Malakula

Languages of Malakula


A map of the languages of Malekula by population
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Note that the spelling of language names in this map may not be the same as in the body of the text.

Atchin

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Northeast Malekula
Nale
Reading:
Capell, A.
1935. Grammatical categories in the New Hebrides (A preliminary study of linguistic psychology in Malekula). BSOAS 8,1:189-202 * A discussion of some grammatical categories in Atchin, showing that conceptions of "time" and "object" are quite different in that language than in European languages.
Capell, A. & J. Layard
1980. Materials in Atchin, Malekula: grammar, vocabulary and texts. Canberra: PL, D20. v + 260pp * A sketch grammar, and some lexical and textual data in Atchin; some linguists have commented on the difficulty of using this work for comparative purposes.

Aulua

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Group 14 (Aulua, Burmbar)
Benelang, Boinelang
Reading:
Ray, Sidney H.
1893. Sketch of Aulua grammar with vocabularies of Aulua and Lamangkau, Malekula, New Hebrides. Journal of the Anthropological Institute 22:386-397.
Ray, Sidney H.
1926. A comparative study of the Melanesian island languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; pp.273-283.

Axamb

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Southeast Malekula
Ahamb, Limilandr

Big Nambas

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Group 10 (Big Nambas, Maragus)
Reading:
Corlette, E.A.C.
1947. Langue des Big-Nambas: le Mallicolo (Nouvelles-Hébrides). Journal de la Société des Océanistes 3,3:57-92.
Fox, G.J.
1979. Big Nambas grammar. Canberra: PL, B-60 * A quite detailed outline of the phonology, morphology and syntax of this interesting language, with a number of texts. xii + 139pp.
Fox, Helen
F/c. An honorific sub-dialect used among Big Nambas women. In John Lynch & Fa'afo Pat (eds.), Oceanic studies: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Oceanic Linguistics. Canberra: PL * Looks at lexical avoidance by women when addressing members of their husbands' family.

Burmbar

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Group 14 (Aulua, Burmbar)
Banan Bay, Vartabo

Dixon Reef

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Small Nambas

Katbol

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Group 12 (Lingarak, Katbol)
Bangasa, Grass Skirt, Nevaar, Nevat, Timbembe

Labo

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Southwest Malekula
Meaun, Mewun, Ninde
Reading:
Ray, Sidney H.
1926. A comparative study of the Melanesian island languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; pp.293-302.

Larevat

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Group 11 (Larevat, Vinmavis, Litzlitz)Other names: Laravat

Letemboi

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Small Nambas
South Small Nambas

Lingarak

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Group 12 (Lingarak, Katbol)
Bushman's Bay, Mindu, Wuli

Litzlitz

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Group 11 (Larevat, Vinmavis, Litzlitz)
Other names: Lagalag, Lolnarrong, Netensal, Port Stanley

Malfaxal

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Southwest Malekula
Milip, Nakahai, Orierh, Toman

Malua Bay

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Group 9 (Malua Bay Mae)
Espiegle Bay, Middle Nambas

Maragus

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Group 10 (Big Nambas, Maragus)
Other names: Maragaus, Tobah

Maskelynes

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Southeast Malekula
Kuliviu
Reading:
Ray, Sidney H.
1926. A comparative study of the Melanesian island languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; pp.266-273.

Mpotovoro

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Northeast Malekula

Nasarian

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: ?Small Nambas

Port Sandwich

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Southeast Malekula
Other names: Lamap
Reading:
Charpentier, Jean-Michel
1979. La langue de Port-Sandwich (Nouvelles-Hébrides). Paris: SELAF [Langues et Civilisations à Tradition Orale 34] * A detailed phonological, morphological and syntactic description.
Charpentier, Jean-Michel
1991. Port Sandwich. In Darrell T. Tryon (ed.), Comparative Austronesian dictionary: An introduction to Austronesian studies. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter; pp.827-834.

Repanbitip

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Small Nambas
Repanbitipmbangir

Rerep

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language:
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Group 13 (Rerep, Unua)
Other names: Pangkumu, Tisman
Reading:
Morton, A.
1891. [Grammar of Pangkumu-Malekula]. In D. MacDonald (ed.), South Sea languages: A series of studies on the languages of the New Hebrides and other South Sea islands, vol. 2: Tangoan-Santo, Malo, Malekula, Epi (Baki and Bierian), Tanna, and Futuna. Melbourne: Trustees of the Public Library, Museums, and National Gallery of Victoria; pp.34-72.

South-West Bay

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Southwest Malekula
Other names: Lamangkau, Nahapa, Seniang, Sinesip
Reading:
Ray, Sidney H.
1893. Sketch of Aulua grammar with vocabularies of Aulua and Lamangkau, Malekula, New Hebrides. Journal of the Anthropological Institute 22:386-397.
Ray, Sidney H.
1926. A comparative study of the Melanesian island languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; pp.302-311.

Unua

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Group 13 (Rerep, Unua)
Onua

Uripiv-Wala-Rano

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Northeast Malekula
Reading:
McKerras, Ross
1988. Singular, dual or plural. Notes on Translation 2,1:53-56 * Discusses number in Uripiv.
McKerras, Ross
F/c. Borrowings in Uripiv. In John Lynch & Fa'afo Pat (eds.), Oceanic studies: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Oceanic Linguistics. Canberra, PL * Discusses the nature of borrowings in Uripiv, looking at grammatical changes taking place in the language as a result of these borrowings, as well as some "unnecessary" borrowings.
Ray, Sidney H.
1926. A comparative study of the Melanesian island languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; pp.284-293.

Vao

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Northeast Malekula
Fooa

Vinmavis

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Group 11 (Larevat, Vinmavis, Litzlitz)
Other names: Banggor, Lambumbu, Telag, Winiv

Vovo

Island name: Malakula
Proto-language: PCV
Ross Clark (1985) local group / Tryon (1976) sub-group: Northeast Malekula
Other names: Wowo