Country Information

2001-2010 1985
1995-2000 1984
1994 1983
1993 1982
1992 1981
1991 1980
1990 1978-1979
1989 1975-1977
1988 1970-1974
1987 1953-1969
1986  

other resources

Nuclear Proliferation and South Asia: Recent Trends
Issue Brief: Seven Years After the Nuclear Tests (2005)
Issue Brief: The AQ Khan Revelations and Subsequent Changes to Pakistani Export Controls (2004)
Issue Brief: Nuclear Watch–Pakistan: The Sorry Affairs of the Islamic Republic (2004)
Issue Brief: Indo-Pakistani Military Standoff: Why It Isn’t Over Yet (2002)
Treaties and Organizations
CRS: Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues (2007)
PSRU: Pakistan, Biological Weapons, and the BTWC (2007)
CRS: Indian and Pakistan Nuclear Weapons (2005)
CNS: Safety of Pakistan's Nuclear Arsenal and Installations (2001)
FAS: Pakistan Special Weapons Guide
Pakistan's Instrument of Ratification (Chemical Weapons Convention)
Joint Declaration on the Complete Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, 19 August 1992 (New Delhi)
CEIP: AQ Khan Nuclear Chronology (2005)
PBS: Tracking Nuclear Proliferation: Pakistan (2005)
CFR: Pakistan: Controls on Nuclear Technology (2004)

Country Information
Brazil
China
Egypt
India
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Japan
Kazakhstan
Libya
North Korea
Pakistan
Russia
South Africa
South Korea
Syria
USA
More

Advanced Search


Search for:


Enter query terms separated by spaces.
Match:
Search in: Select any one of the following databases and archives or search any combination.
Click here for more details.
Entire Web Site
Global Security Newswire
UNSC Resolution 1540
CBW & WMD Terrorism Archive
Country Profiles
WMD 411
Issue Briefs & Analysis
Securing the Bomb
NTI Press Room
Source Documents
HEU Reduction and Elimination Database
Submarine Proliferation Database
Russian Language Resources
NIS Nuclear Trafficking Database
Pakistan
nuclearbiologicalchemicalmissilesubmarine
chronology

Updated May 2007

Nuclear Chronology
redline

1990

1 January 1990
The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is currently redesigning its US-supplied research reactor which is installed at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). This action will help double reactor capacity while decreasing its requirements for highly enriched uranium. Presently, Pakistan can enrich uranium to 5% by using centrifuge technology. To reduce the cost of fuel, the PAEC is considering other enrichment techniques.
—"PAEC Research Reactor Redesigned," Nuclear Engineering International, January 1990, Pg. 6; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 January 1990, www.nti.org.

1 January 1990
Dr. Munir Ahmed Khan, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) says that the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Pakistan have agreed on the construction of a nuclear power plant at Chasma. The PRC will be supplying most of the technology and expertise. The agreement had been reached in principle during a visit by PRC premier Li Peng in January 1989. The PRC will also supply enriched uranium to the facility until Pakistan develops its own enriched uranium supply. Furthermore, the plant will be operated under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards.
—"Chinese To Begin Work At Chasma In 1990," Nuclear Engineering International, January 1990, Pg. 7; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 January 1990, www.nti.org.

13 February 1990
A mini-reactor made by China National Nuclear Industry Corporation, the first such reactor exported by the People's Republic of China (PRC), has come online in Pakistan.
—"Exports Of Nuclear Products Reported," CEI Data Base (Beijing), 13 February 1990; Nuclear Developments, 2 March 1990, Pg. 1; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 2 March 1990, www.nti.org.

21 February 1990
French President, Francois Mitterrand, announces (during his visit to Pakistan) that he has agreed to France selling a nuclear reactor to Pakistan. Pakistani Prime Minster, Benazir Bhutto also notes that complete safeguards will be provided for the French plant. Furthermore, Mitterrand and Bhutto also discuss the issue of a reprocessing plant.
—"Pakistan: Details On Bhutto-Mitterrand News Conference," Islamabad Domestic Service, 21 February 1990; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 21 February 1990, www.nti.org.

22 February 2006
The US Department of State expresses concern over the proposed sale of a nuclear power plant by France to Pakistan. A Pakistan Foreign Office spokesman responds and says that this concern is "groundless," and that France will stick to the deal. Furthermore, the spokesman also says that Pakistan is aware of the US concern about nonproliferation and stresses that its (Pakistan's) nuclear program is for peaceful purposes only. The Foreign Office spokesman also adds that the US expressed similar fears when China announced that it would provide a 300-MW nuclear plant to Pakistan.
—"US Concern Over Nuclear Power Plant Baseless," Islamabad Domestic Service, 22 February 1990; Nuclear Developments, 2 March 1990, Pp. 22-23; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 2 March 1990, www.nti.org.

22 February 1990
Qazi Hussain Ahmad, head of the key Islamic party in Pakistan, says that Pakistan should fabricate a nuclear device to meet the threat from India.
—"Foreign News: Pakistan," Near East and South Asia, 23 February 1990; Proliferation Watch, July 1990, Pg. 3; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 July 1990, www.nti.org.

23 February 1990
Pakistan feels that it is capable of manufacturing the enriched uranium fuel required to operate the 900 MW nuclear plant offered recently by France and the 300 MW plant offered by the People's Republic of China (PRC) in December 1989.
—"Country Said Capable Of Fabricating Fuel," Dawn (Karachi), 23 February 1990, Pg. 12; Nuclear Developments, 16 March 1990, Pp. 27-28; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 16 March 1990, www.nti.org.

26 February 1990
USSR Ambassador to Pakistan, V.P. Yakunin, says that the USSR is considering a request from Pakistan for the supply of a nuclear power plant.
—"Ambassador Says Soviets Might Sell Pakistan A Nuclear Plant," Nucleonics Week, 1 March 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 March 1990, www.nti.org.

26 February 1990
Bob Oakley, the US Ambassador to Pakistan, expresses US displeasure at the recent agreement made between France and Pakistan for the sale of a nuclear power plant.
—"Paper Says US To Object To Nuclear Plant Deal," The Nation (Lahore), 26 February 1990, pg. 1; Nuclear Developments, 2 March 1990, Pp. 23-24; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 2 March 1990, www.nti.org.

28 February 1990
The Indian Police Force in Uttar Pradesh recovers 250 grams of uranium from a man who was attempting to smuggle the material to Pakistan.
—"Stolen Uranium Destined For Pakistan Recovered," The Hindu (Madras), 28 February 1990, Pg. 9; Nuclear Developments, 15 May 1990, Pg. 16; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 15 May 1990, www.nti.org.

Early March 1990
Belgium's Minister for European Affairs, Anne Marie Lizin, makes attempts to sell Belgian nuclear technology to Pakistan. More specifically, the nuclear trade would be focused on the nuclear reactor to be built by France. Lizin reportedly believes that the recent commitment by France to supply a nuclear reactor to Pakistan, should change Belgian policy towards Pakistan, so that Belgium is not left out of nuclear deals to be made there.
—"French Reactor: 'ROW' Over Belgian Participation Reported," Dawn (Karachi), 23 March 1990, Pp. 1 & 9; Nuclear Developments, 15 May 1990, Pg. 23; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 15 May 1990, www.nti.org.

March 1990
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) chairman, Munir Ahmad Khan, claims that the agreements with France and China for the acquisition of nuclear power plants by Pakistan, virtually ended a fifteen-year Western embargo and boycott of nuclear trade with Pakistan, even under international safeguards. Mr. Khan hopes that the trade of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes will be restored with Western nations.
—"Munir Assures Safety In Nuclear Radiation Utilization," Dawn (Karachi), 25 March 1990, Pg. 12; Nuclear Developments, 15 May 1990, Pp. 23-24; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 15 May 1990, www.nti.org.

March 1990
Dr. Raja Ramana, Minister of State for Defence of India and former Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), says that India would have to reconsider its ban on nuclear weapon production, depending on the evolving nature of the nuclear program of Pakistan. Ramana says that the sale of a 950 MW nuclear reactor from France to Pakistan does not pose a threat to India. He adds that India could import nuclear reactors but has chosen to produce them indigenously.
—"India Could Reconsider Nuclear Weapons Option," Defense & Foreign Affairs Weekly, 19-25, March 1990, Pg. 1; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 19 March 1990, www.nti.org.

1 March 1990
Munir Ahmad Khan, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), says that there is little public opposition to nuclear power in Pakistan because the public sees benefits resulting from the application of nuclear technology to fields which effect their lives, such as agriculture or medicine.
—"The PAEC: Providing More Than Just Nuclear Power," Nuclear News, March 1990, Pg. 40; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 March 1990, www.nti.org.

1 March 1990
USSR Ambassador to Pakistan, V.P. Yakunin, says that Pakistan has to increase its power generation needs and that "once the required guarantees are provided, there is no harm in supplying a nuclear power plant to Pakistan." Pakistan Production Minister, Shahid Zafar has discussed the issue on a visit to the USSR earlier this year and the Foreign Secretary of Pakistan, Tanveer Ahmad, will also do so in the future.
—"Ambassador Says Soviets Might Sell Pakistan A Nuclear Plant," Nucleonics Week, 1 March 1990; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 March 1990, www.nti.org.

1 March 1990
Pakistan is currently under a nuclear embargo which was imposed by the major nuclear countries (i.e.-US and Canada). The embargo has increased Pakistan's self-reliance and capabilities in the nuclear field. Furthermore, as a result of the embargo, Pakistan continues to experience shortages of heavy water, the moderator used in Pakistan's Karachi Nuclear Power Plant reactor (KANUPP).
—"Pakistan: Going It Alone At KANUPP," Nuclear News, March 1990, Pp. 42-45; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 March 1990, www.nti.org.

4 March 1990
Munir Ahmad Khan, Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), states that the nuclear power plant, which Pakistan intends to buy from France, will fall under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards and will not be a threat to anyone.
—"Official Says Nuclear Plant Poses No Threat," Islamabad Domestic Service, 4 March 1990; Nuclear Developments, 16 March 1990, Pg. 26; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 16 March 1990, www.nti.org.

15 March 1990
The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) says that the Karachi nuclear power plant (KANUPP) has been shut down for overhaul of the process saltwater pumps and for rectification of a mechanical problem of the fueling machine.
—"Karachi Nuclear Plant Closed For Maintenance," AFP (Hong Kong), 15 March 1990; Nuclear Developments, 12 April 1990, Pg. 18; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 12 April 1990, www.nti.org.

22 March 1990
Pakistan gives its highest civilian award to Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Munir Ahmad Khan, for "bringing Pakistan closer to self-reliance in nuclear technology." The award praises Khan for concluding deals with the PRC and France for the supply of nuclear power plants and for acquiring and developing complete nuclear fuel cycle technology for the Karachi power plant.
—"Pakistan: PEAC Chairman Honored," Nucleonics Week, 22 March 1990, Pg. 12; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 22 March 1990, www.nti.org.

29 March 1990
Pakistani Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto requests that Belgium participate along with France in the construction of the nuclear power plant at Chashma. However, this will depend on France's attitude toward sharing the work and Belgium's position on requiring safeguards on materials supplied. A Belgian official says that Belgium has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty and has adhered to the London Suppliers Club guidelines, which do not require full-scope safeguards.
—"Bhutto Asks For Belgian Share In Projected Chashma Project," Nucleonics Week, 29 March 1990, Pg. 9; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 29 March 1990, www.nti.org.

29 March 1990
Prime Minister Bhutto addresses the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) and calls upon the organization to redouble its efforts to implement its nuclear power programs. She promises that the government will continue to give its full support for the implementation of a peaceful nuclear program.
—"Bhutto Reiterates 'Full Support' For Nuclear Power," Islamabad Domestic Service, 29 March 1990; Nuclear Developments, 12 April 1990, Pg. 18; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 12 April 1990, www.nti.org.

May 1990
Shunji Kobayashi, the Japanese Ambassador to Pakistan, says that Japan will not help the Pakistani atomic energy program until Pakistan signs the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and accepts full safeguards.
—"Tokyo Terms For Aid To Pakistan," Nuclear Engineering International, September 1990, Pg. 10; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 September 1990, www.nti.org.

May 1990
Monique Landry, the Minister for External Relations and International Development of Canada, says that Canada cannot provide Pakistan with nuclear technology because Pakistan has not signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). However, Canada will continue to provide safety information to Pakistan to operate the Karachi nuclear power plant (KANUPP).
—"Pakistan Refused Canada's Technology," Nuclear Engineering International, August 1990, Pg. 4; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 August 1990, www.nti.org.

June 1990
Munir Ahmad Khan, Chief of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), visits France, and a special envoy of French Prime Minister Michel Rocard, visits Pakistan (also during this month), for talks on commercial and technical matters of an unspecified nature.
—"Pakistan Government Cuts Funding This Year For Chashma Nuclear Plant," Nucleonics Week, 5 July 1990, Pg. 8; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 5 July 1990, www.nti.org.

1 June 1990
The People's Republic of China (PRC) is ready to start construction of the 300 MW pressurized water reactor (PWR) in Pakistan this year. The reactor will be based on the Chinese reactor at Qinshin. The PRC and Pakistan will agree later on what to do with the spent fuel from the 300MW PWR. Also, the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) proposes a 20 year nuclear program with co-manufacturing of nuclear power plants in Pakistan with unspecified foreign companies.
—"Pakistan," Nuclear Engineering International, June 1990, Pp. 25-26; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 June 1990. www.nti.org.

18 June 1990
The People's Republic of China (PRC) refuses to supply Pakistan with "facilities and other assistance" for nuclear testing, although in November 1989 it (PRC) agreed to supply Pakistan with a nuclear reactor.
—"PRC Rejects Pakistan Request For Nuclear Assistance," Defense & Foreign Affairs Weekly, 18-24, June 1990, Pg. 3; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 18 June 1990, www.nti.org.

5 July 1990
Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government allocates $1.8 million for the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant in Pakistan's 1990-91 budget which started on 1 July 1990. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) has sought approximately $48 million.
—"Pakistan Government Cuts Funding This Year For Chashma Nuclear Plant," Nucleonics Week, 5 July 1990, Pg. 8; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 5 July 1990, www.nti.org.

8 July 1990
Pakistan calls for the implementation of a nuclear non-proliferation pact in South Asia. Tanvir Ahmad Khan, Foreign Secretary of Pakistan, says that he is ready to discuss a non-proliferation agreement with Muchkund Dubey, Foreign Secretary of India.
—"Nuclear Non-Proliferation Pact," AFP (Hong Kong), 8 July 1990; Arms Control, 20 July 1990, Pg. 23; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 July 1990, www.nti.org.

27 July 1990
The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) announces that Pakistan has commissioned its second atomic research reactor, which was built with assistance from the People's Republic of China (PRC) and was also designed by the PRC. The research reactor is located at the Center for Nuclear Studies (CNS), which is part of the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology (PINSTECH) near Islamabad, Pakistan. The new reactor is a pool type light water reactor that uses highly enriched uranium fuel.
—"Pakistan's Second Research Reactor In Service," Nuclear Engineering International, October 1990, Pg. 20; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 October 1990, www.nti.org.

August 1990
Munir Ahmad Khan, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), says that French nuclear industry officials have indicated that the proposed 937-MW nuclear power plant at Chashma will cost $1.5 billion. Khan also says that further negotiations between France and Pakistan would be held only after the proposed general elections in Pakistan, which will be held on October 24, 1990.
—"Chashma Would Cost $1.5 Billion; New Elections May Delay Talks," Nucleonics Week, 16 August 1990, Pg. 7; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 16 August 1990, www.nti.org.

6 August 1990
Ghulam Ishaq Khan, President of Pakistan, ousts Benazir Bhutto from her position as prime minister. The nuclear contracts between France and Pakistan will not be affected by this change in the Pakistani government.
—"Bhutto Ouster Will Not Affect French Plans To Sell Reactor," Nuclonics Week, 9 August 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 9 August 1990, www.nti.org.

7 August 1990
Dominique Degot, Deputy General Manager and Vice President-international of Framatome of France, says that the nuclear vendor is preparing a bid to supply a pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant to Pakistan and that bids are expected to be ready by the end of 1990.
—"Bhutto Ouster Will Not Affect French Plans To Sell Reactor," Nuclonics Week, 9 August 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 9 August 1990, www.nti.org.

9 August 1990
The Pakistan Research Reactor-2 (PARR-2) is added to the facilities of the Centre for Nuclear Studies at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). PARR-2 uses highly enriched uranium fuel and joins PARR-1, which was commissioned in 1965 and is currently being renovated and upgraded. Pakistan is aided by the People's Republic of China (PRC) in obtaining PARR-2.
—"With Chinese Aid, Pakistan Has New Research Reactor at PINSTECH," Nucleonics Week, 9 August 1990, Pg. 4; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 9 August 1990, www.nti.org.

12 August 1990
Framatome, the French nuclear contractor, says that the dismissal of Benazir Bhutto will not affect discussions between themselves and Pakistan for the export of a nuclear power plant to Pakistan. Framatome and the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) have a contract for the current feasibility study on the nuclear plant.
—"French Talks Go On Despite Bhutto Dismissal," Nuclear Engineering International, October 1990, Pg. 18; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 October 1990, www.nti.org.

19 August 1990
Chen Zhaobo, Vice-President of China National Nuclear Industry Corporation, leads a visiting delegation from the Chinese nuclear industry to meet with Pakistani President Ishaq Khan, in order to discuss peaceful nuclear energy cooperation.
—"Pakistan President Meets Nuclear Industry Group," Xinhua Domestice Service (Beijing), 20 August 1990; Nuclear Developments, 20 September 1990, Pg. 1; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 September 1990, www.nti.org.

21 August 1990
Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi, Prime Minister of Pakistan, expresses appreciation and support for peaceful nuclear energy cooperation between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Pakistan, while meeting with Chen Zhaobo, Deputy General Manager of the nuclear industry company of the PRC.
—"Pakistan's Premier Praises Nuclear Cooperation," Xinhua (Beijing), 21 August 1990; Nuclear Developments, 20 September 1990, Pg. 1; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 September 1990, www.nti.org.

September 1990
Ghulam Ishaq Khan, President of Pakistan, announces that more progress has been made on the sale prospect of a 300 MW nuclear reactor to Pakistan from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The agreement was reached in principle by both countries in 1989.
—"Further Talks Held On China Reactor Import," Nuclear News, November 1990, Pg. 55; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 November 1990, www.nti.org.

15 September 1990
Pakistan is currently modernizing its safety system at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) in line with the recommendations made by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1989.
—"Atomic Energy Commission To Set Up Plants," The Nation (Lahore), 15 September 1990, Pg. 10; Nuclear Developments, 15 October 1990, Pp. 37-38; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 15 October 1990, www.nti.org.

27 September 1990
France and Pakistan are negotiating a financing formula for the 937 MW nuclear power plant deal which was finalized earlier this year in February. France proposes a financing formula and Pakistan plans to launch negotiations in the coming weeks. Pakistan will conclude whether they can afford to pay for the nuclear power plant, after talks are held on compensation for a reprocessing plant deal that France cancelled in 1978. The projected construction cost of the nuclear power plant is $1.5 billion.
—"Pakistan Economic Woes Complicate Proposed Nuclear Plant Financing," Nucleonics Week, 27 September 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 27 September 1990, www.nti.org.

October 1990
The US Congress cuts off aid to Pakistan, which amounts to $500 million a year; because the Bush administration did not certify that Pakistan was not building a nuclear weapon and that the aid from the US is dissuading Pakistan from building nuclear weapons.
—"Pakistan Chief Asks US Talks On Atom Issue," The New York Times, 30 November 1990, pg. A8; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 30 November 1990, www.nti.org.

1 October 1990
The United States cuts off military and economic aid to Pakistan because it (US) suspects that Pakistan is developing nuclear weapons.
—"Research Reactor Safeguards Pact Stir Compromise Claims In Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 13 December 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 13 December 1990, www.nti.org

6 October 1990
The People's Republic of China (PRC) intends to sell a nuclear-powered attack submarine to Pakistan. Advanced negotiations which began in 1989 are currently ongoing between the two countries. Pakistan's purchase of this submarine seems to be a response to India's acquisition of a Soviet nuclear-powered, Charlie class attack submarine in 1989. The deal is estimated to cost around $63 million and will aid China in the modernization of its own naval program.
—"Nuclear Deal On Han," Far Eastern Economic Review, 6 October 1990, Pp. 20-21; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 6 October 1990, www.nti.org.

13 October 1990
Pakistan denies a Washington Post report that it (Pakistan) clandestinely attempted to import two high temperature furnaces, which could be used to produce nuclear weapons.
—"Foreign Office Denies Report On Nuclear Furnaces," Islamabad Domestic Service, 13 October 1990; Nuclear Developments, 25 October 1990, Pg. 38; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 25 October 1990, www.nti.org.

20 October 1990
Kamal Azfar, special assistant to the prime minister, says that Pakistan will not sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) unless India signs it first.
—"Minister Refutes Bhutto's Allegation," Islamabad Domestic Service, 20 October 1990; Nuclear Developments, 15 November 1990, Pg. 21; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 15 November 1990, www.nti.org.

26 October 1990
Raja Zafarul Haq, the Pakistan delegate to the United Nations (UN), calls on the UN nations to allow states to acquire nuclear technology for peaceful uses. Haq also says that "Pakistan is committed to nuclear non-proliferation and peaceful nuclear energy."
—"UN Delegate Reaffirms Peaceful Use," Islamabad Domestic Service, 26 October 1990; Nuclear Developments, 6 December 1990, Pg. 20; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 6 December 1990, www.nti.org.

29 October 1990
Klaus Frech, Judge of the Hanau District Court in West Germany, sentences three West German citizens, who were convicted of illegally exporting sensitive nuclear items to Pakistan. More specifically, the exported items included: fuel fabrication components and technology, a tritium extraction facility, and an attempt to export large amounts tritium gas.
—"German Court Convicts Three For Nuclear Exports To Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 1 November 1990, Pp. 5-6; in NTI nuclear and Missile Database, 1 November 1990, www.nti.org.

6 November 1990
Nawaz Sharif is sworn in the new prime minister of Pakistan. He replaces Benazir Bhutto, who was dismissed during the summer of 1990 and failed to regain power in the election held on October 24.
—"The New Pakistani Regime Wants More Nuclear Power," Nuclear News, December 1990, Pg. 86; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 December 1990, www.nti.org.

7 November 1990
Newly elected Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif, says that Pakistan needs to construct new nuclear power plants.
—"The New Pakistani Regime Wants More Nuclear Power," Nuclear News, December 1990, Pg. 86; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 December 1990, www.nti.org

7 November 1990
Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif says that the peaceful nuclear programme of Pakistan would be accelerated to accommodate growing energy needs and to make up for rising oil prices.
—"Pakistan To Speed Up Nuclear Programme," Financial Times, 8 November 1990; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 8 November 1990, www.nti.org.

15 November 1990
Dr. A Q Khan, Director of the Kahuta uranium enrichment plant in Pakistan, says that the nuclear program of Pakistan can be continued without aid from the United States. The US suspended aid to Pakistan due to concerns about the Pakistani nuclear program. Nawaz Sharif, the new Prime Minister of Pakistan, says that Pakistan has no nuclear bomb. Sharif also says, "we would be happy to sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) provided India did the same."
—"Pakistan: Nuclear Program Can be Independent, Khan Says," Nucleonics Week, 15 November 1990, Pp. 13-14; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 15 November 1990, www.nti.org.

21 November 1990
US Congressman, Stephen Solarz, chairman of the Asian and Pacific Affairs Subcommittee, urges the US to cut off aid to Pakistan in order to pressure Pakistan into giving new guarantees that it will not build nuclear bombs.
—"No Blinking At Pakistan's Bomb," The Christian Science Monitor, 21 November 1990, Pg. 18; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 21 November 1990, www.nti.org.

24 November 1990
The head of the Kahuta uranium enrichment facility, Dr. A. Q. Khan, says "that Pakistan was not making any atomic weapons."
—"Pakistan Official Says His Nation Isn't Making Nuclear Arms," Japan Times, 26 November 1990; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 26 November 1990, www.nti.org.

26 November 1990
Sartaj Aziz, Finance Minister of Pakistan, says that the Cabinet of Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister of Pakistan, has authorized the opening of negotiations with the US in order to resolve a conflict over nuclear issues.
—"Pakistan, U.S. To Talk About Nuclear Weapons," Japan Times, 28 November 1990; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 28 November 1990, www.nti.org.

29 November 1990
Munir Ahmad Khan, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), says that talks are continuing over the import of a 300 MW nuclear power plant for the People's Republic of China (PRC) and a 900 MW PWR from France. The talks with France have slowed due to a financial crisis in Pakistan.
—"Pakistan Still Plans New Nuclear Capacity But Financing May Fail," Nucleonics Week, 29 November 1990, Pg. 11; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 29 November 1990, www.nti.org.

29 November 1990
Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif says that he is ready to open talks with the United States on the nuclear program in Pakistan.
—"Pakistan Chief Asks US Talks On Atom Issue," The New York Times, 30 November 1990, pg. A8; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 30 November 1990, www.nti.org.

December 1990
The People's Republic of China's (PRC) Institute of Atomic Energy states that it assisted in the design and construction of a 27 kW research reactor (PARR-2) at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). The reactor went critical back on November 2, 1989.
—"China and Pakistan Collaborate On PARR-2," Nuclear Engineering International, December 1990, Pp. 46-47; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 December 1990, www.nti.org.

December 1990
Henry Rowan, Assistant US Secretary of Defense, discusses with India and Pakistan a regional approach towards nuclear nonproliferation.
—"Indian And Pakistani Officials Renew Nonproliferation Talks," Nucleonics Week, 20 December 1990, Pp. 13-14; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 December 1990, www.nti.org.

December 1990
US Deputy Assistant Secretary of State, Teresita Schaffer, tells Pakistani Foreign Minister, Shahabzada Yaqub Khan, that the US Congress wants Pakistan to halt its uranium enrichment program.
—"Research Reactor Safeguards Pact Stir Compromise Claims In Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 13 December 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 13 December 1990, www.nti.org.

3 December 1990
The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sign a safeguards agreement on a 27 KW miniature neutron source research reactor (MNSR). The research reactor was supplied to Pakistan by China and was opened earlier this year. MNSR uses 915 grams of high-enriched uranium fuel.
—"Research Reactor Safeguards Pact Stir Compromise Claims In Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 13 December 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 13 December 1990, www.nti.org.

7 December 1990
A spokesman for the Pakistani Foreign Office says that the decision to place the 27KW miniature neutron source research reactor (MNSR) under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards "was neither influenced by nor has it any bearing on Pakistan's relationship with the United States."
—"Research Reactor Safeguards Pact Stir Compromise Claims In Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 13 December 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 13 December 1990, www.nti.org.

9 December 1990
Normaly Bin Muslim, Deputy Director General for technical assistance at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), begins a four day inspection of several nuclear projects in Pakistan. During Bin Muslim's visit to Pakistan, Ghulam Ishaq Khan, President of Pakistan, stresses the peaceful nature of the Pakistani nuclear program. He says that developed countries should fulfill their contracts, such as improving safety standards at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP). Bin Muslim tells Munir Ahmad Khan, Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), that the IAEA would increase cooperation with Pakistan. The IAEA has been providing Pakistan with technical support in areas such as reactor safety, uranium exploration, and studies on research reactors. Pakistan will also receive training fellowships from the IAEA. Bin Muslim believes that Pakistan is in a position to offer technical assistance to other developing countries.
—"Research Reactor Safeguards Pact Stir Compromise Claims In Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 13 December 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 13 December 1990, www.nti.org

13 December 1990
France offers to export a second 900 MW nuclear reactor to Pakistan. This is in addition to the first offer made earlier in the year of a similar 900 MW nuclear reactor. Moreover, France is offering this second reactor at 30% less cost with attractive financing terms in order to compensate for the cancellation of a deal that would export a reprocessing plant to Pakistan (a decade ago).
—"France Said To Offer Pakistan Second Reactor To Settle Claims," Nucleonics Week, 13 December 1990, Pg. 4; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 13 December 1990, www.nti.org.

17 December 1990
Muchkund Dubey, Foreign Secretary of India, arrives in Pakistan for two days of bilateral talks on nonproliferation in South Asia. Dubey will discuss a Pakistani proposal for nonproliferation in the region, which was last discussed in July 1989 by the foreign secretaries of India and Pakistan. Furthermore, Shahryar M. Khan, Foreign Secretary of Pakistan, says that the two sides will discuss an agreement, signed by their prime ministers in early 1989, which prohibits attacks on each other's nuclear installations.
—"Indian And Pakistani Officials Renew Nonproliferation Talks," Nucleonics Week, 20 December 1990, Pp. 13-14; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 December 1990, www.nti.org.

20 December 1990
Normaly Bin Muslim, Deputy Director of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), says that the IAEA will help the Pakistan Atomic Energy Agency (PAEC) with the site selection for the two nuclear power plants which Pakistan is purchasing from France and China. The IAEA will also provide technical assistance for safety enhancements at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) and will grant $1 million to cover the expenses.
—"Pakistan: IAEA Aid In Siting Reactors Pledged," Nucleonics Week, 20 December 1990, Pg. 15; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 December 1990, www.nti.org.

bulletBack to top

bullet About This Section

CNS This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and has not been independently verified by NTI or its directors, officers, employees, agents. Copyright © 2010 by MIIS.

Get the factsGet informedGet involved