English Year Level Description

The English curriculum is built around the three interrelated strands of Language, Literature and Literacy. Teaching and learning programs should balance and integrate all three strands. Together the three strands focus on developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills in listening, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating. Learning in English builds on concepts, skills and...

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English Content Descriptions


Language variation and change
  1. Understand that English is one of many languages spoken in Australia and that different languages may be spoken by family, classmates and community (ACELA1426)
Language for interaction
  1. Explore how language is used differently at home and school depending on the relationships between people (ACELA1428)
  2. Understand that language can be used to explore ways of expressing needs, likes and dislikes (ACELA1429)
Text structure and organisation
  1. Understand that texts can take many forms, can be very short (for example an exit sign) or quite long (for example an information book or a film) and that stories and informative texts have different purposes (ACELA1430)
  2. Understand that some language in written texts is unlike everyday spoken language (ACELA1431)
  3. Understand that punctuation is a feature of written text different from letters; recognise how capital letters are used for names, and that capital letters and full stops signal the beginning and end of sentences (ACELA1432)
  4. Understand concepts about print and screen, including how books, film and simple digital texts work, and know some features of print, for example directionality (ACELA1433)
Expressing and developing ideas
  1. Recognise that sentences are key units for expressing ideas (ACELA1435)
  2. Recognise that texts are made up of words and groups of words that make meaning (ACELA1434)
  3. Explore the different contribution of words and images to meaning in stories and informative texts (ACELA1786)
  4. Understand the use of vocabulary in familiar contexts related to everyday experiences, personal interests and topics taught at school (ACELA1437)
  5. Know that spoken sounds and words can be written down using letters of the alphabet and how to write some high-frequency sight words and known words (ACELA1758)
  6. Know how to use onset and rime to spell words (ACELA1438)
Sound and letter knowledge
  1. Recognise rhymes, syllables and sounds (phonemes) in spoken words (ACELA1439)
  2. Recognise the letters of the alphabet and know there are lower and upper case letters (ACELA1440)


Literature and context
  1. Recognise that texts are created by authors who tell stories and share experiences that may be similar or different to students’ own experiences (ACELT1575)
Responding to literature
  1. Respond to texts, identifying favourite stories, authors and illustrators (ACELT1577)
  2. Share feelings and thoughts about the events and characters in texts (ACELT1783)
Examining literature
  1. Identify some features of texts including events and characters and retell events from a text (ACELT1578)
  2. Recognise some different types of literary texts and identify some characteristic features of literary texts, for example beginnings and endings of traditional texts and rhyme in poetry (ACELT1785)
  3. Replicate the rhythms and sound patterns in stories, rhymes, songs and poems from a range of cultures (ACELT1579)
Creating literature
  1. Retell familiar literary texts through performance, use of illustrations and images (ACELT1580)


Texts in context
  1. Identify some familiar texts and the contexts in which they are used (ACELY1645)
Interacting with others
  1. Listen to and respond orally to texts and to the communication of others in informal and structured classroom situations (ACELY1646)
  2. Use interaction skills including listening while others speak, using appropriate voice levels, articulation and body language, gestures and eye contact (ACELY1784)
  3. Deliver short oral presentations to peers (ACELY1647)
Interpreting, analysing, evaluating
  1. Identify some differences between imaginative and informative texts (ACELY1648)
  2. Read predictable texts, practicing phrasing and fluency, and monitor meaning using concepts about print and emerging contextual, semantic, grammatical and phonic knowledge (ACELY1649)
  3. Use comprehension strategies to understand and discuss texts listened to, viewed or read independently (ACELY1650)
Creating texts
  1. Create short texts to explore, record and report ideas and events using familiar words and phrases and beginning writing knowledge (ACELY1651)
  2. Participate in shared editing of students’ own texts for meaning, spelling, capital letters and full stops (ACELY1652)
  3. Produce some lower case and upper case letters using learned letter formations (ACELY1653)
  4. Construct texts using software including word processing programs (ACELY1654)

English Achievement Standard

By the end of the Foundation year, students listen to, read and view a range of spoken, written and multimodal texts from familiar contexts. They interpret and provide relevant explanations of characters and main events in imaginative texts, and key ideas and visual features in short informative texts, making connections to personal experience. They demonstrate understanding by retelling orally one or two ideas and events from short texts listened to or viewed. They accurately identify the letters of the English alphabet, and know the sounds represented by most letters. They read short, predictable texts aloud with some fluency and acc...

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English Work Samples


Mathematics Year Level Description

The proficiency strands Understanding, Fluency, Problem Solving and Reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: Number and Algebra, Measurement and Geometry, and Statistics and Probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how ...

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Mathematics Content Descriptions

Number and Algebra

Number and place value
  1. Establish understanding of the language and processes of counting by naming numbers in sequences, initially to and from 20, moving from  any starting point (ACMNA001)
  2. Connect number names, numerals and quantities, including zero, initially up to 10 and then beyond (ACMNA002)
  3. Subitise small collections of objects (ACMNA003)
  4. Compare, order and make correspondences between collections, initially to 20, and explain reasoning (ACMNA289)
  5. Represent practical situations to model addition and sharing (ACMNA004)
Patterns and algebra
  1. Sort and classify familiar objects and explain the basis for these classifications. Copy, continue and create patterns with objects and drawings (ACMNA005)

Measurement and Geometry

Using units of measurement
  1. Use direct and indirect comparisons to decide which is longer, heavier or holds more, and explain reasoning in everyday language (ACMMG006)
  2. Compare and order the duration of events using the everyday language of time (ACMMG007)
  3. Connect days of the week to familiar events and actions (ACMMG008)
  1. Sort, describe and name familiar two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects in the environment (ACMMG009)
Location and transformation
  1. Describe position and movement (ACMMG010)

Statistics and Probability

Data representation and interpretation
  1. Answer yes/no questions to collect information (ACMSP011)

Mathematics Achievement Standard

By the end of the Foundation Year, students make the connections between number names, numerals and quantities up to 10. Students are able to compare and sort shapes and objects. They make connections between events and the days of the week.​

Mathematics Work Samples


Science Year Level Description

The science content includes the three strands of Science Understanding, Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching/learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

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Science Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Biological sciences
  1. Living things have basic needs, including food and water (ACSSU002)
Chemical sciences
  1. Objects are made of materials that have observable properties (ACSSU003)
Earth and space sciences
  1. Daily and seasonal changes in our environment, including the weather, affect everyday life (ACSSU004)
Physical sciences
  1. The way objects move depends on a variety of factors, including their size and shape (ACSSU005)

Science as a Human Endeavour

Nature and development of science
  1. Science involves exploring and observing the world using the senses (ACSHE013)

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
  1. Respond to questions about familiar objects and events (ACSIS014)
Planning and conducting
  1. Explore and make observations by using the senses (ACSIS011)
Processing and analysing data and information
  1. Engage in discussions about observations and use methods such as drawing to represent ideas (ACSIS233)
  1. Share observations and ideas (ACSIS012)

Science Achievement Standard

By the end of the Foundation year students make observations of familiar objects and materials and explore their properties and behaviour. They suggest how the environment affects them and other living things.​

Science Work Samples


History Year Level Description

Personal and Family Histories

The Foundation curriculum provides a study of personal and family histories. Students learn about their own history and that of their family; this may include stories from different cultures and...

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Key inquiry questions

  1. What is my history and how do I know?
  2. What stories do other people tell about the past?
  3. How can stories of the past be told and shared?

History Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

Personal and Family Histories
  1. Who the people in their family are, where they were born and raised and how they are related to each other (ACHHK001)
  2. The different structures of families and family groups today, and what they have in common (ACHHK002)
  3. How they, their family and friends commemorate past events that are important to them (ACHHK003)
  4. How the stories of families and the past can be communicated, for example through photographs, artefacts, books, oral histories, digital media, and museums (ACHHK004)

Historical Skills

Chronology, terms and concepts
  1. Sequence familiar objects and events (ACHHS015)
  2. Distinguish between the past, present and future (ACHHS016)
Historical questions and research
  1. Pose questions about the past using sources provided (ACHHS017)
Analysis and use of sources
  1. Explore a range of sources about the past (ACHHS018)
  2. Identify and compare features of objects from the past and present (ACHHS019)
Perspectives and interpretations
  1. Explore a point of view (ACHHS020)
Explanation and communication
  1. Develop a narrative about the past (ACHHS021)
  2. Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written, role play) and digital technologies (ACHHS022)

History Achievement Standard

By the end of the Foundation year, students identify experiences or events that are personally significant to them. Students pose questions to find out about their own past using at least one type of historical source. They identify similarities and differences between families using sources and important family events. Students relate a story about their past using different forms of communication (oral, graphic, role play).

History Work Samples