George Moore: Life

1852-1933 [George Augustus Moore]; b. 24 Feb., Moore Hall, Ballyglass, Co. Mayo, eldest son of George Henry Moore (d.1870), and member of a family that turned Catholic during the Penal Days; grandson of George Moore, briefly President of the Republic of Ireland during the French invasion of 1798; ed. Oscott College, nr. Birmingham, and sent away for special tuition; moved to London when his father regained a seat at Westminster; attend drawing and painting classes; inherited 12,500 acres at age of 18, with anticipated rents of �000; left for Paris to paint, 1873; attended École des Beaux Arts, then Académie Julian; turned to writing, studying Balzac and Gautier’s eroticism and stylistic virtuosity excited him; He met Mallarmé and Symbolist poets; wrote Martin Luther, verse play, with Bernard Lopez; met Manet, Degas, Pissarro, Renoir, and other Impressionists, as well as Zola at Nouvelles Athenes café in Montmartre; return to England, late 1879; issued Flowers of Passion (1878) and Pagan Poems (1881), verse collections; issued Modern Lover (1883), first novel, followed by A Mummer’s Wife (1885), dealing with marriage, seduction, child-birth and child-death, separation, drunkenness, and lonely death of Kate Ede, issued by Vizetelly, Zola’s English publisher; Literature at Nurse (1885), pamphlet condemning three-vol. novels and circulating libraries; A Drama in Muslin (1886), published serially and banned by circulating libraries, leading Moore to threaten publication in French in future (The Times, 12 Aug. 1886), and later reissued by Moore as Muslin (1915), omitting chiefly the section on Cecelia’s lesbianism; friendship with Olive Schreiner, Eleanor Marx, and Vernon Lee, independent women; annual visits to Moore Hall; maintained contacts with French writers and painters, writing on Impressionist painters; among the first to appreciate Verlaine, Rimbaud, and Laforgue; settled in Sussex; advocated Theatre Libre in England; founding member of W. J. Grein’s Indepentent Theatre (1891-98); contrib. “Lettres sur l'Irlande” to Figaro (31 July; 7, 14, 21, 28 Aug.; 4 Sept. 1886), revised and published with additions in M. F. Rabbe, trans., Terre d’Irlande (1887), and finally issued them as Parnell and His Island (1887), outraging nationalist opinion in with dismissive essays on Ireland as a land of priests and philistines; issued Confessions of a Young Man (1888), in which he declares relief at the death of father and strikes the pose of an aesthete; attempted to run a rabbit farm; moved to London; A Mere Accident (1887); Spring Days (1888); rooms in the Temple; wrote articles on literature and art for a papers and magazines, later collected as Impressions and Opinions (1889) and Modern Painting (1893); Mike Fletcher (1889) and Vain Fortune (1891), both unsuccessful, and both featuring Edward Martyn as a model for characters; Stein produced his play The Strike at Arlingford, Independent Theatre, 1893 (unsuccessful); conducted affair with the novelist Pearl Craigie (pseud. John Oliver Hobbes), 1893 onwards; issued Esther Waters (1894) and established his reputation as a Zolaesque novelist; introduced to ideals of Irish literary revival by Martyn, 1894; issued Celibates (1895), short stories; shares enthusiasm for Wagner with Craigie; issued Evelyn Innes (1898), in which the title character, a Wagnerian singer and a Catholic - thought to be a malicious portrait of Craigie - is seduced by Sir Owen Asher and later by the poet Ulick Dean (based on Yeats) before coming under the influence of Monsignor Mostyn, a priest who persuades her to enter a convent; met Maud Burke, later Lady Cunard, with whom he had an affair occasioning the belief that he might be Nancy’s Cunard’s mother; formed friendships with Henry Tonks and Wilson Steer; also Arthur Symons, Sir William Eden, and Martyn, who introduced him to W. B. Yeats in 1897; involved with the Independent Theatre in London; left England for Ireland because over English jingoism during the Boer War (‘no whispering … but a resolute voice, saying, “Go back to Ireland”’, acc. Hail and Farewell); settled at 4 [var 3, Smith’s Buildings], Upper Ely Place (Dublin), 1900; assisted Martyn with The Tale of a Town, later rewritten as The Bending of the Bough (1900) and dealing with events and characters associated with Irish Parliamentary party, in which the Kirwan may be identified with Standish O’Grady though holding ideas similar to those of George Russell (as noted by Yeats); collaborated with Yeats on Diarmuid and Grania in 1900, from Lady Gregory’s translation, to be produced by F[rank] R. Benson’s Shakespearean Company, Oct. 1901; along with Hyde’s Casadh an tSugain); wrote for Leader but parted with ‘The Thoughtlessness of the Critic’ (19 Nov. 1901) when its editor D. P. Moran attacked both the plays; contributed ‘Literature and the Irish Language’, to Ideals in Ireland (ed. Lady Gregory, 1901), stating it as his view that ‘the language of English fiction has ... run stagnant’; issued Sister Teresa (1901); kept Yeats from the theatre during unsatisfactory rehearsals of The Countess Cathleen with English company; conceived of stories in The Untilled Field (1903), called by Moore himself ‘a landmark in Anglo-Irish literature’, and written as a model for Irish-language writers; contrib. “The Wedding Gown”, “Almsgiving”, and “The Clerk’s Quest” to New Ireland Review (ed. Fr. Tom Finlay), to be translated as “An Gúna Phósta”; “An Déirc”, and “Tóir Mhic Uí Dhíomasaigh”; contributions discontinued due to increasing anti-clericism; the whole translated by Tadhg Ó Donnchadha and Pádraig Ó Súilleabháin as An-tÚr-Ghort (1902), published by the Gaelic League with parallel text; quarrelled finally with Yeats over authorship of Where There is Nothing (1902); declared himself a Protestant in The Irish Times, 1903; ‘Moods and Memories’ a sect. of Memoirs of My Dead Life (1908), appeared in Dana, Nos. 1-6 (1904); also a preface to Confessions of a Young Man (Dana, No.7); delivered swingeing lecture on the meaning of Manet for Ireland, RHA, 8 Dec. 1904; appointed High Sherriff of Mayo in 1905; issued The Lake (1905), concerning Fr. Gogarty’s dissatisfaction with the unspiritual attitudes of his fellow-clergy and his eventual acknowledgement of the truth of Rose Leicester’s liberal and humanist position; resettled at 121 Ebury Street, London, 1911; issued Ave (1911), Salve (1912), and Vale (1914), volumes of autobiography marked by caricatures of literary contemporaries in Dublin - ‘One half of Dublin is afraid it will be in the book, and the other is afraid that it won’t’ - with much agonising about his own role in the revival and the failings of the Catholic Church in Ireland; travelled to Jerusalem, 1913; publishes part of Vale in the English Review (Jan. & Feb. 1914), incl. allegations that Lady Gregory had been a religious proselytiser in early days, 1914; issues The Brook Kerith (1916); wrote tirade against Ireland when asked to supply Joyce with a Civil List commendation, Aug. 1917; also A Story-teller’s Holiday (1918), issued for Irish Folklore Soc. and incl. ‘Marban’, based on a misreading of the poem by Mael Isu Ó Brolchan (‘The Priest recovereth his Psalmbook’) narrating the Celtic abbot’s acquiescence in the principal of romantic love; issued Avowals (1919), conversational memoirs, and Heloïse and Abélard (1921), a novel on the famous theme; issued In Single Strictness (1922), five stories, and Conversations in Ebury Street (1924), a memoir; Moore Hall burnt by Republicans, Feb. 1923; received compensation of �000 from Free State government; ed. Pure Poetry (1924); persuaded Nancy Cunard to stand before him naked, acc. her memoir; fnd. member of Irish Academy of Letters and Medals (MIAL), 1926; trans. novel by Long[in]us as The Pastoral Loves of Daphnis and Chloe (1930); issued Aphrodite in Aulis (1930); d. 21 Jan. 1933, at 121 Ebury St., Pimlico; ashes buried on Castle Island in Lough Carra, across the lake from Moore Hall; A Communication to my Friends (1933), posthumously published autobiographical volume; the Ebury Edition of his works appeared from Heinemann in 20 vols., 1937; renowned as conversational historian of the Irish Literary Revival. DNB PI JMC IF NCBE DIW DIB DIH DIL OCEL ODQ SUTH FDA G20 OCIL

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Works

Poetry
Flowers of Passion (1878); Pagan Poems (1881) [undated in DIL, sole source]; ed. Pure Poetry: An Anthology (1924; US Edn. 1925).

Drama
Worldliness [1874]; with Lopez, Martin Luther (1879); The Strike at Arlingford (London: Walter Scott Ltd. 1893); The Bending of the Bough, Martyn’s Tale of the Town rewritten (London: T. Fisher Unwin/NY: Herbert S. Stone & Co 1900); The Apostle (1911; rewritten, 1923, and rev. as The Passing of the Essenes, 1930); Esther Waters, play (1913); Elizabeth Cooper: A Comedy in Three Acts (Dublin: Maunsel 1913), later rewritten as The Coming of Gabrielle: A Comedy (1920); The Making of an Immortal, A Play in One Act (1927) [1st US edn. NY 1928, 1240 signed copies]; Diarmuid and Grania, with W. B. Yeats (produced 1901; published 1951). Critical essays &c., Literature at Nurse, or Circulating Morals (1885); Impressions and Opinions (London: David Nutt; NY: Scribner 1891) [incl. ‘Our Dramatists and Their Literature’, Fortnightly Review, 1 Nov. 1899]; revised; listed item 975 in Arnott, English Theatrical Literature, 1970]; Modern Painting (1893); Reminiscences of the Impressionist Painters, pamphlet (1906); Memoirs of My Dead Life (1906), and Do. (1921) [ltd. edn. 1000]; Avowals (1919), and Do. (London: Heinemann 1936); Conversations in Ebury Street (1924) [limited to 1030 signed copies]; autobiographies, Confessions of a Young Man (1888); Hale and Fairwell, 3 vols. comprising Ave, Salve, and Vale [1st edn. 1911-1914]: Ave (London: Heinemann [NY: Appleton] 1911; rep. 1914; rev. & rep. 1919; rep. 1921, 1927; Uniform Edn. 1933; Ebury Edn. 1937; rep. 1947), Salve (1st edn. 1912), and Vale (1st edn. 1914); also Hail and Farewell [Ave, Salve, & Vale; comp. in 2 vols.] (London: Heinemann 1925); Do., 3 vols. (NY 1927); Do., [Uniform Edn. 1933]; Do., 3 vols. (London: Heinemann 1947); Do., (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1976); A Communication to My Friends (London: Nonesuch 1933).

Prose
Parnell and His Island [publ. first in French as Terre d’Irlande, 1886] (London: Swan Sonnenschein, Lowrey & Co. 1887; Ebury Edn. 1937); and Do. [rep. edn.], intro. Carla King (Dublin UCD Press 2004), 160pp.; ‘Sir Hugh Lane’s Pictures: Mr. George Moore’s Story of their Origin’, in Observer Journal, 13 Dec. 1904, p.10.

Novels
A Modern Lover (London: Tinsley Bros. 1883), banned in England, and later rewritten as Lewis Seymour and Some Women, 1917); A Mummer’s Wife (London: Vizetelly & Co. 1885; Heinemann 1933); A Drama in Muslin (London: Vizetelly & Co. 1887), rewritten as Muslin, 1915; another edn. (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1981); another edn., as Drama in Muslin, introduced by James Plunkett [Appletree Classic Irish Novels] (Belfast: Appletree Press 1992); Confessions of a Young Man (London: Swan Sonnenschein, Lowry & Co. 1888); A Mere Accident (London: Vizetelly 1887) [later abbrev. as "John Norton" for Celibates 1895); Spring Days (London: Vizetelly 1888) [Gil. A13]; Mike Fletcher (London: Ward & Downey 1889) [Gil. A14a]; Vain Fortune (1891; London: Ward & Downey 1895); Esther Waters (London: Walter Scott 1894) [Booker Prize, 1894]; Do. (NY: Everyman’s Library 1936), Do., ed. David Skilton [World’s Classics] (OUP q.d.), 424pp.; Evelyn Innes (NY: D. Appleton 1898); Sister Teresa (London: T. Fisher Unwin 1901), author’s port.; Do., ‘Colonial edn.’, viii+236pp.; The Lake (London: William Heinemann 1905; NY: D. Appleton 1906); Do. (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1980); The Brook Kerith (London: T. Werner Laurie; NY: Macmillan 1916); Do. as A Syrian Story [‘heavily revised with a new preface’] (1921) [ltd. edn. 500]; Do., (London: Heinemann 1933); Do. (NY: Macmillan 1956); Fragments from Héloïse and Abélard [priv. printed] (NY 1921) [ltd. edn. 1500; var. 250 (Sotheby’s], Vol. ii, 3-23pp.; Do., (London: Macmillan 1936); The Pastoral Loves of Daphnis and Chloe (1924) [ltd. edn. 1280], and Do. [Ebury Edn] (London: Heinemann 1936); Ulick and Soracha (1926) [ltd. edn. 1250]; Aphroditis in Aulis (1930) [ltd. edn. 1825], and Do. (London: Heinemann 1931).

Short fiction
Celibates (London: Walter Scott 1895; London: 1927); In Single Strictness (London: Heinemann 1922) [ltd. edn. 1030]; Do., as Celibate Lives (London: Heinemann/NY: Boni & Liveright 1927); An tÚr Ghort (Dublin: Conradh na Gaelige 1902), in English as The Untilled Field (London: T. Fisher Unwin 1903), (viii), 420pp; Do. (NY/Philadelphia J. B. Lippincott & Co. 1903); rep. edn., [Gill’s Irish Classics] (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1990), 238pp., and Do., Robert Welch, ed., [another edn.] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1976, 2000), 225pp.; A Story-Teller’s Holiday (1918) [limited to 1000 signed copies; incl. ‘Ulick and Soracha’, etc.].

Correspondence
John Eglinton, ed. and sel., Letters from George Moore to Eduard Dujardin 1886-1922 (NY 1929); Elginton, intro., Letters of George Moore to John Eglinton (Bournemouth: Sydenham 1942); Rupert Hart-Davies, ed., George Moore: Letters ot Lady Cunard 1895-1933 (London 1957) [208pp.]; also ‘Letters to Edmund Gosse, W. B. Yeats, R. I. Best, Nancy Cunard and Mary Hutchinson’ (Maryland thesis, 1958); Helmut E. Gerber, ed., George Moore in Transition: Letters to T. Fisher Unwin and Lena Milman 1894-1910 (Detroit: Wayne State UP 1968); Seamus Mac Donncha, ‘Letters [of] George Moore to his Brother, Col. Maurice Moore’ (NUI Galway thesis 1972-73); Helmet E. Gerber, ed. [asst. by O. M. Brack], George Moore on Parnassus: Letters 1900-1933 [to secretaries, publishers, printers, agents, literati, friends, and acquaintances] (Delaware UP 1988), 896pp. [continuing].

Collected Editions
‘Carra Edition’, 21 vols. (NY: Boni & Liveright 1922-24), with two more vols. (1925-26); Heinemann Uniform Edn. (1924-33), reissued as Ebury Library (1937).

Bibliographical details
The Untilled Field
by George Moore (London: William Heinemann 1903; new edn. Oct. 1914; new imp. Jan 1915), Preface, v-xi; CONTENTS, The Exile [1]; Home Sickness [32]; Some Parishioners [50]; Patchwork [68]; The Wedding Feast [86]; The Window [102]; A Letter to Rome [131]; A Play-House in the Waste [150]; Julia Cahill’s Curse [165]; The Wedding Gown [173]; The clerks Quest [187]; Almsgiving [194]; So on He Fares [201]; The Wild Goose [217-316; End]. [For summaries, see Notes, infra.]

An t-úr-Ghort [The Untilled Field] sgéaltha le Seórsa Ó Mórdha, aistrighthe ó’n Sacsbhéarla ag Pádraig Ó Súilleabhain, B.A., (Baile-an-atha-Cliath; Sealy Bryers & Walker [1902]. [See title page photo in Peter Costello, The Heart Grown Brutal: The Irish Revolution in Literature, Gill & Macmillan 1977, pl.8.]

Selected Plays of George Moore and Edward Martyn, ed. by David B. Eaken & Michael Case [Irish Dramatic Selections] (Washington: Catholic UP 1996), 362pp., incls. Moore, ‘The Strike at Arlingford’; ‘The Bending of the Bough’; ‘The Coming of Gabrielle’; ‘The Passing of the Essenes’; Martyn, ‘The Heather Field’; ‘Maeve’; The Tale of the Town’; An Enchanted Sea’.

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Criticism

W. B. Yeats, quoted in Denis Donoghue, review-article on R. F. Foster, W. B. Yeats: A Life, Vol. 2, in Harper’s Magazine, Dec. 2003, p.102.

James Joyce, in Eileen Kennedy, 慚oore’s Untilled Field and Joyce’s Dubliners’, in Éire-Ireland, 5, 3, Autumn 1970, pp.81-89; p.82.)

James Joyce, in Ellmann, ed., Letters of James Joyce, 1966, Vol. 2, p.71; quoted [in part] in Kennedy, op. cit., p.81.)

James Joyce, in Richard Ellmann, James Joyce (OUP 1956 [rev. edn. 1965]), p.51, 106-7.

W. P. Ryan, The Pope’s Green Island (1912), p.46ff.

Susan Mitchell, George Moore (Dublin: Maunsel 1916).

Thomas Kettle, The Ways of War, pref. Memoir by Mary Kettle, 1917, p.46.

John Freeman, A Portrait of George Moore in a Study of His Work (London: Werner Laurie 1922).

George Russell, Frank Tuohy, Yeats, p.135. See also Russell’s obituary, ‘one of the most talented and unfilial of Ireland’s children [...] he loved the land even if he did not love the nation’. (p.214; see further under Stephen Gwynn.

Lady Augusta Gregory, in Cary, 慪eats and Moore: An Autobiographical Conflict', Éire-Ireland, 4, 3 (Autumn 1969), pp.94-109.

Geraint Goodwin, Conversations with George Moore [New Lib. Ser.] (London: Ernest Benn Ltd. 1929; NY: Knopf 1930), Do., (London: Jonathan Cape 1937), 249pp;

Humbert Wolfe, George Moore (London: Butterworth 1931) [ltd. edn. 250]; Do., rev. edn. ([London: Butterworth] 1933).

John Eglinton, ‘George Moore’, in Irish Literary Portraits (London: Macmillan 1935).

Charles Morgan, Epitaph on George Moore (London : Macmillan 1935).

Joseph M. Hone, The Life of George Moore (London: Gollancz; NY: Macmillan 1936).

Stephen Gwynn, Irish Literature and Drama in the English Language (London: Nelson 1936), p.150).

Stephen Gwynn, Irish Literature and Drama, 1936), p.169, 22

J. H. Hone, The Moores of Moore Hall (London: Jonathan Cape 1939).

Louis McNeice (The Poetry of W. B. Yeats, 1941), p. 90

M. J. MacManus, Adventures of an Irish Bookman, ed. by Francis MacManus (Dublin: Talbot Press 1952), pp. [122-26.

Oliver St. John Gogarty, It Isn’t This Time of Year At All (1954, 1983).

Malcolm Brown, George Moore: A Reconsideration (Seattle: Washington UP 1955).

Nancy Cunard, GM: Memories of George Moore (London: Hart-Davis 1956).

Herbert Howarth, The Irish Writers 1880-1940, London 1958).

F. S. L. Lyons, ‘George Moore and Edward Martyn,’ Hermathena, XCVIII (Spring 1964), [q.p.].

Jean C. Noel, George Moore: L’Homme et l’oeuvre (Paris: M. Didier 1966), 707pp. [plates].

Seán McMahon, ‘"The Untilled Field"’, Éire-Ireland, 1, 4 (Winter 1966), pp.87-93.

Graham Owens, A Study of George Moore's Revisions of his Novels and Short Stories (PhD Thesis: University of Leeds 1966).

Jack Wayne Weaver, 慉n Exile Returned: Moore and Yeats in Ireland', Éire-Ireland, 3, 1 (Spring 1968), pp.40-47.

Meredith Cary, 慪eats and Moore: An Autobiographical Conflict', Éire-Ireland, 4, 3 (Autumn 1969), pp.94-109/.

Eileen Kennedy, 慚oore's Untilled Field and Joyce's Dubliners', Éire-Ireland, 5, 3 (Autumn 1970), pp.81-89.

Eileen Kennedy, ‘Moore’s Untilled Field and Joyce’s Dubliners’, Eire-Ireland, 5, 3 (Autumn 1970) pp.81-89.

John Cronin, 慓eorge Moore's The Lake: A Possible Source', Éire-Ireland, 6, 3 (Autumn 1971), pp.12-15.

William Robert Rodgers, Irish Literary Portraits: W.B. Yeats, James Joyce, George Moore, George Bernard Shaw, Oliver St John Gogarty, F.R. Higgins, A.E. [broadcast conversations with those who knew them] (London: BBC 1972).

Frank Tuohy, Yeats (1976), pp. 92-93.

Janet Egleson Dunleavy, George Moore: The Artist’s Vision - The Storyteller’s Art (Lewisburg: Bucknell UP 1973).

Bonnie Kime Scott, ‘Joyce’s Schooling in the Field of George Moore’, Éire-Ireland, 9, 4 (1974), pp.117-41.

Frederick W. Seinfelt, George Moore: Ireland’s Unconventional Realist (Phil: Dorrance & Co. 1975).

James W. Flannery, Yeats and the Idea of a Theatre: : The Early Abbey Theatre in Theory and Practice (Yale UP 1976), pp.57ff..

Richard Allen Cave, A Study of the Novels of George Moore (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe; NY: Barnes & Noble 1978).

Anthony Farrow, George Moore (Boston: Twayne 1978), 169pp.

Anito Gandolfo, ‘A Portrait of the Artist as Critic, Moore and the Background of ‘The Dead"’, in English Literature in Transition, 22 (West Virginia UP 1979), pp.239-250.

Ronald Schleifer, ‘George Moore’s Turning Mind: Digression and Autobiographical Art in Hail and Farewell’, in Schleifer, ed., The Genres of Irish Literary Revival (Oklahoma: Pilgrim; Dublin: Wolfhound 1980), pp.61-92.

John Cronin, ‘George Moore, A Drama in Muslin’, in The Anglo-Irish Novel: The Nineteenth Century [Vol. I] (Belfast: Appletree 1980), pp.115-34.

John Cronin, ‘George Moore: The Lake’, in The Anglo-Irish Novel 1900-1940 [Vol. 2] (Belfast: Appletree 1980), pp.30-46.

Alan Warner, ‘George Moore’, A Guide to Anglo-Irish Literature (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1981), pp.61-71.

A. N. Jeffares,Teaching Anglo-Irish Literature,’ Hermathena, CXXIX (Winter 1980).

Frank O’Connor, The Irish Short Story from Moore to O’Connor, Washington UP 1982, p.39.

Patrick A McCarthy, ‘The Moore-Joyce Nexus: An Irish Literary Comedy’, in Janet Egleson Dunleavy, ed., George Moore in Perspective (Gerrards Cross: Smythe 1983), pp.99-116.

Alexander G. Gould, ‘Paralysis and Exile in George Moore’s A Drama in Muslin’, Colby Library Quarterly, 20, 3 (Sept 1984), pp.152-63.

Anthony Cronin, ‘George Moore: The Self-Made Modern’, in Heritage Now: Irish Literature in the English Language (Dingle: Brandon 1982), pp.69-74.

Tom Paulin, Ireland and the English Question, 1984, p. 102.

Richard Allen Cave, ‘George Moore and his Irish Novels’, in Augustine Martin, ed., The Genius of Irish Prose (Dublin & Cork: Mercier Press, 1985), pp.22-31.

John Montague, ‘George Moore: The Tyranny of Memory’, in The Figure in the Cave and Other Essays, ed. Antoinette Quinn (Dublin: Lilliput 1989), pp.86-97.

Jean Noel ‘George Moore’s Drama in Muslin’, in Jacqueline Genet, ed., The Big House in Ireland (Dingle: Brandon; NY: Barnes & Noble 1991), pp. 113-120.

Jane Roberts, ‘George Moore, A Wild Goose’s Portrait of His Country’, Irish University Review (Autumn/Winter 1992), pp.305-19.

Robert Welch, ‘George Moore: "The Law of Change is the Law of Life"’, in Changing States: Transformations in Modern Irish Writing (London: Routledge 1993), pp.35-54.

Declan Kiberd, ‘George Moore agus an Ghaeilge’, in Idir Dhá Chultúr (Dublin: Coiscéim 1993), pp.129-30 [Irish language].

Elizabeth Grubgeld, George Moore and the Autogenous Self (Syracuse: Syracuse UP 1994), 304pp.

Julian Moynihan, ‘Spinsters Ball: George Moore and the Land Agitation’, in Anglo-Irish: The Literary Imagination in a Hyphenated Culture (Princeton: Princeton UP 1995), pp.144-61.

Tony Gray, A Peculiar Man: The Life of George Moore (London: Sinclair-Stevenson 1996), 352pp., [8 plates].

James H. Murphy, ‘Insouciant Rivals of Mrs Barton: Gender and Victorian Aspiration in George Moore and the Women Novelists of the Irish Monthly’, in Kelleher, Margaret, and Murphy, eds., Gender Perspectives in Nineteenth-Century Ireland: Public and Private Spheres (Dublin: Irish Academic Press 1997), pp.221-28.

James H. Murphy, Catholic Fiction and Social Reality in Ireland, 1873-1922 (Conn: Greenwood Press 1997), Part I.

Adrian Frazier, ‘Paris, Dublin: Looking at George Moore Looking at Manet’, New Hibernia Review, 1, 1 (Spring 1997), pp.19-30.

Adrian Frazier, George Moore: 1852-1933 (London: Yale UP 2000), 448pp.

Brendan Fleming, ‘French Spectacles in an Irish Case: From Lettres sur l’Irlande to Parnell and His Island’, in Aaron Kelly & Alan Gillis, eds., Critical Ireland: New Essays in Literature and Culture (Dublin: Four Courts Press 2001), pp.69-75

Brendan Fleming, ‘French Spectacles in an Irish Case: From Lettres sur l’Irlande to Parnell and His Island’, in Aaron Kelly & Alan Gillis, eds., Critical Ireland: New Essays in Literature and Culture (Dublin: Four Courts Press 2001), pp.69-75.

Patrick Ward, ‘Exile, Art and Alienation: George Moore's Irish Writings’, in Exile, Emigration and Irish Writing (Dublin IAP 2002), pp.182-231

Declan Kiberd, ‘Feudalism Falling: A Drama in Muslin’, in Irish Classics (London: Granta 2000), pp.287-301.

Graham Owens, ed., George Moore’s Mind and Art (Edinburgh: Oliver Boyd 1968), 182pp.

Douglas A. Hughes, ed., The Man of Wax: Critical Essays on George Moore (NY UP 1971), 364pp.

Robert Welch, The Way Back: George Moore’s "The Untilled Field" and "The Lake" (Dublin: Wolfhound 1982), 140pp.

Janet Egleson Dunleavy, ed., George Moore in Perspective (Gerrards Cross: Smythe 1983), 174pp..

Herbert Howarth, The Irish Writers 1880-1940 (London: Rockliff 1958; NY 1959).

Hugh Kenner, Flaubert, Joyce, and Beckett: The Stoic Comedians (Boston: Beacon 1962), 106pp.

Georg Lukacs, The Meaning of Contemporary Realism (London: Merlin 1962).

Frank O’Connor, The Lonely Voice (London: Macmillan 1963).

George J Becker, Documents of Modern Literary Realism (Princeton: Princeton UP 1963).

Ian Watt, The Rise of the Novel (Harmondsworth: Penguin 1972).

C. P. Snow, The Realists (London: Macmillan 1978); J. P. Stern, On Realism (London: Kegan & Paul 1973).

Gabriel Josipovici, The World and the Book: A Study of Modern Fiction (London: Macmillan 1979).

Dorothy Averill, The Irish Short Story from George Moore to Frank O’Connor (Washington/Boston: Catholic University of America 1982).

John Vernon, Money in Fiction: Literary Realism in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries (Ithaca: Cornell UP 1984).

James H. Murphy, Catholic Fiction and Social Reality in Ireland, 1873-1922 (Westport: Greenwood 1997), Part I: ‘Upper Middle-Class Fiction 1873-1890’, pp.29-31.

Ruth Frehner, The Colonizers' Daughters: Gender In The Anglo-Irish Big House Novel (Tubingen: Franacke 1999), 256pp.

Iolo Aneurin Williams, George Moore: A Bibliography of his Works, with Prefatory letter by Moore (London: Leslie Chaundy 1921), 13pp.

Helmut E[dwin] Gerber, ed., ‘George Moore: An Annotated Bibliography of Writings About Him,’ in Literature in Transition, II, 1 & 2 (1951), pp.1-91 [2 pts.].

Edwin Gilcher, A Bibliography of George Moore (DeKalb: Northern Illinois UP 1970), and Supplement (1988) [reviewed by Thomas C. Ware, in Éire-Ireland, 6, 2 (Summer 1971), pp.182-85.

Richard Finneran, Anglo-Irish Literature (MLA 1974).

Graham Owens, ed., George Moore’s Mind and Art (Edinburgh: Oliver Boyd 1968), 182pp. CONTENTS: incls. William Blissert, ‘George Moore and Literary Wagnerism’, pp.53-76; Herbert Howarth, 'Dublin 1899-1911: The Enthusiasms of a Prodigal', cp.94; Graham Owens, 'The Melodic Line in Narrative', pp.99-121; Brendan Kennelly, 'George Moore's Lonely Voices', pp.146-159.

Douglas A. Hughes, ed., The Man of Wax: Critical Essays on George Moore (NY UP 1971), 364pp. CONTENTS: F. Swinnerton, ‘George Moore’ [ ]; J. Eglinton, ‘Recollections of George Moore’ [ ]; W. B. Yeats, ‘Thoughts on George Moore’ [ ]; A. Clarke, ‘A Visit with George Moore’ [ ]; V. Woolf, ‘George Moore’ [ ]; E. Starkie, ‘George Moore and French Naturalism’ [ ]; W. C. Frierson, ‘George Moore Compromised with the Victorians’ [ ]; P. Ure, ‘George Moore as Historian of Consciences’ [ ]; G. Hough, ‘George Moore and the Nineties’ [ ]; G. Hicks, ‘The Miracle of Esther Waters’ [ ]; B. Nicholas, ‘The Case of Esther Waters’ [ ]; W. F. Blissett, ‘George Moore and Literary Wagnerism’ [ ]; C. Burkhart, ‘The Short Stories of George Moore’ [ ]; W. Shumaker, ‘The Autobiographer as Artist: George Moore's Hail and Farewell’ [ ];J. C. Noël, ‘The Brook Kerith: Heretical Romance’ [ ]; B. Dobrée, ‘George Moore's Final Works’ [ ]; M. Brown, ‘The Craftsman as Critic’ [ ]; Selected Bibliography [355-58].

Robert Welch, The Way Back: George Moore’s "The Untilled Field" and "The Lake" (Dublin: Wolfhound 1982), 140pp. CONTENTS: Declan Kiberd, ‘George Moore's Gaelic Lawn Party’ [ ]; Robert Welch, ‘Moore's Way Back: The Untilled Field and The Lake’ [ ]; Richard Allen Cave, ‘Turgenev and Moore, A Sportsman’s Sketches and The Untilled Field’ [ ]; Tomás Ó Murchadha, ‘A Naked Gael Screaming "Brian Boru"’ [ ]; John Cronin, ‘George Moore's The Lake: A Possible Source’ [ ]; Clive Hart, ‘The Continuous Melody of The Lake’ [ ]; Max E. Cordonnier, ‘Siegfried in Ireland, A Study of Moore’s The Lake’’ [ ]; Joseph Stephen O'Leary, ‘Father Bovary’ [ ].

Janet Egleson Dunleavy, ed., George Moore in Perspective (Gerrards Cross: Smythe 1983), 174pp. CONTENTS: Jane Egleson Dunleavy, 慓eorge Moore: A Reappraisal [ ]; Richard J. Byrne, 慚oore Hall, 1952: An Introduction to George Moore on the 100th Anniversary of his Birth [ ]; Jane Crisler, 慓eorge Moore's Paris [ ]; James Liddy, 慓eorge Moore's Dublin [ ]; Robert Stephen Becker, 慞rivate Moore, Public Moore: The Evidence of the Letters [ ]; Gareth W. Dunleavy, 慓eorge Moore's Medievalism: A Modern Triptych [ ]; Patrick A McCarthy, 慣he Moore-Joyce Nexus: An Irish Literary Comedy' [99-116]; Melvin J. Friedman, 慓eorge Moore and Samuel Beckett: Cross Currents and Correspondences [ ]; Edwin Gilcher, 慍ollecting Moore [ ].

NB’ column [by DS] in Times Literary Supplement comments facetiously on the mind and art of George Moore, in connection with the series of that name, that it was a strong candidate for Kingsley Amis’s list of very short books, along with great Marxist humanitarians [22 Oct. 1993].

Penelope Fitzgerald, reviewing of John Gray, A Peculiar Man [1996]), Times Literary Supplement, April 26, 1996, p.22.)

Roy Foster, ‘The Moore the Merrier’, review of Adrian Frazier, George Moore 1852-1933 (Yale UP 2000), in The Irish Times, 19 June 2000.

Terry Eagleton: ‘[In Moore] style becomes a kind of willed repression or amnesia, a scrupulously externalising medium which sets its face against portentous metaphysical depth and operates as suavely ironic detachment from historical reality.’ (‘The Anglo-Irish Novel’, p.216; quoted in Patrick Ward, Exile, Emigration and Irish Writing, Dublin IAP 2002 [as infra], p.231.)

Paul Johnson, review of Frazier, George Moore (Yale UP 2000), in Times Literary Supplement ( 2 June 2000), pp.3-4.

Patrick Ward, ‘Exile, Art and Alienation: George Moore’s Irish Writings’, in Exile, Emigration and Irish Writing (Dublin IAP 2002), pp.182-231.

R. F. Foster describes Moore as ‘devious, uncontrollable, unable to resist a demonic sense of humour’ (quoted by Thomas Flanagan in review of The Apprentice Mage, 1996, in NY Times Book Review, 6 April 1997, p.10.

R. F. Foster describes Moore as ‘devious, uncontrollable, unable to resist a demonic sense of humour’ (quoted by Thomas Flanagan in review of The Apprentice Mage, 1996, in NY Times Book Review, 6 April 1997, p.10.)

Dictionary of National Biography, lists George Henry Moore, [his father], 1811-1870, ed. Oscott, Birmingham, and Cambridge; MP Co. Mayo, 1847; leader of tenant-right movement; unseated 1857; elected unopposed, 1868. See also contemporary notices in Irish Book Lover 2, 4, 5, 6.

Justin McCarthy, ed., Irish Literatur (Washington: Catholic Univ. of America 1904), gives extract from ‘Exile’ in The Untilled Field.

Stephen Brown, Ireland in Fiction [Pt. I] (Dublin: Maunsel 1919), lists A Drama in Muslin; The Untilled Field; the Lake; A Story-Teller’s Tale. Others such as Esther Waters are not treated as Irish by him. Brown remarks: George Moore was born to family of distinguished nationalists; according to Mr William Barry, he is ‘excessively, provokingly un-English’ but has little but scorn for things Irish; abandoned Catholic Church (Confessions of a Young Man); at war with all prevailing types of religion and current codes of morality; books bear abundant evidence of the fact; most unsavoury topics ... with naturalistic freedom and absence of reserve; excluded from Mudie’s and Smith’s; ranked high as psychologist by some; article in him in G Chesteron’s Heretics; not Irish stories include Evelyn Innes, Sister Theresa; Esther Waters; A Mummer’s Wife; Celibates; Vain Fortune; A Mere Accident, &c.; reminiscences [sic],. Ave, Salve, Vale, in which no privacies are respected and which in other respect resemble his novels. IF lists A Drama in Muslin (Vizetelly [1886]); 8th edn. Walter Scott 1918) [girls of convent of St Leonard’s adventures in Irish society looking for husbands, all going bad except two of which one is a mad missionary and a Protestant, who becomes a Catholic nun, and the other a free-thinker and authoress, a combination which the author considers natural; disgust for peasants]; The Untilled Field (Unwin; Philadephia: Lippincott [1903]; Heinemann 1914) [unconnected skethces of Irish country life mostly dealing with relations between priests and people, evil effects of religion banishing joy, producing superstition, killing art; apart from religious bias, true to life; trans. by P. O’Sullivan as An t-Ur Gort]; The Lake (Heinemann 1905), 340pp; NY: Appleton), 340pp. [Brown quotes Baker, shrewdly, ‘a vague and inchoate novel with some passion and delightful description of Nature. The theme very indecisively worked out, is that of a young priest’s rebellion against celibacy stimulated by the atttractions of a girl whom he drove from the parish because she had gone wrong’; Connaught and Kilronan Abbey; mean to uphold the purely Hedonistic vierw of life; described by Boyd, in Literary Renaissance (1916), as the revival’s first and only novel of disctinction; free form sensual suggestiveness]; A Story Teller’s Holiday (London: T. Werner Laurie 1918), issued privately for The Society of Irish folklore, lim. edn. [60 pages of discursive comment on art, love, women, priests and land; introduced at Westport to Alex Trusseby [sic] fern-gather who has taken sunstroke in America and is a note shanachie; facetiae; Moore proceeds to tell stories to Alec only slightly less suggestive than his own; improper and even blasphemous].

D. E. S. Maxwell, A Critical History of Modern Irish Drama 1896-1980 (Cambridge UP 1984; pb. 1985), lists Works [uniform edn.] (London: Heinemann 1924-33); also plays, The Strike at Arlingford (Independent Theatre Co., Lon.; Feb. 1893); Diarmuid and Grania (Chicester Th. 1974); other works, Hail and Farewell ([1911-14] complete, Heinemann 1947, rep. of 1933 edn.); and studies, Joseph Hone, Life of George Moore (NY 1936); A. N. Jeffares, George Moore (London 1965) [pamph.], and Jean C. Noel, George Moore: L’Homme et l’ouevre (Paris Didier 1966).

John Sutherland, The Longman Companion to Victorian Fiction (Longmans 1988; rep. 1989), lists Esther Waters (1894), A Mummer’s Wife (1885), and Evelyn Innes (1898) only. Notes that Moore was chronically ill in youth and missed much schooling; steeped in Miss Braddon’s fiction after reading her Lady Audley’s Secret; on returning to London after a tame bohemian period, he was deeply affected by his aged publisher Nenry Vizetelly’s being sent to prison for publishing Zola’s novels; appointed High Sherriff of Mayo in 1905; ‘his later works are excessively stylised’; sexual involvement with John Oliver Hobbes (Mrs. Craigie) reverberates through the fiction of both authors; first met in 1893, while she was embroiled in divorce suit; a version of his troubled affair given in ‘Mildred Lawson’ in Celibates (1895). BL 19. Note remarks under Julia Frankau that Moore allegedly part-wrote Dr. Phillips (1887), an anti-semitic novel. Also, separate entries on A Mummer’s Wife, dealing with the career of marriage, seduction, child-birth, child-death, separation, drunkenness, and final lonely death of Kate Ede, who becomes the actress Kate D’Arcy when she meets Dick Lennox, visiting her North of England town; ‘relentlessly Zolaesque’. Also, Evelyn Innes (1898), in which the title character, a Wagnerian singer and a Catholic, is seduced by Sir Owen Asher and later by the poet Ulick Dean and finally comes under the influence of a priest, Monsignor Mostyn, who persuades her to renounce immoral ways and enter a sisterhood; Sister Teresa (1901), the sequel, is the latter part of the orig. MS of 300,000 words; Dean is modelled on W. B. Yeats, and Evelyn thought to be a malicious portrait of John Oliver Hobbes [Mrs Craigie]; religious tone of the work is ambiguous.

Seamus Deane, gen. ed., Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing (Derry: Field Day 1991), Vol. 2,, 254n; 520; extract from ‘Salve’ [542-49]; from The Untilled Field, ‘The Wedding Gown’ [549-53]; see also 555; 562; 740; 741; 772; 780; 784; 1008; 1010; 1021; 1022-23; extract from The Untilled Field, ‘A Letter to Rome’ [1034-40]; also 1218; BIOG 560-61. See also Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing (1991), Vol. 3 , references and remarks at pp.2 [Moore like O’Casey writes third-person autobiography; Deane, ed.], 244 [re Beckett; FDA ed.], 480 [cited by Seán O’Faolain among those ‘gone into exile’] , 496 [Austin Clarke: ‘George Moore shocked his neighbours … by having his door painted a patriotic green’]; 523 [his lit. mem. compared to Anthony Cronin, et al.], 665 [W. J. McCormack, from Ascendency and Tradition, 1985); also Terence Brown, ed. essay, with rems. on 937-38, 939, 940 [sought lucidity and ‘the melodic line’; treating epic themes in prose beautiful and dignified yet preserving illusion of a story melodiously spoken; ‘spent the last 22 years in London polishing a style that seemed more and more out of tune with the age.].

Belfast Linenhall Library holds Joseph Hone, The Moores of Moore Hall (1939); also Literature and the Irish Language (1901); also by Susan Mitchell, George Moore (1916); M. G. Moore, An Irish Gentleman, George H. Moore, by [n.d.].

Belfast Public Library holds Humbert Wolfe, George Moore (1931) and twenty Moore titles. CATL, Library of Herbert Bell (Belfast) holds Memories of George Moore (1956) [n.a.].

Hibernia Books (Cat. 19) lists The Lake (NY 1906) [Gilscher A27.2a]; Spring Days (1888) [Gilscher A13]; Héloïse and Abelard (1921) [Gilscher A40.3b]; Celibate Lives (Ist ed. 1927) [Gilscher A52]; Aphroditis in Aulis (1930) [NY 1931, Gilscher A56.b; revised edn.; another copy, London: 1931, Gilscher A56.2b]; A Communication to My Friends (London: Nonesuch 1933) [lim. 1000; Gilscher A60.a]; In Search of Divinity , 2 pts., from English Review [q.d.] Celibates (Scott 1895); Esther Waters (Cumann Sean-eolais n h-Eireann 1920) [ltd. signed edn., 750]; The Apostle (Heinemann 1923) [signed]. [also Hyland, Cat. 214.]

Whelan Catalogue (Cat. 32) lists Hail and Farewell [Ave, Salve, Vale] comp. in 2 vols. (London: Heinemann 1925), printed from handset type on handmade paper; ltd. edn. 780, signed; another, in 3 vols. [uniform ed.] (Heinemann 1947); The Coming of Gabrielle, a Comedy (Cumann Sean-eolais na hEreann 1920) [priv. ltd. edn. 1000 copies]; The Apostle, A Drama in a Prelude and Three Acts (London: Heinemann 1923) [ltd. edn. 1030 copies]; A Story-Tellers Holiday, 2 vols. (Heinemann 1928) [1st gen. UK edn.]; Héloise and Abélard (Heinemann Ebury Edn. 1936); Avowals (Heinemann Ebury Edn. 1936); Celibate Lives (Heinemann Ebury Edn. 1937); Esther Waters Heinemann Ebury Edn. 1937); Letters to Lady Cundard 1895-1933), ed. with intro. Rupert Hart-Davis (Greenwood 1979), ill.

Some Parishioners’: Father Tom Maguire, a puritanical priest (‘the Irish people find poetry in other things than sex’) whose uncle Father Stafford does not share his zeal, organises a poultry lecture and, when the lecturer fails to show up, presses Biddy M’Hale to speak instead; he has ‘made up’ a marriage intends between Catherine (‘Kate’) Kavanagh and Peter M’Shane, and throws Pat Connex out the door.

Patchwork’. the Church architect wants £200 for the church walls; Mary Byrne and Ned Kavanagh have only £2 instead of the £5 that Fr. Maguire expects for marrying them, and he refuses; Mary and Ned have the wedding party and spend the night together; when he hears of this scandal, he turns to his Fr. Stafford.

The Wedding Feast’: Kate allows herself to be bullied into marrying Pether (M’Shane), but then decides to go to America on the morrow.

The Window’: Biddy M’Hale, enriched from her ‘hins’ [poultry], is asked to pay for the walls but eventually gets her stained glass window.

A Letter to Rome’: Father James MacTurnan writes a letter to the Pope suggesting that the Irish priests should marry to prevent Ireland becoming Protestant, with so many Catholics going to America; James Murdoch cannot marry Catharine Mulhane until he earns the price of a pig; MacTurnan’s bishop, who has received notice from the hierarchy of the letter, gently separates the priest from his obsession.

Julia Cahill’s Curse’: Julia, a headstrong girl who want to choose her own husband and resents the talk of dowry going on between her suitors and her father, is denounced by the Fr. Madden, parish priest, from the altar; she is forces to leave for America since only a blind woman will give her shelter, and calls a curse down on the parish; ‘since that curse was spoken, every year a roof has fallen in’; Ballygliesane is the loneliest parish in Ireland; the narrator, agent of the Irish Industrial Society, promoting the establishment of looms, talks to his car driver, and later to Fr. Madden, who makes a practice of chasing away courting couples.

The Wedding Gown’: Margaret Kirwin (née O’Dwyer) comes back in old age to stay with relations near the Big House of the Roche family; she treasures her wedding gown but when she hears her neice Molly crying because she cannot go to the servants’ ball at the Big House without a dress, she offers it to her; she waits up for Molly, dreaming of her wedding; Molly, at the dance, has a premonition that something has happened to her aunt, breaks off during a dance with Mr Roche, and returns home to find her dead, her fear of death giving way to curiosity.

The Clerk’s Quest’: Edward Dempsey, clerk for Quin and Wee, is led to dream of romance by a scented cheque; he finds out who ‘Henrietta Brown’ is and writes to her; she complains; he is warned, and finally dismissed; he buys her jewels; he finally starves to death, thinking of her still as he lies down to die.

Almsgiving’: The unnamed narrator gives alms to a beggar, presuming his life to be unbearably miserable, but discovers that he has friends who likewise helps him to holidays and that his sufferings are bearable; the narrator ‘seemed to see arther into life than [he] had ever seen before’.

So On He Fares’: A mother who instinctively hates her child punishes him for inviting village boys into the garden by putting a bee down his back to sting him; he runs away and boards a barge headed for Shannon; for three years a lonely widow looks after him, but when she dies he is alone again and sets out on his travels; ten year after, he returns to find a young brother (Ulick Bourke) in the house, but leaves home again on finding that his mother still hates him as implacably as before.

The Wild Goose’ (Pts. 1-VIII): Ned Carmady, born in Birmingham, has lived an adventurous life in America and fought in Cuba; he comes to Ireland and settles in Co. Dublin, where he meets and marries Catherine Cronin, a Gaelic league enthusiast, the daughter of a rich dairy farmer (very like Katharine Tynan in her family circumstances); she encourages him to take up a politic career in the Home Rule movement; he develops an anti-clerical vein in public speaking, very much at odds with her intensely Catholic sensibilities; their lives grow sunder and he eventually returns to exile, ‘at one moment ashamed of what he had done, and overjoyed that he had done it’; much of the story is concerned with his reflections on the enslavement of the Irish to their priests (viz., her confessor Fr. Brennan), and the forced emigration of all those who prefer ‘joy’ to moral oppression and celibacy; relations between husband and wife, though circumscribed at first by her Catholic modesty, are marked by mutual understanding of their differences - presumably another lesson about sophisticated codes of living.

‘In the Clay’ [removed from 2nd and subsequent edns.:] Rodney, a sculptor in Dublin and son of a Dublin builder, is about to leave for Italy, ‘to where there was the joy of life, out of a damp, religious atmosphere in which nothing flourished but the religious vocation’; finds his statue of the Blessed Virgin and Child broken in his studio; Lucy Delaney, a girl he found in a solicitor’s office, had sat for him in the nude; Fr. McCabe, his patron, finds out; her tow younger brothers, who overhear Fr. Mccabe and their parents talking about the statue, have destroyed it out of ignorance, imagining they are helping Fr McCabe.

‘The Way Back’ [removed from 2nd and subsequent edns:]: Harding meets Lucy Delaney in London; she has burnt down her school and run away to go on the stage; Harding wants to make love to her but is cautious; when he finds detectives watching him, he goes to Dublin to seek out her parents; she marries Mr Wainscott, a mathematical instrument-maker from Chicago; at the close Rodney, Harding and Carmady talk of the plight of Ireland and the beauty of Italy; Harding ends by expressing his love for Ireland: ‘all your interesting utterances about the Italian Renaissance would not interest me half so much as what Paddy Durkin and Father Pat will say to me on the roadside.’ (1931 edn. incl. ‘Fugitives’, based on the material of ‘In the Clay’ and ‘The Way Back’; and incl. also a revised version of ‘The Wild Goose’.)

Parnell and His Island [1887; Ebury Edn. 1937], intro. Carla King (Dublin UCD Press 2004), begins by denigrating Killiney, and then Dublin city; ports. of landlords, MPs, Priests, poets.

The Lake (1905); Father Oliver Gogarty denounces Rose Leicester, music teacher in the Parish School, when she becomes pregnant; In the correspondence that builds up between them after he receives news of her wherabouts from an London priest, he expresses his remorse and she her indifference to convention; He is converted to her wider view of life; She works as the literary secretary of Mr. Ellis, a writer on the ancient origins of Christian philosophy [The Source of the Christian River]; Gogarty plans to disappear and go to America where he will work as a journalist; to avoid scandal, he pretends to have drowned in the lake, which has been the focus of his lonely sensitivity to nature and humanity from the beginning of the novel; Other than Gogarty and Rose Leicester, there are no fully drawn characters, though a variety of Roman Catholic clerical types are convassed in Father O’Grady, Father Moran, and Gogarty’s sister Eliza, the Reverend Mother; other minor characers include nationalists and gaelgoirís; in plan, the novel is a criticism of Irish Catholicism and more especially the native-life, anti-women philosophy of the Irish clergy; it is fairly contrived, considered as an argument; but the depiction of Gogarty and the discussion of the opposition of flesh and intellect is effectively done; Gogarty is flogged by Tom Bryan to whom he gives a flagellant’s cane, not realising what real cruelty is; he expunges his humiliation in hard work; one of the thrusts of the novel is the imporance of flowers - the colour of, the liking for - in the rejuvenation of Irish sensibility after the massacre of Jansenist Catholicism. Note, Oliver St. John Gogarty’s remark in It Isn’t This Time of Year At All [1954, 1983], ‘I have not forgiven Moore for his attempt at wit when my mother called on him to object to the use of my name in his novel, The Lake’ [to which:] "Madame, if you can find me a name which is composed of two dactyls, like the name of your son Oliver, I will substitute it for Oliver Gogarty".

Hail and Farewell, 3 vols. (1947 edn., with sep. pagination per vol., viz., Ave (1911, rep. 1947); Salve (1912, rep. 1926); Vale (1914, 2nd ed. 1915)]: The whole trilogy is governed by a cyclic movement. His friendship with AE is the central relationship. But more important still, and increasingly as the narrative unfolds, is the book itself, an embodiment of his ‘belief’ that he was ‘an instrument’ in ‘the liberation of my country from priestcraft.’ This, of course, might have been a dour and humourless ambition were it not for the urbanity and comical diffidence of the author, exposing his own vanity and folly as well as his appetite for life. Accordingly, he choses to write the ‘sacred book’ in the form of an ‘autobiography’ [V295]. It includes ‘literary silhouettes’ [Vale, conversation with Eglinton about AE.] The time frames covered include the Revival proper (ten years, ?1897-1907]; the period when landlord troubles brought him back - aged forty-six (with Stella); his youth in Ballinrobe and Paris; his time at the Temple in London with Martyn; other times in Paris and London. Moore began Hail and Farewell with a firm plan, ‘from which [he] never strayed’, for ‘any straying would have been fatal, so intricate are the windings of the story I had been chosen to tell.’ The story is, on the surface, that if his involvement with the Irish revival; but more deeply, his ‘discovery’ in the garden at Ely Place that Catholicism is the enemy of intellectual culture and literature; and, beyond that, an appraisal of modern Irish history in the period of the Land Acts, and, with it, an appraisal of the system of individualism and aestheticism which Moore reveres as the proper form of artistic and social life. Chap. XI, a specimen of Moore’s discursive unity, goes from 1901 to 1914, that is, from the early Revival to Gogarty’s Ely Place era. Moore later professed, ‘for years I believed myself to be the author of Hail and Frewell, wheras I was nothing more than the secretary.’

Marban’, an episode in The Story-Teller’s Holiday (1918), relates to the Abbot his sin in making love to Luachet, a beautiful young woman who brings him ‘the white scriptures’ in her hand. Marban has confessed how love for her overcame him as previously in life the love of Jesus, and argues, ‘I cannot belived it true that my love of her will rob me of my love of Jesus, nor that her love of me will rob him of her love, for in our hearts it is all one and the same thing, and aren’t we more sure that God make our hearts than of anything else?’ The Abbot demurs, then concurs: ‘As good a doctrine as I’ve heard this many a day, said the Abbot, and what’s true in it has been for a long time past in the mind of God, and will be for evermore.’

Oscott College is described, with Ware and Ushaw, in Sencourt, Life of Newman, ‘in all of these the classes were mixed, the polish lacking, and over all there hung the professional piety of the seminary, with a rather constricted view of human life. The converts from Oxford noticed the differences at once [and] published comments ...’ (p.171).

Corunna, George Henry Moore’s most successful horse, won the Chester Cup, 7th May, 1846, with a return of £17,000 on his personal stake (equiv. of £999,763 in modern money), writing to his mother: ‘It will give me the means of being very useful to the poor the season ... no tenant of mine shall want’; the George Moore Society presented documents relating to his triumph to the Chester Race Course in 1995; the stake was partly put up with borrowings from Lord Waterford, the other keen horse-trainer of the period.

Epitaph on Moore’s his grave on Castle Island: ‘He forsook his family and his friends / for his art / But because he was faithful to his art / His family and friends / Recovered his ashes for Ireland / Vale.’ Moore indicated that he wished his ashes to be strewn on Hampstead Heath. (Cited in P. J. Kavanagh, Voices in Ireland, 1994, p.243.)

Sean O’Faolain (The Irish: A Character Study, Penguin 1947): [George Moore’s] special circumstances, his wealth mainly, made it possible for him to transer himself bodily, and to a great extent mentally, out of Ireland as a very young man. What he learned in France went into his naturalistic novels. The nationalist excitement drew him back to Ireland, out of which he got two excellent books, Hail and Farewell and The Lake.’ (p.136).

Elizabeth Bowen gives an pertinent account of A Drama in Muslin in The Shelbourne (1951, 1955), pp.109-13: ‘[It] follows the fortunes of a group of debutants, brought up from the West of Ireland by husband-hunting mammas. Mrs. Barton, mother of our heroine, Alice, and of her prettier sister Olive, has made the hotel the headquarters of her winter campaigns.’ (p.109). Further, ‘quietness on all fronts precedes the opening of the offensive - which, in A Drama in Muslin, reaches its height on the night of the Castle Drawingroom - February 20th. ... All is breathless flutter, and swirls of finery ...’ (p.110). Further, ‘Husbands and fathers, also bound for the Castle, are less happy - black velvet garbs them, with glittering cut-steel bottons; their calves are silk-clad. George Moore, with his candid novelist’s camera, snaps these gentlemen unaarares, tripping over their swords.’ [p.113].

James Joyce: Indications of Moore’s influence on Joyce incl. Moore’s priest, in Ave, calling attention to the famous line that echoes the crash of the wave onto the beach [A198; cf. ‘Proteus’]. Also Moore’s wading girl: ‘Sitting on the bank, they drew off their shoes and stockings and advanced into the water, kilting their pettitcoats above their knees as it deepened. On seeing me they laughed invitingly; as if desirig my appreciation once girl walked across the pool, lifting her red petticoat to her waist, and forgetting to drop it when the water shallowed, she showed me thighs whiter and rounder than any I have ever seen, their country courseness heighening the temptation. And she continued to come towards me. ... they might have bathed naked before me, and it would have been the boldest I should have chosen, if fortune had favoured me. But Yeats and Edward began calling, and, dropping her petticoats, she waded away from me. S143] [Cf.A |Portrait, Chap. V; also Ulysses, ‘Nausicaa’.] Further, ‘Too much rectory lawn in Tennyson [A46; cf. Joyce]; intellect exhausted ... like one who has won a fellowship at Trinity [A140]; Casual visiting is one of the pleasures of Dublin life. [V2]; The acoustics of Dublin are perfect [S129];

Errata? in Hail & Farewell: in those days when women desert their lovers as frequently as men desert their mistresses [V284]; typographical errors incl. <Sinn Fien> two times out of three at V240-41.

Joyce’s Library in Trieste copies of Celibates: Three Short Stories (London 1895); Evelyn Innes (London: T. Fisher Unwin 1898), and Do. (Tauchnitz 1901); Hail and Farewell: Ave, Salve, Vale (Leipzig: Tauchnitz 1912, 1912, 1912), each stamped "J.J."; The Lake (London: Heinemann 1905); Lewis and Some Women (Paris: Louis Conard 1917); Memoirs of My Dead Life (Leipzig: Tauchnitz 1906); Muslin (London: Heinemann 1915), stamped "J.J."; Sister Teressa (London: T. Fisher Unwin [n.d.]); Spring Days (Leipzig: Tauchnitz 1912); The Untilled Field (Leipzig: Tauchnitz 1903), stamped "J.J.", and Vain Fortune (London; Walter Scott 1895), signed ‘James A. Joyce March, 1901’. (See Richard Ellmann, The Consciousness of James Joyce, Faber, p.120 [Appendix].)

Joyce’s vale: James Joyce send a 2-guinea wreathe to George Moore’s funeral, instructing Miss Weaver to purchase it against his forthcoming cheque while ‘excluding ivy absolutely’. (See Richard Ellmann, James Joyce, 1959 & Edns.)

A portrait of Moore in oil by John Butler Yeats, 1905, commissioned by John Quinn, NGI [BREF 157]; also an coloured chalk portrait by William Rothenstein. NOTE, the John B. Yeats [NGI], on which the painter spent a year, leaving it finally unfinished when Moore left Ireland; Lily Yeats writing to Quinn described it as a very good portrait which did not make people laugh as other portraits of Moore did; NOTE, Moore is included in ‘Homage to Manet’ by Sir William Orpen (1909), with P W. Steer, Henry Tonks, Hugh Lane, W. R. Sickert, et al.

Death mask of George Moore cast in bronze from wax original by John Behan.; also Edouard Manet, ‘George Moore’, pastel on fine canvas, held by Metropolitan Museum of Art Havermeyer Collection, printed in Shirley Neuman, Some One Myth, Yeats’s Autobiographical Prose [New Yeats Papers XIX] (Dolmen Press 1982), p.93; also a port. in ink on brown paper by Manet, rep. in Juliet Wilson-Bareau, Manet By Himself (?1965).

Au Café”, a portrait of George Moore by Eduard Manet, not in the Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art (NY), is featured on the cover of Fintan Cullen, ed., Sources in Irish Art: A Reader (Cork UP 2000), 325pp.

 

 

 


Princess Grace Irish Library (Monaco)