Dinosauria Translation and Pronunciation Guide S

    Ben Creisler

    Web Page copyright © 1996-2002 by Jeff Poling. Text copyright © 1996-2002 by Ben Creisler. This material may not be reproduced except as provided for in the "fair-use doctrine" of title 17, U.S. Code.
    Last updated July 7, 2003. Updated every Monday and Thursday, as necessary.

    Saichania Maryanska 1977 "beautiful one"

    sie-KAHN-ee-a (Mongolian saikhan "beautiful" + -ia)* (f) reason for name not explained, but possibly to indicate the well-preserved condition of the fossil skull, or an ironic description of a grotesque, heavily armored animal. Ankylosauria Ankylosauridae L. Cret. CAs.

    Saltasaurus Bonaparte & Powell 1980 "Salta Province (Argentina) lizard"

    SAHL-tah-SAWR-us (Salta + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for Salta Province, Argentina, where the fossil was found. Sauropoda Titanosauridae L. Cret. SA.

    Saltopus von Huene 1910 "hopping foot"

    SAL-to-pus (Lat. salto "leap, hop" + Gr. pous "foot") (m) a name "expressing a hopping mode of locomotion". According to von Huene, the hind limbs "very much bring to mind those of a frog" and were "too long for the animal to have been able to walk upright." "A creeping and hopping locomotion" was also in accord with the relatively long forelimbs, and indicated a "very primitive" dinosaur. Although commonly depicted as a small upright bipedal dinosaur, the fragmentary specimen may be a lagosuchid or other nondinosaurian. ?Theropoda L. Trias. Eur. [nomen dubium]

    Sanpasaurus Young 1946 "Sanba [= Sichuan, China] lizard"

    SAHN-BAH-SAWR-us (Sanpa [= Sanba, an ancient name for Sichuan] + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) for Sanba, an ancient name for Sichuan Province, China, where the fossils were found. The type specimen consists of fragmentary remains of an iguanodontid and a sauropod. The name is now generally restricted to the sauropod material. Sauropoda (in part) M. Jur. China [nomen dubium]

    Santanaraptor Kellner 1999 "Santana (Formation)thief"

    sahn-TAHN-uh-RAP-tor (Santana (contraction from Santa Ana "Saint Ann)) + Lat. raptor "thief, plunderer") (m) named to indicate a theropod from the Santana Formation of the Araripe Basin, Northeastern Brazil, "the lithostratigraphic unit where this specimen was found." Santanaraptor is a small coelurosaur known from a partial skeleton (preserved in a calcareous nodule), including ischia, hindlimbs, 3 caudal vertebrae and other bones, along with a patch of fossilized skin (Holotype: MN 4802-V (Museu Nacional Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)). The ischium has a very large U-shaped obturator notch (25-30% ischial length). The femur is long, curved, and comparatively gracile, with a well developed foramen at the based of the lesser trochanter; the metatarsals are 70% the length of the femur; the foot is tridactyl, with digit 1 very reduced. The neural arches are not fused to the centra of the tail vertebrae, suggesting the specimen is a juvenile. I>Santanaraptor was probably around 1 meter (6 ft) in length and about 70 cm (2.5 ft) tall at the hips, weighing around 30 kilos (65 pounds). The fossilized patch of skin preserved with the bones shows a thin epidermis with a criss-cross pattern of deep-grooves bordering irregular quadrangles--there is no evidence of dermal ossicles, scales or featherlike structures, which likely would have been preserved if originally present.

    Type Species: Santanaraptor placidus [PLAS-i-duhs] "in honor of Placido Cidada Nuvens, who [conceived of], constructed, and supported the Museu de Santana do Cariri, in an attempt to protect this important fossil site." Theropoda Coelurosauria Early Cretaceous (Albian) SA [added 8/2000]

    Sarcolestes Lydekker 1893 "flesh robber"

    SAHR-ko-LES-teez (Gr. sark- (sarx) "flesh" + Gr. lestes "robber") (m) named to indicate a supposed theropod: "the jaw may be regarded as having pertained to an Oxfordian representative of [the Theropodous group of Dinosaurs]." Now reidentified as be longing to an early nodosaur, a plant-eater. Ankylosauria Nodosauridae L. Jur. Eur. [nomen dubium]

    Sarcosaurus Andrews 1921 "flesh lizard"

    SAHR-ko-SAWR-us (Gr. sark- (sarx) "flesh" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named to indicate a flesh-eating "megalosaur." Theropoda Carnosauria i.s. E. Jur. Eur.

    Saturnalia Langer, Abdala, Richter & Benton 1999 "carnival (dinosaur)"

    sat-uhr-NAY-lee-uh (Lat. Saturnalia, a festival) (f) named after the Roman holiday Saturnalia, equivalent to carnival in modern Catholic countries, in reference to the feasting period before Lent when the paratype specimens were found; the fossils come from the Late Triassic (Carnian) Alemoa Member, Santa Maria Formation red beds of Santa Maria, Rio Grando do Sul State, southern Brazil. Saturnalia is a small (1.5 m long), gracile, plant-eating sauropodomorph known from an incomplete semi-articulated skeleton (Holotype: MCP 3844-PV (Museu de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil) that preserves the right hindlimb, foot and pelvis, and from two paratypes, one with the natural cast of a lower jaw. The skull is relatively small (estimated at about 10 cm long), with teeth lanceolate and coarsely serrated, posterior teeth being more leaf-shaped. The humerus has a deltopectoral crest extending for 50% the length of the bone. Primitive features include an acetabulum that is not fully open. The ankle morphology is similar to Herrerasaurus.

    Type Species: Saturnalia tupiniquim [too-pee-NEE-keem] : "native," a Portuguese word of Guarani origin, an endearing way of referring to native things from Brazil. Sauropodomorpha Late Triassic (Carnian) SA. [added 11/99]

    Saurischia Seeley 1888 "lizard hips"

    saw-RIS-kee-a (Gr. sauros "lizard" + Gr. iskhion "hip joint") (n) According to Seeley: "In this order the pubis is directed forward from its symphysis with the ischium, and no posterior limb of the bone is developed. Both the pubis and ischium appear to meet at a medium symphysis, so that the arrangement and relations of the bones are Lacertilian." Originally proposed to include theropods, prosauropods and sauropods. In some recently discovered saurischians, however, the pubis is directed backward as in birds: segnosaurs, dromaeosaurs and herrerasaurs (if classified as saurischians). [taxon]

    Saurolophus Brown 1912 "crested saurian"*

    saw-ROL-o-fus (c.u.: SAWR-o-LOHF-us) (Gr. sauros "lizard" + Gr. lophos "crest") (m) alluding to the solid bony crest projecting backward over the top of its skull. Ornithopoda Hadrosauridae Hadrosaurinae L. Cret. NA.

    Sauropelta Ostrom 1970 "shield lizard"

    SAWR-o-PEL-ta (Gr. sauros "lizard" + Gr. pelte "shield")* (f) named in reference to its well developed dermal armor. Ankylosauria Nodosauridae L. Cret. NA.

    Saurophaganax Chure 1995 "king of the reptile eaters"*

    SAWR-o-FAG-a-naks (Gr. sauros "lizard" + Gr. phago "eat" + Gr. anax "king, ruler, master") (m) proposed for a new taxon defined from material attributed to an extremely large allosaurid (15 m.) discovered in Oklahoma, referred to as "Saurophagus" Stovall, generally considered a nomen nudum, and a preoccupied name. Chure judged the lectotype (a tibia) designated by Hunt and Lucas (1987) to be undiagnostic; therefore, despite the similar type species name, Saurophaganax maximus Chure 1995 is not intended as a replacement name for Saurophagus maximus Stovall in Hunt and Lucas 1987, a taxon that cannot be differentiated. The new generic name was suggested by Ben Creisler and amplifies the meaning of the name in character with Stovall's original concept. Theropoda Tetanurae Allosauridae L. Jur. NA.

    Saurophagus Stovall 1941 "reptile eater"

    saw-ROF-a-gus (Gr. sauros "lizard" + Gr. phago "eat" + -us) (m) named to indicate an extremely large carnivorous allosaur, possibly distinct from Allosaurus, and perhaps the same as Epanterias Cope. The name as originally published appears to be a nomen nudum. (Preoccupied by Saurophagus Swainson 1831.)

    Sauroplites Bohlin 1953 "shield-carrier lizard"

    sawr-o-PLIE-teez (Gr. sauros "lizard" + Gr. hoplites "armored soldier") (m) named for its armor. Ankylosauria Nodosauridae L. Cret. China [nomen dubium]

    Sauropoda Marsh 1878 "lizard feet"

    saw-ROP-o-da (Gr. sauros "lizard" + Gr. pod- (pous) "foot" + -a) (n) According to Marsh, the Sauropoda were named "from the general character of the feet," which were supposedly "plantigrade, with five toes on each foot," as in crocodiles and lizards. In Marsh's view, sauropod dinosaurs were "the least specialized of the order, and in some characters show approach to the Mesozoic Crocodiles, as to suggest a common ancestry at no very remote period." Marsh's earliest restorations depict sauropod feet as splayed out flat like those of crocodiles, with large blunt claws on all five toes. Trackway evidence shows, however, that sauropod feet were actually digitigrade (toe-walking) like those of elephants with broad cushioning pads, making the term "sauropod" something of a misnomer. [taxon]

    Sauroposeidon Wedel, Cifelli & Sanders 2000 "earthquake god lizard"

    SAWR-o-po-SIE-don (Gr. sauros "lizard" + Poseidon, god of earthquakes in Greek mythology) (m) referring to the gigantic size of a brachiosaurid sauropod dinosaur, estimated at possibly up to 30 m (100 ft) long and weighing 60 tons. Sauroposeidon is currently known from a group of 4 articulated neck vertebrae with cervical ribs (Holotype: OMNH 53062 (Oklahoma Museum of Natural History)) found in the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) Antlers Formation, Atoka County, southeastern Oklahoma. The individual neck vertebrae are extremely elongated (up to 1.4 m in overall length). Each vertebra has two thin cervical ribs that extend backward beneath the two previous centra for a total length of 3.42 m; the cervical ribs overlap and are the longest so far described for sauropods. Based on Brachiosaurus, the preserved vertebrae are thought to represent cervicals 5-6-7-8; the simple, unbifurcated neural spines are low on C5 and C6, but have a high triangular shape on C7 and C8. The construction of the vertebrae is extremely light (the outer layer of bone being only 1 to 3 mm thick), with deep excavations in the centra and neural spines, and an internal structure characterized by irregular, very thin septa dividing small pneumatic chambers. Sauroposeidon likely resembled the earlier Brachiosaurus in overall shape and posture, but took the tendency towards elongation and pneumatization of the neck vertebrae to an extreme, resulting in a neck that may have been at least 12 m (40 ft) feet long--the longest known to date for any vertebrate.

    Type Species: Sauroposeidon proteles [PROT-e-leez] Wedel, Cifelli & Sanders 2000: "perfected before the end" "in reference to the species' culmination of brachiosaurid adaptations just before the extinction of North American sauropods."

    Sauropoda Brachiosauridae Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) NA [added 5/2000]

    Saurornithoides Osborn 1924 "saurian with birdlike rostrum"*

    saw-ROR-ni-THOI-deez (t.L.m.: SAWR-or-NITH-o-IE-deez) (Gr. sauros "lizard" + Gr. ornith- (ornis) "bird" + -oides "like") (m) named for its skull. Osborn explains: "Its long pointed rostrum suggested the skull of one of the toothed birds." Theropoda Coelurosauria Troodontidae L. Cret. CAs.

    Saurornitholestes Sues 1978 "birdlike-lizard robber"

    SAWR-or-NITH-o-LES-teez (Gr. sauros "lizard" + Gr. ornith- (ornis) "bird" + Gr. lestes "thief") (m) named "in reference to its similarily to the saurornithoididae and its carnivorous mode of life." Theropoda Dromaeosauridae L. Cret. NA.

    Scelidosaurus Owen 1859 "hind-leg lizard"

    SKEL-i-do-SAWR-us (Gr. skelid- (skelis) "lower hind leg" + Gr. sauros "lizard")* (m) Owen explains: "from the indications of greater power in the hind legs than in most Saurians." Owen did not designate a type specimen, though the name has been used historically for an early armored ornithischian[/predentatan], based on a skeleton in the British Museum. Confusingly, R. Lydekker later chose a lectotype now identified as a carnosaur leg bone. ICZN Opinion #1788 designated a skull and a skeleton of an armored dinosaur in the British Museum (BMNH Pal. Dept. no. R. 1111) as the replacement lectotype to conserve the established usage of the name for a thyreophoran. Thyreophora Scelidosauridae E. Jur. Eur. NA.

    Scipionyx Dal Sasso & Signore 1998 "Scipio's claw"

    sip-ee-ON-iks (Scipio (an ancient Roman family name from Lat. scipio "staff, stick") + Gr. onyx "claw") (m) named to honor (1) Scipione Breislak (1748-1826), the 18th-19th century Italian geologist who published the first scientific description of the Early Cretaceous Pietraroia limestone formation in which the fossil was found (near Naples in Benevento Province, Italy), as well as (2) Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (237-183 BC), the celebrated Roman general and military hero who fought in the Mediterranean area and defeated the Carthaginian general Hannibal during the Punic Wars; for a small carnivorous coelurosaur related to the "killer-clawed" dromaeosaurs and troodontids. The specimen (the first dinosaur skeleton found in Italy) is a 9 in. long juvenile that had hatched shortly before its death, since none of its teeth had been replaced yet. The skeleton is complete except for the greater part of the tail and the lower part of the hindlimbs (thus it cannot be determined if the dinosaur had a slashing toe claw). A furcula ("wishbone") is preserved in place above the coracoids, eliminating any doubt that some theropods had this birdlike structure. Scipionyx shares a number of features with different groups of coelurosaurs, including an ornithomimid-like pelvis, dromaeosaurid-like forelimbs and skull elements, and troodontid-like neck vertebrae--at present it cannot be classified in any established group of coelurosaurs beyond the Maniraptoriformes. An adult would be about 2 meters (6 ft.) long.

    The fossil is remarkable above all for remains of internal organs and muscle tissue preserved along with the bones. The lungs were not preserved, but the position of the liver may indicate the size and arrangement of the lungs, providing a clue as to whether its respiration, and thus its metabolism, was more similar to crocodiles or to birds. The chest area appears to be relatively small, ordinarily a sign of a less active metabolism. However, the animal's gut is also shorter than expected, which could indicate an ability to process food very efficiently. No traces of skin or featherlike covering were preserved, unlike recently discovered specimens of Sinosauropteryx from China. However, the complex processes involving bacteria and chemistry that fossilize different types of soft-tissues mean that local conditions could favor leaving traces of fast-decaying internal organs, but not tougher, slower-decaying keratin-based structures such as a feathers, claw-sheaths, scutes or scales. The fact that no "protofeathers" were preserved in the Pietraroia specimen does not mean that Scipionyx may not have had such a covering in life.

    Type species: Scipionyx samniticus [sam-NIT-i-kus] "from Samnium," the ancient name for the region of Italy that includes Benevento Province. Theropoda Tetanurae Coelurosauria Maniraptoriformes E. Cret. (Albian) Eur.

    Scolosaurus Nopsca 1928 "spiny lizard"

    SKOH-lo-SAWR-us (Gr. skolos "spine, thorn" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named "to indicate the spiny nature of the creature" [= Dyoplosaurus]

    Scutellosaurus Colbert 1981 "small-shield lizard"

    skoo-TEL-o-SAWR-us (Lat. scutellum "small shield" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) alluding to the rows of small bony scutes along the back and tail. Thyreophora E. Jur. Jur. NA.

    Secernosaurus Brett-Surman 1979 "separated lizard"

    see-SER-no-SAWR-us (Lat. secerno "sever, divide" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) referring to the non-Laurasian origin of a hadrosaur found in Patagonia, Argentina, and thus a form geographically separated from the North American, European and Asian members of the family. Ornithopoda Hadrosauridae Hadrosaurinae L. Cret. SA.

    Segisaurus Camp 1936 "Segi Canyon (Arizona) lizard"

    SAYG-ee-SAWR-us (Segi (from Navajo tsegi "rock canyon") + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for Segi Canyon, northern Arizona, where the fossil was found in the Navajo Sandstone. Theropoda Ceratosauria Podokesauridae E. Jur. NA.

    Segnosaurus Perle 1979 "slow lizard"

    SEG-no-SAWR-us (Lat. segnis "slow" + Gr. sauros "lizard")* (m) originally considered a theropod, but with short, non-compressed four-toed feet and a broad, massive pelvis, apparently indicating a slow-moving animal, unlike a typical active predator. Theropoda Therizinosauroidea Segnosauridae L. Cret. CAs.

    Seismosaurus Gillette 1991 "earth shaker dinosaur"*

    SIES-mo-SAWR-us (Gr. seismos "earthquake" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for its enormous size, estimated at over 130 feet (40 m.) in length, based on parts of an extremely long tail, a robust sacrum and some elongated neck vertebrae. Sauropoda Diplodocidae L. Jur. NA.

    Sellosaurus von Huene 1908 "saddle (vertebra) lizard"

    SEL-o-SAWR-us (Lat. sellos "saddle" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for the form of the vertebrae: "The tail vertebrae differ in important ways from those of the upper Keuper plateosaurs...The saddle between the prezygopophyses and the neural spine is much wider and flatter than otherwise." Prosauropoda Plateosauridae L. Trias. Eur.

    Shamosaurus Tumanova 1983 "desert lizard"

    SHAH-maw-SAWR-us (Chin. sha "sand" + Chin. mo "desert" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) referring to the Gobi desert, where the fossils were found in Mongolia. Ankylosauria Ankylosauridae E. Cret. CAs.

    Shanshanosaurus Dong 1977 "Shanshan (China) lizard"

    SHAHN-SHAHN-o-SAWR-us (Shanshan + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for Shanshan zhan, Turpan Basin, northwestern China and the Shanshan Group of deposits, where the fossils were found. Theropoda ?Tyrannosauridae L. Cret. China

    Shantungosaurus Hu 1977 "Shangdong (China) lizard"

    SHAHN-DUNG-o-SAWR-us (Shantung [= Shandong (Chin. shan "mountain" + Chin. dong "east")] + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for Shangdong Province, China, where the specimen was found; Latin type species giganteus (ji-gan-TEE-us) "gigantic" indicates one of the largest hadrosaurs known (+15 m.). Ornithopoda Hadrosauridae Hadrosaurinae L. Cret. China

    Shanxia Barrett, You, Upchurch & Burton 1998 "for Shanxi (Province)"

    shahn-SHEE-a (Shanxi "West Mountain (Province)" (Chin. shan "mountain" + xi "west") + -a) (f) named to indicate an ankylosaur found in Shanxi Province, northeastern China. The type material from the Hiquanpu Formation (?Late Cretaceous) consists of an incomplete skeleton, including vertebrae, right humerus, right femur, a dermal scute and a fragmentary broad skull with distinctive squamosal horns projecting outward from the back of the head. The squamosal horns differ from those of other known ankylosaurids in their shape: slender and elongate, resembling isosceles triangles in form when viewed from above. They jut sideways and backward from the back of the skull at an angle of 145 degrees to the crosswise axis of the skull. Based on the size of the femur and humerus, the animal was probably about 3.6 meters (12 ft.) long. Type species: Shanxia tianzhenensis [tyen-juh-NEN-sis] "from Tian Zhen (County)," where the type material was found in Wu Valley, Shanxi Province. Ankylosauria Ankylosauridae L. Cret. China

    Shanyangosaurus Xue, Zhang & Bi 1996 "Shanyang lizard"

    shahn-yahng-o-SAWR-us (Chin. Shanyang (from shan "mountain" + yang "south (of)" (= south of the mountain)) + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for Shanyang and the Shanyang Formation, in southern Shaanxi Province, China. A small theropod known from a partial skeleton, including parts of the front and hind limbs, notable for a short, curved femur and a slender twisting tibia, with a long cnemial crest; the ribs apparently have hooklike uncinate processes. Found near Niupanggou, in the Late Cretaceous Shanyang Formation, Shaanxi Province, China. Type species: Shanyangosaurus niupanggouensis [nyoh-pahng-goh-EN-sis] "from Niupanggou" Theropoda i.s. L. Cret. China

    Shunosaurus Dong, Zhou & Zhang 1983 "Sichuan (China) lizard"

    SHOO-no-SAWR-us (Shu + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) from Shu, an old name for the Sichuan region of China, where the specimens were found. Sauropoda Cetiosauridae M. Jur. China

    Shuvosaurus Chatterjee 1993 "Shuvo's lizard"

    SHOO-vo-SAWR-us (Shuvo + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named to honor Sankar Chatterjee's son, Shuvo, who discovered the toothless type skull during preparation of material from the Dockum Formation, Texas; currently identified as an apparent ornithomimosaur from the Late Triassic. Long and Murry (1995) have suggested that the skull may belong instead to a small bipedal rauisuchian they have named Chatterjea, based on post-cranial material originally attributed to the rauisuchian Postosuchus, and found at the same fossil site. (?) Theropoda Shuvosauridae L. Trias. NA.

    Shuvuuia Chiappe, Norell & Clark 1998 "bird"

    shu-VOO-ee-a (Mong. shuvuu "bird" + -ia) (f) named to indicate a Mononykus-like animal from Mongolia (South Gobi Aimak (Djadokhta Formation)), notable for many birdlike features in its skull, including the ability to bend the snout upward independently of the braincase (prokinesis). The skull is about 8 cm. (3.2 in.) long, and delicately built with large orbits and tiny, unserrated teeth in the front part of the upper jaws and along a continuous groove in the dentary bone of the lower jaw. The material consists of two extremely well preserved skulls, with vertebrae, limbs, and other post-cranial bones originally attributed to Mononykus. Shuvuuia is distinguished from Mononykus by the shape of its humerus and tibia, as well as its neck vertebrae and skull, but was similar in size (about the size of a wild turkey). To date, Shuvuuia provides the best skull material from any alvarezsaurid, and, according to the authors' cladistic analysis, confirms the identification of alvarezsaurids as a family of primitive flightless birds rather than as a group of non-avian theropod dinosaurs. Type species: Shuvuuia deserti [dee-SER-tie] "of the desert," referring to the semi-arid environment in which the Djadokhta Formation (?Campanian) was deposited. Theropoda (Aves) Alvarezsauridae Mononykinae L. Cret. Mongolia [dino-bird]

    Siamosaurus Buffetaut & Ingavat 1986 "Siamese lizard"

    sie-AM-o-SAWR-us (Siam, an old name for Thailand + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for Thailand, where the fossil was found. Theropoda Spinosauria Spinosauridae E. Cret. SEAs. (Thailand)

    Siamotyrannus Buffetaut, Suteethorn & Tong 1996 "Siamese tyrannt"

    sie-AM-o-ti-RAN-us (Siam, an old name for Thailand + Gr. tyrannos "tyrannt") (m) named to indicate a theropod identified as a tyrannosaurid (the earliest known) found in northeastern Thailand. Theropoda Tyrannosauridae E. Cret. SEAs (Thailand)

    Sigilmassasaurus Russell 1996 "Sijilmassa (Morocco) lizard"

    see-jil-MAH-sah-SAWR-us (Sigilmassa (= Sijilmassa, an ancient city in southern Morocco) + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for the once wealthy and powerful city of Sijilmassa, now in ruins, in the Tafilalt oasis region in southern Morocco, where the fossil was found. Theropoda Sigilmassasauridae M. Cret. NAfr.

    Siluosaurus Dong 1996 "Silk Road lizard"

    suh-LOO-o-SAWR-us (Chin. Silu "Silk Road" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for the Silk Road, the ancient trade route through China and Central Asia that carried Chinese silk and other goods to the Middle East and Europe. The 1992 Sino-Japanese Silk Road Expedition that found the specimen followed the old Silk Road to Central Asia. Based on two ornithopod teeth belonging to the smallest known hypsilophodontid, found in the Early Cretaceous lower Xinminbao Group from the Mazongshan Area, Gonpoquan Basin, Gansu Province, north central China. Type species: Siluosaurus zhangqiani [jahng-CHYEN-ie] "for Zhang Qian," a diplomat for the Han dynasty, "for his contributions to establishing the diplomatic and trade relationships between China and countries along the 'Silk Road' during his time." Ornithopoda Hypsilophodontidae E. Cret. China

    Silvisaurus Eaton 1960 "forest lizard"

    SIL-vi-SAWR-us (Lat. silva "woods, forest" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) name not explained but probably patterned after the name Hylaeosaurus (interpreted as "forest lizard") to indicate it "may be little changed anatomically from the Old World acanthopholids...and such nodosaurs as Polacanthus." Ankylosauria Nodosauridae L. Cret. NA.

    Sinocoelurus Young 1942 "Chinese coelurid"

    SIEN-o-see-LOOR-us (New Lat. sino- (Gr. Sinai (Lat. Sinae), an oriental people) "Chinese" + Coelurus (Gr. koilos "hollow" + Gr. oura "tail" + -us)) (m) named for China; a small coelurid based on isolated teeth found in Sichuan Province, China. Theropoda Coeluridae L. Jur. China [nomen dubium]

    Sinornithoides Russell & Dong 1993 "Chinese birdlike (dinosaur)"

    sie-NOR-ni-THOI-deez (t.L.m.: SIEN-or-NITH-o-IE-deez) (New Lat. sino- (Gr. Sinai (Lat. Sinae), an oriental people) "Chinese" + (Saur)ornithoides (Gr. ornith- (ornis) "bird" + -oides "like")) (m) named in allusion to the Chinese occurrence of a Saurornithoides-like dinosaur. Theropoda Coelurosauria Troodontidae E. Cret. China

    Sinornithosaurus Xu, Wang & Wu 1999 "Chinese birdlike dinosaur"

    SIEN-or-nith-o-SAWR-us (Gr. Sinai (Lat. Sinae), an oriental people ("Chinese") + Gr. ornith- (ornis) "bird" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named to indicate a birdlike dromaeosaurid theropod from China, notable for very long forelimbs capable of a wide range of motion similar to that used by birds to flap their wings, and for remains of a feather-like covering preserved with the fossil bones. Sinornithosaurus is known from a fairly complete but disarticulated skeleton with skull (Holotype: IVPP V12811 (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Beijing)) found in the Early Cretaceous (?Barremian) lake-bed deposits of the Yixian Formation (Jehol Group) near Sihetun, in western Liaoning Province, northeastern China. The skull is 13 cm. (5.2 in.) long and has distinctive ornament-like pits and ridges on the surface of the antorbital fossa; premaxillary teeth are unserrated. The shoulder and forelimbs are very similar to those of Archaeopteryx and indicate an ability to rotate the forelimbs upward and to the sides; the forelimbs are about 80% the length of the hindlimbs, proportionately the longest forelimbs in any known theropod. Costal facets on the sternum suggest the ribs had hinged sternocostal joints, allowing a more birdlike type of respiration. The pelvic girdle and hindlimbs show many similarities to birds, including a reversed pubis with a cup-like end on the pubic symphysis. Remains of the right foot include part of the slashing toe-claw on the second digit. Most of the tail is not preserved, but a fragment reveals long, thin overlapping processes and ossified rods on the vertebrae, indicating a relatively stiff counter-balancing tail. Assuming similar proportions to other dromaeosaurs, Sinornithosaurus may have been about 1.5 m. (5 ft.) long. The type specimen also preserves displaced patches of filaments about 40 mm long around parts of the skeleton, similar to the feather-like structures associated with other fossils of small theropod dinosaurs found in the Liaoning beds. Sinornithosaurus probably had a covering of such fibers over its head and much of its body in life, but it is not known at present if it also had true feathers on its arms and tail similar to those found on Caudipteryx and Protarchaeopteryx.

    Type Species: Sinornithosaurus millenii [mi-LEN-ee-ie] Xu, Wang & Wu 1999: "of the Millennium," referring to its discovery near the end of the 20th Century. Theropoda Coelurosauria Maniraptora Dromaeosauridae Early Cretaceous (?Barremian) China [added 10/99]

    Sinosauropteryx Ji Q. & Ji S. 1996 "Chinese dinosaur wing"

    SIEN-o-saw-ROP-te-riks (Gr. Sinai (Lat. Sinae), an oriental people) "Chinese" + Gr. sauros "lizard" + Gr. pteryx "wing, feather") (f) named to indicate a supposed fossil "bird" from China, with some features of a theropod dinosaur. Found in ancient lake sediments in Liaoning Province, northeastern China, the type specimen is notable for its exceptional state of preservation, including remains of featherlike structures along its back and tail. Based on the "feathers," Ji Qiang and Ji Shuan initially misidentified the form as the most primitive bird ever found, though incorporating some characteristics of a small theropod dinosaur--an idea expressed in their proposed generic name, which combines a term for "lizard" or "dragon" used in dinosaur names with pteryx "wing" used in bird names, and the type species name prima (PRIE-ma) "primitive" (from Latin primus "first"). Researchers now recognize Sinosauropteryx prima as a small theropod dinosaur closely related to, but distinct from, Compsognathus. Although compsognathids are classified in the Coelurosauria, they are considered phylogenetically far removed from the group of coelurosaurs thought to be directly ancestral to birds, the Maniraptora.

    Specimens of three individuals of Sinosauropteryx prima have been discovered to date and are of tremendous scientific importance. The traces of soft-tissue anatomy, including integument, eyes, and possible internal organs, as well as stomach contents and unlaid eggs in the oviducts, make them the best preserved dinosaur remains ever found (Unwin, 1998 "Feathers, filaments and theropod dinosaurs" Nature 391: 119-120 (January 8, 1998)), although the fossils are flattened, distorting some details. The first major description to appear in a Western publication (Chen, Dong & Zhen, 1998. "An exceptionally well-preserved theropod dinosaur from the Yixian Formation of China. Nature 397:147-152 (January 8, 1998)) provides basic information about the first two specimens found: (1) a smaller complete individual preserved on two counterpart slabs, one in the National Geological Museum of China (Beijing), the other in the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology); and (2) a larger individual missing the end of the tail (also at the Nanjing museum). The new descriptions challenge a number of recent interpretations of the animal's anatomy and clarify basic details about the intriguing feather-like integument that forms a dark "halo" around the specimens.

    Sinosauropteryx prima is defined as a compsognathid with proportionately the longest tail of any known theropod, almost double the length from the tip of the snout to the base of the tail and consisting of an estimated 64 caudal vertebrae. The forelimbs are only 30% the length of the leg while the three-fingered hand carries an enlarged "killer" claw on the massive first digit. The species differs from Compsognathus in the proportions of its skull relative to its femur (skull 15% longer than femur), as well as in the shape of its hemal arches (simple and spatulate, not tapering as in Compsognathus). The smaller Sinosauropteryx specimen is .68 meter long while the bigger specimen (missing half its tail) is approximately a third larger. An adult animal was thus the size of large chicken, and perhaps slightly smaller than a full-grown Compsognathus (estimated at 1.25 meters long).

    The most extraordinary feature of the two described specimens is the preservation of filamentlike soft-tissue structures that covered parts of the body. Although these structure were originally characterized as feathers, it will take further microscopic and chemical studies to determine their true nature. The authors of the January 1998 Nature article indicate that the filaments are fairly simple structures that lack the barbules and hooklets found in modern feathers--they may be a kind of "protofeather" with no modern analog. The thin fibrous structures range in length from around 5mm to 40mm over different parts of the body and are coarser than hair typical for small mammals, though they were apparently soft and pliable, and possibly hollow. Although they were discrete structures, the filaments are tangled and matted in places, making it difficult to isolate individual strands. It is clear, however, that the structures are NOT simply traces of collagen fibers encased in skin that would have supported a lizard-like dermal frill--nor could they be remains of a fleshy "tail fin" supposedly used for swimming as recently suggested by a group of researchers who had only seen photos of the specimens. Although the integument is best preserved along the neck, back and upper and lower surface of the tail, additional patches are evident on the skull, forelimbs, legs, and ribcage, and it seems likely that the filaments covered much of the living animal. The exact purpose of the integument remains to be determined--it may have been for display, or, more likely for insulation, suggesting that Sinosauropteryx was endothermic to some degree. The discovery of primitive featherlike structures in a type of theropod not closely related to birds would suggest true feathers may have evolved from a type of featherlike covering possibly present in various types of small theropods.

    The authors note the darkened area in the gut region of the smaller specimen, which appears to be remains of the viscera. However, they attempt no description of the animal's internal anatomy. The second, larger specimen found has remains of a small lizard in its gut, while the third specimen has remains of a small mammal, confirming that Sinosauropteryx was an agile, alert hunter able to capture quick-moving prey. Even more intriguing are the presence of two apparent unlaid eggs in the abdominal region of the second specimen, unequivocal evidence that the individual was a female. The paired eggs add new insights into theropod reproduction following evidence that Troodon laid two large eggs at a time (Varricchio, et al. 1997 Nature 385: 247-250.).

    Current evidence favors an Early Cretaceous rather the Late Jurassic age for Sinosauropteryx--the Jianshangou fossil group includes remains of Psittacosaurus, as well as pollen associated with the Early Cretaceous. Most radiometric data from the area also seem to confirm an Early Cretaceous date. Theropoda Coelurosauria Compsognathidae E. Cret. China

    Sinosaurus Young 1948 "Chinese lizard"

    SIEN-o-SAWR-us (New Lat. sino- (Gr. Sinai (Lat. Sinae), an oriental people) "Chinese" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for China, where the specimen was found; part of an apparent theropod jaw. Theropoda i.s. E. Jur. China [nomen dubium]

    Sinraptor Currie & Zhao 1993 "Chinese robber"

    sien-RAP-tor (New Lat. sin- (Gr. Sinai (Lat. Sinae), an oriental people) "Chinese" + Lat. raptor "robber, thief")* (m) named to indicate a theropod from China; a large carnivorous dinosaur found found near Jiangjunmiao, in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China. Theropoda Carnosauria Sinraptoridae L. Jura. China

    Sonorasaurus Ratkevich 1998 "Sonoran (Desert) lizard"

    so-NOR-a-SAWR-us (Opata Indian Sonora, referring to the Sonora River in northwestern Mexico (namesake of Sonora state where most of Sonoran Desert lies) + Gr. sauros "lizard")* (m) named for the Sonoran Desert region of North America, where the fossils of this medium-sized brachiosaurid sauropod (about 30% smaller than Brachiosaurus) were found in the Turney Ranch Formation, Bisbee group, near the Whetstone Mountains, about 40 miles southeast of Tucson in southeastern Arizona. Sonorasaurus is known from limb material (including hind foot, tibia and fibula, radius and ulna, metacarpals, part of a femur), the pelvis, caudal and dorsal vertebrae, ribs and gastroliths. It had gracile limbs and massive dorsal ribs like other brachiosaurids, but differed in many details from Pleurocoelus as well as from Late Jurassic forms. Sonorasaurus had only two small claws on the first and second toes of the hindfoot, unlike the famous mid-Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) Texas trackway known as Brontopodus birdi, made by a brachiosaurid sauropod with four pedal claws (probably Pleurocoelus). Sonorasaurus is the first dinosaur found in southern Arizona and documents the existence of large sauropods in western North America during the Middle Cretaceous (Albian). A tooth belonging to Acrocanthosaurus was found with the bones, indicating the giant theropod feasted on the carcass. Est. length: 15 m. (51 ft.). Type species: Sonorasaurus thompsoni [TOMP-son-ie] for Richard Thompson, a geology student who found the fossils in the Sonoran Desert in 1995. Sauropoda Brachiosauridae E. Cret. (Albian) NA.

    Sphenospondylus Seeley 1882 "wedge vertebrae"

    SFEEN-o-SPON-di-lus (Gr. sphen "wedge" + Gr. spondylos "vertebra") (m) named for the "wedge-like character" of the centra of the vertebrae. [= Iguanodon]

    Spinosaurus Stromer 1915 "spine lizard"

    SPIEN-o-SAWR-us (Lat. spina "spine" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for the huge flat neural spines raised along its back, some nearly two meters high, and perhaps used for display and/or thermo-regulation. Type specimen destroyed in WW II. Theropoda Spinosauria Spinosauridae L. Cret. NAfr.

    Spondylosoma von Huene 1942 "vertebral body"

    SPON-dil-o-SOHM-a (Gr. spondylos "vertebra" + Gr. soma "body") (n) named to indicate some relatively long neck vertebrae distinct from those of any pseudosuchian or other thecodonts known to von Huene and indicating that animal had a small head. "One can only imagine such vertebrae among the saurischians, if they clearly differ in some regards from all known forms." ?Dinosauria i.s. M. Trias. SA.

    Staurikosaurus Colbert 1970 "Southern Cross lizard"

    STAWR-i-ko-SAWR-us (Gr. staurikos "of a cross"+ Gr. sauros "lizard")* (m) named in allusion to the constellation of the Southern Cross, that marks the Southern Hemisphere; for a small dinosaur found in Brazil. Theropoda Herrerasauria Herrerasauridae L. Trias. SA.

    Stegoceras Lambe 1902 "roofed horn"

    ste-GOS-er-as (c.u.: STEG-o-SER-as) (Gr. stegos "roof, solid covering" + Gr. keras "horn") (n) named for "symmetrical, compact bones" whose upper surface was "dome shaped" and which Lambe first interpreted as probably "situated in the median line of the head, in advance of the nasals...Marsh in his figure of the head of Triceratops serratus shows a nasal horn core...that may correspond to the specimens." However, Lambe's "solid horn in the front part of the skull" was later identified as part of the thickened, dome-shaped frontal-parietal bones of a pachycephalosaur skull, not a ceratopsian horn core as the generic name implies. Pachycephalosauria Pachycephalosauridae L. Cret. NA.

    Stegopelta Williston 1905 "covered shield"

    STEG-o-PEL-ta (Gr. stego "cover" + Gr. pelte "shield") (f) named for "a remarkable dinosaur...peculiar in having a heavy bony carapace...The whole was evidently covered with a dermal shield" [= Nodosaurus]

    Stegosaurides Bohlin 1953 "Stegosaurus-like (dinosaur)"

    STEG-o-saw-RIE-deez (Stegosaurus + -eides "like") (m) named for remains of an armored dinosaur "provisionally referred to the family Stegosauridae...it seems probable that the armor was rather of the Stegosaurus type." Ankylosauria L. Cret. China [nomen dubium]

    Stegosauria Marsh 1877 "plated lizards"

    STEG-o-SAWR-ee-a (Gr. stego "cover" + Gr. sauros "lizard" - ia) (n) Marsh explains the term Stegosauria as "plated lizard." [taxon]

    Stegosaurus Marsh 1877 "plated lizard"*

    STEG-o-SAWR-us (Gr. stego "cover" + Gr. sauros "lizard")* (m) named for its "large dermal bony plates," which Marsh originally thought formed flat, turtle-like armor on a creature belonging to a new order of reptiles (Stegosauria), which had "affinities with the Dinosaurs, Plesiosaurs, and more remotely with the Chelonians" and "moved mainly by swimming." The solid limb bones seemed to "indicate an aquatic life." After more study of new specimens in 1879, however, Marsh correctly reclassified Stegosaurus as a terrestrial dinosaur. A nearly complete specimen unearthed in Colorado in 1992 preserved the plates in an upright, alternating double row along the back, with the tail spines projecting sideways, not upward as previously depicted. Stegosauria Stegosauridae L. Jur. NA.

    Stenonychosaurus C. M. Sternberg 1932 "narrow clawed lizard"

    ste-NON-ik-o-SAWR-us (Gr. stenos "narrow" + Gr. onykh- (onyx) "claw" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for "the lateral compression of the ungual phalanges". [= Troodon]

    Stenopelix von Meyer 1857 "narrow pelvis"

    ste-NOP-e-liks (Gr. stenos "narrow" + for Gr. pelyx "pelvis, basin") (m) named for the construction of the pelvis, to which "the narrow, long form of the bones bestows a peculiar appearance." Ornithischia[/Predentata] Marginocephalia i.s. E. Cret. Eur.

    Stenotholus Giffin, Gabriel & Johnson 1988 "narrow dome"

    STEN-o-THOL-us (t.L.m.: ste-NOTH-o-lus) (Gr. stenos "narrow" + Gr. tholos "dome") (m) named for the "vertically high and tranversely narrow dome" of its thick, armored skull. [= Stygimoloch]

    Stephanosaurus Lambe 1914 "crowned lizard"

    STEF-an-o-SAWR-us (Gr. stephanos "crown" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for the helmet-like nasal bones that crowned its skull, but also said to be a reference to the town of Steveville ("Steven" derives from "Stephanos" used as a proper name in Greek), close to the site where the original specimens were found on the Red Deer River in Alberta, Canada. Lambe proposed the name in 1914 for two imperfect crested skulls that he incorrectly associated with skeletal material earlier identified as Trachodon marginatus. However, Brown (and then Gilmore) showed that the type material attributed to Stephanosaurus is not definable and came from different individuals of more than one type of hadrosaur. Parks proposed the new name Lambeosaurus in 1923 based on the helmet-crested skull material only. "Trachodon marginatus" is now a nomen dubium. [nomen dubium (in part, Lambeosaurus)]

    Stereocephalus Lambe 1902 "solid head"

    STER-ee-o-SEF-a-lus (Gr. stereos "solid, strong, firm" + Gr. kephale "head" + -us) (m) referring to the animal's "solidly plated head." (Preoccupied by Stereocephalus Lynch Arribalzaga 1884. See Euoplocephalus) [= Euoplocephalus]

    Sterrholophus Marsh 1891 "solid crest"

    ste-ROL-o-fus (Gr. sterrhos "solid, hard" + Gr. lophos "crest") (m) named for the construction of its bony crest: "the parietal crest... had its entire posterior surface covered with the ligaments and muscles supporting the head"; proposed for Triceratops flabellatus Marsh 1889 [= Triceratops]

    Stokesosaurus Madsen 1974 "Stokes's lizard"

    STOHK-so-SAWR-us (Stokes + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named to honor William Lee Stokes, American paleontologist. Theropoda Carnosauria i.s. L. Jur. NA.

    Strenusaurus Bonaparte 1969 "vigorous lizard"

    STREN-uh-SAWR-us (Lat. strenuus "active, vigorous" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for the greater development of the limbs than in Plateosaurus, with a more robust femur and a humerus 75 percent as large as the thigh bone. [= Riojasaurus]

    Streptospondylus von Meyer 1830 "reversed vertebrae"

    STREP-to-SPON-di-lus (Gr. streptos "turned [reversed]" + Gr. spondylos "vertebra") (m) originally classified as a crocodile in which the centra of the vertebrae were opisthocoelus (concave behind), the reverse of modern procoelus (concave in front) crocodiles, thus the name "reversed vertebrae." Type species (S. altdorfensis) is considered a dinosaur by some researchers. Theropoda ?Allosauridae M. Jur. Eur.

    Struthiomimus Osborn 1916 "ostrich mimic"

    STROOTH-ee-o-MIEM-us (Gr. strouthion "ostrich" + Gr. mimos "mimic") (m) name "proposed in reference to its mimcry of the ostrich (Struthio) in the skull, neck, and foot structure." Theropoda Ornithomimosauria Ornithomimidae L. Cret. NA.

    Struthiosaurus Bunzel 1870 "ostrich (head) lizard"

    STROOTH-ee-o-SAWR-us (Gr. strouthion "ostrich" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) so-named because of the alleged resemblance of the back of its skull to that of a bird, indicating supposed avian and crocodilian affinities. Bunzel originally classified the find in a separate reptilian order Ornithocephala "bird heads" (to rank with Huxley's Ornithoscelida "bird legs") based only on the type skull fragment. Nopsca identified the form as a small armored dinosaur, and depicted the animal with a bird-like head and rather fanciful spines and plates. Some later researchers suggested the type skull fragment belonged to a theropod instead, vindicating the bird-connection in the name, but recent work by J. Pereda-Suberbiola and P. Galton (1994) has confirmed that the type skull came from a juvenile nodosaur. Ankylosauria Nodosauridae L. Cret. Eur.

    Stygimoloch Galton & Sues 1983 "Hell Creek (Montana) demon"

    STIJ-i-MOL-ok (Gr. Styg- (Styx) the mythical underground river which shades passed on their way to Hades + Hebrew moloch "demon, horrid king")* (m) named in allusion to Hell Creek, Montana where the type specimen was found, and "the fierce appearance of the animal" with many projecting spikes on its skull. Pachycephalosauria Pachycephalosauridae L. Cret. NA.

    Stygivenator Olshevsky in Olshevsky, Ford & Yamamoto 1995 "Hell Creek (Formation) hunter"

    STIJ-i-vee-NAY-tor (Gr. Styg- (Styx) River in Hades + Lat. venator "hunter") (m) alluding to the Hell Creek Formation, where the specimen was found; proposed for the "Jordan theropod" from Garfield County, Montana, previously referred to the genus Aublysodon. Theropoda Tyrannosauridae L. Cret. NA

    Styracosaurus Lambe 1913 "spiked (frill) lizard"

    STIHR-a-ko-SAWR-us (c.u.: stie-RAK-o-SAWR-us) (Gr. styrak- (styrax) "spike on the end of a spear" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for "the great development of backwardly directed spike-shaped processes on the posterior margin of the coalesced parietals" of the frill. Ceratopsia Ceratopidae Centrosaurinae L. Cret. NA.

    Suchomimus Sereno, Beck, Dutheil, Gado, Larsson, Lyon, Marcot, Rauhut, Sadleir, Sidor, Varricchio, G.P. Wilson & J.A. Wilson 1998 "crocodile mimic"

    SOOK-o-MIEM-us (Gr. soukhos "crocodile" + Gr. mimos "mimic, imitator") (m) named for a "low elongate snout and piscivorous adaptations" that make the skull resemble a fish-eating crocodilian such as the gavial; based on a partial skull and skeleton (MNN GDF500) found in the Elrhaz Formation (Aptian), Tenere Desert region, Niger. Suchomimus is a large (est. 11 m (36 ft)) spinosaurid theropod very similar to Baryonyx but with a snout that is even more "long, low, and narrow." The skull is estimated at about 1.2 m (4 ft) in length, with a very long secondary palate and a rosette of large teeth at the tip of the upper and lower jaws. The teeth are slightly recurved and have subconical crowns with finely serrated margins and textured enamel (unlike the straight, unserrated teeth of Spinosaurus or the smooth enamel of crocodile teeth). As in Baryonyx, Suchomimus has (1) many small dentary teeth in the lower jaw behind the rosette, (2) nostrils shifted further back on the skull (posterior to the premaxillary teeth), and (3) robust forelimbs armed with very large curving claws, including a sickle-like thumb, that could be used like gaffing hooks on fish or other prey. Suchomimus also has tall blade-like neural spines along its back, rising into a low "sail" over the hip region (sacral vertebrae) and base of the tail--a contrast with Spinosaurus, in which the tallest part a much larger bony sail stands over the chest region (mid-dorsal vertebrae). Nearly 3.5 m (12 ft) high at the hips, Suchomimus may have waded into rivers and lakes like a bear to catch fish, but probably could swim in deeper water as well, using its back legs and possibly its tail for propulsion.

    Type species: Suchomimus tenerensis [ten-e-REN-sis] "from Tenere (Desert)": "for the region of the Sahara in which it was discovered," the Tenere Desert in central Niger, west-central Africa.

    Theropoda Tetanurae Spinosauroidea Spinosauridae Baryonychinae Early Cretaceous (Aptian) Africa [entry added 11-98]

    Supersaurus Jensen 1985 "super lizard"

    SOO-per-SAWR-us (Lat. super "above" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for its immense size, as indicated by a huge shoulder blade, almost two meters in length found at the Dry Mesa Dinosaur Quarry in Colorado. A massive sacrum and some vertebrae are now thought to be part of the same specimen, indicating an animal that may have been 42 meters (135 ft.) in length, weighing 50 tons. The holotype vertebra of the supposed giant "brachiosaur" Ultrasauros has now been referred to Supersaurus; the type vertebra of Dystylosaurus may belong to Supersaurus as well. Sauropoda Diplodocidae L. Jur. NA.

    Symphypoda Cope 1869 "fused feet"

    sim-FIP-o-da (Gr. symphyo "grow together" + Gr. pod- (pous) "foot" + -a) (n) Proposed for Compsognathus and Ornithotarsus, which supposedly have the "first series of tarsal bones confluent with each other, and with the tibia." Based on a misinterpretation of the original fossils. [obsolete name]

    Symphyrophus Cope 1878 "solid roofed (vertebrae)"

    sim-FIHR-o-fus (Gr. symphyos "fused, solid" + Gr. orophe "roof, ridgepole [dorsal vertebrae]" + -us) (m) so-named because the "vertebral bodies" were solid. [= ?Camptosaurus]

    Syngonosaurus Seeley 1879 "kindred lizard"

    SING-gon-o-SAWR-us (Gr. syggonos "of the same parent, kindred" + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) probably so-named because the "vertebrae offer evidence of affiliation to several Dinosaurian types." The specimen appears to include both nodosaur and iguanodontid material. [= Acanthopholis (in part)]

    Syntarsus Raath 1969 "fused tarsus"

    sin-TAR-sus (Gr. syn "with, together" + Gr. tarsos "tarsus") (m) named for the extensive fusion of the tarsal (ankle) bones in the feet. Theropoda Ceratosauria Podokesauridae E. Jur. SAfr. NA.

    Syrmosaurus Maleev 1952 "crawling lizard"*

    SIHR-mo-SAWR-us (Gr. syrmo "drag along" [slow gait, crawl] + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for its supposed slow, crawling gait; originally depicted in a lizard-like pose, with its body close to the ground and its tail dragging. Trackway evidence shows that ankylosaurs walked upright with limbs held under the body, however. [= Pinacosaurus]

    Szechuanosaurus Young 1942 "Sichuan (China) lizard"

    SUH-CHWAHN-o-SAWR-us (Szechuan [= Sichuan (Chin. si "four + Chin. chuan "river")] + Gr. sauros "lizard") (m) named for Sichuan Province, China, where the fossil was found. Theropoda Carnosauria Allosauridae L. Jur. China

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