth annual "Real History USA Convention," at the Cincinnati Airport Mariott Hotel, over Labor Day weekend (August 29-September 1). Speakers included syndicated columnist Joseph Sobran. Tom Catherall, an Assistant Professor at Brigham Young University, was originally scheduled to speak but later withdrew, citing medical reasons.

In November, Irving spoke in Arlington (Texas), Cleveland, Louisville, Atlanta, Hamond (Louisiana), and Houston. In December, he spoke in Oklahoma City, Albuquerque, Tucson, Phoenix, Sherman Oaks, San Francisco, Sacramento, Portland, Seattle, Moscow (Idaho), Salt Lake City, and the Denver suburb of Aurora.

On December 8, Irving spoke in Las Vegas to a group of twenty-one "men and women, teenagers and seniors, skin-head types and businessmen and even retired military officers" at the St. Tropez Hotel, according to the Las Vegas Sun, which published a news story and interview with him. The meeting had originally been schedule to take place at the Casa Di Amore Italian restaurant, until owner Paul Schiada learned of Irving's background and canceled the engagement.

On December 10, Irving addressed a meeting of the Institute for Historical Review in Orange County, CA. He spoke on "Comparing the Churchill and Hitler Records on War and War Crimes." IHR director Mark Weber also addressed the gathering.

Europe

Austria

Austrian Holocaust-denier Wolfgang Fršhlich was arrested in Vienna on June 21, 2003. He had been in hiding since 2001, following the issuing of a warrant for his arrest in connection with the publication of his 368-page manuscript, The Gas Chamber Lie.

Belgium

On September 9, 2003, Belgian Holocaust-denier Siegfried Verbke was sentenced to a suspended prison term of one year and deprived of his civil rights for ten years, following his conviction for distributing pamphlets denying the Holocaust. [footnote 11]

France

On June 30, 2003, French Holocaust-denier Jean Plantin won his appeal to a Lyon administrative court to require the University of Lyon to restore his two degrees, which had been revoked. Plantin was awarded an M.A. from the University of Lyon 2 in 1990 for a thesis supporting Holocaust denier Paul Rassinier, and in 1991 received a postgraduate diploma from University of Lyon 3 for his research on typhus epidemics in Nazi concentration camps. (Holocaust deniers often claim that Jews who perished in Nazi camps were not murdered, but died of diseases.) In 1999, Plantin was convicted of denying crimes against humanity, given a suspended sentence of six months in prison, and barred from publishing in the future. Subsequently his two degrees were revoked (in 2000 and 2001, respectively). The appeals court ruled that the revocation violated a law mandating that degrees can be annulled only within four months of when they are granted.

Several days after winning his appeal regarding the degrees, a Lyon appeal court upheld a January 2003 ruling that sentenced Plantin to six months in jail for violating the previously-issued ban on publishing his views. [footnote 12]


On July 7, 2003, the European Court of Human Rights rejected an appeal by French philosopher Roger Garaudy against his conviction for Holocaust denial. Garaudy had been convicted, in 1998, of "disputing the existence of crimes against humanity, public defamation of a group of people--namely the Jewish community - and incitement to discrimination and racial hatred." The court ruled that Garaudy could not seek protection under the European Convention on Human Rights for actions of his that ran counter to the provisions of the Convention. Garaudy's original conviction was based on passages in his book, The Founding Myths of Israel Politics (later reprinted as Samiszdat Roger Garaudy), in which he disputed the existence of gas chambers in Nazi death camps. "The real purpose of such a work was to rehabilitate the National Socialist regime," the court ruled, and taken as a whole "it ran counter to the fundamental values of the Convention, namely justice and peace."

Garaudy was sentenced to nine months in prison (suspended) and fined 25,900 euros. In addition, he was ordered to pay more than 33,500 euros in compensation to civil claimants. [footnote 13]

Great Britain

On February 18, 2003, Cambridge University Union canceled its previously-issued invitation to British Holocaust-denier David Irving to take part in its annual Free Speech Debate at Cambridge Union in April. Cambridge University Forum also invited Irving to speak, in March, but subsequently canceled the invitation due to security considerations.


The Holocaust-denying magazine The Revisionist, published by the British firm Castle Hill Publishers, resumed its print edition in February 2003, and published four issues during the year. From 2001 until 2003, it had been available only in an on-line edition. Its editor is Germar Rudolf, a German Holocaust-denier who presently resides in the United States.


The Guardian reported on March 8, 2003, that Amazon.com.uk has decided to stop selling a book by Richard J. Evans, Telling Lies About Hitler ( published by Verso), concerning the Lipstadt-Irving trial. Evans was the chief defense witness at the trial; Amazon reportedly fears a possible lawsuit by Irving over the book.

Greece

British Holocaust-denier David Irving lectured at the Royal Hellenic War Museum in Athens, Greece, on April 20, 2003, in connection with the publication of the Greek edition of his book Hitler's War. While in Greece, he was interviewed by the largest Greek newspaper, To Vima, and by the Greek edition of Esquire.

Latvia

Latvia's Special Minister for Integration, Nils Muiznieks, urged the General Prosecutor's Office to investigate the newspaper DDD for publishing an article titled "Falsifiers of History," which stated that Jews spread "legends about gas chambers in which six million kikes died. That is a historical lie composed by kike historians." Muiznieks said the article "may inspire dangerous consequences for the broader public and publicly undermine the honor and dignity of a concrete ethnic group." [footnote 14]

Romania

Following the conclusion of a cooperation agreement between the Romanian National Archives on the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, the Romanian Ministry of Public Information on June 13, 2003, issued a statement welcoming research into "the Holocaust phenomena in Europe," but emphasizing its claim that "within the borders of Romania between 1940 and 1945 there was no Holocaust." In response to international criticism, the Romanian government issued a statement on June 17, 2003, acknowledging that Romania "was guilty of grave war crimes, pogroms, and mass deportation of Romanian Jews to territories occupied or controlled by the Romanian army" during World War II and that the pro-Nazi Romanian regime employed "methods of discrimination and extermination, which are part of the Holocaust." In July, however, Romanian President Ion Iliescu, during a visit to Israel, told the newspaper Ha'aretz that "the Holocaust was not unique to the Jewish population in Europe." On October 22, 2003, President Iliescu announced the formation of a Holocaust Commission to investigate the Holocaust in Romania, and said Romania will henceforth observe a national Holocaust Remembrance Day. [footnote 15]

Switzerland

On January 13, 2003, Swiss Holocaust-denier Gaston-Armand Amaudruz surrendered to Swiss authorities and began serving a three-month prison sentence for his conviction, in April 2000, of violating the law that makes it illegal to "deny, grossly minimize or seek to justify genocide or other crimes against humanity." Amaudruz was also ordered to pay court costs and pay a fine of 1,000 Swiss francs (about $600) to each of four complainants against him. Amaudruz is one of the earliest Holocaust-deniers, having authored a book in 1949, Ubu Justicier au Premier Proces de Nuremberg, which questioned whether the Holocaust occurred.


Swiss Holocaust denier Albert "Ahmed" Huber told an interviewer from the Jewish Telegraphic Agency on July 12, 2003, that he now serves as the liaison between European neo-Nazis and Islamic organizations in Europe. "I am very happy that the right-wing world in Europe more and more understands that the Holocaust was a big fraud and the European neo-Nazi should join Islamic organizations to fight Israel, the Jews and America," Huber told JTA. The Swiss Ministry of Justice told the JTA that they are investigating Huber, following the inclusion of his name on United Nations and European Union lists of involved in terrorism. [footnote 16]

Middle East

Egypt

In an interview with BBC News on August 10, 2003 (www.bbcnews.co.uk), Muhammad Salmawi, editor of the Egyptian newspaper Al-Ahram Hebdo, and Muhammad Khalil, one of the newspaper's correspondents, "repeated denial of the Holocaust." Khalil said that "only" half a million Jews were murdered in the Holocaust."

An article in the November 17, 2003 issue of the Egyptian weekly newspaper Al-Usbu' reported the opening of a manuscript museum in the newly-renovated Alexandria library. The article mentioned the decision by the museum to include an early Arabic translation of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion in the exhibit, positioned next to a Torah scroll. In the article, museum director, Dr. Yousef Ziedan, was quoted as having written: "When Hitler's atrocities are mentioned, [people] immediately point out the cremation of the Jews in the gas chambers. This happens because of the knowledge that is passed on regarding the Holocaust. This is knowledge that has reached the world via a diverse stream of information ... What is important is that the information arrived, but what about reality? In reality, 50,000,000 fell victim to the Nazis, among them 1,000,000 Jews and the rest Gypsies, Poles, and other nations. In reality, an analysis of samples from the purported gas chambers has proven that these were sterilization chambers, without a sufficient quantity of cyanide to kill. In reality, had Hitler wanted to annihilate the Jews of Europe, he would have. He had an opportunity. The distance between events and widespread knowledge about them is great." [footnote 17]

Israel

In February 2003, a group of Israeli Arabs led by Nazareth priest Father Emil Shufani announced their intention to visit the site of the Auschwitz death camp, together with a number of Israeli Jews and a delegation of Jews and Muslims from France. In preparation for the visit, thirty of the Israeli Arab participants took a guided tour of Yad Vashem on February 19, 2003. As background material for the trip to Auschwitz, Yad Vashem provided the visitors with two published articles by Arab authors which acknowledged and condemned the Holocaust. However, one of the articles, authored by Israeli Arab Member of Parliament Azmi Bishara, erroneously stated that "the Palestinian National movement once considered ... making an alliance with Nazi Germany, [but] this alliance did not come to fruition." [footnote 18]

Israeli journalist Yossi Klein Halevi was one of the 450 participants in the visit to Auschwitz, which took place on May 26-30, 2003. He later wrote: "While much of the Arab world promotes Holocaust denial, here Arabs are affirming the legitimacy of our story." However, he also recounted that one Arab participant in the mission said to him: "Arabs had nothing to do with this. The Palestinians are also victims of this place." Regarding the erroneous claim that Arabs had no connection to the Holocaust, Klein commented in his article: "What about Arab pressure on the British to turn back refugee boats? Or the Mufti, the Palestinian leader who spent the war years as a Nazi propagandist in Berlin?" [footnote 19]

Palestinian Authority

On May 27, 2003, Palestinian Authority Television broadcast an interview with Ismail Elbakawi, a translator, concerning the book The Holocaust Industry, by Norman Finkelstein. Elbakawi remarked: "[The Holocaust] was a real event that occurred from 1939 to 1945. However, it did not just affect the Jews of Europe, but also other nations including the Poles, the Hungarians, the Russians--as you remember, 20 million Russians were killed and Germans, and Gypsies. They were annihilated and killed ad a result of the war, and not due to a prior plan. It is possibly true that Hitler planned the extermination of disabled Germans. It is likely that these things are true, I don't know. This is the historical truth: the true Nazi Holocaust. I apologize for using the word 'Holocaust.' This is a word that they try to attach only to the Jews who were killed, but I use this expression in the human sense. It can also be used to refer to the Palestinians and the suffering that the Israelis [have caused] them. The Palestinians also have their own private Holocaust, and this is also true of the Gypsies." [footnote 20]

On June 24 ,2003, the Palestinian Authority's official newspaper, Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, published an article which stated: "[C]oming back to the suffering and tribulations [caused] by the Nazis, we would read hair-raising things about the entanglement of the Zionist leaders in the 'sacrifice' of many Jews in order to kill two birds with one stone: to be rid of those who disagreed with them (meaning Jews opposed to Zionism) on the one hand and, on the other, to push all the Jews to immigrate to Palestine, since Europe had become an unbearable Hell. I would like to say that, based on the above, the Jewish--or more accurately Zionist--willingness to sacrifice Jews for the above mentioned cause is a known historical tradition." [footnote 21]

On July 25, 2003, the prime minister of the Palestinian Authority, Mahmoud Abbas, became the first Holocaust-denier to be invited to the White House . He met with President Bush and other senior members of the administration and afterwards spoke to reporters, but was not asked about his 1983 book denying the Holocaust.

The book was titled The Other Side: The Secret Relations Between Nazism and the Leadership of the Zionist Movement. It was originally his doctoral dissertation, completed at Moscow Oriental College, in the Soviet Union. According to a translation of the text provided by the Simon Wiesenthal Center, Abbas's book repeatedly attempted to cast doubt on the fact that the Nazis slaughtered six million Jews. He wrote: "Following the war, word was spread that six million Jews were amongst the victims and that a war of extermination was aimed primarily at the Jews ... The truth is that no one can either confirm or deny this figure. In other words, it is possible that the number of Jewish victims reached six million, but at the same time it is possible that the figure is much smaller--below one million ... It seems that the interest of the Zionist movement, however, is to inflate this figure so that their gains will be greater. This led them to emphasize this figure [six million] in order to gain the solidarity of international public opinion with Zionism. Many scholars have debated the figure of six million and reached stunning conclusions--fixing the number of Jewish victims at only a few hundred thousand." Abbas denied that the gas chambers were used to murder Jews, quoting a "scientific study" to that effect by French Holocaust-denier Robert Faurisson. In an interview with the Israeli newspaper Ha'aretz on May 28, 2003, Abbas asserted that in his book, he "did not address the question of the number of victims but cited historians who said the victims ranged in number from one million to 12 million ... The Holocaust was a terrible thing, and nobody can claim I denied it."

On August 21, 2003, Al-Risala, the official weekly newspaper of Hamas, published an article by senior Hamas official Dr. Abd Al-Aziz Al-Rantisi, in which he wrote:

"Many thinkers and historians have exposed the lies of the Zionists, thus becoming a target of Zionist persecution. Some have been assassinated, some arrested, and some are prevented from making a living. For example, Jewish associations and organizations have filed lawsuits against famous French philosopher Roger Garaudy, who in 1995 published a book The Founding Myths of Israeli Politics, in which he disproves the myth of the 'gas chambers' ... British historian David Irving was also sued, while Austrian author Gerd Honsik was sentenced to 18 months' imprisonment because he wrote a number of articles denying the existence of the gas chambers in the Nazi detention camps. It is no longer a secret that the Zionists were behind the Nazis' murder of many Jews, and agreed to it, with the aim of intimidating them and forcing them to immigrate to Palestine. Every time they failed to persuade a group of Jews to immigrate, they unhesitatingly sentenced [them] to death. Afterwards, they would organize great propaganda campaigns to cash in on their blood.

"The Nazis received tremendous financial aid from the Zionist banks and monopolies, and this contributed to their rise to power. In 1929, the Nazis received $10 million from Mendelssohn and Company, the Zionist bank in Amsterdam. In 1931, they received $15 million, and after Hitler rose to power in 1933, they received $126 million...

"The German researcher Prof. Frederick Toben believes there was no animosity between the Nazis and the Jews, whether politically, ideologically, or philosophically. He said, 'There is no historical scientific evidence proving such [animosity]. On the contrary --there is proof of collaboration between the Jews and the Nazis'...

"When we compare the Zionists to the Nazis, we insult the Nazis - despite the abhorrent terror they carried out, which we cannot but condemn. The crimes perpetrated by the Nazis against humanity, with all their atrocities, are no more than a tiny particle compared to the Zionists' terror against the Palestinian people. While disagreement proliferates about the veracity of the Zionist charges regarding the Nazis' deeds, no one denies the abhorrent Zionist crimes, some of which camera lenses have managed to document. [footnote 22]

In September 2003, Hafez Barghouti, editor in chief of the Palestinian Authority's official newspaper, Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, which has published numerous articles denying the Holocaust, was part of a delegation of ten journalists from the Middle East that met with British Prime Minister Tony Blair, in London. The group was in London to take part in a conference called the Middle East Editors' Dialogue, sponsored by The Guardian and the Portland Trust. [footnote 23]

In October 2003, Hatem Abd al-Qader, a member of the Palestinian Legislative Council from Jerusalem who has denied the Holocaust, was part of a three-person delegation that visited Washington, D.C., at the initiative of former U.S. Mideast envoy Dennis Ross. Abd al-Qader and his colleagues held meetings with Members of Congress and were featured at a luncheon by the Washington Institute for Near East Policy. In an interview with the Islamic Jihad weekly newspaper Al Istiqlal on April 20, 2000, Abd al-Qader rejected the idea of teaching the Holocaust in Arab schools, saying: "First, the Jews should learn about our disaster, the massacres, the murder and the exile, because this disaster is still alive. As for the falsely alleged Holocaust, it has already been moved into the museum of History."

Syria

During October and November 2003, Al-Manar Television, a Hezbollah-affiliated television station in Syrian-occupied Lebanon, broadcast a 29-part Syrian-produced series called "Al-Shatat" (Diaspora), a survey of Jewish history and the rise of the Zionist movement Although the Syrian government denied reports that it was involved in producing the series, the credits at the end of each episode give special thanks to "The Defense Ministry, the Culture Ministry, the Damascus Police commanders, the Archeology and Museums Administration, Damascus District, Aleppo District, Tartus District, [and] the Tartus Port Administration" for their assistance in the production. It was produced by the Syrian company "Linn" at a reported cost of $5.1-million.

The series alleges that Jews have been attempting to control the world for many centuries and have engaged in a variety of conspiracies to further that aim. Regarding the Holocaust, the series claims that the Nazis murdered one million, not six million Jews, and that Jewish leaders actively collaborated in those murders. In Episode 22, broadcast on November 20, 2003, members of the "global Jewish government" are shown celebrating the deaths of one million European Jews, and their leader explains: "The higher the number of Jews killed in this war, the more we will be able to convince the world that the 'Protocols of the Elders of Zion' is nothing more than a lie invented by the Christian world to increase people's hatred for the Jews. After public opinion is persuaded that this book is nothing more than a lie, we will launch a secret and quiet offensive to prove the truth of this book, until the world again fears us deep inside, and will be defeated by us without a war. Now, a toast in honor of this great war." [footnote 24]

United Arab Emirates

An Arab League-sponsored think tank that promotes Holocaust denial, the Zayed Center for Coordination and Follow-Up, was at the center of controversy in 2003. The center was named after United Arab Emirates president Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan al-Nahyan. In March 2003, Harvard Divinity School graduate student Rachel Fish launched a campaign against Harvard's acceptance of a $2.5-million gift from President Zayed to endow a chair in Islamic studies. Fish revealed that the Zayed Center for Coordination and Follow-Up promotes anti-Semitism and Holocaust denial. Fish's research also revealed that Zayed's wife contributed $50,000 to French Holocaust denier Roger Garaudy. While Harvard was considering the matter, it was announced in August 2003 that the Zayed Center had been closed down. [footnote 25]

Yemen

On May 1, 2003, the Yemeni newspaper Sanaa published a column by Ghalib Ali Jamil concerning British Member of Parliament George Galloway, "who has become a mobile information ministry for Arab causes, with the Palestinian and Iraqi issues to the fore." Jamil then singled out additional supporters of the Arab cause for praise, including French Holocaust-denier Roger Garaudy: "The Palestinian issue and the Iraqi issue have attracted the most sympathy and enthusiastic advocacy by well-known international personalities, such as Dr Roger Garaudy, Congressman Paul Findley, former US Justice Secretary Ramsey Clark, and several of the US elite in Hollywood, who have been coming under vicious attack by intelligence bodies, the extremist right, and the Zionist lobby that currently controls the most important decision-making institutions: The White House, Defence Department, and the Department of State." [footnote 26]

Elsewhere

Australia

On January 8, 2003, Australian Immigration Minister Philip Ruddock informed British Holocaust-denier David Irving that his request to enter Australia was being denied, because of Irving's "past and present criminal conduct and past and present general conduct," citing Irving's 1992 conviction in Germany for "defaming the memory of the dead," his 1994 conviction in England for contempt of court, and his 1992 expulsion from Canada after entering the country without authorization and lying under oath. Irving was denied entry to Australia in 1993 and 1996, as well.

Malaysia

Speaking to the Organization of the Islamic Conference on October 16, 2003, Malayasian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad acknowledged that "The Europeans killed six million Jews..." However, the major theme of the speech was that "the Jews rule the world by proxy--they get others to fight and die for them," and he mentioned the Holocaust not in order to encourage his audience of Muslim leaders to change their view of the Nazi genocide, but to illustrate his argument that Muslims should learn from history, including Jewish history, that those who are steadfast can overcome adversity and eventually attain "final victory" over "the enemy" (which he defined as "the Balfour and Zionist transgression").

New Zealand

Controversy continues over the master's thesis written by Joel Hayward at Canterbury University, "The Fate of Jews in German Hands: An Historical Enquiry into the Development and Significance of Holocaust Revisionism." Among other things, the thesis endorsed the claim by Holocaust deniers that the Nazis did not use gas chambers to systematically murder Jews. After a public outcry in 1999, the university appointed an investigation committee, consisting of retired High Court Judge Sir Ian Barker and two history professors, to examine the thesis. The committee concluded that while the thesis was seriously flawed, there was no evidence that it was motivated by racism or malice, and the committee did not recommend that the university revoke the degree it had awarded to Hayward.

The controversy entered a new chapter this year, when Thomas A. Fudge, a lecturer at Canterbury University on medieval history, authored an article titled "The Fate of Joel Hayward in New Zealand Hands: From Holocaust Historian to Holocaust?," which portrayed Hayward as a victim of savage persecution by his critics. The article was initially accepted for publication by History Now, the journal of the Canterbury University History Department, and printed in its May 6, 2003 edition. However, prior to distribution of that issue, other history professors objected. After reviewing the article, the university administration, supported by most of the history department faculty and staff, decided that it contained a number of inaccuracies and misleading statements and could expose the university to legal action for defamation. Therefore a new version of the May 6 edition was printed, without Fudge's article. Fudge publicly threatened to resign his university position in protest, but then later withdrew the threat. His article was published by the New Zealand Herald and other newspapers in July 2003.

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