biographies of the fifteen members elected in 1941 are arranged
in the order they were announced by the selection committee.
Rowland Hill, K.C.B.
3, 1795 August 27, 1879) England
is the acknowledged Father of the Postage Stamp. He published his
pamphlet, Post Office Reform; its Importance and Practicability
(1837), suggesting the establishment of a uniform postal rate
for all of Great Britain, and the development of a means of prepayment
of the postage.
The uniform postal
rate was established on January 10, 1840. At that time, the British
Treasury held a competition to determine the means of postal prepayment.
The winning design was a small adhesive paper which could be attached
to the letter before mailing.
By May 1, 1840,
the penny black and two-penny blue stamps were available at many
British post offices but were not a legal means of postage prepayment
until May 6, 1840.
Hill's ideas were
shown to be right. The public immediately accepted postage stamps,
and postal revenues soared. Soon the rest of the world followed
suit and postage stamps were accepted everywhere.
16, 1860 August 23, 1938) New York City
was one of the greatest philatelists of all time. From the 1890s
until his death, he was considered the most outstanding philatelic
expert in the United States. He was among the first philatelists
to use scientific methods in his research, building a large reference
collection of genuine stamps and their forgeries to assist him.
Luff became seriously
interested in philately in 1890, the year he joined the Pacific
Society in San Francisco, whose membership comprised some of the
leading collectors in the United States. In 1893 he moved to
York City to become a stamp dealer, and in 1894 he joined Scott
Stamp & Coin Co., one of the world's largest stamp businesses.
He headed the approval
department, edited the American Journal of Philately (2nd series),
co-edited the Scott Standard Postage Stamp Catalogue, and
wrote the Scott stamp auction catalogs. In the process he established
himself as a leading expertiser of the stamps of a large number
of countries. In 1903 he became president of Scott, but left in
1905 to join Stanley Gibbons, Inc. He soon returned to Scott, remaining
with the firm for the rest of his life.
From the 1890s
until the 1930s, Luff was one of the country's leading philatelic
writers. Most of his papers appeared in the The American Journal
of Philately (2nd series) and Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News.
In 1899 he wrote a popular book about stamp collecting, What
Philately Teaches. It was revised and reprinted in 1911 and
1915. He also wrote A Reference List of the Stamps of Panama
(1905). Luff compiled a special issue of Mekeel's Weekly Stamp
News (Vol. 16, No. 4, 25 Jan. 1902) on the stamps of Hawaii.
Some of those articles were reprinted as Mekeel's Handbook No. 10,
Postage Stamps of the Hawaiian Islands (1916).
Luff's greatest work
was his The Postage Stamps of the United States (1902), which
still remains a major reference work for students of U.S. stamps.
It was reprinted in 1937, with the section on U.S. Postmaster Provisionals
revised and expanded by Hugh
M. Clark. It was reprinted serially in Weekly Philatelic Gossip
from November 8, 1941 and May 8, 1943. This version was reprinted
in book form in 1981 by Quarterman Publications.
Luff built an important
U.S. collection, which won a gold medal at the international philatelic
exhibition in Paris in 1900. His other collections included Great
Britain and colonies (especially in the Pacific area), Hawaii, Japan,
China, Shanghai and the other Treaty Ports. In addition to building
these collections, he formed an enormous and celebrated reference
collection which he used to support his expertizing work while at
Scott Stamp & Coin Co. When Luff left Scott in 1905, he sold
it to them. In 1946, when Hugh Clark sold Scott Publications, he
gave the reference collection to the Philatelic Foundation where
most of it still resides.
Luff was president
of the Philatelic Society, New York, a rival to the older National
Philatelical Society. The two clubs decided to establish a facility
at which both clubs
libraries, and meeting rooms. Luff joined others in establishing
the Collectors Club in 1896 to fulfill these purposes. By the
20th Century, both the NPS and PSNY had dissolved, ceding their
property and libraries to the CCNY.
Luff was its president
in 1906-1907 and again in 1922-1925, and was a long-time governor.
At his death, he was its Honorary Life Governor. Luff was a judge
at the international philatelic exhibitions in London (1923) and
New York (1926). He was among the organizers and directors of the
1913, 1926 and 1936 (TIPEX) international exhibitions in New York
A long-time member
of the APS, Luff was its official expert for many years and its
president from 1907-1909. In his honor, the APS named its most prestigious
award the Luff Award. He was one of the original group of philatelists
who signed the Roll of Distinguished Philatelists in 1921.
2, 1845 January 4, 1919) New York City
was called The Father of American Philately in his lifetime.
His first interest in stamp dealing began around 1860 in his native
London. It continued in 1863 when he came to New York City. In 1865
he went to California seeking gold but had no success. He returned
to New York City in 1867 and resumed his stamp business.
During the next
two decades he became America's leading stamp dealer. In 1868, he
began publishing the American Journal of Philately, the
first important stamp journal in the U.S. That same year he helped
support the first U.S. stamp club, the New York Philatelic Society
(the second in the world).
From June 1867
to August 1868, Scott issued fifteen monthly one-page price lists.
In September 1868, he issued his first catalog: A Descriptive
Catalogue of America and Foreign Postage Stamps, Issued from 1840
to Date. This was the first "Scott Catalog", although
Scott counted his first fifteen one-page lists and called the September
1868 issue as his "Sixteenth Edition". Scott's Catalog
soon became the most important catalog in the United States.
On May 28, 1870,
in New York City, Scott organized the first stamp auction ever held.
Two years later he opened a branch in London and organized his fifth
auction there. The sale, held March 18, 1872, was the first stamp
auction held in Europe. In 1882, for his 42nd sale, he sold (for
ten cents) a photographic plate of some of the most valuable stamps
in the sale. It was the first time an auction catalog contained
In December 1885
Scott sold his name, his catalog and his stock to the Calman brothers,
who renamed it the Scott Stamp and Coin Company. Scott remained
a minority partner in the business, and continued to edit the catalogs
and new journal, The American Journal of Philately (Second Series)
until 1889. At that time he sold his interest to the brothers and
re-entered the stamp business as J.W. Scott and Co., Ltd.
The Calman brothers
sued Scott for using the name Scott, and after a celebrated
legal battle, the New York Superior Court ruled that he had a legal
right to use his own name in his business. Scott quickly rebuilt
his reputation as a leading stamp dealer and auctioneer. He published
and edited the important journal, The Metropolitan Philatelist,
from 1890 to 1915.
On September 25,
1895, Scott issued his first J.W. Scott & Co., Ltd. Weekly
News Letter, a folio-sized single-sheet described as "a
private and confidential communication to the 100 leading amateurs
of America." This first philatelic "insider newsletter"
continued until May 1, 1897.
Scott also issued
during 1897 a more widely distributed weekly, John W. Scott's
Junior Weekly Letter, later called John W. Scott's Weekly
Scott was an organizer
of the first important philatelic exhibition in the U.S. This took
place in 1889 at the Eden Musée in New York City; Scott wrote
the catalog and was the major exhibitor. He was an active supporter
of stamp clubs in Brooklyn, Manhattan and Staten Island. Scott permanently
retired as a stamp dealer in 1917, after seeing his business become
the most successful in the U.S. He held 120 stamp auctions, including
the first one held anywhere, the first auction catalog with illustrations,
and the first auction to sell a stamp at above $1000.
He was a founding
member of the Collectors Club of New York (1896), serving in many
positions, including president in 1910. He catalogued its philatelic
library (Catalogue of the Philatelic Library of the Collectors
Club (1917)). He was also a member of the American Philatelic
Association (now the APS), holding many positions, including Trustee.
He was the APS President (1917-1919) when he died.
In an 1890 poll
by The Philatelist (NY) (Vol. 2, No. 4, June 16, 1890),
Scott was named The most prominent philatelist, winning
over John K. Tiffany in a glorious
victory for the Great and only Scott.
30, 1855 April 11, 1891) England
was one of the first great collectors, beginning as a schoolboy
in 1865 and continuing with increasing enthusiasm until his death
at age 36 from pleurisy. During the 1870s and 80s he purchased many
major collections formed by pioneer philatelists. By 1887, Tapling's
collection was unsurpassed except by the legendary Ferrary collection.
In 1871, Tapling
joined the Philatelic Society, London (organized in 1869 and today
the Royal Philatelic Society London), serving as vice-president
from 1871 to 1881. He presented papers and wrote articles on his
his collection to the British Museum. Today The Tapling Collection
resides in the Philatelic Section of the British Library. He was
named a "Father of Philately" on the Roll of Distinguished
9, 1842 March 3, 1897) St. Louis, Missouri
was America's most prominent philatelist of the 19th century. He
began collecting as a student in France in the late 1850s, continuing
for the rest of his life. In the 1860s he decided to begin collecting
every printed matter connected to the hobby of philately,
and by the 1870s he had built an incomparable philatelic library.
In 1874 Tiffany
published The Philatelical Library: A Catalogue of Stamp Publications,
a listing of the known philatelic works, nearly all of which were
in his library. He wrote other articles on, and catalogs of, his
philatelic library during the next two decades. In 1889 he wrote
Part 1 of The Stamp Collector's Library Companion, and
in 1890, an Addenda.
At his death, Tiffany's
library was the largest and most complete ever formed. James
L. Lindsay, the Earl of Crawford, acquired it intact. On his
death, Lindsay's library went to the British Museum (now located
in the Philatelic Section of the British Library).
When the American
Philatelic Association (now the APS) was organized in 1886, Tiffany
was elected president and re-elected for the next ten years until
he decided not to run again. He was an ardent collector, building
important collections of U.S., British North America and Afghanistan,
among others. In 1894 he wrote a seminal monograph, A St.
Louis Symposium, setting out the correct plating of the St.
Louis Postmaster Provisionals (the Bears) based on the
limited material available. His analysis was verified by subsequent
finds of the Bear stamps.
Tiffany wrote the
first comprehensive book on the stamps of the United States. It
was first published in French by the Belgian dealer, J.-B. Moens:
Les Timbres des Etats-Unis d'Amerique (in three parts,
1883). He subsequently revised and expanded it, and it was published
in 1887 as History of the Postage Stamps of the United States
In an 1890 poll
taken by The Philatelist (NY) (Vol. 2, No. 4, June 16,
1890), Tiffany was named the second most prominent philatelist
- second only to the Great and only Scott (J.W.
Scott). In 1921, when the Roll of Distinguished Philatelists
was begun, Tiffany was named as one of the Fathers of Philately.
26th Earl of Crawford, K.T.
28, 1847 January 31, 1913) England, Scotland
is one of the world's most celebrated philatelists. He is usually
known by his title, the Earl of Crawford, or Lord Crawford. Although
he did not begin stamp collecting until his early 50s, in a short
time he had built many outstanding collections, and amassed the
greatest philatelic library of his time.
Among Lord Crawford's
stamp collections, the most notable were his Great Britain and United
States collections. His Great Britain contained not only the issued
stamps, but also important collateral material about their design
and printing. His United States collection contained an unmatched
holding of proofs, essays, engravers' designs and other material
that had come from the archives of the private security printers
and the U.S. Government. Included was the unique set of full sheets
of plate proofs of U.S. postage stamps issued from 1857 to 1893.
and display of his stamp collections broke new ground. He included
collateral material which he integrated into his exhibits, described
in detail in his own hand. Crawford's contemporaries acknowledged
that he had set the trend for future philatelic exhibitions.
The Earl joined
the Philatelic Society, London (now the Royal Philatelic Society
London) in 1900, was vice-president (1902-1910) and president (1910-1913).
He was a founder in 1907 of the Philatelic Literature Society whose
membership comprised the most advanced philatelic bibliophiles in
Even before he
began collecting stamps, Crawford was already a noted collector
and bibliophile. The family library, Bibliotheca Lindesiana,
was started by his father and covered many areas of science, music
and literature. It was world famous because of the many detailed
bibliographies of its contents. It was natural that philatelic literature
would be added to Bibliotheca Lindesiana.
after he became a stamp collector in 1898, Lord Crawford set about
forming an important philatelic library. To that end he acquired
several large philatelic libraries, including the world famous one
formed by John K. Tiffany. By 1909 Crawford's
library was the greatest in existence. He commissioned Edward
D. Bacon to catalog its contents. The resulting book is even
today the seminal bibliography of the literature of the first half-century
of philately (1861-1910).
was initially published as Bibliotheca Lindesiana, Vol VII:
A Bibliography of the Writings General, Special and Periodical Forming
the Literature of Philately (1911). There were 200 copies distributed
to the world's leading libraries and bibliophiles. Crawford gave
the printing rights to the Philatelic Literature Society, and Bacon's
book was republished with the title, The Catalogue of the Philatelic
Library of the Earl of Crawford, K.T. (1911). Three hundred
copies were printed, 100 for the members of the PLS, and 200 for
his philatelic library to the British Museum; it now resides in
the Philatelic Section of the British Library. In 1991, the British
Library reprinted the original 1911 book, the 1926 Supplement and
the 1938 Addenda under the title, Catalogue of the Crawford
Library of Philatelic Literature at the British Library. For
this reprint, the Library used Bacon's personal copy, which contained
his manuscript additions and corrections, and the Shelfmarks used
by the British Library cataloguers.
In Lord Crawford's
honor, the Royal Philatelic Society London established the Crawford
Medal in 1914. It is awarded annually for the most valuable
and original contribution to the study and knowledge of philately
published in book form during the two years preceding the award.
In 1921, when the Roll of Distinguished Philatelists was begun,
his name was included as one of the Fathers of Philately."
(May 28, 1857
October 20, 1934) Chicago, Philadelphia
was an active philatelist, dealer and auctioneer from 1872 until
his death. He began his philatelic career in Philadelphia, but moved
to Chicago in the mid-1880s. He held his first auction on January
30, 1897. He held 133 more auctions in Chicago before moving back
to Philadelphia in 1914 to manage the Philadelphia Stamp Co. He
shortly became its owner, changing its name to P.M. Wolsieffer in
1923. He continued to hold stamp auctions until 1933, for a total
of 341 sales.
was founding member No. 2 of the Chicago Philatelic Society, formed
in 1886. He was its first vice-president, and later president.
served CPS in many categories for thirty years. It later honored
him as Life Member No. 1.
a stock page and advertised himself as "the inventor of the
approval card." He was a charter member of the American Philatelic
Association (now the APS), and served it in many positions, including
president in 192425.
(July 5, 1872
December 14, 1929) Chicago
was a highly successful and widely acclaimed stamp editor. Most
of his philatelic career took place with Mekeel's Weekly Stamp
News, first published by Charles
H. Mekeel in 1891. Severn began his connection with the paper
in 1894 as its Chicago correspondent. At that time the paper was
owned and operated by Charles Mekeel's brother, I.A. Mekeel. In
1898, I.A. invited Severn to become the editor and made him a part-owner.
Severn remained the editor of Mekeel's for the rest of his
life. The corporation bought Redfield's Weekly, one of
its rivals, to obtain its superior printing facilities for Mekeel's.
In 1898, the Boston
correspondent for Mekeel's, Willard
O. Wylie, was invited to join the corporation, sharing the editing
chores. From then on, the professional lives of Severn and Wylie
were intertwined. Shortly thereafter Mekeel's bought another
competitor, the widely read Weekly Philatelic Era, run
by W.W. Jewett. Wylie was made the editor of the Era and
it continued successfully. When I.A. Mekeel died in 1913, the paper
was offered for sale, and in 1915, the Severn-Wylie-Jewett Corporation
bought it. Severn, president of the corporation, continued as editor,
columnist and feature writer. During his long tenure, Mekeel's
was the weekly philatelic journal of record. Under Severn's leadership,
a series of important philatelic monographs of various subjects
Severn had been
a member of the Chicago Philatelic Society since 1887, and held
many posts. He was named an honorary Life Director in 1912. After
his death, his wife, Eveleen
Severn, who had long been his collaborator, succeeded him as
president of Severn-Wylie-Jewett Co. Charles Severn was one of the
original group of philatelists who signed the Roll of Distinguished
Philatelists in 1921.
1882 January 12, 1940) England
was one of the most prolific philatelic writers and editors of all
time. He wrote his first monograph in 1897 and began his editing
in 1899, continuing for the rest of his life.
books on every topic and country. His The ABC of Stamp Collecting,
the first of his many how to collect books, appeared
in 1903 with English and American editions. It was re-written in
1922 and had a Spanish edition in 1926. The Postage Stamps of
Great Britain, published in 1904, was the first of his country
books. He published seven others on British stamps between
1904 and 1930. One of his favorite countries was the United States.
His The Postage Stamps of the United States of America, published
in 1905, was the first of seven on U.S. stamps published between
then and 1925.
well over 100 books (see A Melville Bibliography,
L.N. and M Williams (1941)) and he is listed over 100 times in the
catalogs of the major U.S. philatelic libraries -- the American
Philatelic Research Library, the Collectors Club library and the
Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Melville's last book, Modern
Stamp Collecting, was released on May 6, 1940 the centenary
of the first postage stamp.
In 1899, young
Melville applied for membership in the Philatelic Society, London
(now the Royal Philatelic Society London) but he was rejected because
it was open only to all persons not under 18 years of age.
He decided to found a new society open to young collectors and he
began the Junior Philatelic Society on November 11, 1899. Its goal
was to take first rank among societies for juniors as the
premier society [the Philatelic Society, London] has already done
amongst those advanced collectors. He served as its president
until his death. (The Junior Philatelic Society was renamed the
National Philatelic Society in 1965 and celebrated its centenary
his editing career in 1899. His first important editorship was of
The Stamp Lover, which he founded in 1908 as the official
journal of the Junior Philatelic Society. Except for a few issues
in 1915, he remained its editor until his death. Melville also edited
other major philatelic journals. These included Postage Stamp
(1909-1925), Stamp Collector's Fortnightly (1926-1939) and
British Philatelist (1932-1939).
Under the auspices
of the Junior Philatelic Society, Melville organized the Imperial
Stamp Exhibition in 1908, the War Stamps Exhibition in 1915 and
the first international airpost exhibition, APEX, in 1934. He helped
organize and edited the catalogs for the international philatelic
exhibitions held in London in 1912 and 1923. In the 1912 Jubilee
exhibition, he introduced a design for the Ideal Stamp.
Melville was a
founder of the Philatelic Literature Society (1907-1918) whose members
were the leading philatelic bibliophiles in the world. He built
an outstanding philatelic library; it was the best in Great Britain
at his death. In 1940, the U.S Library of Congress purchased Melville's
philatelic library, which included his working notes and files.
It was not delivered until 1947. Most of his library is now part
of the large philatelic collection in the Library of Congress, but
a large quantity of duplicates and miscellany was transferred to
the Smithsonian Institution Libraries. That part now resides at
the National Postal Museum branch.
Melville was one
of the original group of philatelists who signed the Roll of Distinguished
Philatelists in 1921.
7, 1857 June 14, 1937) New Jersey
was one of the country's most distinguished philatelists. He built
outstanding specialized collections based on detailed research on
stamp issues and their printing. Most notable was his collection
of Victoria, which led to his highly acclaimed book Victoria:
the Half-length Portraits and the Twopence Queen Enthroned
For this book he
received the 1923 Crawford Medal from the Royal Philatelic Society
London, and the 1926 Lindenberg Medal from the Berliner Philatelisten-Klub.
In both instances, he was the first American to receive these awards.
He also received the first Award of Merit given by the Collectors
Club of New York.
Pack had many other
world-famous collections, most notably New South Wales, New Zealand,
Canada, Cape of Good Hope, Spain, Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil.
The last was especially notable for his plating studies of the early
issues. Pack received many honors from philatelic societies throughout
the world, and was one of the original group of philatelists who
signed the Roll of Distinguished Philatelists in 1921.
(May 15, 1863
June 2, 1940) London, New York City
began his distinguished philatelic career in London as head of the
most famous stamp firm of its time, and ended it in New York as
a specialist dealer and chronicler of philatelic history. He purchased
the world-famous Stanley Gibbons & Co. in 1890 and remained
its head until 1922 when he sold it and moved to the United States.
While at Gibbons,
he saw to the building and selling of all the great collections
of that time. He wrote Fifty Years of Philately: The History
of Stanley Gibbons (1906). He edited and wrote in Gibbon's house
journals, The Monthly Journal, and The Stamp Advertiser
and Auction Record. Phillips also wrote articles in Gibbons
Stamp Weekly, especially on collections and rarities he had
sold or helped build.
In 1922 Phillips
emigrated to the United States, settling in New York City, where
he became a well-known rarities stamp dealer. He wrote extensively
in Stamps and in his own journal, Philatelic Classics,
about his friendships and relationships with the great collectors.
His books include The Duveen Collection of Rare Old Postage
Stamps: a Brief Description of Some of the Rarities of this Famous
Collection (1922), and Denmark 1851-1899: Detailed,
Descriptive, Priced Catalogue of the Early Issues, Together with
Lists and Prices of the Numeral Cancellations (1925).
He also wrote a popular book, Stamp Collecting: The King of Hobbies
and the Hobby of Kings (1936).
Phillips was retained
by the estate of Arthur Hind to advise it on the sale of Hind's
world famous collection of rarities and classic stamps. It was
in 1933, in the midst of the Great Depression. Phillips and
philatelic secretary, William C. Kennett Jr., arranged and sold
at auction Hind's U.S. and Confederate States stamps, obtaining
prices that were higher than most observers believed possible under
He was one of the
original group of philatelists who signed the Roll of Distinguished
Philatelists in 1921. In 1939, the Collectors Club of New York presented
him its Award of Merit for his long service to it and to all philately,
naming him both an International Stamp Dealer and A
World Famous Philatelist.
1879 April 5, 1940) New York City
was a prominent student of U.S. and Confederate philately and postal
history. He built an outstanding collection of covers, most notable
of which was his unsurpassed collection of hotel covers. These won
many awards including at the International Philatelic Exhibitions
of 1926 and 1936. During the 1930s, he wrote a column in Stamps
on hotel covers, and published a monograph, Pony Express,
Knapp was a specialist
collector of Confederate stamps, and worked with Stanley
B. Ashbrook on various plating studies, notably the 5¢
New Orleans Confederate Provisional and the 10¢ Frameline.
of Confederate States was sold privately. The rest of his collection
was turned over to Philatelic Research Laboratories, Inc. (Y. Souren)
and sold in three famous auctions at the Parke-Bernet Galleries
in 1941-1942. Before the sales the entire collection was photographed.
A set of the photos, illustrating 7822 subjects in 186 volumes arranged
by Y. Souren and H.W. Carhart, resides in the Collectors Club of
New York library.
Laboratories, Inc. also offered smaller packages of photos for sale.
For example, they prepared a ten-volume set of photos showing all
the major pieces, and many album pages not illustrated in the three
auction catalogs. A set was given to the Smithsonian Institution and
is now at the National Postal Museum. The book, Philatelic Iconography:
Being Illustrations of Rare and Unusual Stamps, Covers, and Cancellations
Included in the Edward S. Knapp Collections (1941) contains the
illustration plates from the three auction catalogs, but not the text.
1876 March 4, 1935) New York City
King was a noted
expert and collector of 20th century U.S. stamps and revenues. He
and Max Johl co-authored,
The United States Postage Stamps of the Twentieth Century (Vol.
1, 1932; Vol. 2, 1934). This important work had run serially in
the Collectors Club Philatelist. King later returned to this
subject, writing a few articles, but died in an auto accident before
he could continue.
was active in the Collectors Club of New York, serving on their
Board of Governors, and as president in 1933. He was also active
in the APS, serving as editor for the Revenue Unit of the society.
23, 1940) Washington, D.C.
was an important collector and student of the Bureau Issues of the
United States. He was a founder and first president of the Philatelic
Plate Number Association (1926-1928). He was also the first president
and chairman of the board (1930-1940) of its successor, the Bureau
Issues Association (now the United States Stamp Society).
was among the first researchers to make extensive use of the archival
material held by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. He was prominent
in the philatelic activities of the Washington, DC area and in the
1883 December 10, 1939) New York City
was known as the Dean of American Philatelic Writers.
He was stamp and coin editor of the New York Herald Tribune
from 1933 until his death. In this influential position he promoted
the pleasures and techniques of stamp collecting to both the non-philatelic
and philatelic public.
Barry wrote special
editions for the many important stamp shows held in New York City
in the 1930s. He also gave numerous radio talks promoting stamp
collecting and the philatelic events of the period. Barry wrote
A Glossary for the Stamp Collector (1936), which was revised
and reprinted in 1938 and in 1940.
In his honor, the
Ralph A. Barry Award was established in 1942 and given to the editor
of the best newspaper stamp column.
biographies were prepared by the APS Hall of Fame Committee. For
comments or suggestions, please contact Herbert A. Trenchard, Chairman,
APS Hall of Fame Committee, 6909 40th Ave., Hyattsville, MD 20782-1420,
or E-mail NPMLIB@yahoo.com.